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Today's Daf Yomi

April 7, 2020 | 讬状讙 讘谞讬住谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 32

Today鈥檚 shiur is dedicated by Mona and David Schwartz and family in memory of Mary Horowitz, Miriam Etel bat Aharon Halevi z鈥漧, on her 26th yahrzeit.

The mishna cites are three reasons why women die in childbirth – for not being careful about nidda, challa and lighting Shabbat candles. Why specifically these three? How can one relate to this troubling source? The gemara focuses on the vulnerability of women at the time of childbirth and stresses that when people are vulnerable that is when they are most likely to be punished. Adages are brought to prove that. When is the parallel time for men – when are they most vulnerable? The rabbis also offer opinions about what sins cause one’s children to die young. Is it vows, not learning Torah, mezuza, tzitzit? The rabbis used these difficult, unfortunately common, phenomenon (women dying in cihldbirth and children dying young) as an oppportunity to encourage people to be careful about keeping mitzvot.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

专讗砖讬转 拽专讗转讬 讗转讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 专讗砖讬转 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐 谞砖诪讛 砖谞转转讬 讘讻诐 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 注诇 注住拽讬 谞专 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐 讗诐 讗转诐 诪拽讬讬诪讬诐 讗讜转诐 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜讟诇 谞砖诪转讻诐

I called you first, as it is stated: 鈥淚srael is the Lord鈥檚 hallowed portion, His first fruits of the increase鈥 (Jeremiah 2:3) and I warned you about matters of the first: 鈥淥f the first of your dough you shall set apart 岣lla for a gift鈥 (Numbers 15:20). The soul that I have placed in you is called ner: 鈥淭he spirit of man is the lamp [ner] of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 20:27), and I warned you about matters of the Shabbat lamp. If you fulfill these mitzvot, fine, and if not, then I will take your soul.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讘砖注转 诇讬讚转谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 谞驻诇 转讜专讗 讞讚讚 诇住讻讬谞讗 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 转驻讬砖 转讬专讜住 讗诪转讗 讘讞讚 诪讞讟专讗 诇讬讛讜讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 砖讘拽讬讛 诇专讜讬讗 讚诪谞驻砖讬讛 谞驻讬诇 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 专注讬讗 讞讙专讗 讜注讬讝讬 专讬讛讟谉 讗讘讘 讞讜讟专讗 诪讬诇讬 讜讗讘讬 讚专讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗讘讘 讞谞讜讗转讗 谞驻讬砖讬 讗讞讬 讜诪专讞诪讬 讗讘讘 讘讝讬讜谞讬 诇讗 讗讞讬 讜诇讗 诪专讞诪讬

And, if so, what is different during childbirth? Why does the divine attribute of judgment punish them for dereliction in fulfillment of these mitzvot specifically then? The Gemara cites several folk sayings expressing the concept that when a person is in danger, he is punished for his sins. Rava said: If the ox fell, sharpen the knife to slaughter it. Abaye said: If the maidservant鈥檚 insolence abounds, she will be struck by a single blow as punishment for all her sins. So too, when a woman is giving birth and her suffering is great due to Eve鈥檚 sin of eating from the Tree of Knowledge, all the punishments for her own sins are added to that suffering. Rav 岣sda said: Leave the drunk, as he falls on his own. Similarly, the time of birth is a time of danger, and if the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not come to her assistance at that time, that is sufficient to cause her death. Mar Ukva said: The shepherd is crippled, and the goats are running, and he cannot catch them. However, next to the gate, he speaks harsh words, and inside the pen he settles the account. Similarly, as long as a woman is in a healthy state, her sins are in abeyance, and she is not held accountable for them. However, when she is giving birth, which is a time of danger, she is held accountable for her sins and a calculation is made whether or not she is worthy of a miracle. Rav Pappa said: At the entrance to the stores, during a time of prosperity, brothers and loved ones abound. When a person is prospering financially, everyone acts like his brother or friend. However, at the gate of disgrace, during a time of loss and poverty, he has no brothers and no loved ones; everyone abandons him.

讜讙讘专讬 讛讬讻讗 诪讬讘讚拽讬 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘砖注讛 砖注讜讘专讬诐 注诇 讛讙砖专 讙砖专 讜转讜 诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讻注讬谉 讙砖专 专讘 诇讗 注讘专 讘诪讘专讗 讚讬转讬讘 讘讬讛 讙讜讬 讗诪专 讚讬诇诪讗 诪讬驻拽讬讚 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讗 注诇讬讛 讜诪转驻讬住谞讗 讘讛讚讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 注讘专 讗诇讗 讘诪讘专讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 讙讜讬 讗诪专 砖讟谞讗 讘转专讬 讗讜诪讬 诇讗 砖诇讬讟

And the Gemara asks: And where are men examined? When are men vulnerable to judgment and held accountable for their actions? Reish Lakish said: When they are crossing a bridge. The Gemara wonders: Only when they are crossing a bridge and at no other time? Rather, say: Anything like a bridge, any place where danger is commonplace. On a similar note, the Gemara relates: Rav would not cross a river in a ferry in which a gentile sat. He said to himself: Perhaps a judgment will be reckoned with him, and I will be caught together with him when he is punished. Whereas, Shmuel would only cross in a ferry if there was a gentile in it. He said: Satan does not have dominion over two nations. He settles his accounts with people from each nationality separately.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘讚讬拽 讜注讘专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬注诪讜讚 讗讚诐 讘诪拽讜诐 住讻谞讛 诇讜诪专 砖注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 砖诪讗 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 讜讗诐 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 诪谞讻讬谉 诇讜 诪讝讻讬讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 拽讟谞转讬 诪讻诇 讛讞住讚讬诐 讜诪讻诇 讛讗诪转 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘讬讜诪讗 讚砖讜转讗 诇讗 谞驻讬拽 诇讘讬谞讬 讚讬拽诇讗

Rabbi Yannai would examine the ferry and cross. The Gemara comments that Rabbi Yannai acted in accordance with his reasoning stated elsewhere, as he said: A person should never stand in a place of danger saying that they on High will perform a miracle for him, lest in the end they do not perform a miracle for him. And, moreover, even if they do perform a miracle for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rabbi 岣nin said: What is the verse that alludes to this? When Jacob said: 鈥淚 am not worthy of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which You have shown unto Your servant鈥 (Genesis 32:11), and he explains: Since You have bestowed upon me so much kindness and truth, my merits have been diminished. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Zeira would not go out and walk among the palm trees on a day when there was a southern wind blowing due to the fear that the trees might fall on him.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讬讘拽砖 讗讚诐 专讞诪讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讞诇讛 砖讗诐 讬讞诇讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讘讗 讝讻讜转 讜讛驻讟专 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讻讬 讬驻讜诇 讛谞讜驻诇 诪诪谞讜 诪诪谞讜 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讻讬 讬驻讜诇 讛谞讜驻诇 诪诪谞讜 (诪诪谞讜) 专讗讜讬 讝讛 诇讬驻讜诇 诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 砖讛专讬 诇讗 谞驻诇 讜讛讻转讜讘 拽专讗讜 谞讜驻诇 讗诇讗 砖诪讙诇讙诇讬谉 讝讻讜转 注诇 讬讚讬 讝讻讗讬 讜讞讜讘讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讞讬讬讘

In a similar vein, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, said: A person should always pray that he will not become ill, as if he becomes ill they say to him: Bring proof of your virtue and exempt yourself. It is preferable for a person not to be forced to prove that he merits staying alive, as he might not be able to prove it. Mar Ukva said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it says: 鈥淲hen you build a new house, then you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you bring not blood upon your house, if the fallen falls mimenu (Deuteronomy 22:8). He explains: Mimenu, from him proof must be brought. When one falls from his previous situation, it is his own responsibility to prove his innocence and emerge unharmed. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: What is the meaning of the phrase: If the fallen falls from it? This person was destined to fall from that roof from the six days of Creation, it was ingrained into nature. As, although he did not yet fall, the verse calls him fallen. Nevertheless, the owner of the house is indicted for this, as merit is engendered by means of the innocent and guilt by means of the guilty.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖讞诇讛 讜谞讟讛 诇诪讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛转讜讚讛 砖讻谉 讻诇 讛诪讜诪转讬谉 诪转讜讚讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜爪讗 诇砖讜拽 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讬 砖谞诪住专 诇住专讚讬讜讟 讞砖 讘专讗砖讜 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讬 砖谞转谞讜讛讜 讘拽讜诇专 注诇讛 诇诪讟讛 讜谞驻诇 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讜 砖讛注诇讜讛讜 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 砖讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 驻专拽诇讬讟讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞讬爪讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗讬谞讜 谞讬爪讜诇

The Sages taught: One who became ill and tended toward death, they say to him: Confess, as all those executed by the courts confess. Even if he is dying of natural causes, it is worthwhile for him to consider his death atonement for his sins. The Sages said: When a person goes out to the marketplace where there are fights and disputes, he should consider himself as someone who has been handed over to a soldier [seradiyot]. If his head hurt, he should consider it as if they placed him in a chain [kolar] around his neck. If he climbed into bed and fell ill, he should consider himself as if they took him up to the gallows to be judged, as with regard to anyone who goes up to the gallows to be judged, if he has great advocates [peraklitin], he is spared, and if not, he is not spared.

讜讗诇讜 讛谉 驻专拽诇讬讟讬谉 砖诇 讗讚诐 转砖讜讘讛 讜诪注砖讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜转砖注讬诐 讜转砖注讛 诪诇诪讚讬诐 注诇讬讜 讞讜讘讛 讜讗讞讚 诪诇诪讚 注诇讬讜 讝讻讜转 谞讬爪讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 讬砖 注诇讬讜 诪诇讗讱 诪诇讬抓 讗讞讚 诪谞讬 讗诇祝 诇讛讙讬讚 诇讗讚诐 讬砖专讜 讜讬讞谞谞讜 讜讬讗诪专 驻讚注讛讜 诪专讚转 砖讞转 讜讙讜壮: 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜转砖注讬诐 讜转砖注讛 讘讗讜转讜 诪诇讗讱 诇讞讜讘讛 讜讗讞讚 诇讝讻讜转 谞讬爪讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讬抓 讗讞讚 诪谞讬 讗诇祝:

And with regard to divine judgment, these are a person鈥檚 advocates: Repentance and good deeds. The Gemara comments: And even if there are nine hundred ninety-nine asserting his guilt and only one asserting his innocence, he is spared, as it is stated: 鈥淚f there be for him an angel, an advocate, one among a thousand, to vouch for a man鈥檚 uprightness; then He is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom鈥 (Job 33:23鈥24). Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, says: Even if there are nine hundred ninety-nine portions within that same angel accusing him, and one portion asserting his innocence, he is spared, as it stated: 鈥淎n advocate, one among a thousand.鈥 Even when the advocate who asserts his innocence finds only one-tenth of one percent of innocence in this man, even then, he is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注诇 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讬讜诇讚讜转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讬诇讚讜转 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖诪讻讘住讜转 爪讜讗转 讘谞讬讛诐 讘砖讘转 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讗专讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗专谞讗

The Sages taught in a baraita: For three transgressions women die in childbirth [yoledot]. Rabbi Elazar has a different version and says that women die when they are young [yeladot]. These transgressions are those enumerated in the mishna: The halakhot of a menstruating woman, 岣lla, and Shabbat lights. Rabbi A岣 says they are punished for the sin of laundering their children鈥檚 feces from clothing on Shabbat. And some say: Because they call the Holy Ark simply ark.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 注诪讬 讛讗专爪讜转 诪转讬诐 注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讗专讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗专谞讗 讜注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘讬转 注诐 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖讛 讘讚拽讬 诪讬转讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘讗砖讛 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 砖诇砖讛 讚讘拽讬 诪讬转讛 谞讚讛 讜讞诇讛 讜讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专 讞讚讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讞讚讗 讻专讘谞谉

Similarly, we learned in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael ben Elazar says: On account of two sins, ignoramuses [amei haaretz] die young (Rav Ya鈥檃kov Emden): Because they call the Holy Ark simply ark, and because they call the synagogue the house of the people. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Three crucibles potentially leading to death were created in the woman, and some say: Three accelerants of death. They are: Menstruation, 岣lla, and lighting the Shabbat lights. The Gemara explains that one version, accelerants of death, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, who said that women die young. And the other one, crucibles of death, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who said that women die in childbirth.

转谞讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛诇讻讜转 讛拽讚砖 转专讜诪讜转 讜诪注砖专讜转 讛谉 讛谉 讙讜驻讬 转讜专讛

Similarly, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The halakhot of consecrated items, terumot, and tithes are themselves the essence of Torah and are extremely severe,

讜谞诪住专讜 诇注诪讬 讛讗专抓

and they were given, among others, to ignoramuses to fulfill. When they are negligent in the performance of these mitzvot, they are punished for it.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 诪转讛 讗砖讛 砖诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讱 诇砖诇诐 诇诪讛 讬拽讞 诪砖讻讘讱 诪转讞转讬讱 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讘谞讬诐 诪转讬诐 讻砖讛谉 拽讟谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转转谉 讗转 驻讬讱 诇讞讟讬讗 讗转 讘砖专讱 讜讗诇 转讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讗讱 讻讬 砖讙讙讛 讛讬讗 诇诪讛 讬拽爪讜祝 讛讗诇讛讬诐 注诇 拽讜诇讱 讜讞讘诇 讗转 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讱 讗讬讝讛 讛谉 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled a person鈥檚 wife dies. The allusion is as it is stated: 鈥淚f you have not the wherewithal to pay, why should He take away your bed from under you?鈥 (Proverbs 22:27). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled, children die when they are young, as it is stated: 鈥淏etter is it that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay. Suffer not your mouth to bring your flesh into guilt, neither say you before the messenger that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at your voice and destroy the work of your hands?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 5:4鈥5). What is the work of a person鈥檚 hands? You must say that it is a person鈥檚 sons and daughters.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讘谞讬诐 诪转讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讻讚讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇砖讜讗 讛讻讬转讬 讗转 讘谞讬讻诐 诪讜住专 诇讗 诇拽讞讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 谞诪讬 诪讛讻讗 诇砖讜讗 讛讻讬转讬 讗转 讘谞讬讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 砖讜讗 诪讻讚讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讜专讘讬 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 拽讗诪专 讘转专 讚砖诪注讛 诪专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

In order to clarify which sins cause one鈥檚 young children to die, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: For the sin of vows, one鈥檚 children die, this is the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: For the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that one鈥檚 children die due to the sin of vows, as we stated above. However, according to the opinion of the one who said that one鈥檚 children die due to sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, what is the verse that supports this? The Gemara replies: As it is written: 鈥淚n vain have I smitten your children; they received no morality鈥 (Jeremiah 2:30). Children die because their fathers did not accept the morality, the Torah. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: According to the one who said that one鈥檚 children die because of the sin of vows, it can also be derived from here: In vain have I smitten your children; on matters of vanity, i.e., when one vows in vain and does not fulfill it. The Gemara asks: After all, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is Rabbi, and it was taught in a Tosefta that Rabbi said that one鈥檚 children die because of the sin of vows. How then could it be that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said that it is due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah? The Gemara answers: After he heard it from Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, he reconsidered and taught in accordance with Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 opinion.

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜 讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜:

On the same topic, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba and Rabbi Yosei disagree. One said that children die due to the sin of not affixing a mezuza to one鈥檚 doorpost. And one said children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of not affixing a mezuza, his opinion there is based on an exegetical principle, which states that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it and not on juxtaposition to the verse before the one preceding it. In this case, it says: 鈥淭hat your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:21), and the preceding verse says: 鈥淎nd you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:20). And according to the one who said that children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, that is because in his opinion the exegetical principle is that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it, as well as to the verse before the one preceding it. In his opinion, the blessing of long life also relates to the verse before the one immediately preceding it: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them your children, talking of them鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19).

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 爪讬爪讬转 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讻转讘转诐 注诇 诪讝讜讝讜转 讘讬转讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 诇诪注谉 讬专讘讜 讬诪讬讻诐 讜讬诪讬 讘谞讬讻诐 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 爪讬爪讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 砖讬诇讗 诪专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讘讻谞驻讬讱 谞诪爪讗讜 讚诐 谞驻砖讜转 讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 谞拽讬讬诐 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 谞诪讬 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗 讘诪讞转专转 诪爪讗转讬诐 砖注砖讜 驻转讞讬诐 讻诪讞转专转

The tannaim Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda also disagreed about this. One said: Children die due to the sin of mezuza, and one said children die due to the sin of not affixing ritual fringes. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that children die due to the sin of mezuza, it is based on the juxtaposition of the verses, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates,鈥 and it says thereafter: 鈥That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children.鈥 However, according to the one who said that children die because of the sin of ritual fringes, what is the reason? What is the connection between these matters? Rav Kahana said, and some say that it was Sheila Mari: It is homiletically interpreted as is written: 鈥淎lso in your corners is found the blood of the souls of the innocent poor鈥 (Jeremiah 2:34). Due to one鈥檚 failure to affix ritual fringes to the corners of his garments, the innocent poor, young children, who have not had opportunity to sin, die. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of mezuza, it is also derived from here, as it is written in the continuation of that verse: 鈥淵ou did not find them breaking in; yet for all these things.鈥 We see that this punishment comes because they made entrances like a thief鈥檚 breach in the wall. They did not place mezuzot in their entrances.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛讝讛讬专 讘爪讬爪讬转 讝讜讻讛 讜诪砖诪砖讬谉 诇讜 砖谞讬 讗诇驻讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 诪讗讜转 注讘讚讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 [爪讘讗讜转] 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诪讛 讗砖专 讬讞讝讬拽讜 注砖专讛 讗谞砖讬诐 诪讻诇 诇砖讜谞讜转 讛讙讜讬诐 [讜讛讞讝讬拽讜] 讘讻谞祝 讗讬砖 讬讛讜讚讬 诇讗诪专 谞诇讻讛 注诪讻诐 讜讙讜壮:

Since the Gemara discussed the importance of the mitzva of ritual fringes, it cites that which Reish Lakish said: Anyone who is vigilant in performing the mitzva of ritual fringes merits that two thousand eight hundred servants will serve him in the World-to-Come. As it is stated: 鈥淭hus says the Lord of hosts: In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, shall even take hold of the corner of the garment of him that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you鈥 (Zechariah 8:23). On each corner of a Jewish person鈥檚 garment with ritual fringes, ten people from each of the seventy nations will take hold. That totals seven hundred people on each corner; 2,800 people altogether.

住讬诪谉 砖谞讗 讞诇讛 转专讜诪讛 谞讙讝诇转 讚讬谞讗 砖讘讜注讛 砖讬驻讜讻转讗 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜谞讘诇讜转讗: 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 诪专讬讘讛 专讘讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜讗砖转讜 诪驻诇转 谞驻诇讬诐 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪转讬诐 讻砖讛谉 拽讟谞讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 讞诇讛 讗讬谉 讘专讻讛 讘诪讻讜谞住 讜诪讗专讛 诪砖转诇讞转 讘砖注专讬诐 讜讝讜专注讬谉 讝专注讬诐 讜讗讞专讬诐 讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗祝 讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讝讗转 诇讻诐 讜讛驻拽讚转讬 注诇讬讻诐 讘讛诇讛 讗转 讛砖讞驻转 讜讗转 讛拽讚讞转 诪讻诇讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讜诪讚讬讘讜转 谞驻砖 讜讝专注转诐 诇专讬拽 讝专注讻诐 讜讗讻诇讛讜 讗讜讬讘讬讻诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘讛诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讞诇讛 讜讗诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诪转讘专讻讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 [讜]专讗砖讬转 注专讬住讜转讬讻诐 转转谞讜 诇讻讛谉 诇讛谞讬讞 讘专讻讛 讗诇 讘讬转讱:

Together with these statements, the Gemara cites a mnemonic for additional rabbinic adages with regard to punishments for various sins: Hate, 岣lla, teruma, stolen, judgment, oath, pouring, uncovering, and vulgarity. It was taught in a baraita, Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Due to the sin of gratuitous hatred that one has for another, the punishment is great discord within a person鈥檚 home, and his wife miscarries, and his sons and daughters die when they are young. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: Due to the sin of failure to separate 岣lla from the dough, no blessing takes effect on the grain gathered in the storehouse and a curse spreads to the prices of crops, which increase, and they plant seeds and others eat their yield, as it is stated: 鈥淚 also will do this unto you: I will appoint terror [behala] over you, even consumption and fever, that shall make the eyes to fail and the soul to languish; and you shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it鈥 (Leviticus 26:16). Do not read it behala; rather, read it as be岣lla. Due to negligence in the separation of 岣lla from the dough, these punishments come. And if they give 岣lla, they are blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the first of your dough you shall give unto the priest to cause a blessing to rest on your house鈥 (Ezekiel 44:30).

讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转专讜诪讜转 讜诪注砖专讜转 砖诪讬诐 谞注爪专讬谉 诪诇讛讜专讬讚 讟诇 讜诪讟专 讜讛讬讜拽专 讛讜讛 讜讛砖讻专 讗讘讚 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 专爪讬谉 讗讞专 驻专谞住转谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讬注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 爪讬讛 讙诐 讞讜诐 讬讙讝诇讜 诪讬诪讬 砖诇讙 砖讗讜诇 讞讟讗讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘砖讘讬诇 讚讘专讬诐 砖爪讜讬转讬 讗转讻诐 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜诇讗 注砖讬转诐 讬讙讝诇讜 诪讻诐 诪讬诪讬 砖诇讙 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讜讗诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诪转讘专讻讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讻诇 讛诪注砖专 讗诇 讘讬转 讛讗讜爪专 讜讬讛讬 讟专祝 讘讘讬转讬 讜讘讞谞讜谞讬 谞讗 讘讝讗转 讗诪专 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讗诐 诇讗 讗驻转讞 诇讻诐 讗转 讗专讜讘讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讛专讬拽讜转讬 诇讻诐 讘专讻讛 注讚 讘诇讬 讚讬 诪讗讬 注讚 讘诇讬 讚讬 讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 (专讘) 讗诪专 专讘 注讚 砖讬讘诇讜 砖驻转讜转讬讻诐 诪诇讜诪专 讚讬:

They also said: Due to the sin of abrogation of terumot and tithes, the heavens are prevented from pouring down dew and rain, and expense prevails, and profit is lost, and people pursue their livelihood but do not attain it, as it is stated: 鈥淒rought and heat consume the snow waters; so does the netherworld those that have sinned鈥 (Job 24:19). The Gemara asks: What is the inference? How is that concept derived from this verse? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that it should be explained as follows: Due to the things that I commanded you during the summer, separating terumot and tithes from the summer crops, and you did not do them, the snow waters will be robbed from you during the rainy season. And if people give terumot and tithes, they are blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淏ring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of Hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ad bli dai]鈥 (Malachi 3:10). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: More than sufficiency [ad bli dai]? Rami bar Rav said that Rav said: It means that the abundance will be so great that your lips will be worn out [yivlu], similar to the word beli, from saying enough [dai].

讘注讜谉 讙讝诇 讛讙讜讘讗讬 注讜诇讛 讜讛专注讘 讛讜讜讛 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇讬诐 讘砖专 讘谞讬讛谉 讜讘谞讜转讬讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注讜 讛讚讘专 讛讝讛 驻专讜转 讛讘砖谉 讗砖专 讘讛专 砖讜诪专讜谉 讛注讜砖拽讜转 讚诇讬诐 讛专讜爪爪讜转 讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讻讙讜谉 讛谞讬 谞砖讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗

Due to the sin of robbery, locusts emerge, and famine prevails, and people eat the flesh of their sons and daughters, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear this word, you cows of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say unto their lords: Bring, that we may feast鈥 (Amos 4:1). Afterward it says: 鈥淎nd I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread in all your places鈥 (Amos 4:6), which refers to famine. Rava said: The cows of Bashan; like those women of the city of Me岣za,

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 32

专讗砖讬转 拽专讗转讬 讗转讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 专讗砖讬转 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐 谞砖诪讛 砖谞转转讬 讘讻诐 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 注诇 注住拽讬 谞专 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐 讗诐 讗转诐 诪拽讬讬诪讬诐 讗讜转诐 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讛专讬谞讬 谞讜讟诇 谞砖诪转讻诐

I called you first, as it is stated: 鈥淚srael is the Lord鈥檚 hallowed portion, His first fruits of the increase鈥 (Jeremiah 2:3) and I warned you about matters of the first: 鈥淥f the first of your dough you shall set apart 岣lla for a gift鈥 (Numbers 15:20). The soul that I have placed in you is called ner: 鈥淭he spirit of man is the lamp [ner] of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 20:27), and I warned you about matters of the Shabbat lamp. If you fulfill these mitzvot, fine, and if not, then I will take your soul.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讘砖注转 诇讬讚转谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 谞驻诇 转讜专讗 讞讚讚 诇住讻讬谞讗 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 转驻讬砖 转讬专讜住 讗诪转讗 讘讞讚 诪讞讟专讗 诇讬讛讜讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 砖讘拽讬讛 诇专讜讬讗 讚诪谞驻砖讬讛 谞驻讬诇 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 专注讬讗 讞讙专讗 讜注讬讝讬 专讬讛讟谉 讗讘讘 讞讜讟专讗 诪讬诇讬 讜讗讘讬 讚专讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗讘讘 讞谞讜讗转讗 谞驻讬砖讬 讗讞讬 讜诪专讞诪讬 讗讘讘 讘讝讬讜谞讬 诇讗 讗讞讬 讜诇讗 诪专讞诪讬

And, if so, what is different during childbirth? Why does the divine attribute of judgment punish them for dereliction in fulfillment of these mitzvot specifically then? The Gemara cites several folk sayings expressing the concept that when a person is in danger, he is punished for his sins. Rava said: If the ox fell, sharpen the knife to slaughter it. Abaye said: If the maidservant鈥檚 insolence abounds, she will be struck by a single blow as punishment for all her sins. So too, when a woman is giving birth and her suffering is great due to Eve鈥檚 sin of eating from the Tree of Knowledge, all the punishments for her own sins are added to that suffering. Rav 岣sda said: Leave the drunk, as he falls on his own. Similarly, the time of birth is a time of danger, and if the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not come to her assistance at that time, that is sufficient to cause her death. Mar Ukva said: The shepherd is crippled, and the goats are running, and he cannot catch them. However, next to the gate, he speaks harsh words, and inside the pen he settles the account. Similarly, as long as a woman is in a healthy state, her sins are in abeyance, and she is not held accountable for them. However, when she is giving birth, which is a time of danger, she is held accountable for her sins and a calculation is made whether or not she is worthy of a miracle. Rav Pappa said: At the entrance to the stores, during a time of prosperity, brothers and loved ones abound. When a person is prospering financially, everyone acts like his brother or friend. However, at the gate of disgrace, during a time of loss and poverty, he has no brothers and no loved ones; everyone abandons him.

讜讙讘专讬 讛讬讻讗 诪讬讘讚拽讬 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘砖注讛 砖注讜讘专讬诐 注诇 讛讙砖专 讙砖专 讜转讜 诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讻注讬谉 讙砖专 专讘 诇讗 注讘专 讘诪讘专讗 讚讬转讬讘 讘讬讛 讙讜讬 讗诪专 讚讬诇诪讗 诪讬驻拽讬讚 诇讬讛 讚讬谞讗 注诇讬讛 讜诪转驻讬住谞讗 讘讛讚讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 注讘专 讗诇讗 讘诪讘专讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 讙讜讬 讗诪专 砖讟谞讗 讘转专讬 讗讜诪讬 诇讗 砖诇讬讟

And the Gemara asks: And where are men examined? When are men vulnerable to judgment and held accountable for their actions? Reish Lakish said: When they are crossing a bridge. The Gemara wonders: Only when they are crossing a bridge and at no other time? Rather, say: Anything like a bridge, any place where danger is commonplace. On a similar note, the Gemara relates: Rav would not cross a river in a ferry in which a gentile sat. He said to himself: Perhaps a judgment will be reckoned with him, and I will be caught together with him when he is punished. Whereas, Shmuel would only cross in a ferry if there was a gentile in it. He said: Satan does not have dominion over two nations. He settles his accounts with people from each nationality separately.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘讚讬拽 讜注讘专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬注诪讜讚 讗讚诐 讘诪拽讜诐 住讻谞讛 诇讜诪专 砖注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 砖诪讗 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 讜讗诐 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 诪谞讻讬谉 诇讜 诪讝讻讬讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 拽讟谞转讬 诪讻诇 讛讞住讚讬诐 讜诪讻诇 讛讗诪转 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘讬讜诪讗 讚砖讜转讗 诇讗 谞驻讬拽 诇讘讬谞讬 讚讬拽诇讗

Rabbi Yannai would examine the ferry and cross. The Gemara comments that Rabbi Yannai acted in accordance with his reasoning stated elsewhere, as he said: A person should never stand in a place of danger saying that they on High will perform a miracle for him, lest in the end they do not perform a miracle for him. And, moreover, even if they do perform a miracle for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rabbi 岣nin said: What is the verse that alludes to this? When Jacob said: 鈥淚 am not worthy of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which You have shown unto Your servant鈥 (Genesis 32:11), and he explains: Since You have bestowed upon me so much kindness and truth, my merits have been diminished. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Zeira would not go out and walk among the palm trees on a day when there was a southern wind blowing due to the fear that the trees might fall on him.

讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讬讘拽砖 讗讚诐 专讞诪讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讞诇讛 砖讗诐 讬讞诇讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讘讗 讝讻讜转 讜讛驻讟专 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讻讬 讬驻讜诇 讛谞讜驻诇 诪诪谞讜 诪诪谞讜 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讻讬 讬驻讜诇 讛谞讜驻诇 诪诪谞讜 (诪诪谞讜) 专讗讜讬 讝讛 诇讬驻讜诇 诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 砖讛专讬 诇讗 谞驻诇 讜讛讻转讜讘 拽专讗讜 谞讜驻诇 讗诇讗 砖诪讙诇讙诇讬谉 讝讻讜转 注诇 讬讚讬 讝讻讗讬 讜讞讜讘讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讞讬讬讘

In a similar vein, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, said: A person should always pray that he will not become ill, as if he becomes ill they say to him: Bring proof of your virtue and exempt yourself. It is preferable for a person not to be forced to prove that he merits staying alive, as he might not be able to prove it. Mar Ukva said: What is the verse that alludes to this? As it says: 鈥淲hen you build a new house, then you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you bring not blood upon your house, if the fallen falls mimenu (Deuteronomy 22:8). He explains: Mimenu, from him proof must be brought. When one falls from his previous situation, it is his own responsibility to prove his innocence and emerge unharmed. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: What is the meaning of the phrase: If the fallen falls from it? This person was destined to fall from that roof from the six days of Creation, it was ingrained into nature. As, although he did not yet fall, the verse calls him fallen. Nevertheless, the owner of the house is indicted for this, as merit is engendered by means of the innocent and guilt by means of the guilty.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖讞诇讛 讜谞讟讛 诇诪讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛转讜讚讛 砖讻谉 讻诇 讛诪讜诪转讬谉 诪转讜讚讬谉 讗讚诐 讬讜爪讗 诇砖讜拽 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讬 砖谞诪住专 诇住专讚讬讜讟 讞砖 讘专讗砖讜 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讬 砖谞转谞讜讛讜 讘拽讜诇专 注诇讛 诇诪讟讛 讜谞驻诇 讬讛讬 讚讜诪讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪讜 砖讛注诇讜讛讜 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 砖讻诇 讛注讜诇讛 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 驻专拽诇讬讟讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞讬爪讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗讬谞讜 谞讬爪讜诇

The Sages taught: One who became ill and tended toward death, they say to him: Confess, as all those executed by the courts confess. Even if he is dying of natural causes, it is worthwhile for him to consider his death atonement for his sins. The Sages said: When a person goes out to the marketplace where there are fights and disputes, he should consider himself as someone who has been handed over to a soldier [seradiyot]. If his head hurt, he should consider it as if they placed him in a chain [kolar] around his neck. If he climbed into bed and fell ill, he should consider himself as if they took him up to the gallows to be judged, as with regard to anyone who goes up to the gallows to be judged, if he has great advocates [peraklitin], he is spared, and if not, he is not spared.

讜讗诇讜 讛谉 驻专拽诇讬讟讬谉 砖诇 讗讚诐 转砖讜讘讛 讜诪注砖讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讜讗驻讬诇讜 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜转砖注讬诐 讜转砖注讛 诪诇诪讚讬诐 注诇讬讜 讞讜讘讛 讜讗讞讚 诪诇诪讚 注诇讬讜 讝讻讜转 谞讬爪讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 讬砖 注诇讬讜 诪诇讗讱 诪诇讬抓 讗讞讚 诪谞讬 讗诇祝 诇讛讙讬讚 诇讗讚诐 讬砖专讜 讜讬讞谞谞讜 讜讬讗诪专 驻讚注讛讜 诪专讚转 砖讞转 讜讙讜壮: 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转砖注 诪讗讜转 讜转砖注讬诐 讜转砖注讛 讘讗讜转讜 诪诇讗讱 诇讞讜讘讛 讜讗讞讚 诇讝讻讜转 谞讬爪讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讬抓 讗讞讚 诪谞讬 讗诇祝:

And with regard to divine judgment, these are a person鈥檚 advocates: Repentance and good deeds. The Gemara comments: And even if there are nine hundred ninety-nine asserting his guilt and only one asserting his innocence, he is spared, as it is stated: 鈥淚f there be for him an angel, an advocate, one among a thousand, to vouch for a man鈥檚 uprightness; then He is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom鈥 (Job 33:23鈥24). Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, says: Even if there are nine hundred ninety-nine portions within that same angel accusing him, and one portion asserting his innocence, he is spared, as it stated: 鈥淎n advocate, one among a thousand.鈥 Even when the advocate who asserts his innocence finds only one-tenth of one percent of innocence in this man, even then, he is gracious unto him, and says: Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注诇 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讬讜诇讚讜转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讬诇讚讜转 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖诪讻讘住讜转 爪讜讗转 讘谞讬讛诐 讘砖讘转 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讗专讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗专谞讗

The Sages taught in a baraita: For three transgressions women die in childbirth [yoledot]. Rabbi Elazar has a different version and says that women die when they are young [yeladot]. These transgressions are those enumerated in the mishna: The halakhot of a menstruating woman, 岣lla, and Shabbat lights. Rabbi A岣 says they are punished for the sin of laundering their children鈥檚 feces from clothing on Shabbat. And some say: Because they call the Holy Ark simply ark.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐 注诪讬 讛讗专爪讜转 诪转讬诐 注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讗专讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗专谞讗 讜注诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘讬转 注诐 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 砖诇砖讛 讘讚拽讬 诪讬转讛 谞讘专讗讜 讘讗砖讛 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 砖诇砖讛 讚讘拽讬 诪讬转讛 谞讚讛 讜讞诇讛 讜讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专 讞讚讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜讞讚讗 讻专讘谞谉

Similarly, we learned in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael ben Elazar says: On account of two sins, ignoramuses [amei haaretz] die young (Rav Ya鈥檃kov Emden): Because they call the Holy Ark simply ark, and because they call the synagogue the house of the people. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Three crucibles potentially leading to death were created in the woman, and some say: Three accelerants of death. They are: Menstruation, 岣lla, and lighting the Shabbat lights. The Gemara explains that one version, accelerants of death, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, who said that women die young. And the other one, crucibles of death, is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who said that women die in childbirth.

转谞讬讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛诇讻讜转 讛拽讚砖 转专讜诪讜转 讜诪注砖专讜转 讛谉 讛谉 讙讜驻讬 转讜专讛

Similarly, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The halakhot of consecrated items, terumot, and tithes are themselves the essence of Torah and are extremely severe,

讜谞诪住专讜 诇注诪讬 讛讗专抓

and they were given, among others, to ignoramuses to fulfill. When they are negligent in the performance of these mitzvot, they are punished for it.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 诪转讛 讗砖讛 砖诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讱 诇砖诇诐 诇诪讛 讬拽讞 诪砖讻讘讱 诪转讞转讬讱 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讘谞讬诐 诪转讬诐 讻砖讛谉 拽讟谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转转谉 讗转 驻讬讱 诇讞讟讬讗 讗转 讘砖专讱 讜讗诇 转讗诪专 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讗讱 讻讬 砖讙讙讛 讛讬讗 诇诪讛 讬拽爪讜祝 讛讗诇讛讬诐 注诇 拽讜诇讱 讜讞讘诇 讗转 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讱 讗讬讝讛 讛谉 诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled a person鈥檚 wife dies. The allusion is as it is stated: 鈥淚f you have not the wherewithal to pay, why should He take away your bed from under you?鈥 (Proverbs 22:27). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled, children die when they are young, as it is stated: 鈥淏etter is it that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay. Suffer not your mouth to bring your flesh into guilt, neither say you before the messenger that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at your voice and destroy the work of your hands?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 5:4鈥5). What is the work of a person鈥檚 hands? You must say that it is a person鈥檚 sons and daughters.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讘谞讬诐 诪转讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 讻讚讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇砖讜讗 讛讻讬转讬 讗转 讘谞讬讻诐 诪讜住专 诇讗 诇拽讞讜 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 谞诪讬 诪讛讻讗 诇砖讜讗 讛讻讬转讬 讗转 讘谞讬讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 砖讜讗 诪讻讚讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讛讬讬谞讜 专讘讬 讜专讘讬 讘注讜谉 谞讚专讬诐 拽讗诪专 讘转专 讚砖诪注讛 诪专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

In order to clarify which sins cause one鈥檚 young children to die, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: For the sin of vows, one鈥檚 children die, this is the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: For the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that one鈥檚 children die due to the sin of vows, as we stated above. However, according to the opinion of the one who said that one鈥檚 children die due to sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, what is the verse that supports this? The Gemara replies: As it is written: 鈥淚n vain have I smitten your children; they received no morality鈥 (Jeremiah 2:30). Children die because their fathers did not accept the morality, the Torah. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: According to the one who said that one鈥檚 children die because of the sin of vows, it can also be derived from here: In vain have I smitten your children; on matters of vanity, i.e., when one vows in vain and does not fulfill it. The Gemara asks: After all, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is Rabbi, and it was taught in a Tosefta that Rabbi said that one鈥檚 children die because of the sin of vows. How then could it be that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said that it is due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah? The Gemara answers: After he heard it from Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, he reconsidered and taught in accordance with Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 opinion.

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜 讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜:

On the same topic, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba and Rabbi Yosei disagree. One said that children die due to the sin of not affixing a mezuza to one鈥檚 doorpost. And one said children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of not affixing a mezuza, his opinion there is based on an exegetical principle, which states that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it and not on juxtaposition to the verse before the one preceding it. In this case, it says: 鈥淭hat your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:21), and the preceding verse says: 鈥淎nd you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:20). And according to the one who said that children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, that is because in his opinion the exegetical principle is that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it, as well as to the verse before the one preceding it. In his opinion, the blessing of long life also relates to the verse before the one immediately preceding it: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them your children, talking of them鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19).

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讜谉 爪讬爪讬转 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讻转讘转诐 注诇 诪讝讜讝讜转 讘讬转讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 诇诪注谉 讬专讘讜 讬诪讬讻诐 讜讬诪讬 讘谞讬讻诐 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 爪讬爪讬转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 砖讬诇讗 诪专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讘讻谞驻讬讱 谞诪爪讗讜 讚诐 谞驻砖讜转 讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 谞拽讬讬诐 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讜谉 诪讝讜讝讛 谞诪讬 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗 讘诪讞转专转 诪爪讗转讬诐 砖注砖讜 驻转讞讬诐 讻诪讞转专转

The tannaim Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda also disagreed about this. One said: Children die due to the sin of mezuza, and one said children die due to the sin of not affixing ritual fringes. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that children die due to the sin of mezuza, it is based on the juxtaposition of the verses, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates,鈥 and it says thereafter: 鈥That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children.鈥 However, according to the one who said that children die because of the sin of ritual fringes, what is the reason? What is the connection between these matters? Rav Kahana said, and some say that it was Sheila Mari: It is homiletically interpreted as is written: 鈥淎lso in your corners is found the blood of the souls of the innocent poor鈥 (Jeremiah 2:34). Due to one鈥檚 failure to affix ritual fringes to the corners of his garments, the innocent poor, young children, who have not had opportunity to sin, die. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of mezuza, it is also derived from here, as it is written in the continuation of that verse: 鈥淵ou did not find them breaking in; yet for all these things.鈥 We see that this punishment comes because they made entrances like a thief鈥檚 breach in the wall. They did not place mezuzot in their entrances.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛讝讛讬专 讘爪讬爪讬转 讝讜讻讛 讜诪砖诪砖讬谉 诇讜 砖谞讬 讗诇驻讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 诪讗讜转 注讘讚讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 [爪讘讗讜转] 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诪讛 讗砖专 讬讞讝讬拽讜 注砖专讛 讗谞砖讬诐 诪讻诇 诇砖讜谞讜转 讛讙讜讬诐 [讜讛讞讝讬拽讜] 讘讻谞祝 讗讬砖 讬讛讜讚讬 诇讗诪专 谞诇讻讛 注诪讻诐 讜讙讜壮:

Since the Gemara discussed the importance of the mitzva of ritual fringes, it cites that which Reish Lakish said: Anyone who is vigilant in performing the mitzva of ritual fringes merits that two thousand eight hundred servants will serve him in the World-to-Come. As it is stated: 鈥淭hus says the Lord of hosts: In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, shall even take hold of the corner of the garment of him that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you鈥 (Zechariah 8:23). On each corner of a Jewish person鈥檚 garment with ritual fringes, ten people from each of the seventy nations will take hold. That totals seven hundred people on each corner; 2,800 people altogether.

住讬诪谉 砖谞讗 讞诇讛 转专讜诪讛 谞讙讝诇转 讚讬谞讗 砖讘讜注讛 砖讬驻讜讻转讗 讙讬诇讜讬讗 讜谞讘诇讜转讗: 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 诪专讬讘讛 专讘讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜讗砖转讜 诪驻诇转 谞驻诇讬诐 讜讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪转讬诐 讻砖讛谉 拽讟谞讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘注讜谉 讞诇讛 讗讬谉 讘专讻讛 讘诪讻讜谞住 讜诪讗专讛 诪砖转诇讞转 讘砖注专讬诐 讜讝讜专注讬谉 讝专注讬诐 讜讗讞专讬诐 讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗祝 讗谞讬 讗注砖讛 讝讗转 诇讻诐 讜讛驻拽讚转讬 注诇讬讻诐 讘讛诇讛 讗转 讛砖讞驻转 讜讗转 讛拽讚讞转 诪讻诇讜转 注讬谞讬诐 讜诪讚讬讘讜转 谞驻砖 讜讝专注转诐 诇专讬拽 讝专注讻诐 讜讗讻诇讛讜 讗讜讬讘讬讻诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘讛诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讞诇讛 讜讗诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诪转讘专讻讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 [讜]专讗砖讬转 注专讬住讜转讬讻诐 转转谞讜 诇讻讛谉 诇讛谞讬讞 讘专讻讛 讗诇 讘讬转讱:

Together with these statements, the Gemara cites a mnemonic for additional rabbinic adages with regard to punishments for various sins: Hate, 岣lla, teruma, stolen, judgment, oath, pouring, uncovering, and vulgarity. It was taught in a baraita, Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Due to the sin of gratuitous hatred that one has for another, the punishment is great discord within a person鈥檚 home, and his wife miscarries, and his sons and daughters die when they are young. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: Due to the sin of failure to separate 岣lla from the dough, no blessing takes effect on the grain gathered in the storehouse and a curse spreads to the prices of crops, which increase, and they plant seeds and others eat their yield, as it is stated: 鈥淚 also will do this unto you: I will appoint terror [behala] over you, even consumption and fever, that shall make the eyes to fail and the soul to languish; and you shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it鈥 (Leviticus 26:16). Do not read it behala; rather, read it as be岣lla. Due to negligence in the separation of 岣lla from the dough, these punishments come. And if they give 岣lla, they are blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the first of your dough you shall give unto the priest to cause a blessing to rest on your house鈥 (Ezekiel 44:30).

讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转专讜诪讜转 讜诪注砖专讜转 砖诪讬诐 谞注爪专讬谉 诪诇讛讜专讬讚 讟诇 讜诪讟专 讜讛讬讜拽专 讛讜讛 讜讛砖讻专 讗讘讚 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 专爪讬谉 讗讞专 驻专谞住转谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讬注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 爪讬讛 讙诐 讞讜诐 讬讙讝诇讜 诪讬诪讬 砖诇讙 砖讗讜诇 讞讟讗讜 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘砖讘讬诇 讚讘专讬诐 砖爪讜讬转讬 讗转讻诐 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜诇讗 注砖讬转诐 讬讙讝诇讜 诪讻诐 诪讬诪讬 砖诇讙 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讜讗诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诪转讘专讻讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讻诇 讛诪注砖专 讗诇 讘讬转 讛讗讜爪专 讜讬讛讬 讟专祝 讘讘讬转讬 讜讘讞谞讜谞讬 谞讗 讘讝讗转 讗诪专 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讗诐 诇讗 讗驻转讞 诇讻诐 讗转 讗专讜讘讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讛专讬拽讜转讬 诇讻诐 讘专讻讛 注讚 讘诇讬 讚讬 诪讗讬 注讚 讘诇讬 讚讬 讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 (专讘) 讗诪专 专讘 注讚 砖讬讘诇讜 砖驻转讜转讬讻诐 诪诇讜诪专 讚讬:

They also said: Due to the sin of abrogation of terumot and tithes, the heavens are prevented from pouring down dew and rain, and expense prevails, and profit is lost, and people pursue their livelihood but do not attain it, as it is stated: 鈥淒rought and heat consume the snow waters; so does the netherworld those that have sinned鈥 (Job 24:19). The Gemara asks: What is the inference? How is that concept derived from this verse? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that it should be explained as follows: Due to the things that I commanded you during the summer, separating terumot and tithes from the summer crops, and you did not do them, the snow waters will be robbed from you during the rainy season. And if people give terumot and tithes, they are blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淏ring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of Hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ad bli dai]鈥 (Malachi 3:10). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: More than sufficiency [ad bli dai]? Rami bar Rav said that Rav said: It means that the abundance will be so great that your lips will be worn out [yivlu], similar to the word beli, from saying enough [dai].

讘注讜谉 讙讝诇 讛讙讜讘讗讬 注讜诇讛 讜讛专注讘 讛讜讜讛 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇讬诐 讘砖专 讘谞讬讛谉 讜讘谞讜转讬讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪注讜 讛讚讘专 讛讝讛 驻专讜转 讛讘砖谉 讗砖专 讘讛专 砖讜诪专讜谉 讛注讜砖拽讜转 讚诇讬诐 讛专讜爪爪讜转 讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讻讙讜谉 讛谞讬 谞砖讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗

Due to the sin of robbery, locusts emerge, and famine prevails, and people eat the flesh of their sons and daughters, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear this word, you cows of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say unto their lords: Bring, that we may feast鈥 (Amos 4:1). Afterward it says: 鈥淎nd I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread in all your places鈥 (Amos 4:6), which refers to famine. Rava said: The cows of Bashan; like those women of the city of Me岣za,

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