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Today's Daf Yomi

April 6, 2020 | 讬状讘 讘谞讬住谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Shabbat 31

Hillel was known to be incredibly patient and answered silly questions on Erev Shabbat from someone who was just trying to get him angry. A number of people came to convert before Shamai and Hillel and had preconditions, like only wanting to accept the written Torah or wanted to convert to become the high priest. Shamai was impatient with them and kicked them out but Hillel accepted them and ultimately through learning, they came to accept all of Judaism. One came and asked to know all the Torah while standing on one leg – Shamai kicked him out but Hillel told him “What is hated by you, do not do to your friend. And the rest is all commentary.” Fear of God is the most important thing and one who learns without having it is considered missing something very basic – like getting keys to an inner room without getting the keys to the main room that leads to that inner room. Various verses are brought showing the importance of fearing God. How do all these stories/statements connect to the topic of Shabbat and the mishna that we are learning regarding situations when one can or cannot extinguish a candle of Shabbat? The opinion of Rabbi Yossi in the mishna that one can extinguish for all the reasons other than one who wants to save the wick, is it according to Rabbi Shimon or Rabbi Yehuda regarding melacha sheaina tzricha legufa? Two approaches are brought – one explaining it according to Rabbi Yehuda and one according to Rabbi Shimon.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

砖讛诪专讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬诇讱 讜讬拽谞讬讟 讗转 讛诇诇 讬讟讜诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗诪专 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讗谞讬 讗拽谞讬讟谞讜 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注专讘 砖讘转 讛讬讛 讜讛诇诇 讞驻祝 讗转 专讗砖讜 讛诇讱 讜注讘专 注诇 驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 专讗砖讬讛谉 砖诇 讘讘诇讬讬诐 住讙诇讙诇讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讞讬讜转 驻拽讞讜转

who wagered with each other and said: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillel to the point that he reprimands him, will take four-hundred zuz. One of them said: I will aggravate him. That day that he chose to bother Hillel was Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washing the hair on his head. He went and passed the entrance to Hillel鈥檚 house and in a demeaning manner said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Hillel wrapped himself in a dignified garment and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. Hillel said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked him: Why are the heads of Babylonians oval? He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. He said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they do not have clever midwives. They do not know how to shape the child鈥檚 head at birth.

讛诇讱 讜讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 注讬谞讬讛谉 砖诇 转专诪讜讚讬讬谉 转专讜讟讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚专讬谉 讘讬谉 讛讞讜诇讜转

That man went and waited one hour, a short while, returned to look for Hillel, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, Hillel wrapped himself and went out to greet him. Hillel said to him: My son, what do you seek? The man said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [terutot]? Hillel said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live among the sands and the sand gets into their eyes.

讛诇讱 讜讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 专讙诇讬讛诐 砖诇 讗驻专拽讬讬诐 专讞讘讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚专讬谉 讘讬谉 讘爪注讬 讛诪讬诐

Once again the man went, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, he, Hillel, wrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why do Africans have wide feet? Hillel said to him: You have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live in marshlands and their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.

讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讜转 讛专讘讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讜诪转讬专讗 讗谞讬 砖诪讗 转讻注讜住 谞转注讟祝 讜讬砖讘 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 砖讗诇讜转 砖讬砖 诇讱 诇砖讗讜诇 砖讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛诇诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讱 谞砖讬讗 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讗转讛 讛讜讗 诇讗 讬专讘讜 讻诪讜转讱 讘讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讘讚转讬 注诇 讬讚讱 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗诪专 诇讜 讛讜讬 讝讛讬专 讘专讜讞讱 讻讚讬 讛讜讗 讛诇诇 砖转讗讘讚 注诇 讬讚讜 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讜讛诇诇 诇讗 讬拽驻讬讚:

That man said to him: I have many more questions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry. Hillel wrapped himself and sat before him, and he said to him: All of the questions that you have to ask, ask them. The man got angry and said to him: Are you Hillel whom they call the Nasi of Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: If it is you, then may there not be many like you in Israel. Hillel said to him: My son, for what reason do you say this? The man said to him: Because I lost four hundred zuz because of you. Hillel said to him: Be vigilant of your spirit and avoid situations of this sort. Hillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred zuz and another four hundred zuz on his account, and Hillel will not get upset.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诪讛 转讜专讜转 讬砖 诇讻诐 讗诪专 诇讜 砖转讬诐 转讜专讛 砖讘讻转讘 讜转讜专讛 砖讘注诇 驻讛 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讘讻转讘 讗谞讬 诪讗诪讬谞讱 讜砖讘注诇 驻讛 讗讬谞讬 诪讗诪讬谞讱 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转诇诪讚谞讬 转讜专讛 砖讘讻转讘 讙注专 讘讜 讜讛讜爪讬讗讜 讘谞讝讬驻讛 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛 讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘 讙讚 诇诪讞专 讗驻讬讱 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗转诪讜诇 诇讗 讗诪专转 诇讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 注诇讬 讚讬讚讬 拽讗 住诪讻转 讚注诇 驻讛 谞诪讬 住诪讜讱 注诇讬:

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. The gentile said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. The gentile said to him: With regard to the Written Torah, I believe you, but with regard to the Oral Torah, I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me only the Written Torah. Shammai scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. The same gentile came before Hillel, who converted him and began teaching him Torah. On the first day, he showed him the letters of the alphabet and said to him: Alef, bet, gimmel, dalet. The next day he reversed the order of the letters and told him that an alef is a tav and so on. The convert said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. Hillel said to him: You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. Didn鈥檛 you rely on me? Therefore, you should also rely on me with regard to the matter of the Oral Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.

砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转诇诪讚谞讬 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讻砖讗谞讬 注讜诪讚 注诇 专讙诇 讗讞转 讚讞驻讜 讘讗诪转 讛讘谞讬谉 砖讘讬讚讜 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讚注诇讱 住谞讬 诇讞讘专讱 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 讝讜 讛讬讗 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讗讬讚讱 驻讬专讜砖讛 讛讜讗 讝讬诇 讙诪讜专

There was another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai and said to Shammai: Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. Shammai pushed him away with the builder鈥檚 cubit in his hand. This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile came before Hillel. He converted him and said to him: That which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study.

砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜砖诪注 拽讜诇 住讜驻专 砖讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 讜讗诇讛 讛讘讙讚讬诐 讗砖专 讬注砖讜 讞讜砖谉 讜讗驻讜讚 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜 诇诪讬 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 讗讜转讜 讙讜讬 讘注爪诪讜 讗诇讱 讜讗转讙讬讬专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬砖讬诪讜谞讬 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转砖讬诪谞讬 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讚讞驻讜 讘讗诪转 讛讘谞讬谉 砖讘讬讚讜 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛

There was another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall and heard the voice of a teacher who was teaching Torah to his students and saying the verse: 鈥淎nd these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an efod, and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle鈥 (Exodus 28:4). The gentile said: These garments, for whom are they designated? The students said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai and said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me as High Priest. Shammai pushed him with the builder鈥檚 cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him.

讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 诪注诪讬讚讬谉 诪诇讱 讗诇讗 诪讬 砖讬讜讚注 讟讻住讬住讬 诪诇讻讜转 诇讱 诇诪讜讚 讟讻住讬住讬 诪诇讻讜转 讛诇讱 讜拽专讗 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪拽专讗 讝讛 注诇 诪讬 谞讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讚讜讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 谞砖讗 讗讜转讜 讙专 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪讜 讜诪讛 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞拽专讗讜 讘谞讬诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讜诪转讜讱 讗讛讘讛 砖讗讛讘诐 拽专讗 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻转讬讘 注诇讬讛诐 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讙专 讛拽诇 砖讘讗 讘诪拽诇讜 讜讘转专诪讬诇讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Hillel said to him, to the convert: Is it not the way of the world that only one who knows the protocols [takhsisei] of royalty is appointed king? Go and learn the royal protocols by engaging in Torah study. He went and read the Bible. When he reached the verse which says: 鈥淎nd the common man that draws near shall be put to death鈥 (Numbers 1:51), the convert said to Hillel: With regard to whom is the verse speaking? Hillel said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an a fortiori inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God鈥檚 children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: 鈥淚srael is My son, My firstborn鈥 (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came without merit, with nothing more than his staff and traveling bag, all the more so that this applies to him, as well.

讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 专讗讜讬 讗谞讬 诇讛讬讜转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜讛诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘转讜专讛 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讗诪专 诇讜 注谞讜讜转谉 讛诇诇 讬谞讜讞讜 诇讱 讘专讻讜转 注诇 专讗砖讱 砖讛拽专讘转谞讬 转讞转 讻谞驻讬 讛砖讻讬谞讛 诇讬诪讬诐 谞讝讚讜讜讙讜 砖诇砖转谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 拽驻讚谞讜转讜 砖诇 砖诪讗讬 讘拽砖讛 诇讟讜专讚谞讜 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讜 砖诇 讛诇诇 拽专讘谞讜 转讞转 讻谞驻讬 讛砖讻讬谞讛:

The convert came before Shammai and told him that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel and said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. The Gemara relates: Eventually, the three converts gathered together in one place, and they said: Shammai鈥檚 impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel鈥檚 patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗诪讜谞转 注转讬讱 讞讜住谉 讬砖讜注讜转 讞讻诪转 讜讚注转 讜讙讜壮 讗诪讜谞转 讝讛 住讚专 讝专注讬诐 注转讬讱 讝讛 住讚专 诪讜注讚 讞讜住谉 讝讛 住讚专 谞砖讬诐 讬砖讜注讜转 讝讛 住讚专 谞讝讬拽讬谉 讞讻诪转 讝讛 住讚专 拽讚砖讬诐 讜讚注转 讝讛 住讚专 讟讛专讜转 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讗讜爪专讜

The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge, the fear of the Lord is his treasure鈥 (Isaiah 33:6)? Faith; that is the order of Zeraim, Seeds, in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). Your times; that is the order of Moed, Festival, which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. Strength; that is the order of Nashim, Women. Salvations; that is the order of Nezikin, Damages, as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. Wisdom; that is the order of Kodashim, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of Teharot, Purity, which is particularly difficult to master. And even if a person studies and masters all of these, 鈥渢he fear of the Lord is his treasure,鈥 it is preeminent.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘砖注讛 砖诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讚讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 谞砖讗转 讜谞转转 讘讗诪讜谞讛 拽讘注转 注转讬诐 诇转讜专讛 注住拽转 讘驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 爪驻讬转 诇讬砖讜注讛 驻诇驻诇转 讘讞讻诪讛 讛讘谞转 讚讘专 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讗讬 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讗讜爪专讜 讗讬谉 讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讗诪专 诇砖诇讜讞讜 讛注诇讛 诇讬 讻讜专 讞讬讟讬谉 诇注诇讬讬讛 讛诇讱 讜讛注诇讛 诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 注讬专讘转 诇讬 讘讛谉 拽讘 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讜讟讘 讗诐 诇讗 讛注诇讬转讛

With regard to the same verse, Rava said: After departing from this world, when a person is brought to judgment for the life he lived in this world, they say to him in the order of that verse: Did you conduct business faithfully? Did you designate times for Torah study? Did you engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engage in the dialectics of wisdom or understand one matter from another? And, nevertheless, beyond all these, if the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes, he is worthy, and if not, no, none of these accomplishments have any value. There is a parable that illustrates this. A person who said to his emissary: Bring a kor of wheat up to the attic for me to store there. The messenger went and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary: Did you mix a kav of 岣mton, a preservative to keep away worms, into it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him: If so, it would have been preferable had you not brought it up. Of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 拽讘 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讘讻讜专 砖诇 转讘讜讗讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖:

On a related note, the Gemara cites a halakha that was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: A person who sells wheat may, ab initio, mix a kav of 岣mton into a kor of grain and need not be concerned that by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the kav of 岣mton is essential for the preservation of the wheat.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻诇 讗讚诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 转讜专讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讜

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have

讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讚讜诪讛 诇讙讝讘专 砖诪住专讜 诇讜 诪驻转讞讜转 讛驻谞讬诪讬讜转 讜诪驻转讞讜转 讛讞讬爪讜谞讜转 诇讗 诪住专讜 诇讜 讘讛讬 注讬讬诇 诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讞讘诇 注诇 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专转讗 讜转专注讗 诇讚专转讗 注讘讬讚 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转 注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讬专讗讜 诪诇驻谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 注砖讛 砖讬讬专讗讜 诪诇驻谞讬讜

fear of Heaven is like a treasurer [gizbar] to whom they gave keys to the inner doors of the treasury but they did not give keys to the outer door. With what key will he enter? Although the Torah is the inner key, without fear of Heaven one cannot gain access to the genuine Torah. Similarly, Rabbi Yannai would proclaim: Woe unto one who does not have a courtyard, and who makes a fence for the courtyard, i.e., a person who lacks fear of Heaven and is nevertheless involved in Torah study. Rav Yehuda said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only created His world so that people would fear before Him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God has so made it that men should fear before Him鈥 (Ecclesiastes 3:14).

专讘讬 住讬诪讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讞诇讬祝 讜讗讝讬诇 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 谞讬拽讜 诪拽诪讬讛 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗讬讚讱 谞讬拽讜 诪拽诪讬讛 讚讙讘专 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗谞讗 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专转 诇讬 讗转 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗

The Gemara also related that Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar were sitting. Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 passed and went adjacent to them. One said to the other: Let us stand before him as he is a man who fears sin. The other said to him in response: Let us stand before him, as he is a man of Torah study. He said to him: I said to you that he is a man who fears sin, and you said me that he is a man of Torah study? The former is much greater praise than the latter.

转住转讬讬诐 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 砖讜讗诇 诪注诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 诇讬专讗讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗讚诐 讛谉 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讞讻诪讛 讜讙讜壮 砖讻谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讜谞讬 拽讜专讬谉 诇讗讞转 讛谉 转住转讬讬诐:

The Gemara remarks: Conclude that Rabbi Elazar is the one who said that he is praiseworthy because he is a man who fears sin, as elsewhere he also spoke in praise of fear. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has in His world only fear of Heaven alone, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you, but to fear the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:12). And it is written: 鈥淎nd unto man He said: Behold [hen], the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding鈥 (Job 28:28), as in the Greek language they call one hen. Apparently, fear of God is of primary importance. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude that Rabbi Elazar is the one who said so.

讚专砖 专讘 注讜诇讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转专砖注 讛专讘讛 讜讙讜壮 讛专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诇讬专砖注 讛讗 诪注讟 诇讬专砖注 讗诇讗 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讗讞专 讜讬讛讗 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝

Rav Ulla taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏e not overmuch wicked鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:17)? This appears difficult, as, is that to say that only overmuch one should not be wicked; a little, one should be wicked? Rather, this can be understood based on the following adage: One who ate a clove of garlic and its odor spreads, should he again eat another clove of garlic so that its odor will spread further? If you were somewhat wicked, do not think that it is legitimate to continue and be very wicked.

讚专砖 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 注讜诇讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗讬谉 讞专爪讘讜转 诇诪讜转诐 讜讘专讬讗 讗讜诇诐 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗 讚讬讬谉 诇专砖注讬诐 砖讗讬谞谉 讞专讚讬谉 讜注爪讘讬谉 诪讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讗诇讗 砖诇讘诐 讘专讬讗 诇讛谉 讻讗讜诇诐 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讛 讚专讻诐 讻住诇 诇诪讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 专砖注讬诐 砖讚专讻诐 诇诪讬转讛 讜讬砖 诇讛诐 讞诇讘 注诇 讻住诇诐 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 砖讻讞讛 讛讬讗 诪讛谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讗讞专讬讛诐 讘驻讬讛诐 讬专爪讜 住诇讛:

Rava bar Rav Ulla taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or there are no pangs [岣rtzubot] at their death and their body is sound鈥 (Psalms 73:4)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Is it not enough for wicked people that they are not anxious [岣red] or sad [atzuv], 岣rtzubot is an acronym of 岣red and atzuv, in anticipation of the day of their death, but also, their heart is as unyielding for them as the entrance to a hall is wide, and they devote no thought to it. And that is what Rabba said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭his is the way of them that are foolish and of those who after them speak approvingly, Selah鈥 (Psalms 49:14)? It means that the wicked know that their path leads to eternal death, but they have fat on their kidneys that prevents that realization from entering their hearts. Lest you say that it is simply forgotten from them; therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd of those who after them speak approvingly, Selah鈥 (Psalms 49:14). They are aware of their fate and speak of it, but it does not affect them.

讻讞住 注诇 讛谞专 讻讜壮: 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讛谞讱 谞诪讬 诇讬讞讬讬讘 讜讗讬 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 驻转讬诇讛 谞诪讬 诇讬驻讟专 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜拽住讘专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讛讜讬 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诪讜 诇讗 讛讜讬 住讜转专

We learned in the mishna that if one extinguished a flame on Shabbat because he sought to spare the lamp, the oil, or the wick, he is liable, but Rabbi Yosei exempts in all cases except in a case in which he extinguished the flame to spare the wick. The Gemara asks with regard to Rabbi Yosei: In accordance with whose opinion does he hold with regard to prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake? If he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that one is liable for a prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake, then even in all those cases he should also deem him liable. And if he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one is exempt for a prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake, then even in the case of a wick he should also deem him exempt. Ulla said: Actually, Rabbi Yosei holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. However, Rabbi Yosei holds that with regard to every destructive action, if he dismantles in order to rebuild in the same place, then it is considered to be dismantling, and he is liable for having performed a prohibited labor on Shabbat. However, one who demolishes in order to build elsewhere it is not considered performance of the prohibited labor of dismantling. He merely performed a destructive act and is not liable. When one extinguishes the flame to spare the lamp or the oil, he does not do so in order to relight them. When he does so to spare the wick, he indicates that he intends to relight the wick.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讜转 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诇讛讜 诪诪砖讻谉 讜讛转诐 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 讬讞谞讜 讻住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讚诪讬

Rabba said to him: That reasoning is implausible. After all, all labors prohibited on Shabbat, we derive them from the labors performed in the Tabernacle, and there it was a case of dismantling in order to build elsewhere. They would dismantle the Tabernacle and reconstruct it at the next encampment. Ulla said to Rabba: That is not a proof, as there, in the case of the Tabernacle, it is different. Since it is written: 鈥淎t the commandment of the Lord they encamped鈥 (Numbers 9:23). The time and place of their travels and their encampments were not determined by them but rather by the word of God. Consequently, when they took down the Tabernacle it was tantamount to demolishing in order to build in the same place. Since the demolition and the construction were both accomplished at the command of God, there was never a case of destruction without a constructive purpose.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 驻转讬诇讛 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讛讻讗 讘驻转讬诇讛 砖爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讛讘讛 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讘讛讛讬讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜讚讬 讚拽讗 诪转拽谉 诪谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚拽转谞讬 砖讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 驻讞诐 讜诇讗 拽转谞讬 诪驻谞讬 砖谞注砖讬转 驻讞诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Actually, Rabbi Yosei holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. And as far as the question, what is different about a wick, that can be answered as Rav Hamnuna said, and some say, Rav Adda bar Ahava said: Here, we are dealing with a wick that one must singe before lighting it in order to facilitate its burning, as, in that case, even Rabbi Shimon agrees that extinguishing the flame is prohibited, as, by doing so, he prepares a vessel for use. Rava said: That interpretation is also precise in the language of the mishna, as it was taught in the mishna that one who extinguished a wick is liable because he makes the wick into charcoal intentionally, and it was not taught because charcoal was made on its own. The Gemara concludes: Conclude from it that the mishna is to be understood in that manner.

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讘砖注转 诇讬讚转谉 注诇 砖讗讬谞谉 讝讛讬专讜转 讘谞讚讛 讘讞诇讛 讜讘讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专:

MISHNA: This mishna concludes the aggadic treatment of the topic of kindling the Shabbat lights. For three transgressions women are punished and die during childbirth: For the fact that they are not careful in observing the laws of a menstruating woman, and in separating 岣lla from the dough, and in lighting the Shabbat lamp.

讙诪壮 谞讚讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讛讬讗 拽诇拽诇讛 讘讞讚专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇驻讬讻讱 转诇拽讛 讘讞讚专讬 讘讟谞讛 转讬谞讞 谞讚讛 讞诇讛 讜讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讻讚讚专砖 讛讛讜讗 讙诇讬诇讗讛 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讬注讬转 讚诐 谞转转讬 讘讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 讚诐 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: A woman who was not careful in observing the laws of menstruation, what is the reason that she is punished during childbirth? Rabbi Yitz岣k said: She sinned with regard to the chambers of her womb; therefore, she is afflicted in the chambers of her womb. The Gemara asks: Granted, with regard to menstruation; but with regard to a woman who was not careful in separating 岣lla and in kindling the Shabbat lights, what is there to say? Rather, it must be explained in accordance with that which that Galilean taught before Rav 岣sda. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I placed a quarter [reviit] of a log of blood in you when you were formed, and about matters of the blood of menstruation I warned you.

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Shabbat 31

砖讛诪专讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬诇讱 讜讬拽谞讬讟 讗转 讛诇诇 讬讟讜诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗诪专 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讗谞讬 讗拽谞讬讟谞讜 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注专讘 砖讘转 讛讬讛 讜讛诇诇 讞驻祝 讗转 专讗砖讜 讛诇讱 讜注讘专 注诇 驻转讞 讘讬转讜 讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 专讗砖讬讛谉 砖诇 讘讘诇讬讬诐 住讙诇讙诇讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讞讬讜转 驻拽讞讜转

who wagered with each other and said: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillel to the point that he reprimands him, will take four-hundred zuz. One of them said: I will aggravate him. That day that he chose to bother Hillel was Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washing the hair on his head. He went and passed the entrance to Hillel鈥檚 house and in a demeaning manner said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Hillel wrapped himself in a dignified garment and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. Hillel said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked him: Why are the heads of Babylonians oval? He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. He said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they do not have clever midwives. They do not know how to shape the child鈥檚 head at birth.

讛诇讱 讜讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 注讬谞讬讛谉 砖诇 转专诪讜讚讬讬谉 转专讜讟讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚专讬谉 讘讬谉 讛讞讜诇讜转

That man went and waited one hour, a short while, returned to look for Hillel, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, Hillel wrapped himself and went out to greet him. Hillel said to him: My son, what do you seek? The man said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [terutot]? Hillel said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live among the sands and the sand gets into their eyes.

讛诇讱 讜讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 诪讬 讻讗谉 讛诇诇 谞转注讟祝 讜讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇 讘谞讬 砖讗诇 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 专讙诇讬讛诐 砖诇 讗驻专拽讬讬诐 专讞讘讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 砖讗诇讛 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讗诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚专讬谉 讘讬谉 讘爪注讬 讛诪讬诐

Once again the man went, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, he, Hillel, wrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why do Africans have wide feet? Hillel said to him: You have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live in marshlands and their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.

讗诪专 诇讜 砖讗诇讜转 讛专讘讛 讬砖 诇讬 诇砖讗讜诇 讜诪转讬专讗 讗谞讬 砖诪讗 转讻注讜住 谞转注讟祝 讜讬砖讘 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 砖讗诇讜转 砖讬砖 诇讱 诇砖讗讜诇 砖讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛诇诇 砖拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讱 谞砖讬讗 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讗转讛 讛讜讗 诇讗 讬专讘讜 讻诪讜转讱 讘讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讘讚转讬 注诇 讬讚讱 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗诪专 诇讜 讛讜讬 讝讛讬专 讘专讜讞讱 讻讚讬 讛讜讗 讛诇诇 砖转讗讘讚 注诇 讬讚讜 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讜讛诇诇 诇讗 讬拽驻讬讚:

That man said to him: I have many more questions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry. Hillel wrapped himself and sat before him, and he said to him: All of the questions that you have to ask, ask them. The man got angry and said to him: Are you Hillel whom they call the Nasi of Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: If it is you, then may there not be many like you in Israel. Hillel said to him: My son, for what reason do you say this? The man said to him: Because I lost four hundred zuz because of you. Hillel said to him: Be vigilant of your spirit and avoid situations of this sort. Hillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred zuz and another four hundred zuz on his account, and Hillel will not get upset.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诪讛 转讜专讜转 讬砖 诇讻诐 讗诪专 诇讜 砖转讬诐 转讜专讛 砖讘讻转讘 讜转讜专讛 砖讘注诇 驻讛 讗诪专 诇讜 砖讘讻转讘 讗谞讬 诪讗诪讬谞讱 讜砖讘注诇 驻讛 讗讬谞讬 诪讗诪讬谞讱 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转诇诪讚谞讬 转讜专讛 砖讘讻转讘 讙注专 讘讜 讜讛讜爪讬讗讜 讘谞讝讬驻讛 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛 讬讜诪讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘 讙讚 诇诪讞专 讗驻讬讱 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗转诪讜诇 诇讗 讗诪专转 诇讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 注诇讬 讚讬讚讬 拽讗 住诪讻转 讚注诇 驻讛 谞诪讬 住诪讜讱 注诇讬:

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. The gentile said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. The gentile said to him: With regard to the Written Torah, I believe you, but with regard to the Oral Torah, I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me only the Written Torah. Shammai scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. The same gentile came before Hillel, who converted him and began teaching him Torah. On the first day, he showed him the letters of the alphabet and said to him: Alef, bet, gimmel, dalet. The next day he reversed the order of the letters and told him that an alef is a tav and so on. The convert said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. Hillel said to him: You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. Didn鈥檛 you rely on me? Therefore, you should also rely on me with regard to the matter of the Oral Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.

砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转诇诪讚谞讬 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讻砖讗谞讬 注讜诪讚 注诇 专讙诇 讗讞转 讚讞驻讜 讘讗诪转 讛讘谞讬谉 砖讘讬讚讜 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讚注诇讱 住谞讬 诇讞讘专讱 诇讗 转注讘讬讚 讝讜 讛讬讗 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讗讬讚讱 驻讬专讜砖讛 讛讜讗 讝讬诇 讙诪讜专

There was another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai and said to Shammai: Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. Shammai pushed him away with the builder鈥檚 cubit in his hand. This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile came before Hillel. He converted him and said to him: That which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study.

砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘讙讜讬 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛诪讚专砖 讜砖诪注 拽讜诇 住讜驻专 砖讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 讜讗诇讛 讛讘讙讚讬诐 讗砖专 讬注砖讜 讞讜砖谉 讜讗驻讜讚 讗诪专 讛诇诇讜 诇诪讬 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 讗讜转讜 讙讜讬 讘注爪诪讜 讗诇讱 讜讗转讙讬讬专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讬砖讬诪讜谞讬 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讙讬讬专谞讬 注诇 诪谞转 砖转砖讬诪谞讬 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讚讞驻讜 讘讗诪转 讛讘谞讬谉 砖讘讬讚讜 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讙讬讬专讬讛

There was another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall and heard the voice of a teacher who was teaching Torah to his students and saying the verse: 鈥淎nd these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an efod, and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle鈥 (Exodus 28:4). The gentile said: These garments, for whom are they designated? The students said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai and said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me as High Priest. Shammai pushed him with the builder鈥檚 cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him.

讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 诪注诪讬讚讬谉 诪诇讱 讗诇讗 诪讬 砖讬讜讚注 讟讻住讬住讬 诪诇讻讜转 诇讱 诇诪讜讚 讟讻住讬住讬 诪诇讻讜转 讛诇讱 讜拽专讗 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪拽专讗 讝讛 注诇 诪讬 谞讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讚讜讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 谞砖讗 讗讜转讜 讙专 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪讜 讜诪讛 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞拽专讗讜 讘谞讬诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讜诪转讜讱 讗讛讘讛 砖讗讛讘诐 拽专讗 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻转讬讘 注诇讬讛诐 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讙专 讛拽诇 砖讘讗 讘诪拽诇讜 讜讘转专诪讬诇讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Hillel said to him, to the convert: Is it not the way of the world that only one who knows the protocols [takhsisei] of royalty is appointed king? Go and learn the royal protocols by engaging in Torah study. He went and read the Bible. When he reached the verse which says: 鈥淎nd the common man that draws near shall be put to death鈥 (Numbers 1:51), the convert said to Hillel: With regard to whom is the verse speaking? Hillel said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an a fortiori inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God鈥檚 children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: 鈥淚srael is My son, My firstborn鈥 (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came without merit, with nothing more than his staff and traveling bag, all the more so that this applies to him, as well.

讘讗 诇驻谞讬 砖诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 专讗讜讬 讗谞讬 诇讛讬讜转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜讛诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘转讜专讛 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讘讗 诇驻谞讬 讛诇诇 讗诪专 诇讜 注谞讜讜转谉 讛诇诇 讬谞讜讞讜 诇讱 讘专讻讜转 注诇 专讗砖讱 砖讛拽专讘转谞讬 转讞转 讻谞驻讬 讛砖讻讬谞讛 诇讬诪讬诐 谞讝讚讜讜讙讜 砖诇砖转谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 拽驻讚谞讜转讜 砖诇 砖诪讗讬 讘拽砖讛 诇讟讜专讚谞讜 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讜 砖诇 讛诇诇 拽专讘谞讜 转讞转 讻谞驻讬 讛砖讻讬谞讛:

The convert came before Shammai and told him that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel and said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. The Gemara relates: Eventually, the three converts gathered together in one place, and they said: Shammai鈥檚 impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel鈥檚 patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗诪讜谞转 注转讬讱 讞讜住谉 讬砖讜注讜转 讞讻诪转 讜讚注转 讜讙讜壮 讗诪讜谞转 讝讛 住讚专 讝专注讬诐 注转讬讱 讝讛 住讚专 诪讜注讚 讞讜住谉 讝讛 住讚专 谞砖讬诐 讬砖讜注讜转 讝讛 住讚专 谞讝讬拽讬谉 讞讻诪转 讝讛 住讚专 拽讚砖讬诐 讜讚注转 讝讛 住讚专 讟讛专讜转 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讗讜爪专讜

The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge, the fear of the Lord is his treasure鈥 (Isaiah 33:6)? Faith; that is the order of Zeraim, Seeds, in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). Your times; that is the order of Moed, Festival, which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. Strength; that is the order of Nashim, Women. Salvations; that is the order of Nezikin, Damages, as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. Wisdom; that is the order of Kodashim, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of Teharot, Purity, which is particularly difficult to master. And even if a person studies and masters all of these, 鈥渢he fear of the Lord is his treasure,鈥 it is preeminent.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘砖注讛 砖诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讚讬谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 谞砖讗转 讜谞转转 讘讗诪讜谞讛 拽讘注转 注转讬诐 诇转讜专讛 注住拽转 讘驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 爪驻讬转 诇讬砖讜注讛 驻诇驻诇转 讘讞讻诪讛 讛讘谞转 讚讘专 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讗讬 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讗讜爪专讜 讗讬谉 讗讬 诇讗 诇讗 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讗诪专 诇砖诇讜讞讜 讛注诇讛 诇讬 讻讜专 讞讬讟讬谉 诇注诇讬讬讛 讛诇讱 讜讛注诇讛 诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 注讬专讘转 诇讬 讘讛谉 拽讘 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讜讟讘 讗诐 诇讗 讛注诇讬转讛

With regard to the same verse, Rava said: After departing from this world, when a person is brought to judgment for the life he lived in this world, they say to him in the order of that verse: Did you conduct business faithfully? Did you designate times for Torah study? Did you engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engage in the dialectics of wisdom or understand one matter from another? And, nevertheless, beyond all these, if the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes, he is worthy, and if not, no, none of these accomplishments have any value. There is a parable that illustrates this. A person who said to his emissary: Bring a kor of wheat up to the attic for me to store there. The messenger went and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary: Did you mix a kav of 岣mton, a preservative to keep away worms, into it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him: If so, it would have been preferable had you not brought it up. Of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注专讘 讗讚诐 拽讘 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讘讻讜专 砖诇 转讘讜讗讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖:

On a related note, the Gemara cites a halakha that was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: A person who sells wheat may, ab initio, mix a kav of 岣mton into a kor of grain and need not be concerned that by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the kav of 岣mton is essential for the preservation of the wheat.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻诇 讗讚诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 转讜专讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讜

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have

讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讚讜诪讛 诇讙讝讘专 砖诪住专讜 诇讜 诪驻转讞讜转 讛驻谞讬诪讬讜转 讜诪驻转讞讜转 讛讞讬爪讜谞讜转 诇讗 诪住专讜 诇讜 讘讛讬 注讬讬诇 诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讞讘诇 注诇 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专转讗 讜转专注讗 诇讚专转讗 注讘讬讚 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗转 注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讬专讗讜 诪诇驻谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 注砖讛 砖讬讬专讗讜 诪诇驻谞讬讜

fear of Heaven is like a treasurer [gizbar] to whom they gave keys to the inner doors of the treasury but they did not give keys to the outer door. With what key will he enter? Although the Torah is the inner key, without fear of Heaven one cannot gain access to the genuine Torah. Similarly, Rabbi Yannai would proclaim: Woe unto one who does not have a courtyard, and who makes a fence for the courtyard, i.e., a person who lacks fear of Heaven and is nevertheless involved in Torah study. Rav Yehuda said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only created His world so that people would fear before Him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God has so made it that men should fear before Him鈥 (Ecclesiastes 3:14).

专讘讬 住讬诪讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讞诇讬祝 讜讗讝讬诇 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 谞讬拽讜 诪拽诪讬讛 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗讬讚讱 谞讬拽讜 诪拽诪讬讛 讚讙讘专 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗谞讗 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专转 诇讬 讗转 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗

The Gemara also related that Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar were sitting. Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar A岣 passed and went adjacent to them. One said to the other: Let us stand before him as he is a man who fears sin. The other said to him in response: Let us stand before him, as he is a man of Torah study. He said to him: I said to you that he is a man who fears sin, and you said me that he is a man of Torah study? The former is much greater praise than the latter.

转住转讬讬诐 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讚讙讘专 讚讞讬诇 讞讟讗讬谉 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注讜诇诪讜 讗诇讗 讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 砖讜讗诇 诪注诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 诇讬专讗讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗讚诐 讛谉 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 讞讻诪讛 讜讙讜壮 砖讻谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讜谞讬 拽讜专讬谉 诇讗讞转 讛谉 转住转讬讬诐:

The Gemara remarks: Conclude that Rabbi Elazar is the one who said that he is praiseworthy because he is a man who fears sin, as elsewhere he also spoke in praise of fear. As Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has in His world only fear of Heaven alone, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you, but to fear the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:12). And it is written: 鈥淎nd unto man He said: Behold [hen], the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding鈥 (Job 28:28), as in the Greek language they call one hen. Apparently, fear of God is of primary importance. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude that Rabbi Elazar is the one who said so.

讚专砖 专讘 注讜诇讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转专砖注 讛专讘讛 讜讙讜壮 讛专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诇讬专砖注 讛讗 诪注讟 诇讬专砖注 讗诇讗 诪讬 砖讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讬讞讝讜专 讜讬讗讻诇 砖讜诐 讗讞专 讜讬讛讗 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝

Rav Ulla taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏e not overmuch wicked鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:17)? This appears difficult, as, is that to say that only overmuch one should not be wicked; a little, one should be wicked? Rather, this can be understood based on the following adage: One who ate a clove of garlic and its odor spreads, should he again eat another clove of garlic so that its odor will spread further? If you were somewhat wicked, do not think that it is legitimate to continue and be very wicked.

讚专砖 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 注讜诇讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗讬谉 讞专爪讘讜转 诇诪讜转诐 讜讘专讬讗 讗讜诇诐 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗 讚讬讬谉 诇专砖注讬诐 砖讗讬谞谉 讞专讚讬谉 讜注爪讘讬谉 诪讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讗诇讗 砖诇讘诐 讘专讬讗 诇讛谉 讻讗讜诇诐 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讛 讚专讻诐 讻住诇 诇诪讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 专砖注讬诐 砖讚专讻诐 诇诪讬转讛 讜讬砖 诇讛诐 讞诇讘 注诇 讻住诇诐 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 砖讻讞讛 讛讬讗 诪讛谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讗讞专讬讛诐 讘驻讬讛诐 讬专爪讜 住诇讛:

Rava bar Rav Ulla taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淔or there are no pangs [岣rtzubot] at their death and their body is sound鈥 (Psalms 73:4)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Is it not enough for wicked people that they are not anxious [岣red] or sad [atzuv], 岣rtzubot is an acronym of 岣red and atzuv, in anticipation of the day of their death, but also, their heart is as unyielding for them as the entrance to a hall is wide, and they devote no thought to it. And that is what Rabba said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭his is the way of them that are foolish and of those who after them speak approvingly, Selah鈥 (Psalms 49:14)? It means that the wicked know that their path leads to eternal death, but they have fat on their kidneys that prevents that realization from entering their hearts. Lest you say that it is simply forgotten from them; therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd of those who after them speak approvingly, Selah鈥 (Psalms 49:14). They are aware of their fate and speak of it, but it does not affect them.

讻讞住 注诇 讛谞专 讻讜壮: 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻诪讗谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讛谞讱 谞诪讬 诇讬讞讬讬讘 讜讗讬 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 驻转讬诇讛 谞诪讬 诇讬驻讟专 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜拽住讘专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讛讜讬 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诪讜 诇讗 讛讜讬 住讜转专

We learned in the mishna that if one extinguished a flame on Shabbat because he sought to spare the lamp, the oil, or the wick, he is liable, but Rabbi Yosei exempts in all cases except in a case in which he extinguished the flame to spare the wick. The Gemara asks with regard to Rabbi Yosei: In accordance with whose opinion does he hold with regard to prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake? If he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that one is liable for a prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake, then even in all those cases he should also deem him liable. And if he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one is exempt for a prohibited labor performed on Shabbat not for its own sake, then even in the case of a wick he should also deem him exempt. Ulla said: Actually, Rabbi Yosei holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. However, Rabbi Yosei holds that with regard to every destructive action, if he dismantles in order to rebuild in the same place, then it is considered to be dismantling, and he is liable for having performed a prohibited labor on Shabbat. However, one who demolishes in order to build elsewhere it is not considered performance of the prohibited labor of dismantling. He merely performed a destructive act and is not liable. When one extinguishes the flame to spare the lamp or the oil, he does not do so in order to relight them. When he does so to spare the wick, he indicates that he intends to relight the wick.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讜转 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诇讛讜 诪诪砖讻谉 讜讛转诐 住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 讬讞谞讜 讻住讜转专 注诇 诪谞转 诇讘谞讜转 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讚诪讬

Rabba said to him: That reasoning is implausible. After all, all labors prohibited on Shabbat, we derive them from the labors performed in the Tabernacle, and there it was a case of dismantling in order to build elsewhere. They would dismantle the Tabernacle and reconstruct it at the next encampment. Ulla said to Rabba: That is not a proof, as there, in the case of the Tabernacle, it is different. Since it is written: 鈥淎t the commandment of the Lord they encamped鈥 (Numbers 9:23). The time and place of their travels and their encampments were not determined by them but rather by the word of God. Consequently, when they took down the Tabernacle it was tantamount to demolishing in order to build in the same place. Since the demolition and the construction were both accomplished at the command of God, there was never a case of destruction without a constructive purpose.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 驻转讬诇讛 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讛讻讗 讘驻转讬诇讛 砖爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讛讘讛 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讘讛讛讬讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜讚讬 讚拽讗 诪转拽谉 诪谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚拽转谞讬 砖讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 驻讞诐 讜诇讗 拽转谞讬 诪驻谞讬 砖谞注砖讬转 驻讞诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:

And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Actually, Rabbi Yosei holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. And as far as the question, what is different about a wick, that can be answered as Rav Hamnuna said, and some say, Rav Adda bar Ahava said: Here, we are dealing with a wick that one must singe before lighting it in order to facilitate its burning, as, in that case, even Rabbi Shimon agrees that extinguishing the flame is prohibited, as, by doing so, he prepares a vessel for use. Rava said: That interpretation is also precise in the language of the mishna, as it was taught in the mishna that one who extinguished a wick is liable because he makes the wick into charcoal intentionally, and it was not taught because charcoal was made on its own. The Gemara concludes: Conclude from it that the mishna is to be understood in that manner.

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖诇砖 注讘讬专讜转 谞砖讬诐 诪转讜转 讘砖注转 诇讬讚转谉 注诇 砖讗讬谞谉 讝讛讬专讜转 讘谞讚讛 讘讞诇讛 讜讘讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专:

MISHNA: This mishna concludes the aggadic treatment of the topic of kindling the Shabbat lights. For three transgressions women are punished and die during childbirth: For the fact that they are not careful in observing the laws of a menstruating woman, and in separating 岣lla from the dough, and in lighting the Shabbat lamp.

讙诪壮 谞讚讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讛讬讗 拽诇拽诇讛 讘讞讚专讬 讘讟谞讛 诇驻讬讻讱 转诇拽讛 讘讞讚专讬 讘讟谞讛 转讬谞讞 谞讚讛 讞诇讛 讜讛讚诇拽转 讛谞专 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讻讚讚专砖 讛讛讜讗 讙诇讬诇讗讛 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讬注讬转 讚诐 谞转转讬 讘讻诐 注诇 注住拽讬 讚诐 讛讝讛专转讬 讗转讻诐

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: A woman who was not careful in observing the laws of menstruation, what is the reason that she is punished during childbirth? Rabbi Yitz岣k said: She sinned with regard to the chambers of her womb; therefore, she is afflicted in the chambers of her womb. The Gemara asks: Granted, with regard to menstruation; but with regard to a woman who was not careful in separating 岣lla and in kindling the Shabbat lights, what is there to say? Rather, it must be explained in accordance with that which that Galilean taught before Rav 岣sda. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I placed a quarter [reviit] of a log of blood in you when you were formed, and about matters of the blood of menstruation I warned you.

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