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Daf Yomi

April 8, 2020 | 讬状讚 讘谞讬住谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

Shabbat 33

Today’s daf is sponsored in memory of Shoshana Chaya bat Shlomo and Mazal z”l by her daughter Nava Flesh and by Rabbi Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in honor of the sstaff of White Plains Hospital. To the most dedicated and wonderful colleagues.

The gemara mentions all sorts of sins that cause particular punishments. Despite these connections, the gemara in the end seems to qualify this by saying that sometimes these diseases can happen for natural causes and not because of sins. Regarding a discussion about askara , the gemara gets off on a tangent and brings in the story of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his son who end up hiding in a cave for thirteen years from the Romans because of something Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai said against the Romans which was leaked to them by Yehuda son of converts who was careless and recounted the comment to others.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讚讗讻诇谉 讜诇讗 注讘讚谉 讜讻转讬讘 讛讻讬转讬 讗转讻诐 讘砖讚驻讜谉 讜讘讬专拽讜谉 讛专讘讜转 讙谞讜转讬讻诐 讜讻专诪讬讻诐 讜转讗谞讬讻诐 讜讝讬转讬讻诐 讬讗讻诇 讛讙讝诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬转专 讛讙讝诐 讗讻诇 讛讗专讘讛 讜讬转专 讛讗专讘讛 讗讻诇 讛讬诇拽 讜讬转专 讛讬诇拽 讗讻诇 讛讞住讬诇 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讙讝讜专 注诇 讬诪讬谉 讜专注讘 讜讬讗讻诇 注诇 砖诪讗诇 讜诇讗 砖讘注讜 讗讬砖 讘砖专 讝专讜注讜 讬讗讻诇讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘砖专 讝专讜注讜 讗诇讗 讘砖专 讝专注讜:


who eat and do nothing to support themselves, and cause their husbands to commit the sin of theft. And it is written: 鈥淚 have smitten you with blight and mildew; the multitude of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees has the palmerworm devoured鈥 (Amos 4:9). And it is written: 鈥淭hat which the palmerworm has left the locust has eaten; and that which the locust has left the cankerworm has eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left the caterpillar has eaten鈥 (Joel 1:4). And it is written: 鈥淎nd one snatches on the right hand, and is hungry; and he eats on the left hand, and is not satisfied; they eat every man the flesh of his own arm [besar zeroo]鈥 (Isaiah 9:19). Do not read it: The flesh of his own arm [besar zeroo]; rather, the flesh of his own offspring [besar zaro]. All the punishments for theft listed above were explicitly mentioned in the verses.


讘注讜谉 注讬谞讜讬 讛讚讬谉 讜注讬讜讜转 讛讚讬谉 讜拽诇拽讜诇 讛讚讬谉 讜讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 讞专讘 讜讘讬讝讛 专讘讛 讜讚讘专 讜讘爪讜专转 讘讗 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 砖讘注讬谉 讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 诇讞诪诐 讘诪砖拽诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讗转讬 注诇讬讻诐 讞专讘 谞讜拽诪转 谞拽诐 讘专讬转 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬谉 讘专讬转 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讘专讬转讬 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘专讬 诇讻诐 诪讟讛 诇讞诐 讜讗驻讜 注砖专 谞砖讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讬注谉 讜讘讬注谉 讘诪砖驻讟讬 诪讗住讜:


Furthermore, the Sages said that due to the sin of delay of justice, i.e., judges delay issuing their rulings due to personal considerations, and for distortion of justice, i.e., judges intentionally distort their verdicts, and for miscarriage of justice that results from negligence, and for dereliction in the study of Torah, violence and looting abound in the world, and pestilence and famine come, and people eat and are not sated, and they eat their bread measured by weight. As it is written: 鈥淎nd I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covenant; and you shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and you shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy鈥 (Leviticus 26:25). And covenant means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淚f My covenant be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth鈥 (Jeremiah 33:25). The study of Torah is the mitzva practiced both day and night. And it is written with regard to this punishment: 鈥淲hen I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied鈥 (Leviticus 26:26). And it is written: 鈥淓ven because they rejected My ordinances, and their soul abhorred My statutes鈥 (Leviticus 26:43). All of these punishments result from breaching the covenant of the Torah and the perversion of justice.


讘注讜谉 砖讘讜注转 砖讜讗 讜砖讘讜注转 砖拽专 讜讞讬诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讜讞讬诇讜诇 砖讘转 讞讬讛 专注讛 专讘讛 讜讘讛诪讛 讻诇讛 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪转诪注讟讬谉 讜讛讚专讻讬诐 诪砖转讜诪诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗诐 讘讗诇讛 诇讗 转讜住专讜 诇讬 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘讗诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讗诇讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛砖诇讞转讬 讘讻诐 讗转 讞讬转 讛砖讚讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘讜注转 砖拽专 讜诇讗 转砖讘注讜 讘砖诪讬 诇砖拽专 讜讞诇诇转 讗转 砖诐 讗诇讛讬讱 讜讘讞诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转讞诇诇讜 讗转 砖诐 拽讚砖讬 讜讘讞诇讜诇 砖讘转 讻转讬讘 诪讞诇诇讬讛 诪讜转 讬讜诪转 讜讬诇讬祝 讞讬诇讜诇 讞讬诇讜诇 诪砖讘讜注转 砖拽专:


Due to the sin of an oath taken in vain and a false oath, and desecration of God鈥檚 name, and desecration of Shabbat, wild beasts abound in the world, and domesticated animals cease to exist, and human beings decrease in number, and the roads become desolate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd if in spite of these [beeleh] things you will not be corrected unto Me, but will walk contrary unto Me casually鈥 (Leviticus 26:23). Do not read of these [beeleh]; rather, due to a vain oath [beala]. And it is written that the punishment for this is: 鈥淎nd I will send the beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your ways shall become desolate鈥 (Leviticus 26:22). And it is written with regard to a false oath: 鈥淎nd you shall not swear by My name falsely, so that you desecrate [ve岣llalta] the name of your God: I am the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:12). And it is written with regard to desecrating the name of God: 鈥淎nd you shall not desecrate [te岣llelu] My Holy Name鈥 (Leviticus 22:32). And it is written with regard to desecrating Shabbat: 鈥淓very one that desecrates it [me岣leleha] shall surely be put to death鈥 (Exodus 31:14). And derive by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava] desecration [岣llul] of Shabbat from desecration [岣llul] of a false oath. Just as punishment for a false oath is desolation and wild beasts, one receives the same punishment for desecrating Shabbat and the name of God.


讘注讜谉 砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讞专讘 讜砖讻讬谞讛 诪住转诇拽转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 转讞谞讬驻讜 讜讙讜壮 讜诇讗 转讟诪讗 讗转 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 讗转诐 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘讛 讗砖专 讗谞讬 砖讜讻谉 讘转讜讻讛 讛讗 讗转诐 诪讟诪讗讬诐 讗讜转讛 讗讬谞讻诐 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘讛 讜讗讬谞讬 砖讜讻谉 讘转讜讻讛:


Due to the sin of bloodshed, the Holy Temple is destroyed, and the Divine Presence leaves Israel, as it says: 鈥淪o you shall not pollute the land wherein you are; for blood, it pollutes the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. And you shall not defile the land which you inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the Lord dwell in the midst of the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 35:33鈥34). However, if you defile the land, you will not inhabit it, and I will not dwell in it.


讘注讜谉 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讛砖诪讟转 砖诪讬讟讬谉 讜讬讜讘诇讜转 讙诇讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讜诪讙诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 讜讘讗讬谉 讗讞专讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘诪拽讜诪谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜注讘讜转 讛讗诇 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讛讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜转讟诪讗 讛讗专抓 讜讗驻拽讜讚 注讜谞讛 注诇讬讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转拽讬讗 讛讗专抓 讗转讻诐 讘讟诪讗讻诐 讗讜转讛


Due to the sin of prohibited sexual relations, and idol worship, and failure to let the land lie fallow during the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years, exile comes to the world and they exile the Jewish people from their land, and others come and settle in their place. As it is stated with regard to illicit sexual relations: 鈥淔or all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled; that the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you鈥 (Leviticus 18:27鈥28). And it is written: 鈥淎nd the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land expelled her inhabitants鈥 (Leviticus 18:25). And it is written: 鈥淭hat the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you.鈥


讜讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讻转讬讘 讜谞转转讬 讗转 驻讙专讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛砖诪讜转讬 讗转 诪拽讚砖讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讗转讻诐 讗讝专讛 讘讙讜讬诐


And with regard to idol worship it is written: 鈥淎nd I will cast your carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols鈥 (Leviticus 26:30). And it is written: 鈥淎nd I will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors鈥 (Leviticus 26:31). 鈥淎nd you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste鈥 (Leviticus 26:33).


讘砖诪讬讟讬谉 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讻转讬讘 讗讝 转专爪讛 讛讗专抓 讗转 砖讘转讜转讬讛 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛砖诪讛 讜讗转诐 讘讗专抓 讗讜讬讘讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛砖诪讛 转砖讘讜转:


With regard to the sin of failure to observe the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years it is written: 鈥淭hen shall the land be paid her Sabbaths, as long as it lies desolate, and you are in your enemies鈥 land; even then shall the land rest, and repay her Sabbaths鈥 (Leviticus 26:34). And it is written: 鈥淎s long as it lies desolate it shall have rest; even the rest which it had not in your Sabbaths, when you dwelt upon it鈥 (Leviticus 26: 35).


讘注讜谉 谞讘诇讜转 驻讛 爪专讜转 专讘讜转 讜讙讝讬专讜转 拽砖讜转 诪转讞讚砖讜转 讜讘讞讜专讬 砖讜谞讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讬诐 讬转讜诪讬诐 讜讗诇诪谞讜转 爪讜注拽讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 注诇 讻谉 注诇 讘讞讜专讬讜 诇讗 讬砖诪讞 讛壮 讜讗转 讬转讜诪讬讜 [讜讗转] (讜)讗诇诪谞讜转讬讜 诇讗 讬专讞诐 讻讬 讻诇讜 讞谞祝 讜诪专注 讜讻诇 驻讛 讚讜讘专 谞讘诇讛 讘讻诇 讝讗转 诇讗 砖讘 讗驻讜 讜注讜讚 讬讚讜 谞讟讜讬讛


Due to the sin of vulgar speech, troubles abound, and harsh decrees are renewed, and the youth among the enemies of Israel, a euphemistic reference to Israel, die, and orphans and widows cry out for help and are not answered, as it is stated: 鈥淭herefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall He have compassion on their fatherless and widows; for everyone is ungodly and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks wantonness. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still鈥 (Isaiah 9:16).


诪讗讬 讜注讜讚 讬讚讜 谞讟讜讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛讻诇 讬讜讚注讬谉 讻诇讛 诇诪讛 谞讻谞住讛 诇讞讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛诪谞讘诇 驻讬讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讜转诪讬谉 注诇讬讜 讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 诇讟讜讘讛 讛讜驻讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 诇专注讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讛诪谞讘诇 讗转 驻讬讜 诪注诪讬拽讬谉 诇讜 讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖讜讞讛 注诪讜拽讛 驻讬 讝专讜转 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗祝 砖讜诪注 讜砖讜转拽 砖谞讗诪专 讝注讜诐 讛壮 讬驻讜诇 砖诐


The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase: But His hand is stretched out still? Rabbi 岣nan bar Rava said: Everybody knows why the bride enters the wedding canopy. There is no secret revealed. Nevertheless, anyone who speaks vulgarly about it, even if they, on High, sealed for him a decree of seventy years of good fortune, they will reverse it to bad fortune because of this sin. And Rabba bar Sheila said that Rav 岣sda said: Anyone who speaks vulgarly, they deepen Gehenna for him, as it is stated: 鈥淭he mouth that speaks perversity is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein (Proverbs 22:14), i.e., Gehenna is deepened for one who speaks vulgarly. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Even one who hears vulgar speech and is silent is punished, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein,鈥 even if he himself does not speak at all.


讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 讻诇 讛诪诪专拽 注爪诪讜 诇注讘讬专讛 讞讘讜专讜转 讜驻爪注讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讜 砖谞讗诪专 讞讘讜专讜转 驻爪注 转诪专讜拽 讘专注 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖谞讚讜谉 讘讛讚专讜拽谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪讻讜转 讞讚专讬 讘讟谉 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 住讬诪谉 诇注讘讬专讛 讛讚专讜拽谉


And in a similar vein, Rav Oshaya said: Anyone who prepares himself to commit a sin, wounds and bruises emerge on him, as it is stated: 鈥淪harp wounds for one devoted to evil; so do stripes that reach the inward parts鈥 (Proverbs 20:30). And not only that, but he is sentenced to suffer from the disease of edema [hidrokan], as it is stated: So do stripes that reach the inward parts. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: A sign indicating one who committed a sin is the disease hidrokan, which afflicts the inner parts.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讛讚专讜拽谉 讛谉 砖诇 注讘讬专讛 注讘讛 讜砖诇 专注讘 转驻讜讞 讜砖诇 讻砖驻讬诐 讚拽


The Sages taught in a baraita: There are three types of hidrokan: The one that comes as punishment for sin is thick; and that which is the result of hunger is swollen, but not as thick; and the one caused by witchcraft is thin, and the flesh of the sick person becomes thin in other places.


砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讞砖 讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讬 诪驻讬住 讗讬转住讬 讗讘讬讬 讞砖 讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讬讛 讘谞讞诪谞讬 讚诪讻驻讬谉 谞驻砖讬讛 专讘讗 讞砖 讘讬讛 讜讛讗 专讘讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 谞驻讬砖讬 拽讟讬诇讬 拽讚专 诪谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 砖讗谞讬 专讘讗 讚讗谞住讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 讘注讬讚谞讬讛 讘注诇 讻讜专讞讬讛


The Gemara relates: Shmuel HaKatan fell ill with hidrokan. He said: Master of the Universe, who will draw lots, meaning, who will be able to determine that this hidrokan is not the consequence of sin? He was cured. Abaye also fell ill with hidrokan. Rava testified and said about him: I know about Na岣ani, Abaye, that he starves himself and that his hidrokan is the result of hunger. The Gemara relates that Rava fell ill with hidrokan, and they asked: But Rava did not starve himself, and there is no reason to suspect him of sin, and we cannot say that he contracted hidrokan because he did not relieve himself on time. Rava knew to relieve himself, as it is he who said: More have been killed due to the chamber pot, because they were not careful about relieving themselves in a timely manner, than those swollen due to starvation. The Gemara answers: Rava is different because the Sages compel him to remain in place against his will while he lectures. Since he could not relieve himself, he became sick with hidrokan.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注讛 住讬诪谞讬谉 讛谉 住讬诪谉 诇注讘讬专讛 讛讚专讜拽谉 住讬诪谉 诇砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讬专拽讜谉 住讬诪谉 诇讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 注谞讬讜转 住讬诪谉 诇诇砖讜谉 讛专注 讗住讻专讛


On a related note, the Sages taught in a baraita that there are four signs: A sign of sin is hidrokan, a sign of gratuitous hatred is jaundice, a sign of arrogance is poverty, and a sign of slander is askara.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗住讻专讛 讘讗讛 诇注讜诇诐


The Sages taught: Askara comes to the world as punishment


注诇 讛诪注砖专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讜讛诪诇讱 讬砖诪讞 讘讗诇讛讬诐 讬转讛诇诇 讻诇 讛谞砖讘注 讘讜 讻讬 讬住讻专 驻讬 讚讜讘专讬 砖拽专


for neglecting to separate tithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: Askara comes as punishment for slander. Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said it: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淏ut the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped鈥 (Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. Askara affects the mouth along with other parts of the body.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 拽讗诪专 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讗祝 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 谞诪讬 拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖谞讻谞住讜 专讘讜转讬谞讜 诇讻专诐 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讬讛 砖诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 谞砖讗诇讛 砖讗诇讛 讝讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 诪讻讛 讝讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诪转讞诇转 讘讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讜讙讜诪专转 讘驻讛 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 专讗砖 讛诪讚讘专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讜讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讻诇讬讜转 讬讜注爪讜转 讜诇讘 诪讘讬谉 讜诇砖讜谉 诪讞转讱 驻讛 讙讜诪专 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讚讘专讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谞谉 诪转讜拽谞讬诐 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛


A dilemma was raised before those who were sitting in the study hall: Did Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, say that askara comes as punishment only for slander, or perhaps he said it was also for slander? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a baraita: When our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before them with regard to this plague of askara: Why does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila鈥檌, who was the head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapes the voice that emerges from the mouth, still, the mouth completes the formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said: This disease ends in the mouth because one eats with it non-kosher things. They immediately wondered about this: Does it enter your mind to say that askara is caused by eating non-kosher food? Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? Rather, it comes as a punishment for eating foods that were not ritually prepared, i.e., were not tithed. Rabbi Shimon responded and said: This disease comes as a punishment for the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah.


讗诪专讜 诇讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讜转 讗转 讘注诇讬讛谉 讙讜讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讬谉 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讬谉 讗转 讗讘讬讛谉 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讬讜讻讬讞讜


They said to him: Women will prove that dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their husbands to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Gentiles will prove that this is not the cause, as they also contract askara even though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because they cause Israel to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Children will prove that this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their fathers to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: School children will prove that this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from askara.


讛转诐 讻讚专讘讬 讙讜专讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讙讜专讬讜谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讬讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘讚讜专 爪讚讬拽讬诐 谞转驻住讬诐 注诇 讛讚讜专 讗讬谉 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘讚讜专 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 谞转驻住讬诐 注诇 讛讚讜专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讝注讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 谞讝讬专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讗诐 诇讗 转讚注讬 诇讱 讛讬驻讛 讘谞砖讬诐 爪讗讬 诇讱 讘注拽讘讬 讛爪讗谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 讙讚讬讬诐 讛诪诪讜砖讻谞讬谉 注诇 讛专讜注讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗祝 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 谞诪讬 拽讗诪专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


The Gemara answers: There, it must be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Guryon, as Rabbi Guryon said, and some say that it was Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya, who said it: At a time when there are righteous people in the generation, the righteous are seized, i.e., they die or suffer, for the sins of the generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children, who are also without sin, are seized for the sins of the generation. Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Ze鈥檌ri said, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淚f you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds鈥 tents [mishkenot]鈥 (Song of Songs 1:8). And we say in explanation of this verse: They are the lambs that are taken as collateral [hamemushkanin], which is etymologically similar to the word mishkenot, in place of the shepherds. If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, conclude from it that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said that the illness of askara also results from slander, as the baraita provides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from it.


讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 专讗砖 讛诪讚讘专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讬转讘讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬转讬讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讙专讬诐 讙讘讬讬讛讜 驻转讞 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 讻诪讛 谞讗讬诐 诪注砖讬讛谉 砖诇 讗讜诪讛 讝讜 转拽谞讜 砖讜讜拽讬诐 转拽谞讜 讙砖专讬诐 转拽谞讜 诪专讞爪讗讜转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 砖转拽 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讜讗诪专 讻诇 诪讛 砖转拽谞讜 诇讗 转拽谞讜 讗诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 注爪诪谉 转拽谞讜 砖讜讜拽讬谉 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讛谉 讝讜谞讜转 诪专讞爪讗讜转 诇注讚谉 讘讛谉 注爪诪谉 讙砖专讬诐 诇讬讟讜诇 诪讛谉 诪讻住 讛诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讙专讬诐 讜住讬驻专 讚讘专讬讛诐 讜谞砖诪注讜 诇诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专讜 讬讛讜讚讛 砖注讬诇讛 讬转注诇讛 讬讜住讬 砖砖转拽 讬讙诇讛 诇爪讬驻讜专讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讙讬谞讛 讬讛专讙


In this baraita Rabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: And why did they call him head of the speakers in every place? The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place when Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts, sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation, the Romans, as they established marketplaces, established bridges, and established bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves; and bridges, to collect taxes from all who pass over them. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statements to his household, and those statements continued to spread until they were heard by the monarchy. They ruled and said: Yehuda, who elevated the Roman regime, shall be elevated and appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. Yosei, who remained silent, shall be exiled from his home in Judea as punishment, and sent to the city of Tzippori in the Galilee. And Shimon, who denounced the government, shall be killed.


讗讝诇 讛讜讗 讜讘专讬讛 讟砖讜 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讬转讬 诇讛讜 讚讘讬转讛讜 专讬驻转讗 讜讻讜讝讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讻专讻讬 讻讬 转拽讬祝 讙讝讬专转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 谞砖讬诐 讚注转谉 拽诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讚讬诇诪讗 诪爪注专讬 诇讛 讜诪讙诇讬讗 诇谉 讗讝诇讜 讟砖讜 讘诪注专转讗 讗讬转专讞讬砖 谞讬住讗 讗讬讘专讬 诇讛讜 讞专讜讘讗 讜注讬谞讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讛讜讜 诪砖诇讞讬 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讜讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 注讚 爪讜讗专讬讬讛讜 讘讞诇讗 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讙专住讬 讘注讬讚谉 爪诇讜讬讬 诇讘砖讜 诪讬讻住讜 讜诪爪诇讜 讜讛讚专 诪砖诇讞讬 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讘诇讜 讗讬转讘讜 转专讬住专 砖谞讬 讘诪注专转讗 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讜拽诐 讗驻讬转讞讗 讚诪注专转讗 讗诪专 诪讗谉 诇讜讚注讬讛 诇讘专 讬讜讞讬 讚诪讬转 拽讬住专 讜讘讟讬诇 讙讝讬专转讬讛


Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i and his son, Rabbi Elazar, went and hid in the study hall. Every day Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 wife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified, Rabbi Shimon said to his son: Women are easily impressionable and, therefore, there is room for concern lest the authorities torture her and she reveal our whereabouts. They went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurred and a carob tree was created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sit covered in sand up to their necks. They would study Torah all day in that manner. At the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijah the Prophet came and stood at the entrance to the cave and said: Who will inform bar Yo岣i that the emperor died and his decree has been abrogated?


谞驻拽讜 讞讝讜 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讗 讻专讘讬 讜讝专注讬 讗诪专 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 注讬谞讬讛谉 诪讬讚 谞砖专祝 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛诐 诇讛讞专讬讘 注讜诇诪讬 讬爪讗转诐 讞讬讝专讜 诇诪注专转讻诐 讛讚讜专 讗讝讜诇 讗讬转讬讘讜 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诪砖驻讟 专砖注讬诐 讘讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 爪讗讜 诪诪注专转讻诐 谞驻拽讜 讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讛讜讛 诪讞讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 诪住讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 讚讬 诇注讜诇诐 讗谞讬 讜讗转讛


They emerged from the cave, and saw people who were plowing and sowing. Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i said: These people abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The Gemara relates that every place that Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar directed their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Did you emerge from the cave in order to destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again went and sat there for twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lasts for twelve months. Surely their sin was atoned in that time. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Emerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal. Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Elazar: My son, you and I suffice for the entire world, as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah.


讘讛讚讬 驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讞讝讜 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 讚讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 转专讬 诪讚讗谞讬 讗住讗 讜专讛讬讟 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛谞讬 诇诪讛 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讻讘讜讚 砖讘转 讜转讬住讙讬 诇讱 讘讞讚 讞讚 讻谞讙讚 讝讻讜专 讜讞讚 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讞讘讬讘讬谉 诪爪讜转 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讬转讬讘 讚注转讬讬讛讜


As the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat. They said to him: And let one suffice. He answered them: One is corresponding to: 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy鈥 (Exodus 20:8), and one is corresponding to: 鈥淥bserve the Shabbat day, to keep it holy鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon said to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds were put at ease and they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study.


砖诪注 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 讞转谞讬讛 讜谞驻拽 诇讗驻讬讛 注讬讬诇讬讛 诇讘讬 讘谞讬讛 讛讜讛 拽讗 讗专讬讱 诇讬讛 诇讘讬砖专讬讛 讞讝讬 讚讛讜讛 讘讬讛 驻讬诇讬 讘讙讜驻讬讛 讛讜讛 拽讗 讘讻讬 讜拽讗 谞转专讜 讚诪注转 注讬谞讬讛 讜拽诪爪讜讞讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖专讗讬转讬讱 讘讻讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讗砖专讬讱 砖专讗讬转谞讬 讘讻讱 砖讗讬诇诪诇讗 诇讗 专讗讬转谞讬 讘讻讱 诇讗 诪爪讗转 讘讬 讻讱 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪拽砖讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讛讜讛 诪驻专拽 诇讬讛 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 转专讬住专 驻讬专讜拽讬 诇住讜祝 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪拽砖讬 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 拽讜砖讬讗 讛讜讛 诪驻专拽 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 注砖专讬谉 讜讗专讘注讛 驻讬专讜拽讬


Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r, Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 son-in-law, heard and went out to greet him. He brought him into the bathhouse and began tending to his flesh. He saw that Rabbi Shimon had cracks in the skin on his body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and caused Rabbi Shimon pain. Rabbi Pine岣s said to Rabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: Woe is me, that I have seen you like this. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me this prominence in Torah, as the Gemara relates: At first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r would respond to his question with twelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would respond with twenty-four answers.


讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬转专讞讬砖 谞讬住讗 讗讬讝讬诇 讗转拽讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讬注拽讘 砖诇诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 砖诇诐 讘讙讜驻讜 砖诇诐 讘诪诪讜谞讜 砖诇诐 讘转讜专转讜 讜讬讞谉 讗转 驻谞讬 讛注讬专 讗诪专 专讘 诪讟讘注 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 砖讜讜拽讬诐 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诪专讞爪讗讜转 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讗诪专 讗讬讻讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘注讬 诇转拽讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讜讻转讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 住驻拽 讟讜诪讗讛


Rabbi Shimon said: Since a miracle transpired for me, I will go and repair something for the sake of others in gratitude for God鈥檚 kindness, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob came whole to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countenance of the city鈥 (Genesis 33:18). Rav said, the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: Whole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah. And what did he do? And he graced the countenance of the city; he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. Rav said: Jacob established a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He established bathhouses for them. In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. He said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity


Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

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Shabbat 33

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 33

讚讗讻诇谉 讜诇讗 注讘讚谉 讜讻转讬讘 讛讻讬转讬 讗转讻诐 讘砖讚驻讜谉 讜讘讬专拽讜谉 讛专讘讜转 讙谞讜转讬讻诐 讜讻专诪讬讻诐 讜转讗谞讬讻诐 讜讝讬转讬讻诐 讬讗讻诇 讛讙讝诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬转专 讛讙讝诐 讗讻诇 讛讗专讘讛 讜讬转专 讛讗专讘讛 讗讻诇 讛讬诇拽 讜讬转专 讛讬诇拽 讗讻诇 讛讞住讬诇 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讙讝讜专 注诇 讬诪讬谉 讜专注讘 讜讬讗讻诇 注诇 砖诪讗诇 讜诇讗 砖讘注讜 讗讬砖 讘砖专 讝专讜注讜 讬讗讻诇讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘砖专 讝专讜注讜 讗诇讗 讘砖专 讝专注讜:


who eat and do nothing to support themselves, and cause their husbands to commit the sin of theft. And it is written: 鈥淚 have smitten you with blight and mildew; the multitude of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig trees and your olive trees has the palmerworm devoured鈥 (Amos 4:9). And it is written: 鈥淭hat which the palmerworm has left the locust has eaten; and that which the locust has left the cankerworm has eaten; and that which the cankerworm has left the caterpillar has eaten鈥 (Joel 1:4). And it is written: 鈥淎nd one snatches on the right hand, and is hungry; and he eats on the left hand, and is not satisfied; they eat every man the flesh of his own arm [besar zeroo]鈥 (Isaiah 9:19). Do not read it: The flesh of his own arm [besar zeroo]; rather, the flesh of his own offspring [besar zaro]. All the punishments for theft listed above were explicitly mentioned in the verses.


讘注讜谉 注讬谞讜讬 讛讚讬谉 讜注讬讜讜转 讛讚讬谉 讜拽诇拽讜诇 讛讚讬谉 讜讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛 讞专讘 讜讘讬讝讛 专讘讛 讜讚讘专 讜讘爪讜专转 讘讗 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 砖讘注讬谉 讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 诇讞诪诐 讘诪砖拽诇 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讗转讬 注诇讬讻诐 讞专讘 谞讜拽诪转 谞拽诐 讘专讬转 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬谉 讘专讬转 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讘专讬转讬 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘专讬 诇讻诐 诪讟讛 诇讞诐 讜讗驻讜 注砖专 谞砖讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讬注谉 讜讘讬注谉 讘诪砖驻讟讬 诪讗住讜:


Furthermore, the Sages said that due to the sin of delay of justice, i.e., judges delay issuing their rulings due to personal considerations, and for distortion of justice, i.e., judges intentionally distort their verdicts, and for miscarriage of justice that results from negligence, and for dereliction in the study of Torah, violence and looting abound in the world, and pestilence and famine come, and people eat and are not sated, and they eat their bread measured by weight. As it is written: 鈥淎nd I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covenant; and you shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and you shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy鈥 (Leviticus 26:25). And covenant means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淚f My covenant be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth鈥 (Jeremiah 33:25). The study of Torah is the mitzva practiced both day and night. And it is written with regard to this punishment: 鈥淲hen I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied鈥 (Leviticus 26:26). And it is written: 鈥淓ven because they rejected My ordinances, and their soul abhorred My statutes鈥 (Leviticus 26:43). All of these punishments result from breaching the covenant of the Torah and the perversion of justice.


讘注讜谉 砖讘讜注转 砖讜讗 讜砖讘讜注转 砖拽专 讜讞讬诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讜讞讬诇讜诇 砖讘转 讞讬讛 专注讛 专讘讛 讜讘讛诪讛 讻诇讛 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪转诪注讟讬谉 讜讛讚专讻讬诐 诪砖转讜诪诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗诐 讘讗诇讛 诇讗 转讜住专讜 诇讬 讗诇 转拽专讬 讘讗诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讗诇讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛砖诇讞转讬 讘讻诐 讗转 讞讬转 讛砖讚讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘讜注转 砖拽专 讜诇讗 转砖讘注讜 讘砖诪讬 诇砖拽专 讜讞诇诇转 讗转 砖诐 讗诇讛讬讱 讜讘讞诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转讞诇诇讜 讗转 砖诐 拽讚砖讬 讜讘讞诇讜诇 砖讘转 讻转讬讘 诪讞诇诇讬讛 诪讜转 讬讜诪转 讜讬诇讬祝 讞讬诇讜诇 讞讬诇讜诇 诪砖讘讜注转 砖拽专:


Due to the sin of an oath taken in vain and a false oath, and desecration of God鈥檚 name, and desecration of Shabbat, wild beasts abound in the world, and domesticated animals cease to exist, and human beings decrease in number, and the roads become desolate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd if in spite of these [beeleh] things you will not be corrected unto Me, but will walk contrary unto Me casually鈥 (Leviticus 26:23). Do not read of these [beeleh]; rather, due to a vain oath [beala]. And it is written that the punishment for this is: 鈥淎nd I will send the beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your ways shall become desolate鈥 (Leviticus 26:22). And it is written with regard to a false oath: 鈥淎nd you shall not swear by My name falsely, so that you desecrate [ve岣llalta] the name of your God: I am the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:12). And it is written with regard to desecrating the name of God: 鈥淎nd you shall not desecrate [te岣llelu] My Holy Name鈥 (Leviticus 22:32). And it is written with regard to desecrating Shabbat: 鈥淓very one that desecrates it [me岣leleha] shall surely be put to death鈥 (Exodus 31:14). And derive by means of a verbal analogy [gezera shava] desecration [岣llul] of Shabbat from desecration [岣llul] of a false oath. Just as punishment for a false oath is desolation and wild beasts, one receives the same punishment for desecrating Shabbat and the name of God.


讘注讜谉 砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讞专讘 讜砖讻讬谞讛 诪住转诇拽转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 转讞谞讬驻讜 讜讙讜壮 讜诇讗 转讟诪讗 讗转 讛讗专抓 讗砖专 讗转诐 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘讛 讗砖专 讗谞讬 砖讜讻谉 讘转讜讻讛 讛讗 讗转诐 诪讟诪讗讬诐 讗讜转讛 讗讬谞讻诐 讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘讛 讜讗讬谞讬 砖讜讻谉 讘转讜讻讛:


Due to the sin of bloodshed, the Holy Temple is destroyed, and the Divine Presence leaves Israel, as it says: 鈥淪o you shall not pollute the land wherein you are; for blood, it pollutes the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. And you shall not defile the land which you inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the Lord dwell in the midst of the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 35:33鈥34). However, if you defile the land, you will not inhabit it, and I will not dwell in it.


讘注讜谉 讙诇讜讬 注专讬讜转 讜注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讛砖诪讟转 砖诪讬讟讬谉 讜讬讜讘诇讜转 讙诇讜转 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 讜诪讙诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 讜讘讗讬谉 讗讞专讬诐 讜讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘诪拽讜诪谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜注讘讜转 讛讗诇 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讛讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜转讟诪讗 讛讗专抓 讜讗驻拽讜讚 注讜谞讛 注诇讬讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜诇讗 转拽讬讗 讛讗专抓 讗转讻诐 讘讟诪讗讻诐 讗讜转讛


Due to the sin of prohibited sexual relations, and idol worship, and failure to let the land lie fallow during the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years, exile comes to the world and they exile the Jewish people from their land, and others come and settle in their place. As it is stated with regard to illicit sexual relations: 鈥淔or all these abominations have the men of the land done, that were before you, and the land is defiled; that the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you鈥 (Leviticus 18:27鈥28). And it is written: 鈥淎nd the land was defiled, therefore I did visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land expelled her inhabitants鈥 (Leviticus 18:25). And it is written: 鈥淭hat the land expel not you also, when you defile it, as it expelled the nation that was before you.鈥


讜讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讻转讬讘 讜谞转转讬 讗转 驻讙专讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛砖诪讜转讬 讗转 诪拽讚砖讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讗转讻诐 讗讝专讛 讘讙讜讬诐


And with regard to idol worship it is written: 鈥淎nd I will cast your carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols鈥 (Leviticus 26:30). And it is written: 鈥淎nd I will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors鈥 (Leviticus 26:31). 鈥淎nd you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste鈥 (Leviticus 26:33).


讘砖诪讬讟讬谉 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讻转讬讘 讗讝 转专爪讛 讛讗专抓 讗转 砖讘转讜转讬讛 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛砖诪讛 讜讗转诐 讘讗专抓 讗讜讬讘讬讻诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讻诇 讬诪讬 讛砖诪讛 转砖讘讜转:


With regard to the sin of failure to observe the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years it is written: 鈥淭hen shall the land be paid her Sabbaths, as long as it lies desolate, and you are in your enemies鈥 land; even then shall the land rest, and repay her Sabbaths鈥 (Leviticus 26:34). And it is written: 鈥淎s long as it lies desolate it shall have rest; even the rest which it had not in your Sabbaths, when you dwelt upon it鈥 (Leviticus 26: 35).


讘注讜谉 谞讘诇讜转 驻讛 爪专讜转 专讘讜转 讜讙讝讬专讜转 拽砖讜转 诪转讞讚砖讜转 讜讘讞讜专讬 砖讜谞讗讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讬诐 讬转讜诪讬诐 讜讗诇诪谞讜转 爪讜注拽讬谉 讜讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 注诇 讻谉 注诇 讘讞讜专讬讜 诇讗 讬砖诪讞 讛壮 讜讗转 讬转讜诪讬讜 [讜讗转] (讜)讗诇诪谞讜转讬讜 诇讗 讬专讞诐 讻讬 讻诇讜 讞谞祝 讜诪专注 讜讻诇 驻讛 讚讜讘专 谞讘诇讛 讘讻诇 讝讗转 诇讗 砖讘 讗驻讜 讜注讜讚 讬讚讜 谞讟讜讬讛


Due to the sin of vulgar speech, troubles abound, and harsh decrees are renewed, and the youth among the enemies of Israel, a euphemistic reference to Israel, die, and orphans and widows cry out for help and are not answered, as it is stated: 鈥淭herefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall He have compassion on their fatherless and widows; for everyone is ungodly and an evildoer, and every mouth speaks wantonness. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still鈥 (Isaiah 9:16).


诪讗讬 讜注讜讚 讬讚讜 谞讟讜讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛讻诇 讬讜讚注讬谉 讻诇讛 诇诪讛 谞讻谞住讛 诇讞讜驻讛 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛诪谞讘诇 驻讬讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讜转诪讬谉 注诇讬讜 讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 诇讟讜讘讛 讛讜驻讻讬谉 注诇讬讜 诇专注讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 讛诪谞讘诇 讗转 驻讬讜 诪注诪讬拽讬谉 诇讜 讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖讜讞讛 注诪讜拽讛 驻讬 讝专讜转 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗祝 砖讜诪注 讜砖讜转拽 砖谞讗诪专 讝注讜诐 讛壮 讬驻讜诇 砖诐


The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase: But His hand is stretched out still? Rabbi 岣nan bar Rava said: Everybody knows why the bride enters the wedding canopy. There is no secret revealed. Nevertheless, anyone who speaks vulgarly about it, even if they, on High, sealed for him a decree of seventy years of good fortune, they will reverse it to bad fortune because of this sin. And Rabba bar Sheila said that Rav 岣sda said: Anyone who speaks vulgarly, they deepen Gehenna for him, as it is stated: 鈥淭he mouth that speaks perversity is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein (Proverbs 22:14), i.e., Gehenna is deepened for one who speaks vulgarly. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Even one who hears vulgar speech and is silent is punished, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that is abhorred of the Lord shall fall therein,鈥 even if he himself does not speak at all.


讗诪专 专讘 讗讜砖注讬讗 讻诇 讛诪诪专拽 注爪诪讜 诇注讘讬专讛 讞讘讜专讜转 讜驻爪注讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讜 砖谞讗诪专 讞讘讜专讜转 驻爪注 转诪专讜拽 讘专注 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖谞讚讜谉 讘讛讚专讜拽谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪讻讜转 讞讚专讬 讘讟谉 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 住讬诪谉 诇注讘讬专讛 讛讚专讜拽谉


And in a similar vein, Rav Oshaya said: Anyone who prepares himself to commit a sin, wounds and bruises emerge on him, as it is stated: 鈥淪harp wounds for one devoted to evil; so do stripes that reach the inward parts鈥 (Proverbs 20:30). And not only that, but he is sentenced to suffer from the disease of edema [hidrokan], as it is stated: So do stripes that reach the inward parts. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: A sign indicating one who committed a sin is the disease hidrokan, which afflicts the inner parts.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讛讚专讜拽谉 讛谉 砖诇 注讘讬专讛 注讘讛 讜砖诇 专注讘 转驻讜讞 讜砖诇 讻砖驻讬诐 讚拽


The Sages taught in a baraita: There are three types of hidrokan: The one that comes as punishment for sin is thick; and that which is the result of hunger is swollen, but not as thick; and the one caused by witchcraft is thin, and the flesh of the sick person becomes thin in other places.


砖诪讜讗诇 讛拽讟谉 讞砖 讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讬 诪驻讬住 讗讬转住讬 讗讘讬讬 讞砖 讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讬讛 讘谞讞诪谞讬 讚诪讻驻讬谉 谞驻砖讬讛 专讘讗 讞砖 讘讬讛 讜讛讗 专讘讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 谞驻讬砖讬 拽讟讬诇讬 拽讚专 诪谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 砖讗谞讬 专讘讗 讚讗谞住讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 讘注讬讚谞讬讛 讘注诇 讻讜专讞讬讛


The Gemara relates: Shmuel HaKatan fell ill with hidrokan. He said: Master of the Universe, who will draw lots, meaning, who will be able to determine that this hidrokan is not the consequence of sin? He was cured. Abaye also fell ill with hidrokan. Rava testified and said about him: I know about Na岣ani, Abaye, that he starves himself and that his hidrokan is the result of hunger. The Gemara relates that Rava fell ill with hidrokan, and they asked: But Rava did not starve himself, and there is no reason to suspect him of sin, and we cannot say that he contracted hidrokan because he did not relieve himself on time. Rava knew to relieve himself, as it is he who said: More have been killed due to the chamber pot, because they were not careful about relieving themselves in a timely manner, than those swollen due to starvation. The Gemara answers: Rava is different because the Sages compel him to remain in place against his will while he lectures. Since he could not relieve himself, he became sick with hidrokan.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注讛 住讬诪谞讬谉 讛谉 住讬诪谉 诇注讘讬专讛 讛讚专讜拽谉 住讬诪谉 诇砖谞讗转 讞谞诐 讬专拽讜谉 住讬诪谉 诇讙住讜转 讛专讜讞 注谞讬讜转 住讬诪谉 诇诇砖讜谉 讛专注 讗住讻专讛


On a related note, the Sages taught in a baraita that there are four signs: A sign of sin is hidrokan, a sign of gratuitous hatred is jaundice, a sign of arrogance is poverty, and a sign of slander is askara.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗住讻专讛 讘讗讛 诇注讜诇诐


The Sages taught: Askara comes to the world as punishment


注诇 讛诪注砖专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讜讛诪诇讱 讬砖诪讞 讘讗诇讛讬诐 讬转讛诇诇 讻诇 讛谞砖讘注 讘讜 讻讬 讬住讻专 驻讬 讚讜讘专讬 砖拽专


for neglecting to separate tithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: Askara comes as punishment for slander. Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said it: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淏ut the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped鈥 (Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. Askara affects the mouth along with other parts of the body.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 拽讗诪专 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讗祝 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 谞诪讬 拽讗诪专 转讗 砖诪注 讻砖谞讻谞住讜 专讘讜转讬谞讜 诇讻专诐 讘讬讘谞讛 讛讬讛 砖诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 谞砖讗诇讛 砖讗诇讛 讝讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 诪讻讛 讝讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诪转讞诇转 讘讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讜讙讜诪专转 讘驻讛 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 专讗砖 讛诪讚讘专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讜讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讻诇讬讜转 讬讜注爪讜转 讜诇讘 诪讘讬谉 讜诇砖讜谉 诪讞转讱 驻讛 讙讜诪专 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 讟诪讗讬谉 讚讘专讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谞谉 诪转讜拽谞讬诐 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讗诪专 讘注讜谉 讘讬讟讜诇 转讜专讛


A dilemma was raised before those who were sitting in the study hall: Did Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, say that askara comes as punishment only for slander, or perhaps he said it was also for slander? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a baraita: When our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before them with regard to this plague of askara: Why does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila鈥檌, who was the head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapes the voice that emerges from the mouth, still, the mouth completes the formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said: This disease ends in the mouth because one eats with it non-kosher things. They immediately wondered about this: Does it enter your mind to say that askara is caused by eating non-kosher food? Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? Rather, it comes as a punishment for eating foods that were not ritually prepared, i.e., were not tithed. Rabbi Shimon responded and said: This disease comes as a punishment for the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah.


讗诪专讜 诇讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讜转 讗转 讘注诇讬讛谉 讙讜讬诐 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讬谉 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讬讜讻讬讞讜 砖诪讘讟诇讬谉 讗转 讗讘讬讛谉 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讬讜讻讬讞讜


They said to him: Women will prove that dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their husbands to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Gentiles will prove that this is not the cause, as they also contract askara even though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because they cause Israel to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Children will prove that this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their fathers to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: School children will prove that this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from askara.


讛转诐 讻讚专讘讬 讙讜专讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讙讜专讬讜谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讬讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘讚讜专 爪讚讬拽讬诐 谞转驻住讬诐 注诇 讛讚讜专 讗讬谉 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘讚讜专 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 谞转驻住讬诐 注诇 讛讚讜专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讝注讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 谞讝讬专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讗诐 诇讗 转讚注讬 诇讱 讛讬驻讛 讘谞砖讬诐 爪讗讬 诇讱 讘注拽讘讬 讛爪讗谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 讙讚讬讬诐 讛诪诪讜砖讻谞讬谉 注诇 讛专讜注讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讗祝 注诇 诇砖讜谉 讛专注 谞诪讬 拽讗诪专 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


The Gemara answers: There, it must be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Guryon, as Rabbi Guryon said, and some say that it was Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya, who said it: At a time when there are righteous people in the generation, the righteous are seized, i.e., they die or suffer, for the sins of the generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children, who are also without sin, are seized for the sins of the generation. Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Ze鈥檌ri said, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淚f you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds鈥 tents [mishkenot]鈥 (Song of Songs 1:8). And we say in explanation of this verse: They are the lambs that are taken as collateral [hamemushkanin], which is etymologically similar to the word mishkenot, in place of the shepherds. If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, conclude from it that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said that the illness of askara also results from slander, as the baraita provides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from it.


讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 专讗砖 讛诪讚讘专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讬转讘讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬转讬讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讙专讬诐 讙讘讬讬讛讜 驻转讞 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 讻诪讛 谞讗讬诐 诪注砖讬讛谉 砖诇 讗讜诪讛 讝讜 转拽谞讜 砖讜讜拽讬诐 转拽谞讜 讙砖专讬诐 转拽谞讜 诪专讞爪讗讜转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 砖转拽 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讜讗诪专 讻诇 诪讛 砖转拽谞讜 诇讗 转拽谞讜 讗诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 注爪诪谉 转拽谞讜 砖讜讜拽讬谉 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讛谉 讝讜谞讜转 诪专讞爪讗讜转 诇注讚谉 讘讛谉 注爪诪谉 讙砖专讬诐 诇讬讟讜诇 诪讛谉 诪讻住 讛诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讙专讬诐 讜住讬驻专 讚讘专讬讛诐 讜谞砖诪注讜 诇诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专讜 讬讛讜讚讛 砖注讬诇讛 讬转注诇讛 讬讜住讬 砖砖转拽 讬讙诇讛 诇爪讬驻讜专讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讙讬谞讛 讬讛专讙


In this baraita Rabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: And why did they call him head of the speakers in every place? The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place when Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts, sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation, the Romans, as they established marketplaces, established bridges, and established bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves; and bridges, to collect taxes from all who pass over them. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statements to his household, and those statements continued to spread until they were heard by the monarchy. They ruled and said: Yehuda, who elevated the Roman regime, shall be elevated and appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. Yosei, who remained silent, shall be exiled from his home in Judea as punishment, and sent to the city of Tzippori in the Galilee. And Shimon, who denounced the government, shall be killed.


讗讝诇 讛讜讗 讜讘专讬讛 讟砖讜 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讬转讬 诇讛讜 讚讘讬转讛讜 专讬驻转讗 讜讻讜讝讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讻专讻讬 讻讬 转拽讬祝 讙讝讬专转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 谞砖讬诐 讚注转谉 拽诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讚讬诇诪讗 诪爪注专讬 诇讛 讜诪讙诇讬讗 诇谉 讗讝诇讜 讟砖讜 讘诪注专转讗 讗讬转专讞讬砖 谞讬住讗 讗讬讘专讬 诇讛讜 讞专讜讘讗 讜注讬谞讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讛讜讜 诪砖诇讞讬 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讜讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 注讚 爪讜讗专讬讬讛讜 讘讞诇讗 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讙专住讬 讘注讬讚谉 爪诇讜讬讬 诇讘砖讜 诪讬讻住讜 讜诪爪诇讜 讜讛讚专 诪砖诇讞讬 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讘诇讜 讗讬转讘讜 转专讬住专 砖谞讬 讘诪注专转讗 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讜拽诐 讗驻讬转讞讗 讚诪注专转讗 讗诪专 诪讗谉 诇讜讚注讬讛 诇讘专 讬讜讞讬 讚诪讬转 拽讬住专 讜讘讟讬诇 讙讝讬专转讬讛


Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i and his son, Rabbi Elazar, went and hid in the study hall. Every day Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 wife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified, Rabbi Shimon said to his son: Women are easily impressionable and, therefore, there is room for concern lest the authorities torture her and she reveal our whereabouts. They went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurred and a carob tree was created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sit covered in sand up to their necks. They would study Torah all day in that manner. At the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijah the Prophet came and stood at the entrance to the cave and said: Who will inform bar Yo岣i that the emperor died and his decree has been abrogated?


谞驻拽讜 讞讝讜 讗讬谞砖讬 讚拽讗 讻专讘讬 讜讝专注讬 讗诪专 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 注讬谞讬讛谉 诪讬讚 谞砖专祝 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讛诐 诇讛讞专讬讘 注讜诇诪讬 讬爪讗转诐 讞讬讝专讜 诇诪注专转讻诐 讛讚讜专 讗讝讜诇 讗讬转讬讘讜 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诪砖驻讟 专砖注讬诐 讘讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 爪讗讜 诪诪注专转讻诐 谞驻拽讜 讻诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讛讜讛 诪讞讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 诪住讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬 讚讬 诇注讜诇诐 讗谞讬 讜讗转讛


They emerged from the cave, and saw people who were plowing and sowing. Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i said: These people abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The Gemara relates that every place that Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar directed their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Did you emerge from the cave in order to destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again went and sat there for twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lasts for twelve months. Surely their sin was atoned in that time. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Emerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal. Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Elazar: My son, you and I suffice for the entire world, as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah.


讘讛讚讬 驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讞讝讜 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 讚讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 转专讬 诪讚讗谞讬 讗住讗 讜专讛讬讟 讘讬谉 讛砖诪砖讜转 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛谞讬 诇诪讛 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讻讘讜讚 砖讘转 讜转讬住讙讬 诇讱 讘讞讚 讞讚 讻谞讙讚 讝讻讜专 讜讞讚 讻谞讙讚 砖诪讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讞讘讬讘讬谉 诪爪讜转 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讬转讬讘 讚注转讬讬讛讜


As the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat. They said to him: And let one suffice. He answered them: One is corresponding to: 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy鈥 (Exodus 20:8), and one is corresponding to: 鈥淥bserve the Shabbat day, to keep it holy鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon said to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds were put at ease and they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study.


砖诪注 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 讞转谞讬讛 讜谞驻拽 诇讗驻讬讛 注讬讬诇讬讛 诇讘讬 讘谞讬讛 讛讜讛 拽讗 讗专讬讱 诇讬讛 诇讘讬砖专讬讛 讞讝讬 讚讛讜讛 讘讬讛 驻讬诇讬 讘讙讜驻讬讛 讛讜讛 拽讗 讘讻讬 讜拽讗 谞转专讜 讚诪注转 注讬谞讬讛 讜拽诪爪讜讞讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖专讗讬转讬讱 讘讻讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讗砖专讬讱 砖专讗讬转谞讬 讘讻讱 砖讗讬诇诪诇讗 诇讗 专讗讬转谞讬 讘讻讱 诇讗 诪爪讗转 讘讬 讻讱 讚诪注讬拽专讗 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪拽砖讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 拽讜砖讬讗 讛讜讛 诪驻专拽 诇讬讛 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 转专讬住专 驻讬专讜拽讬 诇住讜祝 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪拽砖讬 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 拽讜砖讬讗 讛讜讛 诪驻专拽 诇讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 注砖专讬谉 讜讗专讘注讛 驻讬专讜拽讬


Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r, Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 son-in-law, heard and went out to greet him. He brought him into the bathhouse and began tending to his flesh. He saw that Rabbi Shimon had cracks in the skin on his body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and caused Rabbi Shimon pain. Rabbi Pine岣s said to Rabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: Woe is me, that I have seen you like this. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me this prominence in Torah, as the Gemara relates: At first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r would respond to his question with twelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would respond with twenty-four answers.


讗诪专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬转专讞讬砖 谞讬住讗 讗讬讝讬诇 讗转拽讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讬注拽讘 砖诇诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 砖诇诐 讘讙讜驻讜 砖诇诐 讘诪诪讜谞讜 砖诇诐 讘转讜专转讜 讜讬讞谉 讗转 驻谞讬 讛注讬专 讗诪专 专讘 诪讟讘注 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 砖讜讜拽讬诐 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诪专讞爪讗讜转 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 讗诪专 讗讬讻讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘注讬 诇转拽讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讜讻转讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 住驻拽 讟讜诪讗讛


Rabbi Shimon said: Since a miracle transpired for me, I will go and repair something for the sake of others in gratitude for God鈥檚 kindness, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob came whole to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countenance of the city鈥 (Genesis 33:18). Rav said, the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: Whole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah. And what did he do? And he graced the countenance of the city; he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. Rav said: Jacob established a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He established bathhouses for them. In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. He said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity


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