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Today's Daf Yomi

April 10, 2020 | ט״ז בניסן תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 35

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Aliza Avshalom in loving memory of her mother, Sara Bellehsen z”l, who lived and loved Torah and for a refuah shleima for all those worldwide who need it. This week’s shiurim are dedicated in celebration of the birthday of Rabbi Fredda Cohen with love from her family.

The opinions of Rabba and Rav Yosef regarding bein hashmashot are flipped regarding the size of a basket that is considered mukze on Shabbat and cannot be carried. Rabba has the larger size for bein hashmashot and the smaller one for the basket. The rabbis provide methods by which one could determine when exactly bein hashmashot starts and ends. They also mention where to go if one wants to see the well of Miriam that provided water for the Jews when they were in the dessert. Since rabbi Yehuda says bein hashmashot begins when the east side begins to redden – does one look for that in the East or in the West? They would blow 6 shofar blasts before Shabbat – first one for the workers in the fields, then for the workers in the city then for lighting candles or to remind people to remove their tefillin and then 3 blasts together to signal the beginning of Shabbat. A more detailed description is brought also from another braita.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

תרי תילתי מיל מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו פלגא דדנקא

it means two-thirds of a mil. The Gemara explains: What is the practical difference between them? The practical difference between them is half of one-sixth [danka], i.e., one-twelfth of a mil. Their disputes are consistent, as the duration of twilight according to Rav Yosef is shorter than its duration according to Rabba.

וחילופה בחלתא דאמר רבה חלתא בת תרי כורי שרי לטלטולה ובת תלתא כורי אסור לטלטולה ורב יוסף אמר בת תלתא כורי נמי שרי בת ארבעה כורי אסור

The Gemara comments: And with regard to the legal status of a wicker vessel their dispute is the opposite. In that case, the size of the vessel permitted by Rav Yosef is larger than the size of the vessel permitted by Rabba. As Rabba said with regard to a wicker vessel with a capacity of two kor, one is permitted to move it on Shabbat. And one with a capacity of three kor, one is prohibited to move it on Shabbat. It is much larger than the dimensions of a vessel and one is only permitted to move vessels on Shabbat. And Rav Yosef said: A vessel with a capacity of three kor, one is also permitted to move it, and only one with a capacity of four kor, it is prohibited to move.

אמר אביי בעי מיניה דמר בשעת מעשה ואפילו בת תרי כורי לא שרא לי כמאן כהאי תנא דתנן כוורת הקש וכוורת הקנים ובור ספינה אלכסנדרית אף על פי שיש להם שולים והן מחזיקות ארבעים סאה בלח שהן כוריים ביבש טהורים אמר אביי שמע מינה האי גודשא תילתא הוי

Abaye said: I raised the dilemma before my Master, Rabba, when it was practical, when I actually needed to know what to do, and he did not permit me to move even a vessel with a capacity of two kor. The Gemara explains: In accordance with whose opinion did Rabba issue his practical halakhic ruling? In accordance with the opinion of this tanna that we learned in the mishna discussing the laws of ritual purity: A round straw barrel, and a round barrel made of reeds, and the cistern of an Alexandrian ship, which is a large vessel placed on a boat and filled with potable water, although these vessels have bottoms, i.e., they are receptacles, since they have a capacity of forty se’a of liquid, which is the equivalent of two kor of dry goods, they are ritually pure. Even if they come into contact with a source of ritual impurity, they do not become impure. Beyond a certain size, containers are no longer considered vessels and, consequently, cannot become ritually impure. Rabba held: Since with regard to the halakhot of ritual impurity a vessel of two kor is not considered a vessel, it may not be moved on Shabbat. With regard to this mishna, Abaye said: Learn from it that the surplus of dry goods in a vessel relative to liquids is one-third of the contents of the vessel. It says in the mishna that a vessel that can hold forty se’a of liquid holds two kor of dry produce, which is the equivalent of sixty se’a.

אביי חזייה לרבא דקא דאוי למערב אמר ליה והתניא כל זמן שפני מזרח מאדימין אמר ליה מי סברת פני מזרח ממש לא פנים המאדימין את המזרח איכא דאמרי רבא חזייה לאביי דקא דאוי למזרח אמר ליה מי סברת פני מזרח ממש פנים המאדימין את המזרח וסימניך כוותא:

The Gemara relates: Abaye saw that Rava was gazing westward on Shabbat eve to determine whether or not the sky was red and whether or not it was twilight. Abaye said to Rava: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that twilight is from when the sun sets, as long as the eastern face of the sky is reddened by the light of the sun? Why, then, are you looking westward? Rava said to him: Do you hold that the reference is actually to the eastern face of the sky? No, it is referring to the face of the sky that causes the east to redden, i.e., the west. Some say a different version of that incident. Rava saw that Abaye was gazing eastward. He said to him, do you hold that the reference is to the actual eastern face of the sky? The reference is to the face of the sky that causes the east to redden, i.e., the west. And your mnemonic is a window, as it is on the wall opposite the window that one can see how much sunlight is shining through.

רבי נחמיה אומר כדי שיהלך אדם משתשקע החמה חצי מיל: אמר רבי חנינא הרוצה לידע שיעורו של רבי נחמיה יניח חמה בראש הכרמל וירד ויטבול בים ויעלה וזהו שיעורו של רבי נחמיה

With regard to that which was taught in the baraita that Rabbi Neḥemya says: The duration of twilight is the time it takes for a person to walk half a mil after the sun sets. Rabbi Ḥanina said: One who wants to know the precise measure of Rabbi Neḥemya’s twilight should do the following: Leave the sun at the top of Mount Carmel, as when one is standing on the seashore he can still see the top of Mount Carmel in sunlight, and descend and immerse himself in the sea, and emerge, and that is Rabbi Neḥemya’s measure of the duration of twilight.

אמר רבי חייא הרוצה לראות בארה של מרים יעלה לראש הכרמל ויצפה ויראה כמין כברה בים וזו היא בארה של מרים אמר רב מעין המיטלטל טהור וזהו בארה של מרים:

Because of its similarity to Rabbi Ḥanina’s statement, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Ḥiyya said: One who wants to see Miriam’s well, which accompanied the Jewish people throughout their sojourn in the desert, should do the following: He should climb to the top of Mount Carmel and look out, and he will see a rock that looks like a sieve in the sea, and that is Miriam’s well. Rav said: A spring that is portable, i.e., that moves from place to place, is ritually pure and is regarded as an actual spring and not as drawn water. And what is a movable spring? It is Miriam’s well.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל בין השמשות דרבי יהודה כהנים טובלין בו למאן אילימא לרבי יהודה ספקא הוא אלא בין השמשות דרבי יהודה לרבי יוסי כהנים טובלין בו

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: During Rabbi Yehuda’s twilight, ritually impure priests who want to immerse themselves during the day to become ritually pure, so that sunset will follow immersion and they will be permitted to eat teruma, can still immerse themselves during that period. According to this opinion, twilight is still considered to be day. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that true? If you say that it is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda’s own opinion, his opinion cited above is that twilight is a period of uncertainty. Therefore, one who immerses at that time may not eat teruma until after the sunset of the following day. Rather, the reference is to twilight of Rabbi Yehuda, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Priests can immerse then, as Rabbi Yosei considers that time to still be day, and sunset will follow.

פשיטא מהו דתימא בין השמשות דרבי יוסי מישך שייך בדרבי יהודה קא משמע לן דשלים בין השמשות דרבי יהודה והדר מתחיל בין השמשות דרבי יוסי

The Gemara asks: It is obvious that according to Rabbi Yosei they are immersing themselves during the day. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that the twilight of Rabbi Yosei is subsumed within and takes place at the end of the twilight of Rabbi Yehuda. When the twilight of Rabbi Yehuda ends, Rabbi Yosei’s twilight is also over. It is already night, sunset of that day has already passed, and there is no sunset to enable them to eat teruma. Therefore, he teaches us that Rabbi Yehuda’s twilight ends, and only thereafter does Rabbi Yosei’s twilight begin.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה לענין שבת והלכה כרבי יוסי לענין תרומה בשלמא הלכה כרבי יהודה לענין שבת לחומרא אבל לענין תרומה מאי היא אילימא לטבילה ספקא היא

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the matter of Shabbat, and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to the matter of teruma. The Gemara asks: Granted, concerning the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the matter of Shabbat, as like all other cases of uncertainty, the ruling is stringent with regard to Torah prohibitions. However, with regard to teruma, what is the case under discussion? If you say that it is referring to the matter of immersion, immersion is also a case of uncertainty with regard to a Torah law. Why would the ruling be more lenient in that case than in the case of Shabbat?

אלא לאכילת תרומה דלא אכלי כהנים תרומה עד דשלים בין השמשות דרבי יוסי

Rather, it must be that the reference is with regard to eating teruma. Priests may not eat teruma until twilight is completed, which according to Rabbi Yosei’s opinion is slightly later than it is according to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כוכב אחד יום שנים בין השמשות שלשה לילה תניא נמי הכי כוכב אחד יום שנים בין השמשות שלשה לילה אמר רבי יוסי לא כוכבים גדולים הנראין ביום ולא כוכבים קטנים שאין נראין אלא בלילה אלא בינונים

With regard to the period of twilight, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: When one can see one star in the evening sky, it is still day; two stars, twilight; three stars, night. That was also taught in a baraita: When one can see one star in the evening sky, it is still day; two stars, twilight; three stars, night. Rabbi Yosei said: This is neither referring to large stars that are visible even during the day, nor to small stars that are visible only late at night. Rather, it is referring to medium-sized stars.

אמר רבי יוסי ברבי זבידא העושה מלאכה בשני בין השמשות חייב חטאת ממה נפשך אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה אתון דלא קים לכו בשיעורא דרבנן אדשימשא אריש דיקלי אתלו שרגא ביום המעונן מאי במתא חזי תרנגולא בדברא עורבי אי נמי אדאני:

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Zevida, said: One who performs a prohibited labor during two twilights, one between Friday and Shabbat and one between Shabbat and the conclusion of Shabbat on Saturday night, is liable to bring a sin-offering for performing a prohibited labor on Shabbat whichever way you look at it. Whether we say that twilight is day or night, certainly one of those labors was performed on Shabbat. Rava said to his servant: You, who are not expert in the measures of the Sages, when the sun is at the top of the palm trees, light the Shabbat lights. His servant asked him: What should we do on a cloudy day, when the sun is not visible at the top of the trees? Rava said to him: In the city, watch the roosters because as evening approaches they sit on their beams. In a field, watch the ravens because they return to their nests as evening approaches. Alternatively, you can watch the plants [adanei] that turn westward in the evening. When they begin to turn westward evening is approaching.

תנו רבנן שש תקיעות תוקעין ערב שבת ראשונה להבטיל את העם ממלאכה שבשדות שניה להבטיל עיר וחנויות שלישית להדליק את הנר דברי רבי נתן רבי יהודה הנשיא אומר שלישית לחלוץ תפילין ושוהה כדי צליית דג קטן או כדי להדביק פת בתנור ותוקע ומריע ותוקע ושובת

The Sages taught in a baraita: They sound six blasts on Shabbat eve to announce that Shabbat is approaching. The Gemara details what each blast signifies. The first blast is in order to stop the people from work in the fields. The second blast is to stop those who are working in the city, and to inform the proprietors to close the stores. The third is to inform them to light the Shabbat light; that is the statement of Rabbi Natan. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The third blast is to inform those who don phylacteries throughout the day to remove their phylacteries, as one does not don phylacteries on Shabbat. And he pauses after the third blast for the length of time it takes to fry a small fish or to stick bread to the sides of the oven. One who forgot to do so and needs those foods for Shabbat may do so then. And he sounds a tekia, and sounds a terua, and sounds a tekia, and he accepts Shabbat. It is then that Shabbat begins in every sense.

אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מה נעשה להם לבבליים שתוקעין ומריעין ושובתין מתוך מריעין תוקעין ומריעין הוו להו חמשה אלא שתוקעין וחוזרין ותוקעין ומריעין ושובתין מתוך מריעין מנהג אבותיהן בידיהן

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: What shall we do to the Babylonian Jews? They stray from the custom, as they sound a tekia and a terua, and they accept Shabbat during the terua, i.e., upon hearing the blast of the terua. The Gemara asks about this: Do the Babylonians really sound only a tekia and a terua and no more blasts? If so, there are only five blasts and not six, as it was taught in the baraita. Rather, the correct version is: They sound a tekia, and they again sound a tekia, and then they sound a terua, and they accept Shabbat during the terua. They do so because they continue the custom of their fathers that was handed down to them.

מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה שניה להדליק את הנר כמאן לא כרבי נתן ולא כרבי יהודה הנשיא אלא שלישית להדליק את הנר כמאן כרבי נתן

Rav Yehuda taught to Rav Yitzḥak, his son: The second blast that is sounded before Shabbat is to inform people to light the light. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did he say this? It is neither in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan nor in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rather, certainly he told him that the third blast is in order to inform people to light the light, and in accordance with whose opinion did he say this? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan.

תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל שש תקיעות תוקעין ערב שבת התחיל לתקוע תקיעה ראשונה נמנעו העומדים בשדה מלעדור ומלחרוש ומלעשות כל מלאכה שבשדות ואין הקרובין רשאין ליכנס עד שיבואו רחוקין ויכנסו כולם כאחד ועדיין חנויות פתוחות ותריסין מונחין התחיל לתקוע תקיעה שניה נסתלקו התריסין וננעלו החנויות ועדיין חמין מונחין על גבי כירה וקדירות מונחות על גבי כירה התחיל לתקוע תקיעה שלישית סילק המסלק והטמין המטמין והדליק המדליק ושוהה כדי צליית דג קטן או כדי להדביק פת בתנור ותוקע ומריע ותוקע ושובת

On a similar note, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in greater detail: Six blasts are sounded on Shabbat eve. When one begins sounding the first tekia, the people standing and working in the fields refrained from hoeing, and from plowing and from performing all labor in the fields. And those workers who work close to the city are not permitted to enter the city until those who work farther away come, so that they will all enter together. Otherwise, people would suspect that the workers who came later continued to work after the blast. And still, at this time, the stores in the city are open and the shutters of the stores, upon which the storekeepers would arrange their merchandise in front of the stores, remain in place. When he began sounding the second blast, the shutters were removed from where they were placed and the stores were locked and in the homes, however, hot water was still cooking on the stove and pots remained in place on the stove. When he began sounding the third blast, the one charged with removing food from the stove removed it, and the one charged with insulating hot water for Shabbat so that it would not cool off insulated it, and the one charged with kindling the Shabbat lights lit. And the one sounding the shofar pauses for the amount of time it takes to fry a small fish or to stick bread to the sides of the oven, and he sounds a tekia, and sounds a terua, and sounds a tekia, and accepts Shabbat.

אמר רבי יוסי (בר) חנינא שמעתי שאם בא להדליק אחר שש תקיעות מדליק שהרי נתנו חכמים שיעור לחזן הכנסת להוליך שופרו לביתו אמר לו אם כן נתת דבריך לשיעורין אלא מקום צנוע יש לו לחזן הכנסת בראש גגו ששם מניח שופרו לפי שאין מטלטלין לא את השופר ולא את החצוצרות

Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina, said: I heard that a person who was pressed for time and comes to light Shabbat lights after six blasts may light without concern, as even the moment of the sixth blast is not yet Shabbat. Proof for this is that the Sages provided the sexton of the synagogue a period of time to take his shofar, which he used to sound the blasts on a tall roof in the middle of the city, to his house. Clearly, during that interval it is not yet Shabbat. He said to him: If so, then you have rendered your statement subject to circumstances, and it would not apply uniformly to all. Shabbat would start at a different time in each place based on the distance between the site where the shofar is sounded and the home of the sexton. Rather, Shabbat began immediately after the final blast with no pause in between. The sexton had a concealed place on top of his roof, where he would sound the shofar, in which he would place his shofar because the consensus is that one may move neither the shofar nor the trumpets on Shabbat.

והתניא שופר מיטלטל וחצוצרות אינם מיטלטלין אמר רב (יוסי) לא קשיא כאן ביחיד כאן בצבור אמר ליה אביי וביחיד למאי חזי הואיל וראוי לגמע בו מים

The Gemara asks with regard to this last halakha: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that the shofar may be moved on Shabbat, and the trumpets may not be moved? Rav Yosei said: This is not difficult, as one could say that here, where moving a shofar was permitted, it is referring to a shofar belonging to an individual. Because it has a use even on Shabbat, it may be moved. There, where moving a shofar was prohibited, it is referring to a shofar that belongs to a community. Because it has no use on Shabbat, it is, therefore, considered set-aside [muktze]. Abaye said to him: And in the case of an individual, for what permitted action is a shofar fit to be used on Shabbat? It is fit for use since it is suitable to give water with it

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 35

תרי תילתי מיל מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו פלגא דדנקא

it means two-thirds of a mil. The Gemara explains: What is the practical difference between them? The practical difference between them is half of one-sixth [danka], i.e., one-twelfth of a mil. Their disputes are consistent, as the duration of twilight according to Rav Yosef is shorter than its duration according to Rabba.

וחילופה בחלתא דאמר רבה חלתא בת תרי כורי שרי לטלטולה ובת תלתא כורי אסור לטלטולה ורב יוסף אמר בת תלתא כורי נמי שרי בת ארבעה כורי אסור

The Gemara comments: And with regard to the legal status of a wicker vessel their dispute is the opposite. In that case, the size of the vessel permitted by Rav Yosef is larger than the size of the vessel permitted by Rabba. As Rabba said with regard to a wicker vessel with a capacity of two kor, one is permitted to move it on Shabbat. And one with a capacity of three kor, one is prohibited to move it on Shabbat. It is much larger than the dimensions of a vessel and one is only permitted to move vessels on Shabbat. And Rav Yosef said: A vessel with a capacity of three kor, one is also permitted to move it, and only one with a capacity of four kor, it is prohibited to move.

אמר אביי בעי מיניה דמר בשעת מעשה ואפילו בת תרי כורי לא שרא לי כמאן כהאי תנא דתנן כוורת הקש וכוורת הקנים ובור ספינה אלכסנדרית אף על פי שיש להם שולים והן מחזיקות ארבעים סאה בלח שהן כוריים ביבש טהורים אמר אביי שמע מינה האי גודשא תילתא הוי

Abaye said: I raised the dilemma before my Master, Rabba, when it was practical, when I actually needed to know what to do, and he did not permit me to move even a vessel with a capacity of two kor. The Gemara explains: In accordance with whose opinion did Rabba issue his practical halakhic ruling? In accordance with the opinion of this tanna that we learned in the mishna discussing the laws of ritual purity: A round straw barrel, and a round barrel made of reeds, and the cistern of an Alexandrian ship, which is a large vessel placed on a boat and filled with potable water, although these vessels have bottoms, i.e., they are receptacles, since they have a capacity of forty se’a of liquid, which is the equivalent of two kor of dry goods, they are ritually pure. Even if they come into contact with a source of ritual impurity, they do not become impure. Beyond a certain size, containers are no longer considered vessels and, consequently, cannot become ritually impure. Rabba held: Since with regard to the halakhot of ritual impurity a vessel of two kor is not considered a vessel, it may not be moved on Shabbat. With regard to this mishna, Abaye said: Learn from it that the surplus of dry goods in a vessel relative to liquids is one-third of the contents of the vessel. It says in the mishna that a vessel that can hold forty se’a of liquid holds two kor of dry produce, which is the equivalent of sixty se’a.

אביי חזייה לרבא דקא דאוי למערב אמר ליה והתניא כל זמן שפני מזרח מאדימין אמר ליה מי סברת פני מזרח ממש לא פנים המאדימין את המזרח איכא דאמרי רבא חזייה לאביי דקא דאוי למזרח אמר ליה מי סברת פני מזרח ממש פנים המאדימין את המזרח וסימניך כוותא:

The Gemara relates: Abaye saw that Rava was gazing westward on Shabbat eve to determine whether or not the sky was red and whether or not it was twilight. Abaye said to Rava: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that twilight is from when the sun sets, as long as the eastern face of the sky is reddened by the light of the sun? Why, then, are you looking westward? Rava said to him: Do you hold that the reference is actually to the eastern face of the sky? No, it is referring to the face of the sky that causes the east to redden, i.e., the west. Some say a different version of that incident. Rava saw that Abaye was gazing eastward. He said to him, do you hold that the reference is to the actual eastern face of the sky? The reference is to the face of the sky that causes the east to redden, i.e., the west. And your mnemonic is a window, as it is on the wall opposite the window that one can see how much sunlight is shining through.

רבי נחמיה אומר כדי שיהלך אדם משתשקע החמה חצי מיל: אמר רבי חנינא הרוצה לידע שיעורו של רבי נחמיה יניח חמה בראש הכרמל וירד ויטבול בים ויעלה וזהו שיעורו של רבי נחמיה

With regard to that which was taught in the baraita that Rabbi Neḥemya says: The duration of twilight is the time it takes for a person to walk half a mil after the sun sets. Rabbi Ḥanina said: One who wants to know the precise measure of Rabbi Neḥemya’s twilight should do the following: Leave the sun at the top of Mount Carmel, as when one is standing on the seashore he can still see the top of Mount Carmel in sunlight, and descend and immerse himself in the sea, and emerge, and that is Rabbi Neḥemya’s measure of the duration of twilight.

אמר רבי חייא הרוצה לראות בארה של מרים יעלה לראש הכרמל ויצפה ויראה כמין כברה בים וזו היא בארה של מרים אמר רב מעין המיטלטל טהור וזהו בארה של מרים:

Because of its similarity to Rabbi Ḥanina’s statement, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Ḥiyya said: One who wants to see Miriam’s well, which accompanied the Jewish people throughout their sojourn in the desert, should do the following: He should climb to the top of Mount Carmel and look out, and he will see a rock that looks like a sieve in the sea, and that is Miriam’s well. Rav said: A spring that is portable, i.e., that moves from place to place, is ritually pure and is regarded as an actual spring and not as drawn water. And what is a movable spring? It is Miriam’s well.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל בין השמשות דרבי יהודה כהנים טובלין בו למאן אילימא לרבי יהודה ספקא הוא אלא בין השמשות דרבי יהודה לרבי יוסי כהנים טובלין בו

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: During Rabbi Yehuda’s twilight, ritually impure priests who want to immerse themselves during the day to become ritually pure, so that sunset will follow immersion and they will be permitted to eat teruma, can still immerse themselves during that period. According to this opinion, twilight is still considered to be day. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that true? If you say that it is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda’s own opinion, his opinion cited above is that twilight is a period of uncertainty. Therefore, one who immerses at that time may not eat teruma until after the sunset of the following day. Rather, the reference is to twilight of Rabbi Yehuda, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Priests can immerse then, as Rabbi Yosei considers that time to still be day, and sunset will follow.

פשיטא מהו דתימא בין השמשות דרבי יוסי מישך שייך בדרבי יהודה קא משמע לן דשלים בין השמשות דרבי יהודה והדר מתחיל בין השמשות דרבי יוסי

The Gemara asks: It is obvious that according to Rabbi Yosei they are immersing themselves during the day. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that the twilight of Rabbi Yosei is subsumed within and takes place at the end of the twilight of Rabbi Yehuda. When the twilight of Rabbi Yehuda ends, Rabbi Yosei’s twilight is also over. It is already night, sunset of that day has already passed, and there is no sunset to enable them to eat teruma. Therefore, he teaches us that Rabbi Yehuda’s twilight ends, and only thereafter does Rabbi Yosei’s twilight begin.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה לענין שבת והלכה כרבי יוסי לענין תרומה בשלמא הלכה כרבי יהודה לענין שבת לחומרא אבל לענין תרומה מאי היא אילימא לטבילה ספקא היא

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the matter of Shabbat, and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to the matter of teruma. The Gemara asks: Granted, concerning the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the matter of Shabbat, as like all other cases of uncertainty, the ruling is stringent with regard to Torah prohibitions. However, with regard to teruma, what is the case under discussion? If you say that it is referring to the matter of immersion, immersion is also a case of uncertainty with regard to a Torah law. Why would the ruling be more lenient in that case than in the case of Shabbat?

אלא לאכילת תרומה דלא אכלי כהנים תרומה עד דשלים בין השמשות דרבי יוסי

Rather, it must be that the reference is with regard to eating teruma. Priests may not eat teruma until twilight is completed, which according to Rabbi Yosei’s opinion is slightly later than it is according to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כוכב אחד יום שנים בין השמשות שלשה לילה תניא נמי הכי כוכב אחד יום שנים בין השמשות שלשה לילה אמר רבי יוסי לא כוכבים גדולים הנראין ביום ולא כוכבים קטנים שאין נראין אלא בלילה אלא בינונים

With regard to the period of twilight, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: When one can see one star in the evening sky, it is still day; two stars, twilight; three stars, night. That was also taught in a baraita: When one can see one star in the evening sky, it is still day; two stars, twilight; three stars, night. Rabbi Yosei said: This is neither referring to large stars that are visible even during the day, nor to small stars that are visible only late at night. Rather, it is referring to medium-sized stars.

אמר רבי יוסי ברבי זבידא העושה מלאכה בשני בין השמשות חייב חטאת ממה נפשך אמר ליה רבא לשמעיה אתון דלא קים לכו בשיעורא דרבנן אדשימשא אריש דיקלי אתלו שרגא ביום המעונן מאי במתא חזי תרנגולא בדברא עורבי אי נמי אדאני:

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Zevida, said: One who performs a prohibited labor during two twilights, one between Friday and Shabbat and one between Shabbat and the conclusion of Shabbat on Saturday night, is liable to bring a sin-offering for performing a prohibited labor on Shabbat whichever way you look at it. Whether we say that twilight is day or night, certainly one of those labors was performed on Shabbat. Rava said to his servant: You, who are not expert in the measures of the Sages, when the sun is at the top of the palm trees, light the Shabbat lights. His servant asked him: What should we do on a cloudy day, when the sun is not visible at the top of the trees? Rava said to him: In the city, watch the roosters because as evening approaches they sit on their beams. In a field, watch the ravens because they return to their nests as evening approaches. Alternatively, you can watch the plants [adanei] that turn westward in the evening. When they begin to turn westward evening is approaching.

תנו רבנן שש תקיעות תוקעין ערב שבת ראשונה להבטיל את העם ממלאכה שבשדות שניה להבטיל עיר וחנויות שלישית להדליק את הנר דברי רבי נתן רבי יהודה הנשיא אומר שלישית לחלוץ תפילין ושוהה כדי צליית דג קטן או כדי להדביק פת בתנור ותוקע ומריע ותוקע ושובת

The Sages taught in a baraita: They sound six blasts on Shabbat eve to announce that Shabbat is approaching. The Gemara details what each blast signifies. The first blast is in order to stop the people from work in the fields. The second blast is to stop those who are working in the city, and to inform the proprietors to close the stores. The third is to inform them to light the Shabbat light; that is the statement of Rabbi Natan. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The third blast is to inform those who don phylacteries throughout the day to remove their phylacteries, as one does not don phylacteries on Shabbat. And he pauses after the third blast for the length of time it takes to fry a small fish or to stick bread to the sides of the oven. One who forgot to do so and needs those foods for Shabbat may do so then. And he sounds a tekia, and sounds a terua, and sounds a tekia, and he accepts Shabbat. It is then that Shabbat begins in every sense.

אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מה נעשה להם לבבליים שתוקעין ומריעין ושובתין מתוך מריעין תוקעין ומריעין הוו להו חמשה אלא שתוקעין וחוזרין ותוקעין ומריעין ושובתין מתוך מריעין מנהג אבותיהן בידיהן

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: What shall we do to the Babylonian Jews? They stray from the custom, as they sound a tekia and a terua, and they accept Shabbat during the terua, i.e., upon hearing the blast of the terua. The Gemara asks about this: Do the Babylonians really sound only a tekia and a terua and no more blasts? If so, there are only five blasts and not six, as it was taught in the baraita. Rather, the correct version is: They sound a tekia, and they again sound a tekia, and then they sound a terua, and they accept Shabbat during the terua. They do so because they continue the custom of their fathers that was handed down to them.

מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה שניה להדליק את הנר כמאן לא כרבי נתן ולא כרבי יהודה הנשיא אלא שלישית להדליק את הנר כמאן כרבי נתן

Rav Yehuda taught to Rav Yitzḥak, his son: The second blast that is sounded before Shabbat is to inform people to light the light. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did he say this? It is neither in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan nor in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rather, certainly he told him that the third blast is in order to inform people to light the light, and in accordance with whose opinion did he say this? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan.

תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל שש תקיעות תוקעין ערב שבת התחיל לתקוע תקיעה ראשונה נמנעו העומדים בשדה מלעדור ומלחרוש ומלעשות כל מלאכה שבשדות ואין הקרובין רשאין ליכנס עד שיבואו רחוקין ויכנסו כולם כאחד ועדיין חנויות פתוחות ותריסין מונחין התחיל לתקוע תקיעה שניה נסתלקו התריסין וננעלו החנויות ועדיין חמין מונחין על גבי כירה וקדירות מונחות על גבי כירה התחיל לתקוע תקיעה שלישית סילק המסלק והטמין המטמין והדליק המדליק ושוהה כדי צליית דג קטן או כדי להדביק פת בתנור ותוקע ומריע ותוקע ושובת

On a similar note, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in greater detail: Six blasts are sounded on Shabbat eve. When one begins sounding the first tekia, the people standing and working in the fields refrained from hoeing, and from plowing and from performing all labor in the fields. And those workers who work close to the city are not permitted to enter the city until those who work farther away come, so that they will all enter together. Otherwise, people would suspect that the workers who came later continued to work after the blast. And still, at this time, the stores in the city are open and the shutters of the stores, upon which the storekeepers would arrange their merchandise in front of the stores, remain in place. When he began sounding the second blast, the shutters were removed from where they were placed and the stores were locked and in the homes, however, hot water was still cooking on the stove and pots remained in place on the stove. When he began sounding the third blast, the one charged with removing food from the stove removed it, and the one charged with insulating hot water for Shabbat so that it would not cool off insulated it, and the one charged with kindling the Shabbat lights lit. And the one sounding the shofar pauses for the amount of time it takes to fry a small fish or to stick bread to the sides of the oven, and he sounds a tekia, and sounds a terua, and sounds a tekia, and accepts Shabbat.

אמר רבי יוסי (בר) חנינא שמעתי שאם בא להדליק אחר שש תקיעות מדליק שהרי נתנו חכמים שיעור לחזן הכנסת להוליך שופרו לביתו אמר לו אם כן נתת דבריך לשיעורין אלא מקום צנוע יש לו לחזן הכנסת בראש גגו ששם מניח שופרו לפי שאין מטלטלין לא את השופר ולא את החצוצרות

Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina, said: I heard that a person who was pressed for time and comes to light Shabbat lights after six blasts may light without concern, as even the moment of the sixth blast is not yet Shabbat. Proof for this is that the Sages provided the sexton of the synagogue a period of time to take his shofar, which he used to sound the blasts on a tall roof in the middle of the city, to his house. Clearly, during that interval it is not yet Shabbat. He said to him: If so, then you have rendered your statement subject to circumstances, and it would not apply uniformly to all. Shabbat would start at a different time in each place based on the distance between the site where the shofar is sounded and the home of the sexton. Rather, Shabbat began immediately after the final blast with no pause in between. The sexton had a concealed place on top of his roof, where he would sound the shofar, in which he would place his shofar because the consensus is that one may move neither the shofar nor the trumpets on Shabbat.

והתניא שופר מיטלטל וחצוצרות אינם מיטלטלין אמר רב (יוסי) לא קשיא כאן ביחיד כאן בצבור אמר ליה אביי וביחיד למאי חזי הואיל וראוי לגמע בו מים

The Gemara asks with regard to this last halakha: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that the shofar may be moved on Shabbat, and the trumpets may not be moved? Rav Yosei said: This is not difficult, as one could say that here, where moving a shofar was permitted, it is referring to a shofar belonging to an individual. Because it has a use even on Shabbat, it may be moved. There, where moving a shofar was prohibited, it is referring to a shofar that belongs to a community. Because it has no use on Shabbat, it is, therefore, considered set-aside [muktze]. Abaye said to him: And in the case of an individual, for what permitted action is a shofar fit to be used on Shabbat? It is fit for use since it is suitable to give water with it

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