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Today's Daf Yomi

April 29, 2020 | 讛壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 54

The mishna and gemara deal with items that animals are not allowed to go out with in public on Shabbat. Different items are forbidden for different reasons. The gemara explains the reality of each of the cases mentioned in the mishna. The mishna says that the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria would go out with a strap between its horns and the rabbis were not pleased. The gemara explains that this wasn’t his cow but his neighbor’s cow and it was considered his since he could have rebuked her, but didn’t. The gemara begins to discuss the importance of rebuking others and the issue of communal responsibility.

砖讬转 讝讜谞讛 讜谞爪讜专转 诇讘:

with the attire of a harlot [shit zona] and wily of heart鈥 (Proverbs 7:10). She岣zot can be interpreted as an acronym of the words shit zona, attire of a harlot, with the letters tav and 岣t, which are similar in form, interchanged.

讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讻讘讜诇讜转: 诪讗讬 讻讘讜诇讜转 砖诪讻讘诇讬谉 讗诇讬讛 砖诇讛谉 诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 注诇讬讛谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讻讘讜诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 驻讬专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讛注专讬诐 [讛讗诇讛] 讗砖专 谞转转 诇讬 讗讞讬 讜讬拽专讗 (诇讛谉) 讗专抓 讻讘讜诇 注讚 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛

We learned in the mishna: Ewes may go out kevulot. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kevulot? It means that they bind their tails down with animal hide so that the males will not mount them. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this word kavul is a term meaning does not produce fruit? As it is written, when Solomon gave a portion of land to Hiram, he complained: 鈥淲hat cities are these which you have given me, my brother? And he called them the land of Kavul to this day鈥 (I Kings 9:13).

诪讗讬 讗专抓 讻讘讜诇 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖诪讻讜讘诇讬谉 讘讻住祝 讜讘讝讛讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 (讻讬 诇讗) 讬砖专讜 讘注讬谞讬讜 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讻讜讘诇讬谉 讘讻住祝 讜讘讝讛讘 诇讗 讬砖专讜 讘注讬谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬专讬 讜诪驻谞拽讬 诇讗 注讘讚讬 注讘讬讚转讗

What is the meaning of the land of Kavul? Rav Huna said: That the people living there were bound [mekhubalin] and surrounded by silver and gold. Rava said to him: If so, is that what is written: 鈥淎nd Hiram came out of Tyre to see the cities which Solomon had given him, and they pleased him not鈥 (I Kings 9:12)? Because the people there were bound in silver and gold, the cities were not pleasing in his eyes? Rav Huna said to him: Yes, indeed, it was precisely the abundant wealth that displeased Hiram. Since the people were wealthy and delicate, they did not perform labor. Hiram was seeking people whom he could enlist in the service of the king.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗专抓 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讛讬转讛 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讻讘讜诇 讚诪砖转专讙讗 讘讛 讻专注讗 注讚 讻讘诇讗 讜讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗专注讗 诪讻讘诇讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚 驻讬专讬:

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It was a sandy [岣mton] expanse of land. And why was it called Kavul? It is because the leg sinks into it up to the ankle [kavla]. And people say in describing poor quality land: Land that is bound [mekhabela] shut, i.e., that does not produce fruit.

讻讘讜谞讜转: 诪讗讬 讻讘讜谞讜转 砖诪讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇诪讬诇转 讻讚转谞谉 砖讗转 讻爪诪专 诇讘谉 诪讗讬 爪诪专 诇讘谉 讗诪专 专讘 讘讬讘讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 讻爪诪专 谞拽讬 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 砖诪讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇诪讬诇转:

We learned in the mishna: Ewes may go out kevunot. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kevunot? It is that they covered [mekhabnin] the animal to produce fine wool. Sheep were wrapped in cloth from the day they were born so that their wool would remain perfectly clean and it could be used in fashioning especially fine wool garments. As we learned in a mishna: The color of a leprous sore [se鈥檈t] is like that of white wool. The Gemara asked: What is white wool? Rav Beivai bar Abaye said: Like the clean wool of a newborn lamb, which they cover from birth to produce fine wool.

讜讛注讝讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 爪专讜专讜转: 讗讬转诪专 专讘 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬

Our mishna continues: And the she-goats may go out with their udders bound. Rabbi Yosei prohibits doing so. Rabbi Yehuda distinguishes between a case where the udders were bound to dry the milk supply and a case where they were bound to conserve the milk. It was stated that the amora鈥檌m disagreed with regard to the ruling in this dispute: Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 砖诪注转讗 讘讗驻讬 谞驻砖讬讛 专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讘砖 诪讜转专 讜诇讗 诇讞诇讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讗住讜专

And there are those who teach this halakha independent of the mishna. Rav said: If the udders were bound to dry the milk supply it is permitted, and not if they were bound to conserve the milk. And Shmuel said: Both this and that are prohibited.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗讛讗 注讝讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 爪专讜专讜转 诇讬讘砖 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讞诇讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讗诪专讜 讻讱 讛诇讻讛 讗讘诇 诪讬 诪驻讬住 讗讬讝讜 诇讬讘砖 讜讗讬讝讜 诇讞诇讘 讜诪转讜讱 砖讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讗住讜专 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻转谞讗 拽诪讗:

And there are those who taught this dispute with regard to this baraita: Goats may go out with their udders bound to dry the milk supply but not to conserve the milk. In the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira they said: That is the halakha, based on the letter of the law, but who can cast lots to determine by sight alone which udder is bound to dry the milk supply and which was bound to conserve the milk? And since one cannot distinguish between them, the Sages said: Both this and that are prohibited. Shmuel said, and some say Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. In terms of practical halakha, according to all versions of the disagreement, Shmuel holds that it is prohibited in both cases. When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the anonymous first tanna of the mishna. He permits goats to go out with their udders bound in all cases.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讘诪讛 讗讬谞讛 讬讜爪讗讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 诇讗 注拽讜讚 讜诇讗 专讙讜诇 讜讻谉 砖讗专 讻诇 讛讘讛诪讜转

MISHNA: And with what may an animal not go out into the public domain on Shabbat? A camel may not go out with a saddlecloth, nor may it go out akud or ragul, which are different ways of tying its legs together, as will be explained in the Gemara. And likewise, tying all other animals in those manners is prohibited.

诇讗 讬拽砖讜专 讙诪诇讬诐 讝讛 讘讝讛 讜讬诪砖讜讱 讗讘诇 诪讻谞讬住 讞讘诇讬诐 诇转讜讱 讬讚讜 讜讬诪砖讜讱 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讻专讜讱:

And likewise, one may not tie camels one to the other and pull the lead camel, thereby pulling the others after it. However, he may place the ropes tied to each of the camels in his hand and pull them all, provided that he does not intertwine the ropes.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 诇讜 讘讝谞讘讜 讗讘诇 讬讜爪讗 讛讜讗 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 讘讝谞讘讜 讜讘讞讜讟专转讜 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬讜爪讗 讛讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 诇讛 讘砖讬诇讬讬转讛:

GEMARA: It was taught in the Tosefta: A camel may not go out with a saddlecloth tied to its tail alone. However, it may go out with a saddlecloth tied to both its tail and its hump, as in that case one can assume that the saddlecloth will not fall off. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: A female camel may go out with a saddlecloth tied to its afterbirth. Because any movement of the saddlecloth will cause pain, the animal will not attempt to detach it. Therefore, there is no room for concern lest it fall.

诇讗 注拽讜讚 讜诇讗 专讙讜诇: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讻讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专

We learned in the mishna: A camel may not go out akud or ragul. Rav Yehuda said: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg are bound together, similar to the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham, with regard to whom the term vaya鈥檃kod is employed. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it. That was done so that the camel would have the use of only three legs and would be unable to run away.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注拽讜讚 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讜砖转讬 专讙诇讬诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讗讜 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讜砖转讬 专讙诇讬诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it. The Gemara answers: Rav Yehuda holds in accordance with this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita: Akud means that either the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg or its two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it.

讜讗讻转讬 诇讗 讚诪讬 讘砖诇诪讗 专讬砖讗 讜住讬驻讗 谞讬讞讗 诪爪讬注转讗 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: And this baraita and Rav Yehuda鈥檚 statement are still not the same. Granted, the first clause, the first case of akud, and the last clause, the case of ragul, work out well. The baraita and the opinion of Rav Yehuda correspond. However, the middle clause is difficult. According to the baraita, when the animal鈥檚 two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together, that is also considered akud, contrary to Rav Yehuda鈥檚 opinion.

讗诇讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讻讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专:

Rather, Rav Yehuda stated his opinion in accordance with this tanna, who said in a baraita: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg are bound together, similar to the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it.

讜诇讗 讬拽砖讜专 讙诪诇讬诐: 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 诇讞讬谞讙讗:

We learned in the mishna: And one may not tie camels one to the other and pull the lead camel, thereby pulling the others after it. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Rav Ashi said: Because he appears like one going to the market [岣nga] to sell merchandise or to deliver a caravan of camels. In deference to Shabbat, one may not create that impression.

讗讘诇 诪讻谞讬住: 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇注谞讬谉 讻诇讗讬诐 讻诇讗讬诐 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讗讚诐 讜讛转谞谉 讗讚诐 诪讜转专 注诐 讻讜诇诐 诇讞专讜砖 讜诇诪砖讜讱

The mishna continues: However, he may place the ropes tied to each of the camels in his hand and pull them all, provided that he does not intertwine the ropes. Rav Ashi said: This prohibition was taught not with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat but only with regard to the halakhot of prohibited mixtures of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: Diverse kinds of what? If you say that it is referring to the prohibited mixture of the diverse kinds of man and animal, i.e., a person may not be tied to an animal, just as plowing with the diverse kinds of an ox and a donkey is prohibited, that is difficult. Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: A person is permitted to plow and to pull a wagon together with all animals, as the prohibition is limited to diverse kinds of animals?

讗诇讗 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛转讜讻祝 转讻讬驻讛 讗讞转 讗讬谞讛 讞讬讘讜专

Rather, the problem here is one of diverse kinds of ropes. If one rope is made of wool and another of linen, it is prohibited to intertwine them because that would create a forbidden mixture of the diverse kinds of wool and linen. However, this too is difficult, as, wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: One who attaches a swatch of wool and a swatch of linen with a single stitch or knot, it is not considered a connection with regard to the prohibition of diverse kinds? All the more so in this case, where the ropes are not tied together at all but are merely intertwined, it should not be considered a connection.

诇注讜诇诐 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讻专讜讱 讜讬拽砖讜专

The Gemara answers: Actually, the problem here is one of diverse kinds of ropes, and the mishna is saying as follows: Provided that he does not intertwine the ropes and tie them together. Ropes that are intertwined and tied together constitute a double knot, which is considered a connection with regard to the prohibition of diverse kinds of wool and linen.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬爪讗 [讞讘诇] 诪转讞转 讬讚讜 讟驻讞 讜讛讗 转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞讬讬诐

Shmuel said that there is another restriction that applies to pulling camels with ropes on Shabbat. It is only permitted provided that a handbreadth of the rope does not hang below his hand to avoid the appearance that he is carrying a rope in his hand on Shabbat. The Gemara raises an objection: Didn鈥檛 a Sage of the school of Shmuel teach a baraita: Provided that two handbreadths of the rope do not hang below his hand?

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛砖转讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞 讜转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞讬讬诐 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 诇诪注砖讛 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪注讬谞谉

Abaye said: Now that Shmuel said one handbreadth, and a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught two handbreadths, it is reasonable to conclude that Shmuel came to teach us the practical halakha. Even though the tanna鈥檌m permitted pulling the camel as long as there is less than two handbreadths of rope hanging below his hand, in practice, one should be stringent and not leave even one handbreadth hanging.

讜讛转谞讬讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖讬讙讘讬讛 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讘诇讗 讚讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬:

The Gemara raises an objection: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: This is only permitted provided that he raises the rope one handbreadth from the ground? Apparently, there is no restriction with regard to the length of rope that may hang below the person鈥檚 hand. The Gemara answers: When this baraita was taught, it was taught with regard to the length of rope between the camel and the person holding it. That part of the rope may not sag to the ground; rather, it must be raised at least one handbreadth so that it is clear that the rope is attached to the camel.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 讞诪讜专 讬讜爪讗 讘诪专讚注转 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讛 拽砖讜专讛 诇讜 讜诇讗 讘讝讜讙 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讗 驻拽讜拽 讜诇讗 讘住讜诇诐 砖讘爪讜讗专讜 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讜

MISHNA: This mishna lists additional objects with which an animal may not go out into the public domain on Shabbat: A donkey may neither go out with the saddlecloth when it is not tied to its back, nor with a bell even if it is plugged to prevent it from ringing, nor with a ladder that is around its neck, nor with a strap that is around its leg.

讜讗讬谉 讛转专谞讙讜诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讞讜讟讬谉 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘注讙诇讛 砖转讞转 讛讗诇讬讛 砖诇讛谉

And the roosters may not go out with strings and not with a strap on their feet, which are tied there as a sign of ownership. And the rams may not go out with a small wagon under their tails, as it was common practice to put a small wagon under the tails of grown sheep so that the tail would not be injured by dragging on the ground.

讜讗讬谉 讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讞谞讜谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 讛注讙诇 讬讜爪讗 讘讙讬诪讜谉 讜诇讗 驻专讛 讘注讜专 讛拽讜驻专 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛 驻专转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讬讜爪讗讛 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐:

And ewes may not go out 岣nunot, nor may a calf go out with a gimon, nor may a cow go out with the skin of a hedgehog [kupar], nor with a strap between its horns. The mishna relates that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 cow would go out on Shabbat with a strap between its horns, contrary to the will of the Sages.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讚讗诪专谉:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that a donkey may not go out on Shabbat with a saddlecloth if it was not tied to its back. The Gemara explains: What is the reason? As we stated above, there is room for concern that when not secured, the saddlecloth is liable to fall off the animal鈥檚 back, and its owner may come to retrieve the saddlecloth in the public domain.

讜诇讗 讘讝讜讙 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讗 驻拽讜拽: 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 诇讞讬谞讙讗:

We also learned in the mishna: A donkey may not go out with a bell even if it is plugged to prevent it from ringing. The reason is that the animal鈥檚 owner appears like one going to the market, who adorns his donkey with bells in honor of market day.

讜诇讗 讘住讜诇诐 砖讘爪讜讗专讜: 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘讬 诇讜注讗 诇诪讗讬 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 诪讻讛 讚诇讗 讛讚专 讞讬讬讱 讘讬讛:

It was also taught in the mishna: Nor with a ladder that is around its neck. Rav Huna said: This refers to a device tied to the jaw. For what purpose does the owner do so to the animal? For a circumstance in which the animal has a wound, so that it does not chafe it again and exacerbate the wound.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讜: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讙讬讝专讗:

The mishna continues: Nor with a strap that is around its leg. The Gemara explains: What purpose does this strap serve? The owner does so to the animal to protect its strides. If its legs are slightly bent so that they knock against each other when the animal walks, a strap is tied there to prevent injury.

讜讗讬谉 讛转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讞讜讟讬谉: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 住讬诪谞讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讞诇驻讜:

We learned further in the mishna: And the roosters may not go out with strings. For what purpose does the owner place the strings? He does so to the roosters as a sign indicating to whom they belong, so that they will not be confused with other roosters.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讘专讜 诪讗谞讬: 讜讗讬谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘注讙诇讛: 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讞诪讟谉 讗诇讬讬转讬讛:

The mishna continues: Nor with a strap on their feet. The Gemara explains that the owner does so to the roosters so that they will not break vessels. When their legs are tied, they jump around less and cause less damage. The mishna teaches: Rams may not go out with a small wagon under their tails. The Gemara explains that these wagons were placed there in order that their tails will not be injured.

讜讗讬谉 讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讞谞讜谞讜转: 讬转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 注讜诇讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬转讬讘 讜拽讗诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讙讜讝讝讬谉 讗讜转讛 讟讜诪谞讬谉 诇讛 注讝拽 讘砖诪谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 注诇 驻讚讞转讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转爪讟谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讬转讛 诪专 注讜拽讘讗

The mishna teaches: And ewes may not go out 岣nunot. The Gemara relates that Rav A岣 bar Ulla sat before Rav 岣sda and he sat and he said: From when they shear the wool off the animal, they soak a soft swatch of wool or some other material in oil and place it on the animal鈥檚 forehead so that it will not catch cold until its wool grows back. 岣nunot refers to animals with those swatches. Rav 岣sda said to him: If so, you turned the animal into the Exilarch, Mar Ukva. That is treatment fit for him, not for a shorn sheep.

讗诇讗 讬转讬讘 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬转讬讘 讜拽讗诪专 讘砖注讛 砖讻讜专注转 诇讬诇讚 讟讜诪谞讬谉 诇讛 砖谞讬 注讝拽讬谉 砖诇 砖诪谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 讗讞讚 注诇 驻讚讞转讛 讜讗讞讚 注诇 讛专讞诐 讻讚讬 砖转转讞诪诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讬转讛 讬诇转讗

Rather, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel sat before Rav 岣sda, and he sat and he said: At the time that the animal crouches to give birth, those tending to the animal soak two swatches of wool in oil, and place one on the animal鈥檚 forehead and the other on its womb so that it will be warmed. 岣nunot refers to animals with those swatches. Rav Na岣an said to him: If so, you turned the animal into Yalta, my wife, who descended from the house of the Exilarch. That is treatment fit for her, not for an animal.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注抓 讗讞讚 讬砖 讘讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讜讞谞讜谉 砖诪讜 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 拽讬住诐 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 讘讞讜讟诪讛 讻讚讬 砖转转注讟砖 讜讬驻诇讜 讚专谞讬 专讗砖讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 讝讻专讬诐 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚诪谞讙讞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讘讛讚讚讬 诪诪讬诇讗 谞驻诇谉 砖诪注讜谉 谞讝讬专讗 讗诪专 拽讬住诪讗 讚专讬转诪讗

Rather, Rav Huna said: There is a certain tree in the cities on the sea shore, and 岣nun is its name. Those tending to the animal bring a wood chip from the tree and place it in the animal鈥檚 nose so that it will sneeze and the worms on its head will fall. The Gemara asks: If so, not only ewes but also rams should be given this treatment. The Gemara answers: Since the rams butt heads with each other, the worms fall in any event. Shimon the Nazirite said: 岣nunot is referring to animals into whose nose the chip of a broom tree would be placed.

讘砖诇诪讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚拽转谞讬 讞谞讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讞谞讜谞讜转 讚注讘讚讬谞谉 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讚诪专讞诪讬谞谉 注诇讬讬讛讜:

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the explanation of Rav Huna that it is the chip taken from the 岣nun tree, that is why the mishna teaches the halakha employing the term 岣nunot. However, according to the explanations proposed by the other Sages, what is the reason that the mishna employed the term 岣nunot? The Gemara explains: Because we do something to the animals that indicates that we have mercy on them; hanunot in the sense of merciful.

讜讗讬谉 讛注讙诇 讬讜爪讗 讘讙讬诪讜谉: 诪讗讬 注讙诇 讘讙讬诪讜谉 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 谞讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讙讬诪讜谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讬讻祝 讚讻转讬讘 讛诇讻讜祝 讻讗讙诪讜谉 专讗砖讜:

We learned in the mishna: And a calf may not go out on Shabbat with a gimon. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: A calf with a gimon? Rav Huna said: A small yoke is placed on the calf in order to train it from an early age to bear a yoke. Rabbi Elazar said: From where is it inferred that this term gimon is a term of bending? As it is written: 鈥淚s it to bow down his head like a bulrush [agmon]鈥 (Isaiah 58:5). There is an etymological similarity between the words gimon and agmon.

讜诇讗 驻专讛 讘注讜专 讛拽讜驻专: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇诪爪讬讜讛 讬讗诇讬:

The mishna continues: And a cow may not go out on Shabbat with the skin of a hedgehog placed over its udder. The Gemara explains that the owner does this to the cow so that creeping animals will not suckle from it.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛: 讗讬 诇专讘 (讚讗诪专) 讘讬谉 诇谞讜讬 讘讬谉 诇砖诪专 讗住讜专 讗讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 (讚讗诪专) 诇谞讜讬 讗住讜专 诇砖诪专 诪讜转专:

It was also taught in the mishna: And not with a strap that is between its horns. The Gemara notes: If this is explained according to the opinion of Rav, whether the strap was intended as an ornament or whether it was intended to secure the animal, it is prohibited for the cow to go out into the public domain with it. If this is explained according to the opinion of Shmuel, if the strap was intended as an ornament, it is prohibited; if it was intended to secure the animal, it is permitted.

驻专转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛: 讜讞讚讗 驻专讛 讛讜讬讗 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 转专讬住专 讗诇驻讬 注讙诇讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 诪注讚专讬讛 讻诇 砖转讗 讜砖转讗

The mishna relates that the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya would go out on Shabbat with a strap between its horns, contrary to the will of the Sages. The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya have only one cow? Didn鈥檛 Rav say, and some say that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya would tithe from his herds 12,000 calves each and every year? There were 120, 000 calves born in his herds annually. There is no way, then, to speak of the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.

转谞讗 诇讗 砖诇讜 讛讬转讛 讗诇讗 砖诇 砖讻讬谞转讜 讛讬转讛 讜诪转讜讱 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讛 讘讛 谞拽专讗转 注诇 砖诪讜

The Gemara answers: It was taught in the Tosefta: The cow was not his; rather, it was his neighbor鈥檚. And because he did not protest her conduct and tell her that doing so is prohibited the cow was called by his name to his discredit, as if it were his.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘 讞讘讬讘讗 诪转谞讜 讘讻讜诇讬讛 讚住讚专 诪讜注讚 讻诇 讻讬 讛讗讬 讝讜讙讗 讞诇讜驻讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诪注讬讬诇 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讻诇 诪讬 砖讗驻砖专 诇诪讞讜转 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讛 谞转驻住 注诇 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讘讗谞砖讬 注讬专讜 谞转驻住 注诇 讗谞砖讬 注讬专讜 讘讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞转驻住 注诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

It was related that Rav, and Rabbi 岣nina, and Rabbi Yo岣nan, and Rav 岣viva taught the statement cited below. The Gemara comments: Throughout the order of Moed, wherever this pair of Sages is mentioned, exchange Rabbi Yo岣nan and insert Rabbi Yonatan in his place. In any event, they said: Anyone who had the capability to effectively protest the sinful conduct of the members of his household and did not protest, he himself is apprehended for the sins of the members of his household and punished. If he is in a position to protest the sinful conduct of the people of his town, and he fails to do so, he is apprehended for the sins of the people of his town. If he is in a position to protest the sinful conduct of the whole world, and he fails to do so, he is apprehended for the sins of the whole world.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛谞讬 讚讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 谞转驻住讜 注诇 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 讘诪砖驻讟 讬讘讗 注诐 讝拽谞讬 注诪讜 讜砖专讬讜 讗诐 砖专讬诐 讞讟讗讜

Rav Pappa said: And the members of the household of the Exilarch were apprehended and punished for the sins of the whole world. Because their authority extends across the entire Jewish world, it is in their hands to ensure that nobody commit a transgression. As indicated by that which Rabbi 岣nina said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he Lord will enter into judgment with the Elders of His people and its princes, saying: It is you who have eaten up the vineyard; the robbery of the poor is in your houses鈥 (Isaiah 3:14)? The question arises: If the princes sinned by committing robbery,

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

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Shabbat 54

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Shabbat 54

砖讬转 讝讜谞讛 讜谞爪讜专转 诇讘:

with the attire of a harlot [shit zona] and wily of heart鈥 (Proverbs 7:10). She岣zot can be interpreted as an acronym of the words shit zona, attire of a harlot, with the letters tav and 岣t, which are similar in form, interchanged.

讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讻讘讜诇讜转: 诪讗讬 讻讘讜诇讜转 砖诪讻讘诇讬谉 讗诇讬讛 砖诇讛谉 诇诪讟讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 注诇讬讛谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讻讘讜诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诇讗 注讘讬讚 驻讬专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讛注专讬诐 [讛讗诇讛] 讗砖专 谞转转 诇讬 讗讞讬 讜讬拽专讗 (诇讛谉) 讗专抓 讻讘讜诇 注讚 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛

We learned in the mishna: Ewes may go out kevulot. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kevulot? It means that they bind their tails down with animal hide so that the males will not mount them. The Gemara explains: From where may it be inferred that this word kavul is a term meaning does not produce fruit? As it is written, when Solomon gave a portion of land to Hiram, he complained: 鈥淲hat cities are these which you have given me, my brother? And he called them the land of Kavul to this day鈥 (I Kings 9:13).

诪讗讬 讗专抓 讻讘讜诇 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖诪讻讜讘诇讬谉 讘讻住祝 讜讘讝讛讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 (讻讬 诇讗) 讬砖专讜 讘注讬谞讬讜 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讻讜讘诇讬谉 讘讻住祝 讜讘讝讛讘 诇讗 讬砖专讜 讘注讬谞讬讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬专讬 讜诪驻谞拽讬 诇讗 注讘讚讬 注讘讬讚转讗

What is the meaning of the land of Kavul? Rav Huna said: That the people living there were bound [mekhubalin] and surrounded by silver and gold. Rava said to him: If so, is that what is written: 鈥淎nd Hiram came out of Tyre to see the cities which Solomon had given him, and they pleased him not鈥 (I Kings 9:12)? Because the people there were bound in silver and gold, the cities were not pleasing in his eyes? Rav Huna said to him: Yes, indeed, it was precisely the abundant wealth that displeased Hiram. Since the people were wealthy and delicate, they did not perform labor. Hiram was seeking people whom he could enlist in the service of the king.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗专抓 讞讜诪讟讜谉 讛讬转讛 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讻讘讜诇 讚诪砖转专讙讗 讘讛 讻专注讗 注讚 讻讘诇讗 讜讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗专注讗 诪讻讘诇讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚 驻讬专讬:

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: It was a sandy [岣mton] expanse of land. And why was it called Kavul? It is because the leg sinks into it up to the ankle [kavla]. And people say in describing poor quality land: Land that is bound [mekhabela] shut, i.e., that does not produce fruit.

讻讘讜谞讜转: 诪讗讬 讻讘讜谞讜转 砖诪讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇诪讬诇转 讻讚转谞谉 砖讗转 讻爪诪专 诇讘谉 诪讗讬 爪诪专 诇讘谉 讗诪专 专讘 讘讬讘讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 讻爪诪专 谞拽讬 讘谉 讬讜诪讜 砖诪讻讘谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇诪讬诇转:

We learned in the mishna: Ewes may go out kevunot. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of kevunot? It is that they covered [mekhabnin] the animal to produce fine wool. Sheep were wrapped in cloth from the day they were born so that their wool would remain perfectly clean and it could be used in fashioning especially fine wool garments. As we learned in a mishna: The color of a leprous sore [se鈥檈t] is like that of white wool. The Gemara asked: What is white wool? Rav Beivai bar Abaye said: Like the clean wool of a newborn lamb, which they cover from birth to produce fine wool.

讜讛注讝讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 爪专讜专讜转: 讗讬转诪专 专讘 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬

Our mishna continues: And the she-goats may go out with their udders bound. Rabbi Yosei prohibits doing so. Rabbi Yehuda distinguishes between a case where the udders were bound to dry the milk supply and a case where they were bound to conserve the milk. It was stated that the amora鈥檌m disagreed with regard to the ruling in this dispute: Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 砖诪注转讗 讘讗驻讬 谞驻砖讬讛 专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讘砖 诪讜转专 讜诇讗 诇讞诇讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讗住讜专

And there are those who teach this halakha independent of the mishna. Rav said: If the udders were bound to dry the milk supply it is permitted, and not if they were bound to conserve the milk. And Shmuel said: Both this and that are prohibited.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗讛讗 注讝讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 爪专讜专讜转 诇讬讘砖 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇讞诇讘 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讗诪专讜 讻讱 讛诇讻讛 讗讘诇 诪讬 诪驻讬住 讗讬讝讜 诇讬讘砖 讜讗讬讝讜 诇讞诇讘 讜诪转讜讱 砖讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 讗住讜专 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻转谞讗 拽诪讗:

And there are those who taught this dispute with regard to this baraita: Goats may go out with their udders bound to dry the milk supply but not to conserve the milk. In the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira they said: That is the halakha, based on the letter of the law, but who can cast lots to determine by sight alone which udder is bound to dry the milk supply and which was bound to conserve the milk? And since one cannot distinguish between them, the Sages said: Both this and that are prohibited. Shmuel said, and some say Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. In terms of practical halakha, according to all versions of the disagreement, Shmuel holds that it is prohibited in both cases. When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the anonymous first tanna of the mishna. He permits goats to go out with their udders bound in all cases.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讘诪讛 讗讬谞讛 讬讜爪讗讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 诇讗 注拽讜讚 讜诇讗 专讙讜诇 讜讻谉 砖讗专 讻诇 讛讘讛诪讜转

MISHNA: And with what may an animal not go out into the public domain on Shabbat? A camel may not go out with a saddlecloth, nor may it go out akud or ragul, which are different ways of tying its legs together, as will be explained in the Gemara. And likewise, tying all other animals in those manners is prohibited.

诇讗 讬拽砖讜专 讙诪诇讬诐 讝讛 讘讝讛 讜讬诪砖讜讱 讗讘诇 诪讻谞讬住 讞讘诇讬诐 诇转讜讱 讬讚讜 讜讬诪砖讜讱 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讻专讜讱:

And likewise, one may not tie camels one to the other and pull the lead camel, thereby pulling the others after it. However, he may place the ropes tied to each of the camels in his hand and pull them all, provided that he does not intertwine the ropes.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 诇讜 讘讝谞讘讜 讗讘诇 讬讜爪讗 讛讜讗 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 讘讝谞讘讜 讜讘讞讜讟专转讜 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬讜爪讗 讛讙诪诇 讘诪讟讜诇讟诇转 讛拽砖讜专讛 诇讛 讘砖讬诇讬讬转讛:

GEMARA: It was taught in the Tosefta: A camel may not go out with a saddlecloth tied to its tail alone. However, it may go out with a saddlecloth tied to both its tail and its hump, as in that case one can assume that the saddlecloth will not fall off. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: A female camel may go out with a saddlecloth tied to its afterbirth. Because any movement of the saddlecloth will cause pain, the animal will not attempt to detach it. Therefore, there is no room for concern lest it fall.

诇讗 注拽讜讚 讜诇讗 专讙讜诇: 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讻讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专

We learned in the mishna: A camel may not go out akud or ragul. Rav Yehuda said: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg are bound together, similar to the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham, with regard to whom the term vaya鈥檃kod is employed. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it. That was done so that the camel would have the use of only three legs and would be unable to run away.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注拽讜讚 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讜砖转讬 专讙诇讬诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讗讜 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讜砖转讬 专讙诇讬诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it. The Gemara answers: Rav Yehuda holds in accordance with this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita: Akud means that either the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg or its two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it.

讜讗讻转讬 诇讗 讚诪讬 讘砖诇诪讗 专讬砖讗 讜住讬驻讗 谞讬讞讗 诪爪讬注转讗 拽砖讬讗

The Gemara asks: And this baraita and Rav Yehuda鈥檚 statement are still not the same. Granted, the first clause, the first case of akud, and the last clause, the case of ragul, work out well. The baraita and the opinion of Rav Yehuda correspond. However, the middle clause is difficult. According to the baraita, when the animal鈥檚 two forelegs and two hind legs are bound together, that is also considered akud, contrary to Rav Yehuda鈥檚 opinion.

讗诇讗 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 注拽讜讚 注拽讬讚转 讬讚 讜专讙诇 讻讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 专讙讜诇 砖诇讗 讬讻讜祝 讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讝专讜注讜 讜讬拽砖讜专:

Rather, Rav Yehuda stated his opinion in accordance with this tanna, who said in a baraita: Akud means that the animal鈥檚 foreleg and hind leg are bound together, similar to the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham. Ragul means that one may not bend the lower part of the foreleg onto the upper foreleg and tie it.

讜诇讗 讬拽砖讜专 讙诪诇讬诐: 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 诇讞讬谞讙讗:

We learned in the mishna: And one may not tie camels one to the other and pull the lead camel, thereby pulling the others after it. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Rav Ashi said: Because he appears like one going to the market [岣nga] to sell merchandise or to deliver a caravan of camels. In deference to Shabbat, one may not create that impression.

讗讘诇 诪讻谞讬住: 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇注谞讬谉 讻诇讗讬诐 讻诇讗讬诐 讚诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讗讚诐 讜讛转谞谉 讗讚诐 诪讜转专 注诐 讻讜诇诐 诇讞专讜砖 讜诇诪砖讜讱

The mishna continues: However, he may place the ropes tied to each of the camels in his hand and pull them all, provided that he does not intertwine the ropes. Rav Ashi said: This prohibition was taught not with regard to the halakhot of Shabbat but only with regard to the halakhot of prohibited mixtures of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: Diverse kinds of what? If you say that it is referring to the prohibited mixture of the diverse kinds of man and animal, i.e., a person may not be tied to an animal, just as plowing with the diverse kinds of an ox and a donkey is prohibited, that is difficult. Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: A person is permitted to plow and to pull a wagon together with all animals, as the prohibition is limited to diverse kinds of animals?

讗诇讗 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛转讜讻祝 转讻讬驻讛 讗讞转 讗讬谞讛 讞讬讘讜专

Rather, the problem here is one of diverse kinds of ropes. If one rope is made of wool and another of linen, it is prohibited to intertwine them because that would create a forbidden mixture of the diverse kinds of wool and linen. However, this too is difficult, as, wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: One who attaches a swatch of wool and a swatch of linen with a single stitch or knot, it is not considered a connection with regard to the prohibition of diverse kinds? All the more so in this case, where the ropes are not tied together at all but are merely intertwined, it should not be considered a connection.

诇注讜诇诐 讻诇讗讬诐 讚讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讻专讜讱 讜讬拽砖讜专

The Gemara answers: Actually, the problem here is one of diverse kinds of ropes, and the mishna is saying as follows: Provided that he does not intertwine the ropes and tie them together. Ropes that are intertwined and tied together constitute a double knot, which is considered a connection with regard to the prohibition of diverse kinds of wool and linen.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬爪讗 [讞讘诇] 诪转讞转 讬讚讜 讟驻讞 讜讛讗 转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞讬讬诐

Shmuel said that there is another restriction that applies to pulling camels with ropes on Shabbat. It is only permitted provided that a handbreadth of the rope does not hang below his hand to avoid the appearance that he is carrying a rope in his hand on Shabbat. The Gemara raises an objection: Didn鈥檛 a Sage of the school of Shmuel teach a baraita: Provided that two handbreadths of the rope do not hang below his hand?

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛砖转讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞 讜转谞讗 讚讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讟驻讞讬讬诐 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 诇诪注砖讛 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪注讬谞谉

Abaye said: Now that Shmuel said one handbreadth, and a Sage of the school of Shmuel taught two handbreadths, it is reasonable to conclude that Shmuel came to teach us the practical halakha. Even though the tanna鈥檌m permitted pulling the camel as long as there is less than two handbreadths of rope hanging below his hand, in practice, one should be stringent and not leave even one handbreadth hanging.

讜讛转谞讬讗 讜讘诇讘讚 砖讬讙讘讬讛 诪谉 讛拽专拽注 讟驻讞 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讘诇讗 讚讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬:

The Gemara raises an objection: Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: This is only permitted provided that he raises the rope one handbreadth from the ground? Apparently, there is no restriction with regard to the length of rope that may hang below the person鈥檚 hand. The Gemara answers: When this baraita was taught, it was taught with regard to the length of rope between the camel and the person holding it. That part of the rope may not sag to the ground; rather, it must be raised at least one handbreadth so that it is clear that the rope is attached to the camel.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 讞诪讜专 讬讜爪讗 讘诪专讚注转 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讛 拽砖讜专讛 诇讜 讜诇讗 讘讝讜讙 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讗 驻拽讜拽 讜诇讗 讘住讜诇诐 砖讘爪讜讗专讜 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讜

MISHNA: This mishna lists additional objects with which an animal may not go out into the public domain on Shabbat: A donkey may neither go out with the saddlecloth when it is not tied to its back, nor with a bell even if it is plugged to prevent it from ringing, nor with a ladder that is around its neck, nor with a strap that is around its leg.

讜讗讬谉 讛转专谞讙讜诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讞讜讟讬谉 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讬讛诐 讜讗讬谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘注讙诇讛 砖转讞转 讛讗诇讬讛 砖诇讛谉

And the roosters may not go out with strings and not with a strap on their feet, which are tied there as a sign of ownership. And the rams may not go out with a small wagon under their tails, as it was common practice to put a small wagon under the tails of grown sheep so that the tail would not be injured by dragging on the ground.

讜讗讬谉 讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讞谞讜谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 讛注讙诇 讬讜爪讗 讘讙讬诪讜谉 讜诇讗 驻专讛 讘注讜专 讛拽讜驻专 讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛 驻专转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讛讬转讛 讬讜爪讗讛 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐:

And ewes may not go out 岣nunot, nor may a calf go out with a gimon, nor may a cow go out with the skin of a hedgehog [kupar], nor with a strap between its horns. The mishna relates that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 cow would go out on Shabbat with a strap between its horns, contrary to the will of the Sages.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讚讗诪专谉:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that a donkey may not go out on Shabbat with a saddlecloth if it was not tied to its back. The Gemara explains: What is the reason? As we stated above, there is room for concern that when not secured, the saddlecloth is liable to fall off the animal鈥檚 back, and its owner may come to retrieve the saddlecloth in the public domain.

讜诇讗 讘讝讜讙 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讗 驻拽讜拽: 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讝讬诇 诇讞讬谞讙讗:

We also learned in the mishna: A donkey may not go out with a bell even if it is plugged to prevent it from ringing. The reason is that the animal鈥檚 owner appears like one going to the market, who adorns his donkey with bells in honor of market day.

讜诇讗 讘住讜诇诐 砖讘爪讜讗专讜: 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘讬 诇讜注讗 诇诪讗讬 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 诪讻讛 讚诇讗 讛讚专 讞讬讬讱 讘讬讛:

It was also taught in the mishna: Nor with a ladder that is around its neck. Rav Huna said: This refers to a device tied to the jaw. For what purpose does the owner do so to the animal? For a circumstance in which the animal has a wound, so that it does not chafe it again and exacerbate the wound.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘专讙诇讜: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讙讬讝专讗:

The mishna continues: Nor with a strap that is around its leg. The Gemara explains: What purpose does this strap serve? The owner does so to the animal to protect its strides. If its legs are slightly bent so that they knock against each other when the animal walks, a strap is tied there to prevent injury.

讜讗讬谉 讛转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘讞讜讟讬谉: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 住讬诪谞讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讞诇驻讜:

We learned further in the mishna: And the roosters may not go out with strings. For what purpose does the owner place the strings? He does so to the roosters as a sign indicating to whom they belong, so that they will not be confused with other roosters.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬转讘专讜 诪讗谞讬: 讜讗讬谉 讛讝讻专讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘注讙诇讛: 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讞诪讟谉 讗诇讬讬转讬讛:

The mishna continues: Nor with a strap on their feet. The Gemara explains that the owner does so to the roosters so that they will not break vessels. When their legs are tied, they jump around less and cause less damage. The mishna teaches: Rams may not go out with a small wagon under their tails. The Gemara explains that these wagons were placed there in order that their tails will not be injured.

讜讗讬谉 讛专讞诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讞谞讜谞讜转: 讬转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 注讜诇讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬转讬讘 讜拽讗诪专 诪砖注讛 砖讙讜讝讝讬谉 讗讜转讛 讟讜诪谞讬谉 诇讛 注讝拽 讘砖诪谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 注诇 驻讚讞转讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转爪讟谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讬转讛 诪专 注讜拽讘讗

The mishna teaches: And ewes may not go out 岣nunot. The Gemara relates that Rav A岣 bar Ulla sat before Rav 岣sda and he sat and he said: From when they shear the wool off the animal, they soak a soft swatch of wool or some other material in oil and place it on the animal鈥檚 forehead so that it will not catch cold until its wool grows back. 岣nunot refers to animals with those swatches. Rav 岣sda said to him: If so, you turned the animal into the Exilarch, Mar Ukva. That is treatment fit for him, not for a shorn sheep.

讗诇讗 讬转讬讘 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬转讬讘 讜拽讗诪专 讘砖注讛 砖讻讜专注转 诇讬诇讚 讟讜诪谞讬谉 诇讛 砖谞讬 注讝拽讬谉 砖诇 砖诪谉 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 讗讞讚 注诇 驻讚讞转讛 讜讗讞讚 注诇 讛专讞诐 讻讚讬 砖转转讞诪诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诐 讻谉 注砖讬转讛 讬诇转讗

Rather, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel sat before Rav 岣sda, and he sat and he said: At the time that the animal crouches to give birth, those tending to the animal soak two swatches of wool in oil, and place one on the animal鈥檚 forehead and the other on its womb so that it will be warmed. 岣nunot refers to animals with those swatches. Rav Na岣an said to him: If so, you turned the animal into Yalta, my wife, who descended from the house of the Exilarch. That is treatment fit for her, not for an animal.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注抓 讗讞讚 讬砖 讘讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讜讞谞讜谉 砖诪讜 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 拽讬住诐 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 诇讛 讘讞讜讟诪讛 讻讚讬 砖转转注讟砖 讜讬驻诇讜 讚专谞讬 专讗砖讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 讝讻专讬诐 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚诪谞讙讞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讘讛讚讚讬 诪诪讬诇讗 谞驻诇谉 砖诪注讜谉 谞讝讬专讗 讗诪专 拽讬住诪讗 讚专讬转诪讗

Rather, Rav Huna said: There is a certain tree in the cities on the sea shore, and 岣nun is its name. Those tending to the animal bring a wood chip from the tree and place it in the animal鈥檚 nose so that it will sneeze and the worms on its head will fall. The Gemara asks: If so, not only ewes but also rams should be given this treatment. The Gemara answers: Since the rams butt heads with each other, the worms fall in any event. Shimon the Nazirite said: 岣nunot is referring to animals into whose nose the chip of a broom tree would be placed.

讘砖诇诪讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚拽转谞讬 讞谞讜谞讜转 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讞谞讜谞讜转 讚注讘讚讬谞谉 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讚诪专讞诪讬谞谉 注诇讬讬讛讜:

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the explanation of Rav Huna that it is the chip taken from the 岣nun tree, that is why the mishna teaches the halakha employing the term 岣nunot. However, according to the explanations proposed by the other Sages, what is the reason that the mishna employed the term 岣nunot? The Gemara explains: Because we do something to the animals that indicates that we have mercy on them; hanunot in the sense of merciful.

讜讗讬谉 讛注讙诇 讬讜爪讗 讘讙讬诪讜谉: 诪讗讬 注讙诇 讘讙讬诪讜谉 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 谞讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讙讬诪讜谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚诪讬讻祝 讚讻转讬讘 讛诇讻讜祝 讻讗讙诪讜谉 专讗砖讜:

We learned in the mishna: And a calf may not go out on Shabbat with a gimon. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: A calf with a gimon? Rav Huna said: A small yoke is placed on the calf in order to train it from an early age to bear a yoke. Rabbi Elazar said: From where is it inferred that this term gimon is a term of bending? As it is written: 鈥淚s it to bow down his head like a bulrush [agmon]鈥 (Isaiah 58:5). There is an etymological similarity between the words gimon and agmon.

讜诇讗 驻专讛 讘注讜专 讛拽讜驻专: 讚注讘讚讬 诇讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇诪爪讬讜讛 讬讗诇讬:

The mishna continues: And a cow may not go out on Shabbat with the skin of a hedgehog placed over its udder. The Gemara explains that the owner does this to the cow so that creeping animals will not suckle from it.

讜诇讗 讘专爪讜注讛 砖讘讬谉 拽专谞讬讛: 讗讬 诇专讘 (讚讗诪专) 讘讬谉 诇谞讜讬 讘讬谉 诇砖诪专 讗住讜专 讗讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 (讚讗诪专) 诇谞讜讬 讗住讜专 诇砖诪专 诪讜转专:

It was also taught in the mishna: And not with a strap that is between its horns. The Gemara notes: If this is explained according to the opinion of Rav, whether the strap was intended as an ornament or whether it was intended to secure the animal, it is prohibited for the cow to go out into the public domain with it. If this is explained according to the opinion of Shmuel, if the strap was intended as an ornament, it is prohibited; if it was intended to secure the animal, it is permitted.

驻专转讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛: 讜讞讚讗 驻专讛 讛讜讬讗 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 转专讬住专 讗诇驻讬 注讙诇讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 诪注讚专讬讛 讻诇 砖转讗 讜砖转讗

The mishna relates that the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya would go out on Shabbat with a strap between its horns, contrary to the will of the Sages. The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya have only one cow? Didn鈥檛 Rav say, and some say that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya would tithe from his herds 12,000 calves each and every year? There were 120, 000 calves born in his herds annually. There is no way, then, to speak of the cow of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.

转谞讗 诇讗 砖诇讜 讛讬转讛 讗诇讗 砖诇 砖讻讬谞转讜 讛讬转讛 讜诪转讜讱 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讛 讘讛 谞拽专讗转 注诇 砖诪讜

The Gemara answers: It was taught in the Tosefta: The cow was not his; rather, it was his neighbor鈥檚. And because he did not protest her conduct and tell her that doing so is prohibited the cow was called by his name to his discredit, as if it were his.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘 讞讘讬讘讗 诪转谞讜 讘讻讜诇讬讛 讚住讚专 诪讜注讚 讻诇 讻讬 讛讗讬 讝讜讙讗 讞诇讜驻讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜诪注讬讬诇 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讻诇 诪讬 砖讗驻砖专 诇诪讞讜转 诇讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讛 谞转驻住 注诇 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 讘讗谞砖讬 注讬专讜 谞转驻住 注诇 讗谞砖讬 注讬专讜 讘讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞转驻住 注诇 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

It was related that Rav, and Rabbi 岣nina, and Rabbi Yo岣nan, and Rav 岣viva taught the statement cited below. The Gemara comments: Throughout the order of Moed, wherever this pair of Sages is mentioned, exchange Rabbi Yo岣nan and insert Rabbi Yonatan in his place. In any event, they said: Anyone who had the capability to effectively protest the sinful conduct of the members of his household and did not protest, he himself is apprehended for the sins of the members of his household and punished. If he is in a position to protest the sinful conduct of the people of his town, and he fails to do so, he is apprehended for the sins of the people of his town. If he is in a position to protest the sinful conduct of the whole world, and he fails to do so, he is apprehended for the sins of the whole world.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛谞讬 讚讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 谞转驻住讜 注诇 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛壮 讘诪砖驻讟 讬讘讗 注诐 讝拽谞讬 注诪讜 讜砖专讬讜 讗诐 砖专讬诐 讞讟讗讜

Rav Pappa said: And the members of the household of the Exilarch were apprehended and punished for the sins of the whole world. Because their authority extends across the entire Jewish world, it is in their hands to ensure that nobody commit a transgression. As indicated by that which Rabbi 岣nina said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭he Lord will enter into judgment with the Elders of His people and its princes, saying: It is you who have eaten up the vineyard; the robbery of the poor is in your houses鈥 (Isaiah 3:14)? The question arises: If the princes sinned by committing robbery,

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