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Today's Daf Yomi

May 7, 2020 | י״ג באייר תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

Shabbat 62

The mishna mentions items that are forbidden by Torah law for a woman to carry in the public domain. Ulla explans that laws of what can and cannot be carried are opposite for men and women. The gemara brings two different explanations for his opinions. If a woman can’t wear a signet ring, why is it forbidden by Torah law if she is wearing it and not carrying it in a normal manner, which would make it only rabbinic. There is a debate regarding weearing a satchel of herbs and a flask of balsam oil. The gemara brings verses from Amos relating to balsam oil and from there to verses in Yeshayahu, both discussing sins of the people and of the women’s inappropriate behavior.

והתניא רבי אושעיא אומר ובלבד שלא יאחזנו בידו ויעבירנו ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים

But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Oshaya says with regard to an amulet: As long as he does not hold it in his hand and carry it four cubits in the public domain? Apparently, even with regard to an amulet, there is a distinction between wearing it and carrying it.

[אלא] הכא במאי עסקינן במחופה עור

Rather, with what are we dealing here? With an amulet that is covered in leather. Since the writing itself is covered, the name of God is not degraded when the amulet is brought into the bathroom with him.

והרי תפילין דמחופה עור ותניא הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפילין ברחוק ארבע אמות ונכנס

The Gemara objects. There is writing on the scrolls of phylacteries, which is covered in the leather of boxes housing the scrolls, and nevertheless it was taught in a baraita: One who enters a bathroom while wearing phylacteries must remove the phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and only then enter. There is no halakhic difference whether or not the writing is covered.

התם משום שין דאמר אביי שין של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר אביי דלת של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר אביי יוד של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני:

The Gemara rejects this: There, with regard to phylacteries, the prohibition to enter the bathroom is not due to the sacred writing on the scrolls inside the phylacteries. Rather, it is due to the letter shin that protrudes from the leather of the boxes housing the scroll in the phylacteries of the head, as Abaye said: The source of the requirement of the shin of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is required by Torah law. And, Abaye said: The knot in the shape of the letter dalet in the straps of the phylacteries of the head is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. And, Abaye said: The letter yod of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is due to those letters that one must safeguard the sanctity of the phylacteries and refrain from taking them into the bathroom.

ולא בשריון ולא בקסדא ולא במגפיים:

We learned in the mishna: And he may neither go out with shiryon, nor with a kasda, nor with maggafayim. These terms were not understood, and therefore the Gemara explains them:

שריון זרדא קסדא אמר רב סנוארתא מגפיים אמר רב פזמקי:

Shiryon is a coat of mail [zerada], armor made of scales. Kasda: Rav said that it is a leather hat [sanvarta] worn under a metal helmet. Maggafayim: Rav said they are leg armor worn beneath the knee.

מתני׳ לא תצא אשה במחט הנקובה ולא בטבעת שיש עליה חותם ולא בכוליאר ולא בכובלת ולא בצלוחית של פלייטון

MISHNA: A woman may neither go out to the public domain with a perforated needle, i.e., a standard needle with an eye, nor with a ring that has a seal on it, nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet, the identity of which will be discussed in the Gemara, nor with a flask of balsam oil.

ואם יצתה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים פוטרין בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון:

And if she did go out into the public domain, she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who holds that in doing so she violated the Torah prohibition of carrying a burden in the public domain on Shabbat. And the Rabbis exempt one who goes out on Shabbat with a kovelet and with a flask of balsam oil. In their opinion, these are ornaments, and therefore they do not fundamentally violate the Torah prohibition of carrying in the public domain on Shabbat.

גמ׳ אמר עולא וחילופיהן באיש אלמא קסבר עולא כל מידי דחזי לאיש לא חזי לאשה ומידי דחזי לאשה לא חזי לאיש

GEMARA: With regard to that which we learned in the mishna that a woman may not go out on Shabbat with a ring that has a seal, and by inference that she may go out with a ring without a seal, Ulla said: And the reverse of these halakhot is true with regard to a man. A man who wears a ring with a seal in the public domain is exempt. However, if he wears a ring without a seal, he is liable to bring a sin-offering as it is not considered an ornament for a man. Based on that statement, the Gemara concludes: Apparently, Ulla holds that every object that is suitable for a man is not suitable for a woman, and an object that is suitable for a woman is not suitable for a man.

מתיב רב יוסף הרועים יוצאין בשקין ולא הרועים בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של הרועים לצאת בשקין

Rav Yosef raised an objection from the Tosefta: Shepherds may go out on Shabbat in garments made of sacks. And not with regard to the shepherds alone did the Sages say that they are permitted to go out in sacks on Shabbat; rather, any person may do so. However, the Sages taught the halakha with regard to shepherds because it is the standard practice of shepherds to go out in sacks. Apparently, although a sack is not a typical garment for most people, it is permitted even for one who is not a shepherd and would not generally wear it. Based on the same principle, although men do not generally wear women’s ornaments and women do not generally wear men’s ornaments, since occasionally a man might wear an ornament belonging to a woman or vice versa, each should be permitted to go out into the public domain with the ornament of the other.

[אלא] אמר רב יוסף קסבר עולא נשים עם בפני עצמן הן

Rather, Rav Yosef said: Ulla holds that women are a people unto themselves. The difference between the standard practice of men and women is greater than the difference between the standard practice of practitioners of different professions.

איתיביה אביי המוצא תפילין מכניסן זוג זוג אחד האיש ואחד האשה ואי אמרת נשים עם בפני עצמן הן והא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות

Abaye raised an objection to Rav Yosef’s statement from the Tosefta: One who finds phylacteries outside of the city on Shabbat should don them and bring them into the city one pair at a time. This applies to both a man and a woman. And if you say that women are a people unto themselves, isn’t the mitzva to don phylacteries a time-bound, positive mitzva, as there are times when the mitzva to don phylacteries is not in effect? And the following is a halakhic principle: Women are exempt from every time-bound, positive mitzva. If, in fact, the clothing and ornaments of a man are not suitable for a woman under any circumstances, why is a woman permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city on Shabbat? Shouldn’t that be considered a prohibited act of carrying?

התם קסבר רבי מאיר לילה זמן תפילין הוא ושבת זמן תפילין הוא הוה ליה מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמא נשים חייבות

The Gemara answers: There, with regard to phylacteries, Rabbi Meir holds that night is an appropriate time to don phylacteries, and Shabbat and Festivals are similarly an appropriate time to don phylacteries. Consequently, the mitzva of phylacteries is a positive mitzva that is not time bound; and in every positive mitzva that is not time bound, women are obligated. Therefore, women are permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city.

והא הוצאה כלאחר יד היא

With regard to Rabbi Meir’s ruling in the mishna that a woman is liable by Torah law if she goes out into the public domain wearing a ring with a seal, the Gemara asks: Isn’t it considered carrying out in a backhanded manner? A ring with a seal is not an ornament for a woman; it is an object like any other. One typically carries objects holding them in his hand. Wearing an object around one’s finger is atypical. There is no Torah prohibition violated when a labor is performed in an atypical manner.

אמר רבי ירמיה באשה גזברית עסקינן אמר רבה (בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן) תרצת אשה איש מאי איכא למימר

Rabbi Yirmeya said that we are dealing in the mishna with a woman who is a treasurer for charity. A woman with that occupation typically wears a ring with a seal on her finger in order to perform her job. She does not, though, wear it as an ornament. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: You answered and explained why, in the case of a woman, she would be liable to bring a sin-offering. However, in the case of a man who wore a ring without a seal, what is there to say? Why should he be liable?

אלא אמר רבא פעמים שאדם נותן לאשתו טבעת שיש עליה חותם להוליכה לקופסא ומניחתה בידה עד שמגעת לקופסא ופעמים שהאשה נותנת לבעלה טבעת שאין עליה חותם להוליכה אצל אומן לתקן ומניחה בידו עד שמגיע אצל אומן:

Rather, Rava said that there is a different reason: Sometimes a person gives his wife a ring that has a seal on it to take it to his house and place it in a box for safekeeping, and, in order to ensure that she does not lose the ring, the woman places it in on her hand, i.e., on her finger, until she reaches the box. And, likewise, sometimes a woman gives her husband a ring that does not have a seal on it to take it to a craftsman to repair it, and the husband places it on his hand, i.e., on his finger, until he reaches the craftsman. The purpose of wearing these rings is not for ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is considered a typical manner of carrying them.

ולא בכוליאר ולא בכובלת: מאי כוליאר אמר רב מכבנתא כובלת אמר רב חומרתא דפילון וכן אמר רב אסי חומרתא דפילון

We learned in the mishna: Nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet. The Gemara asks: What is a kulyar? Rav said: A brooch with which a woman fastens the collar of her garment. Kovelet: Rav said that it is a bundle of fragrant herbs [pilon]. And, similarly, Rav Asi said: A bundle of fragrant herbs.

תנו רבנן לא תצא בכובלת ואם יצתה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים לא תצא ואם יצתה פטורה רבי אליעזר אומר יוצאה אשה בכובלת לכתחלה

The Sages taught in a baraita: A woman may not go out on Shabbat with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and if she did go out she is liable to bring a sin-offering, as she violated a Torah prohibition; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: She may not go out ab initio; however, if she went out, she is exempt. Rabbi Eliezer says: A woman may go out with a bundle of fragrant herbs even ab initio.

במאי קמיפלגי רבי מאיר סבר משאוי הוא ורבנן סברי תכשיט הוא ודילמא שלפא ומחויא ואתיא לאיתוייה ורבי אליעזר סבר מאן דרכה למירמיה אשה שריחה רע אשה שריחה רע לא שלפא ומחויא ולא אתיא לאתוייה ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? Rabbi Meir holds that it is a burden. Therefore, one who takes it out into the public domain on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. And the Rabbis hold that it is an ornament. Nevertheless, they prohibited going out with it ab initio due to concern lest she remove the bundle of herbs from its place, and show it to others, and come to carry it in the public domain. And Rabbi Eliezer holds: Whose practice is it to place fragrant herbs on herself? A woman whose odor is foul. But a woman whose odor is foul does not remove and show the bundle to others because, by doing so, her odor will be detected, a situation that she would prefer to avoid. And, therefore she will not come to carry it four cubits in the public domain.

והתניא רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון

This baraita cites the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who permits, even ab initio, going out into the public domain with a bundle of herbs. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in another baraita: Rabbi Eliezer exempts a woman who goes out on Shabbat with a bundle of herbs and with a flask of balsam oil? With regard to the halakhot of Shabbat, exempt means that although it is not prohibited by Torah law, it is prohibited ab initio by rabbinic law.

לא קשיא הא כי קאי אדרבי מאיר הא כי קאי אדרבנן כי קאי אדרבי מאיר דאמר חייב חטאת אמר ליה פטור כי קאי אדרבנן דאמרי פטור אבל אסור אמר איהו מותר לכתחלה

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rabbi Eliezer made this statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir. When Rabbi Eliezer made that statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis. To clarify: When he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said that she is liable to bring a sin-offering, he said to him that she is exempt from bringing the sacrifice. When he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis, who said that she is exempt but it is prohibited ab initio, he said that it is permitted even ab initio.

ומאי רבי מאיר דתניא לא תצא אשה במפתח שבידה ואם יצאת חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון

And to what statement of Rabbi Meir is the Gemara referring? As it was taught in a baraita: A woman may not go out on Shabbat with a key that is in her hand, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exempts a woman who goes out with a bundle of fragrant herbs and with a flask of balsam oil [palyaton].

כובלת מאן דכר שמה

The Gemara finds the statement of Rabbi Eliezer difficult: A bundle of fragrant herbs; who mentioned anything about that? Rabbi Meir did not mention a bundle of herbs; why did Rabbi Eliezer mention it in his response?

חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני וכן בכובלת וכן בצלוחית של פלייטון לא תצא ואם יצאה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון במה דברים אמורים כשיש בהם בושם אבל אין בהם בושם חייבת

The Gemara answers that the baraita is incomplete and it teaches the following: And likewise, with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and likewise with a flask of balsam oil she may not go out, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exempts in the cases of a bundle of fragrant herbs and a flask of balsam oil. In what case is this statement said? In a case where the vessels have perfume in them; however, in a case where they do not have perfume in them, she is liable for carrying the flask out into the public domain on Shabbat.

אמר רב אדא בר אהבה זאת אומרת המוציא אוכלין פחות מכשיעור בכלי חייב דהא אין בה בושם כפחות מכשיעור בכלי דמי וקתני חייבת

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: That is to say that one who carries out a measure of food that is less than the measure that determines liability on Shabbat, but he does so in a vessel, he is liable. Although he is not liable for carrying the food out into the public domain, he is liable for carrying out the vessel. In that case, the vessel is not subordinate to the food, and therefore it is significant. Since the case of the flask in which there is no perfume is comparable to the case in which there is less than the required measurement of food in a vessel, and it was taught in the case of the flask that she is liable even though the fragrance of the perfume remains in the vessel, it stands to reason that one who carries a vessel containing less than a measure of food is also liable.

רב אשי אמר בעלמא אימא לך פטור ושאני הכא דליתיה לממשא כלל:

Rav Ashi said: That is no proof because, in general, I would say to you that he is exempt in a case where there is less than the measure that determines liability for food. However, it is different here, in the case of the empty flask of perfume as, in that case, there is no substance at all. Because the vessel is completely empty, he is liable for carrying the flask.

וראשית שמנים ימשחו אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל זה פלייטון

Related to the mention of perfume, the Gemara cites several statements. It is stated: “That drink wine in mizrekei, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments; but they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph” (Amos 6:6). Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: “The chief ointments” is balsam oil.

מתיב רב יוסף אף על פלייטון גזר רבי יהודה בן בבא ולא הודו לו ואי אמרת משום תענוג אמאי לא הודו לו

Rav Yosef raised an objection from the Tosefta: Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava issued a decree on balsam oil as well, prohibiting its use due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple, and the Sages did not agree with him. And if you say that balsam oil is the chief ointment cited in the verse, and the decree was issued due to the pleasure it provides, why didn’t the Sages agree with his decree? Doesn’t the verse criticize those who do not feel the pain of the people?

אמר ליה אביי ולטעמיך הא דכתיב השתים במזרקי יין רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר קנישקנין וחד אמר שמזרקין כוסותיהן זה לזה הכי נמי דאסיר והא רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי ריש גלותא ושתה בקנישקנין ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי

Abaye said to him: And according to your reasoning, that which is written in the same verse: “That drink wine in mizrekei”; Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi disagree over the meaning of the term mizrekei. One said: They are multi-spouted vessels [kenishkanin], wine vessels with spouts from which several people can drink at one time, and one said that they throw [mezarkin] their cups to one another in joy and jest. Is that also prohibited? Didn’t Rabba bar Rav Huna visit the house of the Exilarch and see the Exilarch drink from a multi-spouted vessel, and Rabba bar Rav Huna did not say anything to him?

אלא כל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ואית ביה שמחה גזרו רבנן אבל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ולית ביה שמחה לא גזרו רבנן:

Rather, the principle is as follows: With regard to any matter in which there is an element of pleasure and in which there is an element of joy, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting it due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple. However, with regard to a matter in which there is an element of pleasure and in which there is no element of joy, the Sages did not issue a decree. Since there is no element of joy in balsam oil, even though it is precious and pleasurable, they did not issue a decree prohibiting it.

השכבים על מטות שן וסרחים על ערשותם אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שהיו משתינין מים בפני מטותיהן ערומים

The Gemara interprets additional verses related to the critique of the leadership of Samaria. It is stated: “That lie upon beds of ivory and stretch [seruḥim] upon their couches and eat the lambs out of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall” (Amos 6:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This term, seruḥim, interpreted homiletically, teaches that their sin was that they would urinate before their beds while naked.

מגדף בה רבי אבהו אי הכי היינו דכתיב לכן עתה יגלו בראש גלים משום דמשתינין מים בפני מטותיהם ערומים יגלו בראש גולים

Rabbi Abbahu ridiculed that interpretation: If so, that this is the meaning of the term seruḥim, is this the meaning of that which is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles and the revelry of those seruḥim shall pass away” (Amos 6:7), because they urinate before their beds while naked they will be exiled at the head of exiles? Although doing so is revolting, a punishment so severe is certainly excessive.

אלא אמר רבי אבהו אלו בני אדם שהיו אוכלים ושותים זה עם זה ודובקין מטותיהן זו בזו ומחליפין נשותיהן זה עם זה ומסריחין ערסותם בשכבת זרע שאינו שלהן

Rather, Rabbi Abbahu said: This verse is referring to a grave sin. These are people who would eat and drink with each other, and join their beds to each other, and swap wives with each other, and defile their beds with semen that was not theirs. That is the meaning of seruḥim upon their couches. For those severe transgressions they deserved to be exiled at the head of exiles.

אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא שלשה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי עניות ואלו הן המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום ומזלזל בנטילת ידים ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו

On a related note, Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: Three matters bring a person to a state of poverty as a divine punishment from Heaven: One who urinates before his bed while naked, and one who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, and one whose wife curses him in his presence.

המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דמהדר אפיה לפורייה אבל לבראי לית לן בה

The Gemara explains: With regard to one who urinates before his bed while naked, Rava said: We only said this prohibition in a case where he turns his face toward his bed and urinates toward it; however, if he turns his face and urinates toward the outer portion of the room, we have no problem with it.

ומהדר אפיה לפורייה נמי לא אמרן אלא לארעא אבל במנא לית לן בה

And where one turns his face toward his bed, too, we only said this prohibition in a case where he urinates on the ground; however, if he urinates into a vessel, we have no problem with it since that is not considered disgusting.

ומזלזל בנטילת ידים אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דלא משא ידיה כלל אבל משא ולא משא לית לן בה

With regard to one who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, Rava said: We only said this statement in a case where he does not wash his hands at all; however, if he washes his hands and does not wash them with a significant amount of water, we have no problem with it.

ולאו מלתא היא דאמר רב חסדא אנא משאי מלא חפני מיא ויהבו לי מלא חפני טיבותא

The Gemara notes: And that is not so, as Rav Ḥisda said: I wash my hands with handfuls of water and they gave me in reward handfuls of prosperity. Apparently, in order to garner the benefits of ritual washing of his hands, one should use a significant amount of water.

ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו אמר רבא על עסקי תכשיטיה והני מילי הוא דאית ליה ולא עביד:

With regard to one whose wife curses him in his presence, Rava said: This is referring to a case where she curses him over matters relating to her ornaments, i.e., she complains that he does not provide her with jewelry. The Gemara comments: And that applies only when he has the resources to buy her jewelry but does not do so; however, if he does not have sufficient resources he need not be concerned.

דרש רבא בריה דרב עילאי מאי דכתיב ויאמר ה׳ יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל ומשקרות עינים דהוה מלאן כוחלא לעינייהו ומרמזן הלוך וטפוף שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה וברגליהן תעכסנה אמר רב יצחק דבי רבי אמי מלמד שמטילות מור ואפרסמון במנעליהן ומהלכות בשוקי ירושלים וכיון שמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות בקרקע ומתיזות עליהם ומכניסות בהן יצר הרע כארס בכעוס

Since the Gemara spoke of sins in the First Temple era, it continues to explain other verses with similar content. Rava, son of Rav Ilai, interpreted the following verse homiletically. What is the meaning of that which is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet” (Isaiah 3:16)?
“Because the daughters of Zion are haughty,” indicates that they would walk with upright stature and carry themselves in an immodest way.
“And walk with outstretched necks,” indicates that they would walk in small steps, heel to toe, so onlookers would notice them.
“Wanton eyes,” indicates that they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadow and beckon.
“Walking and mincing [tafof] as they go,” indicates that the wealthy women would walk a tall woman alongside a short one so that the tall woman would stand out. This is derived from the interchangeability of the letters tet and tzadi; tzafo, meaning, in this case, to be seen.
“Making a tinkling [te’akasna] with their feet,” Rabbi Yitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that they would place myrrh and balsam in their shoes and would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. And once they approached a place where the young men of Israel were congregated, they would stamp their feet on the ground and splash the perfume toward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ke’eres bakhos].

מאי פורענותיהם כדדריש רבה בר עולא והיה תחת בשם מק יהיה מקום שהיו מתבשמות בו נעשה נמקים נמקים ותחת חגורה נקפה מקום שהיו חגורות בצלצול נעשה נקפים נקפים ותחת מעשה מקשה קרחה מקום שהיו מתקשטות בו נעשה קרחים קרחים ותחת פתיגיל מחגרת שק פתחים המביאין לידי גילה יהיו למחגרת שק כי תחת יפי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי חלופי שופרא כיבא

What was their punishment for these sins? As Rabba bar Ulla taught: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell, there shall be a stench; and instead of a belt, a rope; and instead of well-set hair, baldness; and instead of a fine dress, a girding of sackcloth; instead of beauty, a brand” (Isaiah 3:24).
He explains: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell there shall be a stench,” indicates that the place that they would perfume became decaying sores.
“And instead of a sash, a rope [nikpe],” indicates that the place where they were girded with a sash became covered with many bruises [nekafim].
“And instead of well-set hair, baldness,” indicates that the place where they would style their hair became bald spots.
“And instead of a fine dress [petigil], a girding of sackcloth,” indicates that the orifices [petaḥim] that lead to pleasure [gil] will become a place for a girding of sackcloth.
“Instead of beauty, a brand [ki],” Rava said: That is the popular expression that people say: Instead of beauty, a sore [kiva].

(וספח) ה׳ קדקד בנות ציון אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שפרחה בהן צרעת כתיב הכא ושפח וכתיב התם לשאת ולספחת

With regard to a different verse: “The Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion and the Lord will lay bare their secret parts” (Isaiah 3:17). And the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the heads of the daughters of Zion; Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This teaches that there was an outbreak of leprosy among them. It is written here, scab [sippaḥ], and it is written there, among the types of leprosy: “For a sore, and for a scab [sappaḥat], and for a bright spot” (Leviticus 14:56).

וה׳ פתהן יערה רב ושמואל חד אמר שנשפכו כקיתון וחד אמר שנעשו פתחיהן כיער

With regard to the verse: And the Lord will lay bare their secret parts [pot’hen ye’areh], Rav and Shmuel disagree. One says: It means that they, i.e., their innards, were poured out [ye’areh] like a jug. And one says: That their orifices [pitḥeihen] were covered with hair as thick as a forest [ya’ar].

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אנשי ירושלים אנשי שחץ היו אדם אומר לחברו במה סעדת היום בפת עמילה או בפת שאינה עמילה ביין גורדלי או

On the topic of the sins of Jerusalem and the abundance that existed before its destruction, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The people of Jerusalem were people of arrogance. They would couch their crude behavior in euphemisms. A person would say to another: On what did you dine today? Well-kneaded bread or bread that is not well-kneaded? On white wine or

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Iyar is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in memory of Yosef ben Zvi HaKohen, Dr. Joseph Kahane z"l and Yehuda Aryeh Leib ben Yisachar Dov Barash, Ari Adler z"l.

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Shabbat 62

והתניא רבי אושעיא אומר ובלבד שלא יאחזנו בידו ויעבירנו ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים

But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Oshaya says with regard to an amulet: As long as he does not hold it in his hand and carry it four cubits in the public domain? Apparently, even with regard to an amulet, there is a distinction between wearing it and carrying it.

[אלא] הכא במאי עסקינן במחופה עור

Rather, with what are we dealing here? With an amulet that is covered in leather. Since the writing itself is covered, the name of God is not degraded when the amulet is brought into the bathroom with him.

והרי תפילין דמחופה עור ותניא הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפילין ברחוק ארבע אמות ונכנס

The Gemara objects. There is writing on the scrolls of phylacteries, which is covered in the leather of boxes housing the scrolls, and nevertheless it was taught in a baraita: One who enters a bathroom while wearing phylacteries must remove the phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and only then enter. There is no halakhic difference whether or not the writing is covered.

התם משום שין דאמר אביי שין של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר אביי דלת של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר אביי יוד של תפילין הלכה למשה מסיני:

The Gemara rejects this: There, with regard to phylacteries, the prohibition to enter the bathroom is not due to the sacred writing on the scrolls inside the phylacteries. Rather, it is due to the letter shin that protrudes from the leather of the boxes housing the scroll in the phylacteries of the head, as Abaye said: The source of the requirement of the shin of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is required by Torah law. And, Abaye said: The knot in the shape of the letter dalet in the straps of the phylacteries of the head is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. And, Abaye said: The letter yod of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is due to those letters that one must safeguard the sanctity of the phylacteries and refrain from taking them into the bathroom.

ולא בשריון ולא בקסדא ולא במגפיים:

We learned in the mishna: And he may neither go out with shiryon, nor with a kasda, nor with maggafayim. These terms were not understood, and therefore the Gemara explains them:

שריון זרדא קסדא אמר רב סנוארתא מגפיים אמר רב פזמקי:

Shiryon is a coat of mail [zerada], armor made of scales. Kasda: Rav said that it is a leather hat [sanvarta] worn under a metal helmet. Maggafayim: Rav said they are leg armor worn beneath the knee.

מתני׳ לא תצא אשה במחט הנקובה ולא בטבעת שיש עליה חותם ולא בכוליאר ולא בכובלת ולא בצלוחית של פלייטון

MISHNA: A woman may neither go out to the public domain with a perforated needle, i.e., a standard needle with an eye, nor with a ring that has a seal on it, nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet, the identity of which will be discussed in the Gemara, nor with a flask of balsam oil.

ואם יצתה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים פוטרין בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון:

And if she did go out into the public domain, she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who holds that in doing so she violated the Torah prohibition of carrying a burden in the public domain on Shabbat. And the Rabbis exempt one who goes out on Shabbat with a kovelet and with a flask of balsam oil. In their opinion, these are ornaments, and therefore they do not fundamentally violate the Torah prohibition of carrying in the public domain on Shabbat.

גמ׳ אמר עולא וחילופיהן באיש אלמא קסבר עולא כל מידי דחזי לאיש לא חזי לאשה ומידי דחזי לאשה לא חזי לאיש

GEMARA: With regard to that which we learned in the mishna that a woman may not go out on Shabbat with a ring that has a seal, and by inference that she may go out with a ring without a seal, Ulla said: And the reverse of these halakhot is true with regard to a man. A man who wears a ring with a seal in the public domain is exempt. However, if he wears a ring without a seal, he is liable to bring a sin-offering as it is not considered an ornament for a man. Based on that statement, the Gemara concludes: Apparently, Ulla holds that every object that is suitable for a man is not suitable for a woman, and an object that is suitable for a woman is not suitable for a man.

מתיב רב יוסף הרועים יוצאין בשקין ולא הרועים בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של הרועים לצאת בשקין

Rav Yosef raised an objection from the Tosefta: Shepherds may go out on Shabbat in garments made of sacks. And not with regard to the shepherds alone did the Sages say that they are permitted to go out in sacks on Shabbat; rather, any person may do so. However, the Sages taught the halakha with regard to shepherds because it is the standard practice of shepherds to go out in sacks. Apparently, although a sack is not a typical garment for most people, it is permitted even for one who is not a shepherd and would not generally wear it. Based on the same principle, although men do not generally wear women’s ornaments and women do not generally wear men’s ornaments, since occasionally a man might wear an ornament belonging to a woman or vice versa, each should be permitted to go out into the public domain with the ornament of the other.

[אלא] אמר רב יוסף קסבר עולא נשים עם בפני עצמן הן

Rather, Rav Yosef said: Ulla holds that women are a people unto themselves. The difference between the standard practice of men and women is greater than the difference between the standard practice of practitioners of different professions.

איתיביה אביי המוצא תפילין מכניסן זוג זוג אחד האיש ואחד האשה ואי אמרת נשים עם בפני עצמן הן והא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות

Abaye raised an objection to Rav Yosef’s statement from the Tosefta: One who finds phylacteries outside of the city on Shabbat should don them and bring them into the city one pair at a time. This applies to both a man and a woman. And if you say that women are a people unto themselves, isn’t the mitzva to don phylacteries a time-bound, positive mitzva, as there are times when the mitzva to don phylacteries is not in effect? And the following is a halakhic principle: Women are exempt from every time-bound, positive mitzva. If, in fact, the clothing and ornaments of a man are not suitable for a woman under any circumstances, why is a woman permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city on Shabbat? Shouldn’t that be considered a prohibited act of carrying?

התם קסבר רבי מאיר לילה זמן תפילין הוא ושבת זמן תפילין הוא הוה ליה מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמא נשים חייבות

The Gemara answers: There, with regard to phylacteries, Rabbi Meir holds that night is an appropriate time to don phylacteries, and Shabbat and Festivals are similarly an appropriate time to don phylacteries. Consequently, the mitzva of phylacteries is a positive mitzva that is not time bound; and in every positive mitzva that is not time bound, women are obligated. Therefore, women are permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city.

והא הוצאה כלאחר יד היא

With regard to Rabbi Meir’s ruling in the mishna that a woman is liable by Torah law if she goes out into the public domain wearing a ring with a seal, the Gemara asks: Isn’t it considered carrying out in a backhanded manner? A ring with a seal is not an ornament for a woman; it is an object like any other. One typically carries objects holding them in his hand. Wearing an object around one’s finger is atypical. There is no Torah prohibition violated when a labor is performed in an atypical manner.

אמר רבי ירמיה באשה גזברית עסקינן אמר רבה (בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן) תרצת אשה איש מאי איכא למימר

Rabbi Yirmeya said that we are dealing in the mishna with a woman who is a treasurer for charity. A woman with that occupation typically wears a ring with a seal on her finger in order to perform her job. She does not, though, wear it as an ornament. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: You answered and explained why, in the case of a woman, she would be liable to bring a sin-offering. However, in the case of a man who wore a ring without a seal, what is there to say? Why should he be liable?

אלא אמר רבא פעמים שאדם נותן לאשתו טבעת שיש עליה חותם להוליכה לקופסא ומניחתה בידה עד שמגעת לקופסא ופעמים שהאשה נותנת לבעלה טבעת שאין עליה חותם להוליכה אצל אומן לתקן ומניחה בידו עד שמגיע אצל אומן:

Rather, Rava said that there is a different reason: Sometimes a person gives his wife a ring that has a seal on it to take it to his house and place it in a box for safekeeping, and, in order to ensure that she does not lose the ring, the woman places it in on her hand, i.e., on her finger, until she reaches the box. And, likewise, sometimes a woman gives her husband a ring that does not have a seal on it to take it to a craftsman to repair it, and the husband places it on his hand, i.e., on his finger, until he reaches the craftsman. The purpose of wearing these rings is not for ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is considered a typical manner of carrying them.

ולא בכוליאר ולא בכובלת: מאי כוליאר אמר רב מכבנתא כובלת אמר רב חומרתא דפילון וכן אמר רב אסי חומרתא דפילון

We learned in the mishna: Nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet. The Gemara asks: What is a kulyar? Rav said: A brooch with which a woman fastens the collar of her garment. Kovelet: Rav said that it is a bundle of fragrant herbs [pilon]. And, similarly, Rav Asi said: A bundle of fragrant herbs.

תנו רבנן לא תצא בכובלת ואם יצתה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים לא תצא ואם יצתה פטורה רבי אליעזר אומר יוצאה אשה בכובלת לכתחלה

The Sages taught in a baraita: A woman may not go out on Shabbat with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and if she did go out she is liable to bring a sin-offering, as she violated a Torah prohibition; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: She may not go out ab initio; however, if she went out, she is exempt. Rabbi Eliezer says: A woman may go out with a bundle of fragrant herbs even ab initio.

במאי קמיפלגי רבי מאיר סבר משאוי הוא ורבנן סברי תכשיט הוא ודילמא שלפא ומחויא ואתיא לאיתוייה ורבי אליעזר סבר מאן דרכה למירמיה אשה שריחה רע אשה שריחה רע לא שלפא ומחויא ולא אתיא לאתוייה ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? Rabbi Meir holds that it is a burden. Therefore, one who takes it out into the public domain on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. And the Rabbis hold that it is an ornament. Nevertheless, they prohibited going out with it ab initio due to concern lest she remove the bundle of herbs from its place, and show it to others, and come to carry it in the public domain. And Rabbi Eliezer holds: Whose practice is it to place fragrant herbs on herself? A woman whose odor is foul. But a woman whose odor is foul does not remove and show the bundle to others because, by doing so, her odor will be detected, a situation that she would prefer to avoid. And, therefore she will not come to carry it four cubits in the public domain.

והתניא רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון

This baraita cites the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who permits, even ab initio, going out into the public domain with a bundle of herbs. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in another baraita: Rabbi Eliezer exempts a woman who goes out on Shabbat with a bundle of herbs and with a flask of balsam oil? With regard to the halakhot of Shabbat, exempt means that although it is not prohibited by Torah law, it is prohibited ab initio by rabbinic law.

לא קשיא הא כי קאי אדרבי מאיר הא כי קאי אדרבנן כי קאי אדרבי מאיר דאמר חייב חטאת אמר ליה פטור כי קאי אדרבנן דאמרי פטור אבל אסור אמר איהו מותר לכתחלה

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rabbi Eliezer made this statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir. When Rabbi Eliezer made that statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis. To clarify: When he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said that she is liable to bring a sin-offering, he said to him that she is exempt from bringing the sacrifice. When he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis, who said that she is exempt but it is prohibited ab initio, he said that it is permitted even ab initio.

ומאי רבי מאיר דתניא לא תצא אשה במפתח שבידה ואם יצאת חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון

And to what statement of Rabbi Meir is the Gemara referring? As it was taught in a baraita: A woman may not go out on Shabbat with a key that is in her hand, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exempts a woman who goes out with a bundle of fragrant herbs and with a flask of balsam oil [palyaton].

כובלת מאן דכר שמה

The Gemara finds the statement of Rabbi Eliezer difficult: A bundle of fragrant herbs; who mentioned anything about that? Rabbi Meir did not mention a bundle of herbs; why did Rabbi Eliezer mention it in his response?

חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני וכן בכובלת וכן בצלוחית של פלייטון לא תצא ואם יצאה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר רבי אליעזר פוטר בכובלת ובצלוחית של פלייטון במה דברים אמורים כשיש בהם בושם אבל אין בהם בושם חייבת

The Gemara answers that the baraita is incomplete and it teaches the following: And likewise, with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and likewise with a flask of balsam oil she may not go out, and if she went out she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Eliezer exempts in the cases of a bundle of fragrant herbs and a flask of balsam oil. In what case is this statement said? In a case where the vessels have perfume in them; however, in a case where they do not have perfume in them, she is liable for carrying the flask out into the public domain on Shabbat.

אמר רב אדא בר אהבה זאת אומרת המוציא אוכלין פחות מכשיעור בכלי חייב דהא אין בה בושם כפחות מכשיעור בכלי דמי וקתני חייבת

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: That is to say that one who carries out a measure of food that is less than the measure that determines liability on Shabbat, but he does so in a vessel, he is liable. Although he is not liable for carrying the food out into the public domain, he is liable for carrying out the vessel. In that case, the vessel is not subordinate to the food, and therefore it is significant. Since the case of the flask in which there is no perfume is comparable to the case in which there is less than the required measurement of food in a vessel, and it was taught in the case of the flask that she is liable even though the fragrance of the perfume remains in the vessel, it stands to reason that one who carries a vessel containing less than a measure of food is also liable.

רב אשי אמר בעלמא אימא לך פטור ושאני הכא דליתיה לממשא כלל:

Rav Ashi said: That is no proof because, in general, I would say to you that he is exempt in a case where there is less than the measure that determines liability for food. However, it is different here, in the case of the empty flask of perfume as, in that case, there is no substance at all. Because the vessel is completely empty, he is liable for carrying the flask.

וראשית שמנים ימשחו אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל זה פלייטון

Related to the mention of perfume, the Gemara cites several statements. It is stated: “That drink wine in mizrekei, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments; but they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph” (Amos 6:6). Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: “The chief ointments” is balsam oil.

מתיב רב יוסף אף על פלייטון גזר רבי יהודה בן בבא ולא הודו לו ואי אמרת משום תענוג אמאי לא הודו לו

Rav Yosef raised an objection from the Tosefta: Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava issued a decree on balsam oil as well, prohibiting its use due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple, and the Sages did not agree with him. And if you say that balsam oil is the chief ointment cited in the verse, and the decree was issued due to the pleasure it provides, why didn’t the Sages agree with his decree? Doesn’t the verse criticize those who do not feel the pain of the people?

אמר ליה אביי ולטעמיך הא דכתיב השתים במזרקי יין רבי אמי ורבי אסי חד אמר קנישקנין וחד אמר שמזרקין כוסותיהן זה לזה הכי נמי דאסיר והא רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי ריש גלותא ושתה בקנישקנין ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי

Abaye said to him: And according to your reasoning, that which is written in the same verse: “That drink wine in mizrekei”; Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi disagree over the meaning of the term mizrekei. One said: They are multi-spouted vessels [kenishkanin], wine vessels with spouts from which several people can drink at one time, and one said that they throw [mezarkin] their cups to one another in joy and jest. Is that also prohibited? Didn’t Rabba bar Rav Huna visit the house of the Exilarch and see the Exilarch drink from a multi-spouted vessel, and Rabba bar Rav Huna did not say anything to him?

אלא כל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ואית ביה שמחה גזרו רבנן אבל מידי דאית ביה תענוג ולית ביה שמחה לא גזרו רבנן:

Rather, the principle is as follows: With regard to any matter in which there is an element of pleasure and in which there is an element of joy, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting it due to mourning over the destruction of the Temple. However, with regard to a matter in which there is an element of pleasure and in which there is no element of joy, the Sages did not issue a decree. Since there is no element of joy in balsam oil, even though it is precious and pleasurable, they did not issue a decree prohibiting it.

השכבים על מטות שן וסרחים על ערשותם אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שהיו משתינין מים בפני מטותיהן ערומים

The Gemara interprets additional verses related to the critique of the leadership of Samaria. It is stated: “That lie upon beds of ivory and stretch [seruḥim] upon their couches and eat the lambs out of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall” (Amos 6:4). Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This term, seruḥim, interpreted homiletically, teaches that their sin was that they would urinate before their beds while naked.

מגדף בה רבי אבהו אי הכי היינו דכתיב לכן עתה יגלו בראש גלים משום דמשתינין מים בפני מטותיהם ערומים יגלו בראש גולים

Rabbi Abbahu ridiculed that interpretation: If so, that this is the meaning of the term seruḥim, is this the meaning of that which is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles and the revelry of those seruḥim shall pass away” (Amos 6:7), because they urinate before their beds while naked they will be exiled at the head of exiles? Although doing so is revolting, a punishment so severe is certainly excessive.

אלא אמר רבי אבהו אלו בני אדם שהיו אוכלים ושותים זה עם זה ודובקין מטותיהן זו בזו ומחליפין נשותיהן זה עם זה ומסריחין ערסותם בשכבת זרע שאינו שלהן

Rather, Rabbi Abbahu said: This verse is referring to a grave sin. These are people who would eat and drink with each other, and join their beds to each other, and swap wives with each other, and defile their beds with semen that was not theirs. That is the meaning of seruḥim upon their couches. For those severe transgressions they deserved to be exiled at the head of exiles.

אמר רבי אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא שלשה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי עניות ואלו הן המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום ומזלזל בנטילת ידים ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו

On a related note, Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: Three matters bring a person to a state of poverty as a divine punishment from Heaven: One who urinates before his bed while naked, and one who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, and one whose wife curses him in his presence.

המשתין מים בפני מטתו ערום אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דמהדר אפיה לפורייה אבל לבראי לית לן בה

The Gemara explains: With regard to one who urinates before his bed while naked, Rava said: We only said this prohibition in a case where he turns his face toward his bed and urinates toward it; however, if he turns his face and urinates toward the outer portion of the room, we have no problem with it.

ומהדר אפיה לפורייה נמי לא אמרן אלא לארעא אבל במנא לית לן בה

And where one turns his face toward his bed, too, we only said this prohibition in a case where he urinates on the ground; however, if he urinates into a vessel, we have no problem with it since that is not considered disgusting.

ומזלזל בנטילת ידים אמר רבא לא אמרן אלא דלא משא ידיה כלל אבל משא ולא משא לית לן בה

With regard to one who demeans the ritual washing of the hands, Rava said: We only said this statement in a case where he does not wash his hands at all; however, if he washes his hands and does not wash them with a significant amount of water, we have no problem with it.

ולאו מלתא היא דאמר רב חסדא אנא משאי מלא חפני מיא ויהבו לי מלא חפני טיבותא

The Gemara notes: And that is not so, as Rav Ḥisda said: I wash my hands with handfuls of water and they gave me in reward handfuls of prosperity. Apparently, in order to garner the benefits of ritual washing of his hands, one should use a significant amount of water.

ושאשתו מקללתו בפניו אמר רבא על עסקי תכשיטיה והני מילי הוא דאית ליה ולא עביד:

With regard to one whose wife curses him in his presence, Rava said: This is referring to a case where she curses him over matters relating to her ornaments, i.e., she complains that he does not provide her with jewelry. The Gemara comments: And that applies only when he has the resources to buy her jewelry but does not do so; however, if he does not have sufficient resources he need not be concerned.

דרש רבא בריה דרב עילאי מאי דכתיב ויאמר ה׳ יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל ומשקרות עינים דהוה מלאן כוחלא לעינייהו ומרמזן הלוך וטפוף שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה וברגליהן תעכסנה אמר רב יצחק דבי רבי אמי מלמד שמטילות מור ואפרסמון במנעליהן ומהלכות בשוקי ירושלים וכיון שמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות בקרקע ומתיזות עליהם ומכניסות בהן יצר הרע כארס בכעוס

Since the Gemara spoke of sins in the First Temple era, it continues to explain other verses with similar content. Rava, son of Rav Ilai, interpreted the following verse homiletically. What is the meaning of that which is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet” (Isaiah 3:16)?
“Because the daughters of Zion are haughty,” indicates that they would walk with upright stature and carry themselves in an immodest way.
“And walk with outstretched necks,” indicates that they would walk in small steps, heel to toe, so onlookers would notice them.
“Wanton eyes,” indicates that they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadow and beckon.
“Walking and mincing [tafof] as they go,” indicates that the wealthy women would walk a tall woman alongside a short one so that the tall woman would stand out. This is derived from the interchangeability of the letters tet and tzadi; tzafo, meaning, in this case, to be seen.
“Making a tinkling [te’akasna] with their feet,” Rabbi Yitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Ami said: This teaches that they would place myrrh and balsam in their shoes and would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. And once they approached a place where the young men of Israel were congregated, they would stamp their feet on the ground and splash the perfume toward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ke’eres bakhos].

מאי פורענותיהם כדדריש רבה בר עולא והיה תחת בשם מק יהיה מקום שהיו מתבשמות בו נעשה נמקים נמקים ותחת חגורה נקפה מקום שהיו חגורות בצלצול נעשה נקפים נקפים ותחת מעשה מקשה קרחה מקום שהיו מתקשטות בו נעשה קרחים קרחים ותחת פתיגיל מחגרת שק פתחים המביאין לידי גילה יהיו למחגרת שק כי תחת יפי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי חלופי שופרא כיבא

What was their punishment for these sins? As Rabba bar Ulla taught: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell, there shall be a stench; and instead of a belt, a rope; and instead of well-set hair, baldness; and instead of a fine dress, a girding of sackcloth; instead of beauty, a brand” (Isaiah 3:24).
He explains: “And it shall come to pass that instead of a sweet smell there shall be a stench,” indicates that the place that they would perfume became decaying sores.
“And instead of a sash, a rope [nikpe],” indicates that the place where they were girded with a sash became covered with many bruises [nekafim].
“And instead of well-set hair, baldness,” indicates that the place where they would style their hair became bald spots.
“And instead of a fine dress [petigil], a girding of sackcloth,” indicates that the orifices [petaḥim] that lead to pleasure [gil] will become a place for a girding of sackcloth.
“Instead of beauty, a brand [ki],” Rava said: That is the popular expression that people say: Instead of beauty, a sore [kiva].

(וספח) ה׳ קדקד בנות ציון אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מלמד שפרחה בהן צרעת כתיב הכא ושפח וכתיב התם לשאת ולספחת

With regard to a different verse: “The Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion and the Lord will lay bare their secret parts” (Isaiah 3:17). And the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the heads of the daughters of Zion; Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This teaches that there was an outbreak of leprosy among them. It is written here, scab [sippaḥ], and it is written there, among the types of leprosy: “For a sore, and for a scab [sappaḥat], and for a bright spot” (Leviticus 14:56).

וה׳ פתהן יערה רב ושמואל חד אמר שנשפכו כקיתון וחד אמר שנעשו פתחיהן כיער

With regard to the verse: And the Lord will lay bare their secret parts [pot’hen ye’areh], Rav and Shmuel disagree. One says: It means that they, i.e., their innards, were poured out [ye’areh] like a jug. And one says: That their orifices [pitḥeihen] were covered with hair as thick as a forest [ya’ar].

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אנשי ירושלים אנשי שחץ היו אדם אומר לחברו במה סעדת היום בפת עמילה או בפת שאינה עמילה ביין גורדלי או

On the topic of the sins of Jerusalem and the abundance that existed before its destruction, Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The people of Jerusalem were people of arrogance. They would couch their crude behavior in euphemisms. A person would say to another: On what did you dine today? Well-kneaded bread or bread that is not well-kneaded? On white wine or

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