Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

June 4, 2020 | י״ב בסיון תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 90

Today’s daf is dedicated by Nina Black in memory of her mother, Sophia bat Avram v’Esther z”l, who would have appreciated that her daughter is learning Daf Yomi.

Do different spices join together for the requisite amount? On what does it depend? There is a difference in the requisite amount for raw materials than for items that are already ready for use or planted vs. not yet planted. The gemara tries to determine what are the cleaning materials mentioned in the mishna. The mishna continues with the requisite amount for items like pepper, tar, sanctified items eaten by worms/bugs, and a debate regarding accessories to idols. Why are each of these items obligated for any amount – what are they used for? A peddler carrying a basket with many different items is only obligated one sin offering. What is the amount for seeds? What about grasshoppers – live or dead – kosher or non kosher? Did you know that kids played with grasshoppers? Hairs from animals tails – how many? What were they used for? If one stored an item, one is obligated even if the amount was smaller than the requisite amount. What if one changed one’s mind about it? What if one forgot for what purpose it was stored?

במיני מתיקה שנו הואיל וראויין למתק קדירה טעמא דחזו למתק את הקדירה הא לאו הכי לא הכא נמי חזו למתק:

They taught this halakha in the case of sweet types, because they are fit to be mixed together to sweeten the food in a pot. The Gemara infers: The reason that they join together with one another is that they are suitable to sweeten the food in a pot together. However, if that is not so, then they do not join together with one another. Apparently, spices, in general, do not join together to constitute a complete measure. The Gemara answers: Here, too, the mishna is referring to a case where they are suitable to sweeten the food in a pot.

קליפי אגוזין וקליפי רמונים סטיס ופואה כדי לצבוע בגד קטן: ורמינהי המוציא סמנים שרויין כדי לצבוע בהן דוגמא לאירא (הא איתמר עלה) אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לפי שאין אדם טורח לשרות סממנים לצבוע בהן דוגמא לאירא:

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out nutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower and madder, which are used to produce dyes, is equivalent to that which is used to dye a small garment that is placed atop a woman’s hairnet. And the Gemara raised a contradiction from what we learned elsewhere in a mishna: One who carries out herbs that were soaked in water is liable if he carried out a measure equivalent to the amount used to dye a sample the size of a stopper, for the shuttle of a loom. This refers to a small swath of wool that a weaver places on the loom, as a color sample. The herbs were soaked in water because this was how they were prepared for use as dyes. Apparently, according to this Gemara, the measure for liability is not the amount used to dye a small garment. The Gemara replies: Wasn’t it stated with regard to that mishna that Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: In the case of soaked dyes, the measure for liability is smaller because a person does not go to the trouble to soak herbs just to dye a sample for the shuttle of a loom. He will only begin soaking herbs to dye a more significant garment. However, for herbs that are soaking and are ready for use as a dye, the measure for liability is smaller, i.e., sufficient to dye a sample.

מי רגלים: תנא מי רגלים עד בן ארבעים יום: נתר: תנא נתר אלכסנדרית ולא נתר אנפנטרין: בורית: אמר רב יהודה זה חול והתניא הבורית והחול אלא מאי בורית כבריתא

The mishna mentioned abrasive materials used for laundry, among them urine. The Gemara clarifies the nature of the listed materials. The Sages taught in a baraita: The urine mentioned in the mishna is urine that is up to forty days old. After that, its acidity weakens, rendering it unsuitable for that purpose. With regard to the natron, the Sage taught in a baraita: This refers to Alexandrian natron from the city in Egypt, and not to natron from Anpantrin, which is of a different quality. With regard to the borit mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda said: That is sand. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Borit and sand? Since both terms are listed, borit cannot be sand. Rather, what is borit? It is sulphur.

מיתיבי הוסיפו עליהן החלביצין והלעינון והבורית והאהל ואי סלקא דעתך כבריתא כבריתא מי איתא בשביעית (והתנן) זה הכלל כל שיש לו עיקר יש לו שביעית ושאין לו עיקר אין לו שביעית אלא מאי בורית אהלא והתניא והבורית ואהלא (אלא) תרי גווני אהלא:

The Gemara raises an objection based on plants whose use is prohibited during the Sabbatical year. They added bulbs of ornithogalum and wormwood, and borit, and aloe. And if it would enter your mind to say that borit is sulphur, is there sulphur that is subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year? Didn’t we learn in a mishna that this is the principle: Anything that has a root and grows is subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year, and anything that does not have a root is not subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year. Rather, what is the borit? It is aloe. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: And borit and aloe? Since both terms are listed, borit cannot be aloe. Rather, there are two types of aloe. One of them is called borit.

קימוליא: אמר רב יהודה שלוף דוץ: אשלג: אמר שמואל שאילתינהו לכל נחותי ימא ואמרו לי שונאנה שמיה ומשתכח בנוקבא דמרגניתא ומפקי ליה ברמצא דפרזלא:

With regard to the cimolian earth mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda said: This is the earth referred to as pull out stick in [shelof dotz]. With regard to the eshlag mentioned in the mishna, Shmuel said: I asked all of the seafarers with regard to the identity of eshlag, and they told me that it is called shonana, and can be found in the shell of the pearl, and is removed using an iron skewer.

מתני׳ פלפלת כל שהוא ועטרן כל שהוא מיני בשמים ומיני מתכות כל שהן מאבני המזבח ומעפר המזבח מקק ספרים ומקק מטפחותיהם כל שהוא שמצניעין אותן לגונזן רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא משמשי עבודה זרה כל שהוא שנאמר ולא ידבק בידך מאומה מן החרם:

MISHNA: The measure that determines liability for carrying out pepper on Shabbat is any amount. Similarly, the measure that determines liability for carrying out tar is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out various kinds of perfumes and various kinds of metals is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stones of the altar or earth of the altar, sacred scrolls or their coverings that became tattered due to an insect called mekek that destroys scrolls, and mekek that destroys their coverings, is any amount. That is because people store them in order to bury them, due to their sanctity, and accord significance to even a small measure of those items. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out accessories of idolatry on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount, as it is stated: “And there shall cleave nothing of the proscribed items to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18). Since even the smallest amount is prohibited and must be burned, any amount is significant.

גמ׳ פלפלת כל שהוא למאי חזיא לריח הפה: עיטרן כל שהוא: למאי חזיא לצילחתא: מיני בשמים כל שהן: תנו רבנן המוציא ריח רע כל שהוא שמן טוב כל שהוא ארגמן כל שהוא ובתולת הוורד אחת:

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: For what use is any amount of pepper suited? The Gemara answers: For dispelling mouth odor. For what use is any amount of tar suited? It is suited for curing a headache. We learned in the mishna that one is liable for carrying out any amount of various kinds of perfumes on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: Even one who carries out an object with a foul odor on Shabbat for medicinal or similar purposes, is liable for carrying out any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out fine perfumed oil is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out purple dye is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a virgin rosebud on Shabbat is one bud.

מיני מתכות כל שהן: למאי חזו תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר שכן ראוי לעשות ממנה דרבן קטן

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out various kinds of metals is any amount. The Gemara asks: For what use is any amount of metal suited, that it renders one liable for carrying it out? It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Because a small amount of iron is fit to make a small nail.

תנו רבנן האומר הרי עלי ברזל אחרים אומרים לא יפחות מאמה על אמה למאי חזיא אמר רב יוסף לכלייא עורב ואיכא דאמרי אחרים אומרים לא יפחות מכלייא עורב וכמה אמר רב יוסף אמה על אמה נחשת לא יפחות ממעה כסף תניא רבי אליעזר אומר לא יפחות מצינורא קטנה של נחשת למאי חזיא אמר אביי שמחטטין בה את הפתילות ומקנחין הנרות:

Since the Gemara is discussing the measure that determines liability for carrying out metal on Shabbat, it discusses the related halakhot of objects consecrated to the Temple. The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who vows without specifying an amount, and says: It is incumbent upon me to donate iron to the Temple, Aḥerim say: He must donate no less than a cubit by a cubit of iron. The Gemara asks: For what use is metal that size suited? Rav Yosef said: For a raven impediment. The roof of the Temple was covered with iron surfaces with protruding nails to prevent ravens from perching there. And some say a slightly different version. Aḥerim say: He must donate no less than the iron necessary for a raven impediment. And how much iron is that? Rav Yosef said: A cubit by a cubit. One who vows to donate copper must donate no less than the value of a ma’a of silver. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One must donate no less than the amount needed to forge a small copper hook. The Gemara asks: For what Temple use is that suited? Abaye said: They use it to scrape the wicks from the candelabrum, and clean the lamps with it.

מקק ספרים ומקק מטפחת: אמר רבי יהודה מקק דסיפרי תכך דשיראי ואילא דעינבי ופה דתאני והה דרימוני כולהו סכנתא ההוא תלמידא דהוה יתיב קמיה דרבי יוחנן הוה קאכיל תאיני אמר ליה רבי קוצין יש בתאנים אמר ליה קטליה פה לדין:

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out sacred scrolls or their coverings that became tattered due to an insect called mekek that destroys scrolls, and another type of mekek that destroys their coverings, is any amount. Rabbi Yehuda said: These insects, the mekek that destroys scrolls, the tekhakh that attacks silk, and the ila that eats grapes, and the pe that eats figs, and the ha that eats pomegranates, all pose danger to one who swallows them. The Gemara relates: A certain student was sitting before Rabbi Yoḥanan and was eating figs. The student said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: My teacher, are there thorns in figs? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: The pe killed that fellow. The insect in the fig had punctured the student’s throat.

מתני׳ המוציא קופת הרוכלין אף על פי שיש בה מינין הרבה אינו חייב אלא חטאת אחת זרעוני גינה פחות מכגרוגרת רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר חמשה

MISHNA: One who carries out a merchant’s basket, even if there are many types of spices and jewelry in it, is obligated to bring only one sin-offering, because he performed only one act of carrying out. The measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat is less than a fig-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The measure for liability is five seeds.

זרע קישואין שנים זרע דילועין שנים זרע פול המצרי שנים חגב חי טהור כל שהוא מת כגרוגרת צפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא שמצניעין אותה לרפואה רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא חגב חי טמא כל שהוא שמצניעין אותו לקטן לשחוק בו:

The measure that determines liability for carrying out cucumber seeds is two seeds because they are large and conspicuous. The measure that determines liability for carrying out squash seeds is two seeds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out seeds of Egyptian beans is two. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a live kosher locust is any amount. For carrying out a dead kosher locust, which is edible, it is the same as any other food, a fig-bulk. The measure that determines liability for carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, is any amount; this is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even a small quantity significant. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for a child who wants to play with it.

גמ׳ ורמינהי זבל וחול הדק כדי לזבל קלח של כרוב דברי רבי עקיבא וחכמים אומרים כדי לזבל כרישא אמר רב פפא הא דזריע הא דלא זריע לפי שאין אדם טורח להוציא נימא אחת לזריעה:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna the measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat. And the Gemara raised a contradiction from what we learned: The measure that determines liability for carrying out compost and fine sand on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a cabbage stalk; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. And the Rabbis say: Equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a single leek. Even a single plant is a significant amount. Rav Pappa said: This smaller measure applies to a case where the seed was already planted and growing. In that case, one carries out manure to fertilize one plant. That larger measure applies to a case where the seed was not yet planted, because a person does not go to the trouble to carry out a single seed for planting.

זרע קישואין: תנו רבנן המוציא גרעינין אם לנטיעה שתים אם לאכילה כמלא פי חזיר וכמה מלא פי חזיר אחת אם להסיק כדי לבשל ביצה קלה אם לחשבון שתים אחרים אומרים חמש תנו רבנן המוציא שני נימין מזנב הסוס ומזנב הפרה חייב שמצניעין אותן לנישבין מקשה של חזיר אחת צורי דקל שתים תורי דקל אחת:

With regard to what the mishna said about the measure for carrying out cucumber and squash seeds, the Sages taught: One who carries out date pits on Shabbat, if he did so in order to plant, he is liable for carrying out two pits. If he did so in order for the animals to eat, he is liable for carrying out enough to fill a pig’s mouth. And how much is enough to fill a pig’s mouth? One date pit. If he did so in order to burn the pits, the measure that determines liability is equivalent to that which is used to cook an easily cooked egg. If he carried them out in order to use them to count, the measure for liability is two pits. Aḥerim say the measure for liability is five pits. A person is capable of keeping track of up to five items without help. The Sages taught: One who carries out two hairs from a horse’s tail or from a cow’s tail on Shabbat is liable, since people store them to use in traps. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stiff hair of a pig is one hair. It is significant because it is used to sew shoes. The measure that determines liability for carrying out palm fronds is two fronds, but the measure for palm vines, which are peeled off the frond and are thinner, is one vine.

ציפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא: מאי ציפורת כרמים אמר רב פליא ביארי אמר אביי ומשתכח בדיקלא דחד נבארא ועבדי לה לחוכמא אכיל ליה לפלגא דימיניה ופלגא דשמאליה רמי לה בגובתא דנחשא וחתים לה בשיתין גושפנקי ותלי לה באיברא דשמאלא וסימניך לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו וחכים כמה דבעי וגמר כמה דבעי ואכיל ליה לאידך פלגא דאי לא מיעקר תלמודו:

We learned in the mishna: With regard to carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, the measure for liability is any amount. This is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even one locust significant. The Gemara asks: What is tzipporet keramim? Rav said: It is the locust called palya biari. Abaye said: And it can be found in a palm tree that has only one vine, and it is used as a talisman for wisdom. One eats its right half, and casts its left half into a copper tube, and seals it with sixty seals, and hangs it on his left arm. And the mnemonic reminding you which half to eat and which half to hang on the arm is the verse: “A wise heart to his right and a foolish heart to his left” (Ecclesiastes 10:2). And one then grows wise as much as he wants, and studies as much as he wants, and then eats the other half, as if he does not do so, his learning will be forgotten.

רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא כו׳: ותנא קמא סבר לא מאי טעמא דילמא אכיל ליה אי הכי טהור נמי דהא רב כהנא הוה קאים קמיה דרב והוה קמעבר שושיבא אפומיה אמר ליה שקליה דלא לימרו מיכל קאכיל ליה וקעבר משום בל תשקצו את נפשתיכם אלא דילמא מיית ואכיל ליה ורבי יהודה אי מיית קטן מיספד ספיד ליה:

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for play. The Gemara explains: And the first tanna holds that people do not give children non-kosher locusts for play. What is the reason for this? Due to the concern that perhaps the child will eat it. And the Gemara asks: If so, it should also be prohibited to give a child a kosher locust, lest the child will eat it, as the Gemara related that Rav Kahana stood before Rav and passed a live kosher locust near his mouth. Rav said to Rav Kahana: Put it down, so that people will not mistakenly say: He is eating it and violating the prohibition of “You shall not make yourselves detestable” (Leviticus 11:43). Apparently, eating a kosher locust is prohibited while it is alive. Rather, even according to the unattributed mishna, there is no room for concern that a young child will eat a locust with which he is playing. The reason that the first tanna prohibits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play is the concern that perhaps it will die and he will eat it. And Rabbi Yehuda, who permits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play, does not share that concern. If the locust dies, the child will eulogize it and mourn its death, and certainly would not eat it.

הדרן עלך אמר רבי עקיבא

 

מתני׳ המצניע לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה והוציאו בשבת חייב בכל שהוא וכל אדם אין חייב עליו אלא כשיעורו חזר והכניסו אינו חייב אלא כשיעורו:

MISHNA: One who stores a seed for sowing, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes and carried it out on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount. By storing that measure, he indicates that it is significant to him. Therefore, he is liable for carrying it, despite the fact that what he carried out is less than the halakhic measure that determines liability for that item. And any other person is only liable for carrying it out on Shabbat if he carries out its measure for liability. If one stored the seed, carried it out, and then brought it back in, with no intention to utilize it for the specific purpose for which he stored it, he is only liable if he brought in its measure for liability (Rav Shmuel Strashun).

גמ׳ למה ליה למיתני המצניע ליתני המוציא לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה חייב בכל שהוא אמר אביי הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שהצניעו ושכח למה הצניעו והשתא קא מפיק ליה סתמא

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why does the mishna teach: One who stores a seed for a specific purpose and carried it out? Let the mishna simply teach: One who carries out a seed for planting, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes is liable for carrying out any amount. One is not liable for storing the seed. He is liable for carrying out less than the measure that determines liability because he attributed significance to that measure. Abaye said: With what we are dealing here? We are dealing with a case where one stored it for a specific purpose and forgot why he stored it, and now he carries it out for no specific purpose.

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

One week at a time

Daf Yomi One Week at a Time – Shabbat 89-95

https://youtu.be/uRqRSVp0l6s Join Rabbanit Dr. Tamara Spitz each week as she reviews the key topics of the previous week’s seven pages....
parsha post (2)

Catching the Bug (Shabbat 90b)

Not long ago, on Shabbat afternoon, my daughter found a rather large beetle in our bathroom and began screeching in...
talking talmud_square

Shabbat 90: Chasing Crows

Back to Shabbat topics, and minimums for carrying to be obligated in bringing a sin-offering - including a list of...

Shabbat 90

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 90

במיני מתיקה שנו הואיל וראויין למתק קדירה טעמא דחזו למתק את הקדירה הא לאו הכי לא הכא נמי חזו למתק:

They taught this halakha in the case of sweet types, because they are fit to be mixed together to sweeten the food in a pot. The Gemara infers: The reason that they join together with one another is that they are suitable to sweeten the food in a pot together. However, if that is not so, then they do not join together with one another. Apparently, spices, in general, do not join together to constitute a complete measure. The Gemara answers: Here, too, the mishna is referring to a case where they are suitable to sweeten the food in a pot.

קליפי אגוזין וקליפי רמונים סטיס ופואה כדי לצבוע בגד קטן: ורמינהי המוציא סמנים שרויין כדי לצבוע בהן דוגמא לאירא (הא איתמר עלה) אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לפי שאין אדם טורח לשרות סממנים לצבוע בהן דוגמא לאירא:

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out nutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower and madder, which are used to produce dyes, is equivalent to that which is used to dye a small garment that is placed atop a woman’s hairnet. And the Gemara raised a contradiction from what we learned elsewhere in a mishna: One who carries out herbs that were soaked in water is liable if he carried out a measure equivalent to the amount used to dye a sample the size of a stopper, for the shuttle of a loom. This refers to a small swath of wool that a weaver places on the loom, as a color sample. The herbs were soaked in water because this was how they were prepared for use as dyes. Apparently, according to this Gemara, the measure for liability is not the amount used to dye a small garment. The Gemara replies: Wasn’t it stated with regard to that mishna that Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: In the case of soaked dyes, the measure for liability is smaller because a person does not go to the trouble to soak herbs just to dye a sample for the shuttle of a loom. He will only begin soaking herbs to dye a more significant garment. However, for herbs that are soaking and are ready for use as a dye, the measure for liability is smaller, i.e., sufficient to dye a sample.

מי רגלים: תנא מי רגלים עד בן ארבעים יום: נתר: תנא נתר אלכסנדרית ולא נתר אנפנטרין: בורית: אמר רב יהודה זה חול והתניא הבורית והחול אלא מאי בורית כבריתא

The mishna mentioned abrasive materials used for laundry, among them urine. The Gemara clarifies the nature of the listed materials. The Sages taught in a baraita: The urine mentioned in the mishna is urine that is up to forty days old. After that, its acidity weakens, rendering it unsuitable for that purpose. With regard to the natron, the Sage taught in a baraita: This refers to Alexandrian natron from the city in Egypt, and not to natron from Anpantrin, which is of a different quality. With regard to the borit mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda said: That is sand. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Borit and sand? Since both terms are listed, borit cannot be sand. Rather, what is borit? It is sulphur.

מיתיבי הוסיפו עליהן החלביצין והלעינון והבורית והאהל ואי סלקא דעתך כבריתא כבריתא מי איתא בשביעית (והתנן) זה הכלל כל שיש לו עיקר יש לו שביעית ושאין לו עיקר אין לו שביעית אלא מאי בורית אהלא והתניא והבורית ואהלא (אלא) תרי גווני אהלא:

The Gemara raises an objection based on plants whose use is prohibited during the Sabbatical year. They added bulbs of ornithogalum and wormwood, and borit, and aloe. And if it would enter your mind to say that borit is sulphur, is there sulphur that is subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year? Didn’t we learn in a mishna that this is the principle: Anything that has a root and grows is subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year, and anything that does not have a root is not subject to the halakhot of the Sabbatical year. Rather, what is the borit? It is aloe. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: And borit and aloe? Since both terms are listed, borit cannot be aloe. Rather, there are two types of aloe. One of them is called borit.

קימוליא: אמר רב יהודה שלוף דוץ: אשלג: אמר שמואל שאילתינהו לכל נחותי ימא ואמרו לי שונאנה שמיה ומשתכח בנוקבא דמרגניתא ומפקי ליה ברמצא דפרזלא:

With regard to the cimolian earth mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda said: This is the earth referred to as pull out stick in [shelof dotz]. With regard to the eshlag mentioned in the mishna, Shmuel said: I asked all of the seafarers with regard to the identity of eshlag, and they told me that it is called shonana, and can be found in the shell of the pearl, and is removed using an iron skewer.

מתני׳ פלפלת כל שהוא ועטרן כל שהוא מיני בשמים ומיני מתכות כל שהן מאבני המזבח ומעפר המזבח מקק ספרים ומקק מטפחותיהם כל שהוא שמצניעין אותן לגונזן רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא משמשי עבודה זרה כל שהוא שנאמר ולא ידבק בידך מאומה מן החרם:

MISHNA: The measure that determines liability for carrying out pepper on Shabbat is any amount. Similarly, the measure that determines liability for carrying out tar is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out various kinds of perfumes and various kinds of metals is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stones of the altar or earth of the altar, sacred scrolls or their coverings that became tattered due to an insect called mekek that destroys scrolls, and mekek that destroys their coverings, is any amount. That is because people store them in order to bury them, due to their sanctity, and accord significance to even a small measure of those items. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out accessories of idolatry on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount, as it is stated: “And there shall cleave nothing of the proscribed items to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18). Since even the smallest amount is prohibited and must be burned, any amount is significant.

גמ׳ פלפלת כל שהוא למאי חזיא לריח הפה: עיטרן כל שהוא: למאי חזיא לצילחתא: מיני בשמים כל שהן: תנו רבנן המוציא ריח רע כל שהוא שמן טוב כל שהוא ארגמן כל שהוא ובתולת הוורד אחת:

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: For what use is any amount of pepper suited? The Gemara answers: For dispelling mouth odor. For what use is any amount of tar suited? It is suited for curing a headache. We learned in the mishna that one is liable for carrying out any amount of various kinds of perfumes on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: Even one who carries out an object with a foul odor on Shabbat for medicinal or similar purposes, is liable for carrying out any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out fine perfumed oil is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out purple dye is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a virgin rosebud on Shabbat is one bud.

מיני מתכות כל שהן: למאי חזו תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר שכן ראוי לעשות ממנה דרבן קטן

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out various kinds of metals is any amount. The Gemara asks: For what use is any amount of metal suited, that it renders one liable for carrying it out? It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Because a small amount of iron is fit to make a small nail.

תנו רבנן האומר הרי עלי ברזל אחרים אומרים לא יפחות מאמה על אמה למאי חזיא אמר רב יוסף לכלייא עורב ואיכא דאמרי אחרים אומרים לא יפחות מכלייא עורב וכמה אמר רב יוסף אמה על אמה נחשת לא יפחות ממעה כסף תניא רבי אליעזר אומר לא יפחות מצינורא קטנה של נחשת למאי חזיא אמר אביי שמחטטין בה את הפתילות ומקנחין הנרות:

Since the Gemara is discussing the measure that determines liability for carrying out metal on Shabbat, it discusses the related halakhot of objects consecrated to the Temple. The Sages taught in a baraita: In the case of one who vows without specifying an amount, and says: It is incumbent upon me to donate iron to the Temple, Aḥerim say: He must donate no less than a cubit by a cubit of iron. The Gemara asks: For what use is metal that size suited? Rav Yosef said: For a raven impediment. The roof of the Temple was covered with iron surfaces with protruding nails to prevent ravens from perching there. And some say a slightly different version. Aḥerim say: He must donate no less than the iron necessary for a raven impediment. And how much iron is that? Rav Yosef said: A cubit by a cubit. One who vows to donate copper must donate no less than the value of a ma’a of silver. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One must donate no less than the amount needed to forge a small copper hook. The Gemara asks: For what Temple use is that suited? Abaye said: They use it to scrape the wicks from the candelabrum, and clean the lamps with it.

מקק ספרים ומקק מטפחת: אמר רבי יהודה מקק דסיפרי תכך דשיראי ואילא דעינבי ופה דתאני והה דרימוני כולהו סכנתא ההוא תלמידא דהוה יתיב קמיה דרבי יוחנן הוה קאכיל תאיני אמר ליה רבי קוצין יש בתאנים אמר ליה קטליה פה לדין:

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out sacred scrolls or their coverings that became tattered due to an insect called mekek that destroys scrolls, and another type of mekek that destroys their coverings, is any amount. Rabbi Yehuda said: These insects, the mekek that destroys scrolls, the tekhakh that attacks silk, and the ila that eats grapes, and the pe that eats figs, and the ha that eats pomegranates, all pose danger to one who swallows them. The Gemara relates: A certain student was sitting before Rabbi Yoḥanan and was eating figs. The student said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: My teacher, are there thorns in figs? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: The pe killed that fellow. The insect in the fig had punctured the student’s throat.

מתני׳ המוציא קופת הרוכלין אף על פי שיש בה מינין הרבה אינו חייב אלא חטאת אחת זרעוני גינה פחות מכגרוגרת רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר חמשה

MISHNA: One who carries out a merchant’s basket, even if there are many types of spices and jewelry in it, is obligated to bring only one sin-offering, because he performed only one act of carrying out. The measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat is less than a fig-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The measure for liability is five seeds.

זרע קישואין שנים זרע דילועין שנים זרע פול המצרי שנים חגב חי טהור כל שהוא מת כגרוגרת צפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא שמצניעין אותה לרפואה רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא חגב חי טמא כל שהוא שמצניעין אותו לקטן לשחוק בו:

The measure that determines liability for carrying out cucumber seeds is two seeds because they are large and conspicuous. The measure that determines liability for carrying out squash seeds is two seeds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out seeds of Egyptian beans is two. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a live kosher locust is any amount. For carrying out a dead kosher locust, which is edible, it is the same as any other food, a fig-bulk. The measure that determines liability for carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, is any amount; this is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even a small quantity significant. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for a child who wants to play with it.

גמ׳ ורמינהי זבל וחול הדק כדי לזבל קלח של כרוב דברי רבי עקיבא וחכמים אומרים כדי לזבל כרישא אמר רב פפא הא דזריע הא דלא זריע לפי שאין אדם טורח להוציא נימא אחת לזריעה:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna the measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat. And the Gemara raised a contradiction from what we learned: The measure that determines liability for carrying out compost and fine sand on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a cabbage stalk; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. And the Rabbis say: Equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a single leek. Even a single plant is a significant amount. Rav Pappa said: This smaller measure applies to a case where the seed was already planted and growing. In that case, one carries out manure to fertilize one plant. That larger measure applies to a case where the seed was not yet planted, because a person does not go to the trouble to carry out a single seed for planting.

זרע קישואין: תנו רבנן המוציא גרעינין אם לנטיעה שתים אם לאכילה כמלא פי חזיר וכמה מלא פי חזיר אחת אם להסיק כדי לבשל ביצה קלה אם לחשבון שתים אחרים אומרים חמש תנו רבנן המוציא שני נימין מזנב הסוס ומזנב הפרה חייב שמצניעין אותן לנישבין מקשה של חזיר אחת צורי דקל שתים תורי דקל אחת:

With regard to what the mishna said about the measure for carrying out cucumber and squash seeds, the Sages taught: One who carries out date pits on Shabbat, if he did so in order to plant, he is liable for carrying out two pits. If he did so in order for the animals to eat, he is liable for carrying out enough to fill a pig’s mouth. And how much is enough to fill a pig’s mouth? One date pit. If he did so in order to burn the pits, the measure that determines liability is equivalent to that which is used to cook an easily cooked egg. If he carried them out in order to use them to count, the measure for liability is two pits. Aḥerim say the measure for liability is five pits. A person is capable of keeping track of up to five items without help. The Sages taught: One who carries out two hairs from a horse’s tail or from a cow’s tail on Shabbat is liable, since people store them to use in traps. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stiff hair of a pig is one hair. It is significant because it is used to sew shoes. The measure that determines liability for carrying out palm fronds is two fronds, but the measure for palm vines, which are peeled off the frond and are thinner, is one vine.

ציפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא: מאי ציפורת כרמים אמר רב פליא ביארי אמר אביי ומשתכח בדיקלא דחד נבארא ועבדי לה לחוכמא אכיל ליה לפלגא דימיניה ופלגא דשמאליה רמי לה בגובתא דנחשא וחתים לה בשיתין גושפנקי ותלי לה באיברא דשמאלא וסימניך לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו וחכים כמה דבעי וגמר כמה דבעי ואכיל ליה לאידך פלגא דאי לא מיעקר תלמודו:

We learned in the mishna: With regard to carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, the measure for liability is any amount. This is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even one locust significant. The Gemara asks: What is tzipporet keramim? Rav said: It is the locust called palya biari. Abaye said: And it can be found in a palm tree that has only one vine, and it is used as a talisman for wisdom. One eats its right half, and casts its left half into a copper tube, and seals it with sixty seals, and hangs it on his left arm. And the mnemonic reminding you which half to eat and which half to hang on the arm is the verse: “A wise heart to his right and a foolish heart to his left” (Ecclesiastes 10:2). And one then grows wise as much as he wants, and studies as much as he wants, and then eats the other half, as if he does not do so, his learning will be forgotten.

רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא כו׳: ותנא קמא סבר לא מאי טעמא דילמא אכיל ליה אי הכי טהור נמי דהא רב כהנא הוה קאים קמיה דרב והוה קמעבר שושיבא אפומיה אמר ליה שקליה דלא לימרו מיכל קאכיל ליה וקעבר משום בל תשקצו את נפשתיכם אלא דילמא מיית ואכיל ליה ורבי יהודה אי מיית קטן מיספד ספיד ליה:

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for play. The Gemara explains: And the first tanna holds that people do not give children non-kosher locusts for play. What is the reason for this? Due to the concern that perhaps the child will eat it. And the Gemara asks: If so, it should also be prohibited to give a child a kosher locust, lest the child will eat it, as the Gemara related that Rav Kahana stood before Rav and passed a live kosher locust near his mouth. Rav said to Rav Kahana: Put it down, so that people will not mistakenly say: He is eating it and violating the prohibition of “You shall not make yourselves detestable” (Leviticus 11:43). Apparently, eating a kosher locust is prohibited while it is alive. Rather, even according to the unattributed mishna, there is no room for concern that a young child will eat a locust with which he is playing. The reason that the first tanna prohibits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play is the concern that perhaps it will die and he will eat it. And Rabbi Yehuda, who permits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play, does not share that concern. If the locust dies, the child will eulogize it and mourn its death, and certainly would not eat it.

הדרן עלך אמר רבי עקיבא

 

מתני׳ המצניע לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה והוציאו בשבת חייב בכל שהוא וכל אדם אין חייב עליו אלא כשיעורו חזר והכניסו אינו חייב אלא כשיעורו:

MISHNA: One who stores a seed for sowing, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes and carried it out on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount. By storing that measure, he indicates that it is significant to him. Therefore, he is liable for carrying it, despite the fact that what he carried out is less than the halakhic measure that determines liability for that item. And any other person is only liable for carrying it out on Shabbat if he carries out its measure for liability. If one stored the seed, carried it out, and then brought it back in, with no intention to utilize it for the specific purpose for which he stored it, he is only liable if he brought in its measure for liability (Rav Shmuel Strashun).

גמ׳ למה ליה למיתני המצניע ליתני המוציא לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה חייב בכל שהוא אמר אביי הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שהצניעו ושכח למה הצניעו והשתא קא מפיק ליה סתמא

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why does the mishna teach: One who stores a seed for a specific purpose and carried it out? Let the mishna simply teach: One who carries out a seed for planting, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes is liable for carrying out any amount. One is not liable for storing the seed. He is liable for carrying out less than the measure that determines liability because he attributed significance to that measure. Abaye said: With what we are dealing here? We are dealing with a case where one stored it for a specific purpose and forgot why he stored it, and now he carries it out for no specific purpose.

More Ways to Learn with Hadran

Join Hadran Communities! Connect with women learning in your area.

Scroll To Top