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Today's Daf Yomi

April 30, 2023 | 讟壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讙

  • This month's learning聽is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory of聽her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Bat聽Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

Sotah 32

Today’s daf is sponsored by Malka Svei in loving memory of her grandmother, Rachel Leah Bat R鈥 David. “She learned and taught Torah throughout her life. She loved and valued Torah above all else, and raised her children and grandchildren to do the same.”

Today’s daf is sponsored by Lynn Kaye, Joe Nadis & Maya Zanger-Nadis in loving memory of Ted Kurtz on his shloshim. “A WWII veteran and savvy businessman, Uncle Ted stayed connected to his Hungarian Satmar roots. Although Ted never had children of his own, he took care to be present in our lives, and put several of us through college. Through him, we learned the importance of taking care of family. May his neshama have an aliyah.”

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Hadran Zoom family for a refuah shleima for Rabbi Hayim Herring, Harav Hayim Ben Zippora Riva, husband of their fellow daf learner and friend Terri Krivosha. “Wishing you renewed strength and a full recovery.”

In order to resolve the difficulty with Rabbi Chiya’s opinion from the last two cases in the Mishna, the Gemara establishes that the Mishna is referring to cases where one or both of the sets are witnesses are disqualified and the rulings follow rabbi Nechemia who holds that in cases where disqualified witnesses are accepted, we follow the group with the larger number of witnesses. There are two different versions of Rabbi Nechemia’s position. The seventh chapter begins with a list of cases where the law obligates a recitation of a text – which can be said in a language other than Hebrew and which can be said only in Hebrew? The words of the kohen to the sotah, confession of tithes, shema, tefilla (amida), grace after meals, an oath of testimony and an oath regarding a deposit – can all be said in any language (that one understands). The recitation of the bikkurim, chalitza, the blessings and the curses recited upon entry into Israel, the blessing of the kohanim, the blessing of the kohen gadol on Yom Kippur, the Torah reading of the king at hakhel, and the recitation at an egla arufa ceremony all need to be recited in Hebrew. The Mishna brings a source for a few of these cases, explaining why they need to be said in Hebrew. They then explain in detail how the blessings and curses ceremony was performed. The Gemara begins by explaining how we know that sotah ceremony can be done in any language. What exactly does the kohen explain to the woman and why? From where do we derive that the confession of the tithes can be done in any language? We learn from the tithes ceremony that one should recite praise about oneself quietly and from the recitation of the bikkurim, we learn that things that are degrading, we say loudly. If this is true, we say prayer in a quiet voice so as not to embarrass ourselves when we spell out our sins! To resolve this, they correct the previous statement (what we recite loudly) to be referring to our pain, rather than something degrading, so that people will hear and pray for mercy. Regarding shema, there is a tannaitic debate about whether it should be recited in Hebrew only or not. What is the proof in the verses for each position?

讜讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讻讙讜谉 讚讗转讗讬 讗砖讛 诪注讬拽专讗


And with what are we dealing here in the mishna? A case where a woman, who is generally disqualified from bearing witness, came initially, and testified that the woman committed adultery, and two witnesses say that she did not.


讜转专爪讛 诇讚专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讛讗诪讬谞讛 转讜专讛 注讚 讗讞讚 讛诇讱 讗讞专 专讜讘 讚讬注讜转 讜注砖讜 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讘讗砖讛 讗讞转 讻砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬砖 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬砖 讗讞讚 讻讬 驻诇讙讗 讜驻诇讙讗 讚诪讬


And according to this interpretation you must amend the statement of Rabbi Ne岣mya so that it reads like this: Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Wherever the Torah relies on one witness, follow the majority of opinions. And the Sages established that two women against one woman are like two men against one man. But two women in opposition to one man that is a valid witness, is like half of a pair of witnesses and a half of a pair of witnesses, and the mishna did not address that case.


讜转专转讬 讘驻住讜诇讬 注讚讜转 诇诪讛 诇讬 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讻讬 讗讝诇讬谞谉 讘转专 专讜讘 讚讬注讜转 诇讞讜诪专讗 讗讘诇 诇拽讜诇讗 诇讗 讗讝诇讬谞谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara poses a question on these two interpretations of the mishna: And why do I need two cases in the mishna to teach the halakha that the majority opinion of those disqualified from bearing witness is followed? The Gemara explains: It is necessary, lest you say that when we follow the majority opinion in the case of invalid witnesses, this is to be stringent to force the woman to drink the bitter water, e.g., if one witness said that she committed adultery and two said that she did not, but to be lenient and absolve her from having to drink the water we do not follow the majority opinion, and she would still drink the water even if there is one witness saying that she did not commit adultery, therefore the mishna teaches us that there is no difference in this regard, and the majority opinion is followed in any case.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讬 砖拽讬谞讗



讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 驻专砖转 住讜讟讛 讜讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 拽专讬转 砖诪注 讜转驻诇讛 讜讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讜砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转 讜砖讘讜注转 讛驻讬拽讚讜谉


MISHNA: These are recited in any language, not specifically Hebrew: The portion of the warning and the oath administered by the priest to a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota]; and the declaration of tithes, which occurs after the third and the sixth years of the seven-year Sabbatical cycle, when one declares that he has given his tithes appropriately; Shema; and the Amida prayer; and Grace after Meals; and an oath of testimony, where one takes an oath that he does not have any testimony to provide on a given issue; and an oath on a deposit, where one takes an oath that he does not have possession of another鈥檚 deposit.


讜讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讜讞诇讬爪讛 讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜驻专砖转 讛诪诇讱 讜驻专砖转 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讘砖注讛 砖诪讚讘专 讗诇 讛注诐


And these are recited only in the sacred tongue, Hebrew: The recitation of the verses that one recounts when bringing the first fruits to the Temple; and the recitations which form an element of the ritual through which a yavam frees a yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza]; the blessings and curses that were spoken on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal; the Priestly Benediction; and the blessing on the Torah recited by the High Priest on Yom Kippur; and the portion of the Torah read by the king at the assembly on Sukkot at the conclusion of the Sabbatical Year; and the portion recited during the ritual of a heifer whose neck is broken, when a person is found killed in an area that is between two cities, and the murderer is unknown; and the speech of a priest who is anointed for war when he addresses the nation before going out to battle.


诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞讬转 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


How is it derived that the recitation when bringing the first fruits is recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say before the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), and below, in the discussion of the blessings and curses, it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


讞诇讬爪讛 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


How is it derived that the recitation at a 岣litza ceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse in the Torah portion discussing 岣litza states: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9), and below it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 讻讻讛 注讚 砖转讗诪专 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛


Rabbi Yehuda says: This can be derived from a different word in the verse: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that does not build up his brother鈥檚 house鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). The word 鈥渟o鈥 indicates that her statement is ineffective unless she says it in these exact words.


讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讻讬爪讚 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讘讗讜 讗诇 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讗诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 砖讘砖讜诪专讜谉 砖讘爪讚 砖讻诐 砖讘讗爪诇 讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 讜讙讜壮 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讬注讘专 讗讘专诐 讘讗专抓 注讚 诪拽讜诐 砖讻诐 注讚 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 诪讛 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 诇讛诇谉 砖讻诐 讗祝 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 讻讗谉 砖讻诐


How did the ceremony of the blessings and curses take place? When the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River they came to Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are in Samaria alongside the city of Shechem, which is near the oaks of Moreh, as it is stated: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah, over against Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh?鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:30), and there it states: 鈥淎nd Abram passed through the land until the place of Shechem, until the oaks of Moreh鈥 (Genesis 12:6). Just as the oaks of Moreh mentioned there with regard to Abraham are close to Shechem, so too, the oaks of Moreh mentioned here are close to Shechem.


砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜讛讻讛谞讬诐 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讜讛讗专讜谉 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇诪讟讛 讘讗诪爪注 讛讻讛谞讬诐 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讗转 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜诪讻讗谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讝拽谞讬讜 讜砖讟专讬诐 讜砖驻讟讬讜 注讜诪讚讬诐 诪讝讛 讜诪讝讛 诇讗专讜谉 讜讙讜壮


Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim and six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Ebal, and the priests and the Levites and the Ark were standing at the bottom in the middle, between the two mountains. The priests were surrounding the Ark and the Levites were surrounding the priests, and all the rest of the Jewish people were standing on the mountains on this side and on that side, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side before the priests the Levites that bore the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord鈥 (Joshua 8:33).


讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讘专讜讱 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 诇讗 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜驻转讞讜 讘拽诇诇讛 讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 注讚 砖讙讜诪专讬谉 讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转


The Levites then turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with the blessing: Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image (see Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people, i.e., the two groups standing on either mountain, answered: Amen. Then they turned to face Mount Ebal and opened with the curse: 鈥淐ursed be the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people answered: Amen. They continued in this manner until they completed reciting all of the blessings and curses.


讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讜 讗转 讛诪讝讘讞 讜住讚讜讛讜 讘住讬讚 讜讻转讘讜 注诇讬讜 讗转 讻诇 讚讘专讬 讛转讜专讛 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗专 讛讬讟讘 讜谞讟诇讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘讗讜


And afterward they brought the stones as commanded in the Torah, and they built the altar and plastered it with plaster, and they wrote on it all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:8), indicating that it was to be written in every language. And they then took the stones from there and came


讜诇谞讜 讘诪拽讜诪谉:


to Gilgal and slept in their lodging place.


讙诪壮 驻专砖转 住讜讟讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专 讛讻讛谉 诇讗砖讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专


GEMARA: From where do we derive that the portion of the warning and the oath administered by the priest to a sota can be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淎nd the priest shall say to the woman鈥 (Numbers 5:21), which indicates: In any language that he speaks.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪讬注讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讬讗 砖讜诪注转 注诇 诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 注诇 诪讛 谞讟诪讗转 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讟诪讗转


The Sages taught (Tosefta 2:1): The priest informs the sota in any language that she can hear and understand for what reason she must drink the bitter water of a sota, and from what vessel she will drink, on account of what actions she is considered to be defiled and in what way she defiled herself.


注诇 诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 注诇 注住拽讬 拽讬谞讜讬 讜住转讬专讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 讘诪拽讬讚讛 砖诇 讞专砖


For what reason must she drink the bitter water? She must drink it on account of the matter of the warning given to her by her husband, and her subsequent seclusion. And from what vessel does she drink? She drinks from a mekeida, a simple vessel, of clay.


注诇 诪讛 谞讟诪讗转 注诇 注住拽讬 砖讞讜拽 讜讬诇讚讜转 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讟诪讗转 讘砖讜讙讙 讗讜 讘诪讝讬讚 讘讗讜谞住 [讗讜] 讘专爪讜谉 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讜爪讬讗 诇注讝 注诇 诪讬诐 讛诪专讬诐:


On account of what actions is she considered to be defiled? It is on account of matters of levity and immaturity. And in what way did she defile herself? The priest must explain to her that there is a difference between whether she acted unwittingly or intentionally, and whether she acted due to circumstances beyond her control, or whether she acted willingly. And why does all of this need to be explained to her? In order not to cast aspersions on the bitter water of a sota, as, if she committed adultery unwittingly or due to circumstances beyond her control, the water will not affect her.


讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专: 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘注专转讬 讛拽讚砖 诪谉 讛讘讬转 讜讬诇讬祝 讗诪讬专讛 诪住讜讟讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专


From where do we derive that the declaration of tithes may be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淭hen you shall say before the Lord your God: I have put away the hallowed things out of my house鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13). And derive a verbal analogy from the saying mentioned in this verse, and the saying mentioned in the verse with regard to a sota (Numbers 5:21), that one is permitted to recite the declaration of tithes in any language that he speaks.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讝讘讬讚 诇讗讘讬讬 讜诇讬诇祝 讗诪讬专讛 诪诇讜讬诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


Rav Zevid said to Abaye: But let us derive a verbal analogy from the saying mentioned in the verse: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites recited the blessings and curses in the sacred tongue, so too here, one must recite the declaration of tithes in the sacred tongue.


讚谞讬谉 讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诪讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诪注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛


Abaye answered: One derives a verbal analogy from the term saying in a verse where the word 鈥渟ay鈥 appears alone and another instance where the word saying appears alone. And one does not derive a verbal analogy from the word saying when it appears alone, as it does in the verse about the declaration of tithes, and in a verse that mentions speaking and saying, such as the verse concerning the Levites.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 讗讜诪专 砖讘讞讜 讘拽讜诇 谞诪讜讱 讜讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐


The distinction between merely saying, and speaking and saying, is significant, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: A person should say his own praise in a soft voice, and say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice.


砖讘讞讜 讘拽讜诇 谞诪讜讱 诪谉 讜讬讚讜讬 讛诪注砖专 讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 诪诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐


That one should say his praise in a soft voice is derived from the portion of the declaration of tithes, where one declares that he has acted appropriately, and the verse does not state: And you shall speak. That one should say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice is derived from the recitation of the first fruits, concerning which the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), i.e., it should be recited loudly. The portion recited when bringing the first fruits details the hardships that the Jewish people suffered and denigrates Laban the Aramean, who is a progenitor of the Jewish people.


讜讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转拽谞讜 转驻诇讛 讘诇讞砖 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 注讜讘专讬 注讘讬专讛 砖讛专讬 诇讗 讞诇拽 讛讻转讜讘 诪拽讜诐 讘讬谉 讞讟讗转 诇注讜诇讛


The Gemara asks: But should one really say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i himself: For what reason did the Sages institute that the Amida prayer should be recited in a whisper? So as not to embarrass transgressors who confess their transgressions during their prayer. There is proof that transgressors should not be embarrassed, as the verse detailing where different offerings are slaughtered does not differentiate between the place where a sin-offering is slaughtered and the place where a burnt-offering is slaughtered, so that it will not be recognized when one is bringing a sin-offering and the sinner will not be embarrassed. This shows that one should also say that which is to his discredit quietly.


诇讗 转讬诪讗 讙谞讜转讜 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 爪注专讜 讻讚转谞讬讗 讜讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讬拽专讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 爪注专讜 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐 讜讻诇 诪讬 砖讗讬专注 讘讜 讚讘专 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐


The Gemara corrects the previous statement: Do not say that one should say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice; rather, say that one should publicize his pain in a loud voice. As it is taught in a baraita: It is derived from the verse: 鈥淎nd will cry: Impure, impure鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), that a leper must publicize the fact that he is ritually impure. He must announce his pain to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf. And similarly, anyone to whom a painful matter happens must announce it to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转讬拽谞讜 转驻诇讛 讘诇讞砖 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 注讜讘专讬 注讘讬专讛 砖讛专讬 诇讗 讞诇拽 讛讻转讜讘 诪拽讜诐 讘讬谉 讞讟讗转 诇注讜诇讛


The Gemara returns to the aforementioned matter itself: Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i: For what reason did the Sages institute that prayer should be said in a whisper? It is so as not to embarrass transgressors, as the verse does not differentiate between the place where a sin-offering is slaughtered and the place where a burnt-offering is slaughtered.


讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讚诪讬诐 讚诐 讞讟讗转 诇诪注诇讛 讜讚诐 注讜诇讛 诇诪讟讛 讛转诐 讻讛谉 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注


The Gemara asks: But is there really no differentiation between the places where a burnt-offering and a sin-offering are sacrificed? But isn鈥檛 there a difference with regard to the place where the blood is sprinkled, as the blood of a sin-offering is sprinkled above, on the upper half of the altar, and the blood of a burnt-offering is sprinkled below, on its lower half? The Gemara answers: There, the priest is the one who knows what offering it is, but other people who are not standing there do not know.


讜讛讗讬讻讗 讞讟讗转 谞拽讘讛 注讜诇讛 讝讻专 讛转诐 诪讬讻住讬讗 讘讗诇讬讛


The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 there a visibly apparent difference between the two offerings, as a sin-offering is female and a burnt-offering is male? The Gemara answers: There, in the case of a sin-offering, its genitals are covered by the tail and therefore the gender of the animal is not plainly obvious.


转讬谞讞 讻讘砖讛 砖注讬专讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讛转诐 讗讬讛讜 讚拽讗 诪讬讻住讬祝 谞驻砖讬讛 讚讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 讻讘砖讛 讜拽讗 诪讬讬转讬 砖注讬专讛


The Gemara asks: That works out well if one brings a female lamb for a sin-offering, as its long tail covers its genitals. However, if one brings a female goat, which does not have a long tail, what can be said? The Gemara answers: If one brings a female goat, there he is the one who embarrasses himself, as he should have brought a female lamb if he wanted to hide the fact that he sinned, and instead he brought a female goat. It is therefore not necessary to be concerned about his embarrassment.


讞讟讗转 讚注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚诇讗 住讙讬 讚诇讗讜 砖注讬专讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讛转诐 谞讬讻住讬祝 讜谞讬讝讬诇 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚谞讻驻专 诇讬讛:


The Gemara asks: With regard to a sin-offering that is brought for idol worship, for which it does not suffice to bring any animal that is not a female goat, as it is explicitly stated that in that case one must bring a female goat as a sin-offering, what can be said? The Gemara answers: There, due to the severity of the sin, let him go and be embarrassed, so that his sin will be atoned for through his embarrassment as well.


拽专讬转 砖诪注: 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注


搂 The Gemara continues its discussion of the recitations that can be stated in any language. From where do we derive that Shema may be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淗ear, O Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which is homiletically interpreted to mean that it can be recited in any language that you can hear and understand.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽专讬转 砖诪注 讻讻转讘讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉


The Sages taught (Tosefta 7:7): Shema must be recited in Hebrew as it is written; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: It may be recited in any language.


诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬讜 讘讛讜讜讬讬转谉 讬讛讜


The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The verse states: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be upon your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6). 鈥淲ill be鈥 means as they are, so shall they be. They should remain unchanged, in their original language.


讜专讘谞谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖诪注 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注


The Gemara asks further: And what is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? The Gemara answers: The verse states: 鈥淗ear, O Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which they explain to mean that Shema must be understood. Therefore, one may recite Shema in any language that you can hear and understand.


讜专讘谞谉 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜 讛讛讜讗 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗谞讛 诇诪驻专注


The Gemara asks: But according to the Rabbis as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd these words will be鈥? The Gemara answers: From that it is derived that one may not recite it out of order. One may not begin reciting Shema from the end, but only in the order in which it is written.


讜专讘讬 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗谞讛 诇诪驻专注 诪谞诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讛 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讛讜


The Gemara asks: And from where does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derive the halakha that one may not recite it out of order? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derives it from an additional emphasis in the verse 鈥淎nd the words [hadevarim], which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 The verse could have conveyed the same idea had it written: Words, without the definite article. However, it says the words, employing the definite article, teaching that it must be recited in the specific order in which it is written. And the Rabbis do not learn anything from the difference between 鈥渨ords鈥 and 鈥渢he words.鈥


讜专讘讬 谞诪讬 讛讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诇讛 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 讜诇讗 讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 讬爪讗


The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi as well, isn鈥檛 the word 鈥渉ear鈥 written? The Gemara answers: He requires that for the halakha that you must have your ears hear that which comes out of your mouth, i.e., one must recite Shema audibly so he hears it while reciting it. And from where do the Rabbis derive that one must recite Shema audibly? The Rabbis do not accept this literal interpretation of the word Shema. Rather, they hold according to the one who says: One who recites Shema in a manner inaudible to his own ears has fulfilled his obligation. The Rabbis therefore interpret the word 鈥渉ear鈥 as referring to the language that one uses.


诇讬诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘讬


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds

  • This month's learning聽is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory of聽her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Bat聽Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

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Sotah 32

讜讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讻讙讜谉 讚讗转讗讬 讗砖讛 诪注讬拽专讗


And with what are we dealing here in the mishna? A case where a woman, who is generally disqualified from bearing witness, came initially, and testified that the woman committed adultery, and two witnesses say that she did not.


讜转专爪讛 诇讚专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讛讻讬 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讛讗诪讬谞讛 转讜专讛 注讚 讗讞讚 讛诇讱 讗讞专 专讜讘 讚讬注讜转 讜注砖讜 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讘讗砖讛 讗讞转 讻砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬砖 讗讞讚 讗讘诇 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讘讗讬砖 讗讞讚 讻讬 驻诇讙讗 讜驻诇讙讗 讚诪讬


And according to this interpretation you must amend the statement of Rabbi Ne岣mya so that it reads like this: Rabbi Ne岣mya says: Wherever the Torah relies on one witness, follow the majority of opinions. And the Sages established that two women against one woman are like two men against one man. But two women in opposition to one man that is a valid witness, is like half of a pair of witnesses and a half of a pair of witnesses, and the mishna did not address that case.


讜转专转讬 讘驻住讜诇讬 注讚讜转 诇诪讛 诇讬 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讻讬 讗讝诇讬谞谉 讘转专 专讜讘 讚讬注讜转 诇讞讜诪专讗 讗讘诇 诇拽讜诇讗 诇讗 讗讝诇讬谞谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara poses a question on these two interpretations of the mishna: And why do I need two cases in the mishna to teach the halakha that the majority opinion of those disqualified from bearing witness is followed? The Gemara explains: It is necessary, lest you say that when we follow the majority opinion in the case of invalid witnesses, this is to be stringent to force the woman to drink the bitter water, e.g., if one witness said that she committed adultery and two said that she did not, but to be lenient and absolve her from having to drink the water we do not follow the majority opinion, and she would still drink the water even if there is one witness saying that she did not commit adultery, therefore the mishna teaches us that there is no difference in this regard, and the majority opinion is followed in any case.


讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讬 砖拽讬谞讗



讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 驻专砖转 住讜讟讛 讜讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专 拽专讬转 砖诪注 讜转驻诇讛 讜讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉 讜砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转 讜砖讘讜注转 讛驻讬拽讚讜谉


MISHNA: These are recited in any language, not specifically Hebrew: The portion of the warning and the oath administered by the priest to a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota]; and the declaration of tithes, which occurs after the third and the sixth years of the seven-year Sabbatical cycle, when one declares that he has given his tithes appropriately; Shema; and the Amida prayer; and Grace after Meals; and an oath of testimony, where one takes an oath that he does not have any testimony to provide on a given issue; and an oath on a deposit, where one takes an oath that he does not have possession of another鈥檚 deposit.


讜讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讜讞诇讬爪讛 讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讘专讻转 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜驻专砖转 讛诪诇讱 讜驻专砖转 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜诪砖讜讞 诪诇讞诪讛 讘砖注讛 砖诪讚讘专 讗诇 讛注诐


And these are recited only in the sacred tongue, Hebrew: The recitation of the verses that one recounts when bringing the first fruits to the Temple; and the recitations which form an element of the ritual through which a yavam frees a yevama of her levirate bonds [岣litza]; the blessings and curses that were spoken on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal; the Priestly Benediction; and the blessing on the Torah recited by the High Priest on Yom Kippur; and the portion of the Torah read by the king at the assembly on Sukkot at the conclusion of the Sabbatical Year; and the portion recited during the ritual of a heifer whose neck is broken, when a person is found killed in an area that is between two cities, and the murderer is unknown; and the speech of a priest who is anointed for war when he addresses the nation before going out to battle.


诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞讬转 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


How is it derived that the recitation when bringing the first fruits is recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say before the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), and below, in the discussion of the blessings and curses, it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


讞诇讬爪讛 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


How is it derived that the recitation at a 岣litza ceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse in the Torah portion discussing 岣litza states: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9), and below it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 讻讻讛 注讚 砖转讗诪专 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛


Rabbi Yehuda says: This can be derived from a different word in the verse: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that does not build up his brother鈥檚 house鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). The word 鈥渟o鈥 indicates that her statement is ineffective unless she says it in these exact words.


讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讻讬爪讚 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讘讗讜 讗诇 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讗诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 砖讘砖讜诪专讜谉 砖讘爪讚 砖讻诐 砖讘讗爪诇 讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 讜讙讜壮 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讬注讘专 讗讘专诐 讘讗专抓 注讚 诪拽讜诐 砖讻诐 注讚 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 诪讛 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 诇讛诇谉 砖讻诐 讗祝 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 讻讗谉 砖讻诐


How did the ceremony of the blessings and curses take place? When the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River they came to Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are in Samaria alongside the city of Shechem, which is near the oaks of Moreh, as it is stated: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah, over against Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh?鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:30), and there it states: 鈥淎nd Abram passed through the land until the place of Shechem, until the oaks of Moreh鈥 (Genesis 12:6). Just as the oaks of Moreh mentioned there with regard to Abraham are close to Shechem, so too, the oaks of Moreh mentioned here are close to Shechem.


砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜讛讻讛谞讬诐 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讜讛讗专讜谉 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇诪讟讛 讘讗诪爪注 讛讻讛谞讬诐 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讗转 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜诪讻讗谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜讝拽谞讬讜 讜砖讟专讬诐 讜砖驻讟讬讜 注讜诪讚讬诐 诪讝讛 讜诪讝讛 诇讗专讜谉 讜讙讜壮


Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim and six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Ebal, and the priests and the Levites and the Ark were standing at the bottom in the middle, between the two mountains. The priests were surrounding the Ark and the Levites were surrounding the priests, and all the rest of the Jewish people were standing on the mountains on this side and on that side, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side before the priests the Levites that bore the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord鈥 (Joshua 8:33).


讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讘专讜讱 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 诇讗 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜驻转讞讜 讘拽诇诇讛 讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉 注讚 砖讙讜诪专讬谉 讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转


The Levites then turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with the blessing: Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image (see Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people, i.e., the two groups standing on either mountain, answered: Amen. Then they turned to face Mount Ebal and opened with the curse: 鈥淐ursed be the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people answered: Amen. They continued in this manner until they completed reciting all of the blessings and curses.


讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讜 讗转 讛诪讝讘讞 讜住讚讜讛讜 讘住讬讚 讜讻转讘讜 注诇讬讜 讗转 讻诇 讚讘专讬 讛转讜专讛 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗专 讛讬讟讘 讜谞讟诇讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘讗讜


And afterward they brought the stones as commanded in the Torah, and they built the altar and plastered it with plaster, and they wrote on it all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:8), indicating that it was to be written in every language. And they then took the stones from there and came


讜诇谞讜 讘诪拽讜诪谉:


to Gilgal and slept in their lodging place.


讙诪壮 驻专砖转 住讜讟讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专 讛讻讛谉 诇讗砖讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专


GEMARA: From where do we derive that the portion of the warning and the oath administered by the priest to a sota can be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淎nd the priest shall say to the woman鈥 (Numbers 5:21), which indicates: In any language that he speaks.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪讬注讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讬讗 砖讜诪注转 注诇 诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 注诇 诪讛 谞讟诪讗转 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讟诪讗转


The Sages taught (Tosefta 2:1): The priest informs the sota in any language that she can hear and understand for what reason she must drink the bitter water of a sota, and from what vessel she will drink, on account of what actions she is considered to be defiled and in what way she defiled herself.


注诇 诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 注诇 注住拽讬 拽讬谞讜讬 讜住转讬专讛 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 砖讜转讛 讘诪拽讬讚讛 砖诇 讞专砖


For what reason must she drink the bitter water? She must drink it on account of the matter of the warning given to her by her husband, and her subsequent seclusion. And from what vessel does she drink? She drinks from a mekeida, a simple vessel, of clay.


注诇 诪讛 谞讟诪讗转 注诇 注住拽讬 砖讞讜拽 讜讬诇讚讜转 讜讘诪讛 讛讬讗 谞讟诪讗转 讘砖讜讙讙 讗讜 讘诪讝讬讚 讘讗讜谞住 [讗讜] 讘专爪讜谉 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讜爪讬讗 诇注讝 注诇 诪讬诐 讛诪专讬诐:


On account of what actions is she considered to be defiled? It is on account of matters of levity and immaturity. And in what way did she defile herself? The priest must explain to her that there is a difference between whether she acted unwittingly or intentionally, and whether she acted due to circumstances beyond her control, or whether she acted willingly. And why does all of this need to be explained to her? In order not to cast aspersions on the bitter water of a sota, as, if she committed adultery unwittingly or due to circumstances beyond her control, the water will not affect her.


讜讬讚讜讬 诪注砖专: 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘注专转讬 讛拽讚砖 诪谉 讛讘讬转 讜讬诇讬祝 讗诪讬专讛 诪住讜讟讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专


From where do we derive that the declaration of tithes may be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淭hen you shall say before the Lord your God: I have put away the hallowed things out of my house鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:13). And derive a verbal analogy from the saying mentioned in this verse, and the saying mentioned in the verse with regard to a sota (Numbers 5:21), that one is permitted to recite the declaration of tithes in any language that he speaks.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讝讘讬讚 诇讗讘讬讬 讜诇讬诇祝 讗诪讬专讛 诪诇讜讬诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


Rav Zevid said to Abaye: But let us derive a verbal analogy from the saying mentioned in the verse: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, the Levites recited the blessings and curses in the sacred tongue, so too here, one must recite the declaration of tithes in the sacred tongue.


讚谞讬谉 讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诪讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗诪讬专讛 讙专讬讚转讗 诪注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛


Abaye answered: One derives a verbal analogy from the term saying in a verse where the word 鈥渟ay鈥 appears alone and another instance where the word saying appears alone. And one does not derive a verbal analogy from the word saying when it appears alone, as it does in the verse about the declaration of tithes, and in a verse that mentions speaking and saying, such as the verse concerning the Levites.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 讗讜诪专 砖讘讞讜 讘拽讜诇 谞诪讜讱 讜讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐


The distinction between merely saying, and speaking and saying, is significant, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: A person should say his own praise in a soft voice, and say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice.


砖讘讞讜 讘拽讜诇 谞诪讜讱 诪谉 讜讬讚讜讬 讛诪注砖专 讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 诪诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐


That one should say his praise in a soft voice is derived from the portion of the declaration of tithes, where one declares that he has acted appropriately, and the verse does not state: And you shall speak. That one should say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice is derived from the recitation of the first fruits, concerning which the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), i.e., it should be recited loudly. The portion recited when bringing the first fruits details the hardships that the Jewish people suffered and denigrates Laban the Aramean, who is a progenitor of the Jewish people.


讜讙谞讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转拽谞讜 转驻诇讛 讘诇讞砖 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 注讜讘专讬 注讘讬专讛 砖讛专讬 诇讗 讞诇拽 讛讻转讜讘 诪拽讜诐 讘讬谉 讞讟讗转 诇注讜诇讛


The Gemara asks: But should one really say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i himself: For what reason did the Sages institute that the Amida prayer should be recited in a whisper? So as not to embarrass transgressors who confess their transgressions during their prayer. There is proof that transgressors should not be embarrassed, as the verse detailing where different offerings are slaughtered does not differentiate between the place where a sin-offering is slaughtered and the place where a burnt-offering is slaughtered, so that it will not be recognized when one is bringing a sin-offering and the sinner will not be embarrassed. This shows that one should also say that which is to his discredit quietly.


诇讗 转讬诪讗 讙谞讜转讜 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 爪注专讜 讻讚转谞讬讗 讜讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讬拽专讗 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 爪注专讜 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐 讜讻诇 诪讬 砖讗讬专注 讘讜 讚讘专 爪专讬讱 诇讛讜讚讬注 诇专讘讬诐 讜专讘讬诐 诪讘拽砖讬诐 注诇讬讜 专讞诪讬诐


The Gemara corrects the previous statement: Do not say that one should say that which is to his discredit in a loud voice; rather, say that one should publicize his pain in a loud voice. As it is taught in a baraita: It is derived from the verse: 鈥淎nd will cry: Impure, impure鈥 (Leviticus 13:45), that a leper must publicize the fact that he is ritually impure. He must announce his pain to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf. And similarly, anyone to whom a painful matter happens must announce it to the masses, and the masses will pray for mercy on his behalf.


讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转讬拽谞讜 转驻诇讛 讘诇讞砖 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 注讜讘专讬 注讘讬专讛 砖讛专讬 诇讗 讞诇拽 讛讻转讜讘 诪拽讜诐 讘讬谉 讞讟讗转 诇注讜诇讛


The Gemara returns to the aforementioned matter itself: Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yo岣i: For what reason did the Sages institute that prayer should be said in a whisper? It is so as not to embarrass transgressors, as the verse does not differentiate between the place where a sin-offering is slaughtered and the place where a burnt-offering is slaughtered.


讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讚诪讬诐 讚诐 讞讟讗转 诇诪注诇讛 讜讚诐 注讜诇讛 诇诪讟讛 讛转诐 讻讛谉 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注


The Gemara asks: But is there really no differentiation between the places where a burnt-offering and a sin-offering are sacrificed? But isn鈥檛 there a difference with regard to the place where the blood is sprinkled, as the blood of a sin-offering is sprinkled above, on the upper half of the altar, and the blood of a burnt-offering is sprinkled below, on its lower half? The Gemara answers: There, the priest is the one who knows what offering it is, but other people who are not standing there do not know.


讜讛讗讬讻讗 讞讟讗转 谞拽讘讛 注讜诇讛 讝讻专 讛转诐 诪讬讻住讬讗 讘讗诇讬讛


The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 there a visibly apparent difference between the two offerings, as a sin-offering is female and a burnt-offering is male? The Gemara answers: There, in the case of a sin-offering, its genitals are covered by the tail and therefore the gender of the animal is not plainly obvious.


转讬谞讞 讻讘砖讛 砖注讬专讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讛转诐 讗讬讛讜 讚拽讗 诪讬讻住讬祝 谞驻砖讬讛 讚讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 讻讘砖讛 讜拽讗 诪讬讬转讬 砖注讬专讛


The Gemara asks: That works out well if one brings a female lamb for a sin-offering, as its long tail covers its genitals. However, if one brings a female goat, which does not have a long tail, what can be said? The Gemara answers: If one brings a female goat, there he is the one who embarrasses himself, as he should have brought a female lamb if he wanted to hide the fact that he sinned, and instead he brought a female goat. It is therefore not necessary to be concerned about his embarrassment.


讞讟讗转 讚注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚诇讗 住讙讬 讚诇讗讜 砖注讬专讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讛转诐 谞讬讻住讬祝 讜谞讬讝讬诇 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚谞讻驻专 诇讬讛:


The Gemara asks: With regard to a sin-offering that is brought for idol worship, for which it does not suffice to bring any animal that is not a female goat, as it is explicitly stated that in that case one must bring a female goat as a sin-offering, what can be said? The Gemara answers: There, due to the severity of the sin, let him go and be embarrassed, so that his sin will be atoned for through his embarrassment as well.


拽专讬转 砖诪注: 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注


搂 The Gemara continues its discussion of the recitations that can be stated in any language. From where do we derive that Shema may be recited in any language? As it is written: 鈥淗ear, O Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which is homiletically interpreted to mean that it can be recited in any language that you can hear and understand.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽专讬转 砖诪注 讻讻转讘讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉


The Sages taught (Tosefta 7:7): Shema must be recited in Hebrew as it is written; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: It may be recited in any language.


诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬讜 讘讛讜讜讬讬转谉 讬讛讜


The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The verse states: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be upon your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6). 鈥淲ill be鈥 means as they are, so shall they be. They should remain unchanged, in their original language.


讜专讘谞谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖诪注 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注


The Gemara asks further: And what is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? The Gemara answers: The verse states: 鈥淗ear, O Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which they explain to mean that Shema must be understood. Therefore, one may recite Shema in any language that you can hear and understand.


讜专讘谞谉 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜 讛讛讜讗 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗谞讛 诇诪驻专注


The Gemara asks: But according to the Rabbis as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd these words will be鈥? The Gemara answers: From that it is derived that one may not recite it out of order. One may not begin reciting Shema from the end, but only in the order in which it is written.


讜专讘讬 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗谞讛 诇诪驻专注 诪谞诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讛 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讛讜


The Gemara asks: And from where does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derive the halakha that one may not recite it out of order? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derives it from an additional emphasis in the verse 鈥淎nd the words [hadevarim], which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 The verse could have conveyed the same idea had it written: Words, without the definite article. However, it says the words, employing the definite article, teaching that it must be recited in the specific order in which it is written. And the Rabbis do not learn anything from the difference between 鈥渨ords鈥 and 鈥渢he words.鈥


讜专讘讬 谞诪讬 讛讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诇讛 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 讜诇讗 讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 讬爪讗


The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi as well, isn鈥檛 the word 鈥渉ear鈥 written? The Gemara answers: He requires that for the halakha that you must have your ears hear that which comes out of your mouth, i.e., one must recite Shema audibly so he hears it while reciting it. And from where do the Rabbis derive that one must recite Shema audibly? The Rabbis do not accept this literal interpretation of the word Shema. Rather, they hold according to the one who says: One who recites Shema in a manner inaudible to his own ears has fulfilled his obligation. The Rabbis therefore interpret the word 鈥渉ear鈥 as referring to the language that one uses.


诇讬诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘讬


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds

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