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Today's Daf Yomi

May 1, 2023 | 讬壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讙

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

Sotah 33

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Lebi family in honor of Maytal Melamed for finishing her year-long study of Masechet Megillah as part of her bat mitzvah preparation. “We’re very proud of you!”

Prayer can be said in any language as it needs to be meaningful and understood, as we are asking God for mercy. However, Rav Yehuda said that one cannot pray in Aramaic as the angels don’t understand Aramaic! A distinction is made between individual prayer, where an angel is needed to bring the prayers to God, and prayer in a public forum which goes directly to God. A difficulty is raised against Rav Yehuda as a story is told of a heavenly voice that spoke from the Holy of Holies in Aramaic on two different occasions. Two possible solutions are suggested. Verses are brought to show how we derive that the other cases listed in the Mishna can be said in any language. The Mishna had derived from the case of the blessings and the curses that when the Torah uses the wording “and they answered and they said” it means it must be said in Hebrew. From here they derived the law for chalitza and bikurim. But from where do they derive that the blessings and the curses needed to be said in Hebrew only? There was a debate regarding the derivation for chalitza. How does each deal with the proof from the verse of the other opinion? What are the different opinions about the location of Mount Grizim and Mount Eival? How does each one explain the description of the location in Devarim 11:30? What did Rabbi Elazar b’Rabbi Yosi claim to the Shomronim (Kutim) against their traditions regarding the location of Mount Grizim and Mount Eival? How exactly did the Jews cross the Jordan River on their entry into Israel?

讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讜讛讬讜 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬


that the entire Torah may be recited in any language, as, if it should enter your mind to say that the entire Torah may be recited only in the sacred tongue and not in any other language, why do I need that which the Merciful One writes: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥? If in fact it is prohibited for one to recite any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew, then prohibiting the recitation of Shema in a language other than Hebrew is superfluous. Since the Torah specifically requires Shema to be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.


讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注


The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This is not unquestionably so, as the phrase 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is necessary in this case because 鈥渉ear鈥 is also written. Had it not said 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be,鈥 it would have been derived from the word 鈥渉ear鈥 that Shema may be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, the phrase 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is necessary.


诇讬诪讗 拽住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖诪注 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that the Rabbis hold that the entire Torah may be recited only in the sacred tongue and not in any other language? As, if it should enter your mind to say that the Torah may be recited in any language, why do I need that which the Merciful One writes: 鈥淗ear鈥? It is permitted for one to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement with regard to Shema superfluous.


讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜:


The Gemara rejects this: The word 鈥渉ear鈥 is necessary in any case, because 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is also written. Had it not been for the word 鈥渉ear,鈥 the Rabbis would have understood that it is prohibited to recite Shema in any other language, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Therefore, the word 鈥渉ear鈥 is necessary.


转驻诇讛: 专讞诪讬 讛讬讗 讻诇 讛讬讻讬 讚讘注讬 诪爪诇讬


搂 It is stated in the mishna that the Amida prayer may be recited in any language. The reason for this is that since prayer is a request for divine mercy, one may pray in any way that one desires.


讜转驻诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬砖讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬转 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜讗诇 爪专讻讬讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬


The Gemara asks: But may prayer really be recited in any language? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request in the Aramaic language that his needs be met, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said that with regard to anyone who requests in the Aramaic language that his needs be met, the ministering angels do not attend to him, as the ministering angels are not familiar [makkirin] with the Aramaic language?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讗 讘爪讘讜专


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan is referring to the prayer of an individual, who needs the support of the angels, whereas this statement of the mishna is referring to communal prayer.


讜讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖诪注 讘转 拽讜诇 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 谞爪讞讜 讟诇讬讗 讚讗讝诇讜 诇讗讙讞讗 拽专讘讗 诇讗谞讟讜讻讬讗 讜砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘砖诪注讜谉 讛爪讚讬拽 砖砖诪注 讘转 拽讜诇 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讟讬诇转 注讘讬讚转讗 讚讗诪专 砖谞讗讛 诇讗讬讬转讗讛 注诇 讛讬讻诇讗 讜谞讛专讙 讙住拽诇讙住 讜讘讟诇讜 讙讝讬专讜转讬讜 讜讻转讘讜 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讜讻讬讜讜谞讜 讜讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专


The Gemara asks: And are the ministering angels not familiar with the Aramaic language? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:5): Yo岣nan the High Priest heard a Divine Voice emerging from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The youth who went to wage war in Antokhya have been victorious. And there was another incident involving Shimon HaTzaddik, who heard a Divine Voice emerging from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The decree that the enemy intended to bring against the Temple is annulled, and Gaskalgas, Caligula, has been killed and his decrees have been voided. And people wrote down that time that the Divine Voice was heard, and later found that it matched exactly the moment that Caligula was killed. The Gemara concludes: And this Divine Voice was speaking in the Aramaic language.


讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘转 拽讜诇 砖讗谞讬 讚诇讗砖诪讜注讬 注讘讬讚讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讛讜讛 讚讗诪专 诪专 讘讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讜诇讬诪讚讜 砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉:


The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the Divine Voice is different, as its purpose is to communicate a message, and therefore it also communicates in Aramaic. And if you wish, say instead that it was the angel Gabriel, as the Master said with regard to Joseph: Gabriel came and taught him seventy languages, as he knows all of the languages, as opposed to the other angels, who do not.


讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉: 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 诪讘专讱:


搂 It is stated in the mishna that Grace after Meals may be recited in any language. As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall eat, and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 8:10). The word 鈥渂less鈥 is homiletically interpreted to mean: In any language that you bless.


砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转: 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞驻砖 讻讬 转讞讟讗 讜砖诪注讛 拽讜诇 讗诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讬讗 砖讜诪注转:


It is stated in the mishna that an oath of testimony may be said in any language, as it is written: 鈥淎nd if anyone sins, in that he heard the voice of adjuration鈥 (Leviticus 5:1). The emphasis on hearing in the verse is interpreted to mean that it can be recited in any language that a person hears, i.e., understands.


砖讘讜注转 讛驻拽讚讜谉: 讗转讬讗 转讞讟讗 转讞讟讗 诪砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转:


It is stated in the mishna that an oath on a deposit may be taken in any language. This is derived by means of a verbal analogy from the word 鈥渟ins鈥 (Leviticus 5:21) that appears in the portion of an oath on a deposit, and the word 鈥渟ins鈥 (Leviticus 5:1) that is mentioned in the portion of an oath of testimony.


讜讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讜讞诇讬爪讛 讻讜壮 注讚 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞讬转 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 讗诇 讻诇 讗讬砖 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 注谞讬讬讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


搂 It is stated in the mishna: And these are recited only in the sacred tongue: The recitation of the verses that one recounts when bringing the first fruits to the Temple; and 岣litza鈥 How is it derived that the recitation when bringing the first fruits is recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say before the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), and below, in the discussion of the blessings and curses, it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say to all the men of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, in the portion of the Levites, they speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, in the portion of the first fruits, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


讜诇讜讬诐 讙讜驻讬讬讛讜 诪谞诇谉 讗转讬讗 拽讜诇 拽讜诇 诪诪砖讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 拽讜诇 专诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 诪砖讛 讬讚讘专 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 讬注谞谞讜 讘拽讜诇 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖:


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that the Levites themselves answered in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渧oice鈥 that appears here, in the portion of the blessings and curses, and the word 鈥渧oice鈥 in the verse that relates to Moses. It is written here: 鈥淲ith a loud voice鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14), and it is written there: 鈥淢oses spoke, and God answered him by a voice鈥 (Exodus 19:19). Just as there, the Ten Commandments were stated in the sacred tongue, so too here, the Levites spoke in the sacred tongue.


讞诇讬爪讛 讻讬爪讚 讜讻讜壮: 讜专讘谞谉 讛讗讬 讻讻讛 诪讗讬 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讛讜 诇讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 诪注砖讛 诪注讻讘


It is stated in the mishna: How is it derived that the recitation at a 岣litza ceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse states: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brother鈥檚 house鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). Rabbi Yehuda derives this halakha from the phrase: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). The Gemara asks: And what do the Rabbis do with, i.e., how do they interpret, this word 鈥渟o鈥? They require it to teach that any matter detailed in the portion that is an action is indispensable to the 岣litza ceremony, as the verse states: 鈥淪o shall it be done.鈥 However, the other aspects of the ritual, e.g., the recitations, are not indispensable, and in their absence the ritual is valid after the fact.


讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻讛 讻讻讛 讜专讘谞谉 讻讛 讻讻讛 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讛讜


And Rabbi Yehuda derives this halakha from the fact that the verse could have used the shorter form of the word so [ko], and instead uses the longer form of the word so [kakha]. He therefore derives both halakhot from this word. And the Rabbis do not learn anything from the difference between ko and kakha.


讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗讬 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讙诪讜专讬 诇诇讜讬诐 讚讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


The Gemara asks: And what does Rabbi Yehuda do with this verse: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say,鈥 from which the Rabbis derive that the recitation at the 岣litza ritual must be in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: He requires it in order to teach with regard to the Levites that they spoke in the sacred tongue. Whereas the Rabbis derive that the 岣litza ritual is performed in Hebrew from a verbal analogy between the verses concerning 岣litza and the verses about the Levites, Rabbi Yehuda derives that the Levites spoke in Hebrew due to this same verbal analogy, with 岣litza serving as the source.


讜诇讬诇祝 拽讜诇 诪诪砖讛 注谞讬讬讛 注谞讬讬讛 讙诪讬专 拽讜诇 拽讜诇 诇讗 讙诪讬专


The Gemara asks: But let Rabbi Yehuda derive that the Levites spoke in Hebrew from a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渧oice鈥 that is written with regard to the Levites (Deuteronomy 27:14) and the word 鈥渧oice鈥 in the verse about Moses (Exodus 19:19). The Gemara answers: He learned the verbal analogy between 鈥渟peak鈥 and 鈥渟peak鈥 from his teacher, and he did not learn the verbal analogy between 鈥渧oice鈥 and 鈥渧oice鈥 from his teacher.


转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讻讻讛 注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讻讛 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讻讻讛 讚讞诇讬爪讛 注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛 讚诇讜讬诐:


That is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: Every place where it is stated in the Torah: 鈥淪o [ko],鈥 or: 鈥淪o [kakha],鈥 or where the language of speaking and saying is used, it is referring only to the sacred tongue. The word ko appears in the context of the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o [ko] you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23). Kakha appears in the context of the 岣litza ceremony (Deuteronomy 25:9). The language of speaking and saying appears in relation to the Levites.


讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讻讬爪讚 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讻讜壮: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 诪注讘专 诇讬专讚谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讞专讬 讚专讱 诪讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪拽讜诐 砖讞诪讛 讝讜专讞转


搂 It is stated in the mishna: How did the ceremony of the blessings and curses take place? When the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River, etc. The Sages taught: When the Jewish people were in Transjordan, the location of Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal was described to them as follows: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the coming of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah, over against Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh?鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:30). 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan鈥 means farther west, beyond the Jordan River; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. 鈥淏ehind the way of the coming of the sun鈥; this is referring to the place where the sun rises, i.e., the east. In other words, they are at a distance from the Jordan River, which is in the east.


讘讗专抓 讛讻谞注谞讬 讛讬讜砖讘 讘注专讘讛 讗诇讜 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讛专 注讬讘诇 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讛诐 讻讜转讬讬诐 诪讜诇 讛讙诇讙诇 住诪讜讱 诇讙诇讙诇 讗爪诇 讗诇讜谞讬 诪专讛 砖讻诐 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讬注讘专 讗讘专诐 讘讗专抓 注讚 诪拽讜诐 砖讻诐 注讚 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 诪讛 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 诇讛诇谉 砖讻诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 砖讻诐


鈥淚n the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah鈥; this is referring to Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, where the Samaritans now live. 鈥淥ver against Gilgal鈥; this means near Gilgal. 鈥淏eside the oaks of Moreh鈥; this is referring to Shechem. And from where is it derived that this is Shechem? There, with regard to Abraham, the verse states: 鈥淎nd Abram passed through the land until the place of Shechem, until the oaks of Moreh鈥 (Genesis 12:6). Just as the oaks of Moreh stated there are identified as Shechem, so too here, they are Shechem.


转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讚讘专 讝讛 讝讬讬驻转讬 住驻专讬 讻讜转讬讬诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讛诐 讝讬讬驻转诐 转讜专转讻诐 讜诇讗 讛注诇讬转诐 讘讬讚讻诐 讻诇讜诐 砖讗转诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖讻诐 讗祝 讗谞讜 诪讜讚讬诐 砖讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖讻诐 讗谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜讛 讘讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 讗转诐 讘诪讛 诇诪讚转讜诐


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: In this matter, I proved the falsehood of the books of the Samaritans. I said to them: You forged your Torah by making additions to it, and you have not gained anything from it, as, you say that the oaks of Moreh is referring to Shechem, and we too concede that the oaks of Moreh is referring to Shechem. However, we derived this by means of a verbal analogy between verses. You, who do not use verbal analogies, how did you derive it?


专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 住诪讜讱 诇讬专讚谉 讚讗讬 诪注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛诇讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讘注讘专讻诐 讗转 讛讬专讚谉


Rabbi Elazar disagrees with Rabbi Yehuda and says: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan鈥 means near the Jordan River, as, if it meant farther west beyond the Jordan, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd it shall be when you have passed over the Jordan, that you shall set up these stones which I command you this day, on Mount Ebal鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:4)? This implies that Mount Ebal was near the location where the Jewish people crossed the Jordan.


讗讞专讬 讚专讱 诪讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪拽讜诐 砖讛讞诪讛 砖讜拽注转 讘讗专抓 讛讻谞注谞讬 讗专抓 讞讜讬 讛讬讗


鈥淏ehind the way of the coming of the sun,鈥 according to Rabbi Elazar, is referring to the place where the sun sets, in the west. This is distant from Shechem, which is in the center of Eretz Yisrael. Furthermore, the verse states: 鈥淚n the land of the Canaanites,鈥 and Shechem is located in the land of the Hivites (see Genesis 34:2).


讛讬讜砖讘 讘注专讘讛 讜讛诇讗 讘讬谉 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 诪讜诇 讛讙诇讙诇 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 专讗讜 讗转 讛讙诇讙诇


Similarly, the phrase 鈥渢hat dwell in the Arabah鈥 cannot be a description of the mountains known as Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal that are next to Shechem; aren鈥檛 they situated among mountains and hills? The description 鈥渙ver against Gilgal鈥 is also difficult; they could not see Gilgal from Shechem, as it is far away. Rather, according to Rabbi Elazar, Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal mentioned in the Torah are located closer to the Jordan River. They are not the mountains known by the same names that are located near Shechem.


专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讘讗 讛讻转讜讘 讗诇讗 诇讛专讗讜转 诇讛谉 讚专讱 讘砖谞讬讛 讻讚专讱 砖讛专讗讛 诇讛谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讚专讱 讘讚专讱 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 讛讬讜砖讘 讘讬砖讜讘 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘诪讚讘专讜转 讘注专讘讛 讘注专讘讛 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转


Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: The verse does not come to establish the location of Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. Rather, it comes to show the Jewish people the way the second time, when they were entering the land of Canaan, like the way He showed them the first time, when they left Egypt and a pillar of cloud went before them and made the terrain easier to transverse. The purpose of the verse is to instruct the Jewish people how to enter the land of Canaan with relative ease, despite the absence of the pillar of cloud. The word 鈥渨ay鈥 instructs them to go along a pre-established way, and not in fields and vineyards. The phrase 鈥渢hat dwell鈥 instructs them to go in settled areas and not in the wilderness. 鈥淚n the Arabah,鈥 which means plain, teaches them to go in the plains and not over mountains and hills.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬爪讚 注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讗专讜谉 谞讜住注 讗讞专 砖谞讬 讚讙诇讬诐 讜讛讬讜诐 谞住注 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讗专讜谉 讛讘专讬转 讗讚讜谉 讻诇 讛讗专抓 注讘专 诇驻谞讬讻诐 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诇讜讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讜讛讬讜诐 谞砖讗讜讛讜 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜讞 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬 讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬 讗专讜谉 讛壮 讜讙讜壮


The Sages taught (Tosefta 8:1): How did the Jewish people cross the Jordan? Every day the Ark would travel behind the two flags of Judah and Reuben, but on that day the Ark traveled in front, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth is passing before you鈥 (Joshua 3:11). On every other day, the Levites would carry the Ark, but on this day the priests carried it, as is stated: 鈥淎nd when the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the Ark of the Lord, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest鈥 (Joshua 3:13).


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖诇砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 谞砖讗讜 讻讛谞讬诐 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讻砖注讘专讜 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讻砖讛住讬讘讜 讗转 讬专讬讞讜 讜讻砖讛讞讝讬专讜讛讜 诇诪拽讜诪讜


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:2) that Rabbi Yosei says: In three different places the priests carried the Ark. They carried it when the Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and when they surrounded Jericho (Joshua 6:6), and when they returned it to its proper place in the Holy of Holies during the reign of King Solomon (I聽Kings 8:6).


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

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Sotah 33

讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讜讛讬讜 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬


that the entire Torah may be recited in any language, as, if it should enter your mind to say that the entire Torah may be recited only in the sacred tongue and not in any other language, why do I need that which the Merciful One writes: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥? If in fact it is prohibited for one to recite any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew, then prohibiting the recitation of Shema in a language other than Hebrew is superfluous. Since the Torah specifically requires Shema to be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.


讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注


The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This is not unquestionably so, as the phrase 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is necessary in this case because 鈥渉ear鈥 is also written. Had it not said 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be,鈥 it would have been derived from the word 鈥渉ear鈥 that Shema may be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, the phrase 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is necessary.


诇讬诪讗 拽住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖诪注 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that the Rabbis hold that the entire Torah may be recited only in the sacred tongue and not in any other language? As, if it should enter your mind to say that the Torah may be recited in any language, why do I need that which the Merciful One writes: 鈥淗ear鈥? It is permitted for one to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement with regard to Shema superfluous.


讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜:


The Gemara rejects this: The word 鈥渉ear鈥 is necessary in any case, because 鈥渁nd these words, which I command you this day, will be鈥 is also written. Had it not been for the word 鈥渉ear,鈥 the Rabbis would have understood that it is prohibited to recite Shema in any other language, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Therefore, the word 鈥渉ear鈥 is necessary.


转驻诇讛: 专讞诪讬 讛讬讗 讻诇 讛讬讻讬 讚讘注讬 诪爪诇讬


搂 It is stated in the mishna that the Amida prayer may be recited in any language. The reason for this is that since prayer is a request for divine mercy, one may pray in any way that one desires.


讜转驻诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注讜诇诐 讗诇 讬砖讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬转 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜讗诇 爪专讻讬讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬


The Gemara asks: But may prayer really be recited in any language? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request in the Aramaic language that his needs be met, as Rabbi Yo岣nan said that with regard to anyone who requests in the Aramaic language that his needs be met, the ministering angels do not attend to him, as the ministering angels are not familiar [makkirin] with the Aramaic language?


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讗 讘爪讘讜专


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan is referring to the prayer of an individual, who needs the support of the angels, whereas this statement of the mishna is referring to communal prayer.


讜讗讬谉 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖诪注 讘转 拽讜诇 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 谞爪讞讜 讟诇讬讗 讚讗讝诇讜 诇讗讙讞讗 拽专讘讗 诇讗谞讟讜讻讬讗 讜砖讜讘 诪注砖讛 讘砖诪注讜谉 讛爪讚讬拽 砖砖诪注 讘转 拽讜诇 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖 讛拽讚砖讬诐 砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讟讬诇转 注讘讬讚转讗 讚讗诪专 砖谞讗讛 诇讗讬讬转讗讛 注诇 讛讬讻诇讗 讜谞讛专讙 讙住拽诇讙住 讜讘讟诇讜 讙讝讬专讜转讬讜 讜讻转讘讜 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讜讻讬讜讜谞讜 讜讘诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专


The Gemara asks: And are the ministering angels not familiar with the Aramaic language? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita (Tosefta 13:5): Yo岣nan the High Priest heard a Divine Voice emerging from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The youth who went to wage war in Antokhya have been victorious. And there was another incident involving Shimon HaTzaddik, who heard a Divine Voice emerging from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The decree that the enemy intended to bring against the Temple is annulled, and Gaskalgas, Caligula, has been killed and his decrees have been voided. And people wrote down that time that the Divine Voice was heard, and later found that it matched exactly the moment that Caligula was killed. The Gemara concludes: And this Divine Voice was speaking in the Aramaic language.


讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘转 拽讜诇 砖讗谞讬 讚诇讗砖诪讜注讬 注讘讬讚讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讛讜讛 讚讗诪专 诪专 讘讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讜诇讬诪讚讜 砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉:


The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the Divine Voice is different, as its purpose is to communicate a message, and therefore it also communicates in Aramaic. And if you wish, say instead that it was the angel Gabriel, as the Master said with regard to Joseph: Gabriel came and taught him seventy languages, as he knows all of the languages, as opposed to the other angels, who do not.


讘专讻转 讛诪讝讜谉: 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讻诇转 讜砖讘注转 讜讘专讻转 讗转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 诪讘专讱:


搂 It is stated in the mishna that Grace after Meals may be recited in any language. As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall eat, and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 8:10). The word 鈥渂less鈥 is homiletically interpreted to mean: In any language that you bless.


砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转: 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞驻砖 讻讬 转讞讟讗 讜砖诪注讛 拽讜诇 讗诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讛讬讗 砖讜诪注转:


It is stated in the mishna that an oath of testimony may be said in any language, as it is written: 鈥淎nd if anyone sins, in that he heard the voice of adjuration鈥 (Leviticus 5:1). The emphasis on hearing in the verse is interpreted to mean that it can be recited in any language that a person hears, i.e., understands.


砖讘讜注转 讛驻拽讚讜谉: 讗转讬讗 转讞讟讗 转讞讟讗 诪砖讘讜注转 讛注讚讜转:


It is stated in the mishna that an oath on a deposit may be taken in any language. This is derived by means of a verbal analogy from the word 鈥渟ins鈥 (Leviticus 5:21) that appears in the portion of an oath on a deposit, and the word 鈥渟ins鈥 (Leviticus 5:1) that is mentioned in the portion of an oath of testimony.


讜讗诇讜 谞讗诪专讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讜讞诇讬爪讛 讻讜壮 注讚 诪拽专讗 讘讬讻讜专讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讜注谞讬转 讜讗诪专转 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注谞讜 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 讗诇 讻诇 讗讬砖 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 注谞讬讬讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


搂 It is stated in the mishna: And these are recited only in the sacred tongue: The recitation of the verses that one recounts when bringing the first fruits to the Temple; and 岣litza鈥 How is it derived that the recitation when bringing the first fruits is recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: 鈥淎nd you shall speak and say before the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 26:5), and below, in the discussion of the blessings and curses, it states: 鈥淎nd the Levites shall speak and say to all the men of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14). Just as there, in the portion of the Levites, they speak in the sacred tongue, so too here, in the portion of the first fruits, the recitation is in the sacred tongue.


讜诇讜讬诐 讙讜驻讬讬讛讜 诪谞诇谉 讗转讬讗 拽讜诇 拽讜诇 诪诪砖讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 拽讜诇 专诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 诪砖讛 讬讚讘专 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 讬注谞谞讜 讘拽讜诇 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖:


The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that the Levites themselves answered in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渧oice鈥 that appears here, in the portion of the blessings and curses, and the word 鈥渧oice鈥 in the verse that relates to Moses. It is written here: 鈥淲ith a loud voice鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:14), and it is written there: 鈥淢oses spoke, and God answered him by a voice鈥 (Exodus 19:19). Just as there, the Ten Commandments were stated in the sacred tongue, so too here, the Levites spoke in the sacred tongue.


讞诇讬爪讛 讻讬爪讚 讜讻讜壮: 讜专讘谞谉 讛讗讬 讻讻讛 诪讗讬 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讛讜 诇讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 诪注砖讛 诪注讻讘


It is stated in the mishna: How is it derived that the recitation at a 岣litza ceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse states: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brother鈥檚 house鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). Rabbi Yehuda derives this halakha from the phrase: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say: So鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:9). The Gemara asks: And what do the Rabbis do with, i.e., how do they interpret, this word 鈥渟o鈥? They require it to teach that any matter detailed in the portion that is an action is indispensable to the 岣litza ceremony, as the verse states: 鈥淪o shall it be done.鈥 However, the other aspects of the ritual, e.g., the recitations, are not indispensable, and in their absence the ritual is valid after the fact.


讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻讛 讻讻讛 讜专讘谞谉 讻讛 讻讻讛 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讛讜


And Rabbi Yehuda derives this halakha from the fact that the verse could have used the shorter form of the word so [ko], and instead uses the longer form of the word so [kakha]. He therefore derives both halakhot from this word. And the Rabbis do not learn anything from the difference between ko and kakha.


讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗讬 讜注谞转讛 讜讗诪专讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讙诪讜专讬 诇诇讜讬诐 讚讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖


The Gemara asks: And what does Rabbi Yehuda do with this verse: 鈥淎nd she shall speak and say,鈥 from which the Rabbis derive that the recitation at the 岣litza ritual must be in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: He requires it in order to teach with regard to the Levites that they spoke in the sacred tongue. Whereas the Rabbis derive that the 岣litza ritual is performed in Hebrew from a verbal analogy between the verses concerning 岣litza and the verses about the Levites, Rabbi Yehuda derives that the Levites spoke in Hebrew due to this same verbal analogy, with 岣litza serving as the source.


讜诇讬诇祝 拽讜诇 诪诪砖讛 注谞讬讬讛 注谞讬讬讛 讙诪讬专 拽讜诇 拽讜诇 诇讗 讙诪讬专


The Gemara asks: But let Rabbi Yehuda derive that the Levites spoke in Hebrew from a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渧oice鈥 that is written with regard to the Levites (Deuteronomy 27:14) and the word 鈥渧oice鈥 in the verse about Moses (Exodus 19:19). The Gemara answers: He learned the verbal analogy between 鈥渟peak鈥 and 鈥渟peak鈥 from his teacher, and he did not learn the verbal analogy between 鈥渧oice鈥 and 鈥渧oice鈥 from his teacher.


转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讻讻讛 注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讻讛 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讻讻讛 讚讞诇讬爪讛 注谞讬讬讛 讜讗诪讬专讛 讚诇讜讬诐:


That is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: Every place where it is stated in the Torah: 鈥淪o [ko],鈥 or: 鈥淪o [kakha],鈥 or where the language of speaking and saying is used, it is referring only to the sacred tongue. The word ko appears in the context of the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o [ko] you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23). Kakha appears in the context of the 岣litza ceremony (Deuteronomy 25:9). The language of speaking and saying appears in relation to the Levites.


讘专讻讜转 讜拽诇诇讜转 讻讬爪讚 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讻讜壮: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 诪注讘专 诇讬专讚谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讞专讬 讚专讱 诪讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪拽讜诐 砖讞诪讛 讝讜专讞转


搂 It is stated in the mishna: How did the ceremony of the blessings and curses take place? When the Jewish people crossed the Jordan River, etc. The Sages taught: When the Jewish people were in Transjordan, the location of Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal was described to them as follows: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the coming of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah, over against Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh?鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:30). 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan鈥 means farther west, beyond the Jordan River; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. 鈥淏ehind the way of the coming of the sun鈥; this is referring to the place where the sun rises, i.e., the east. In other words, they are at a distance from the Jordan River, which is in the east.


讘讗专抓 讛讻谞注谞讬 讛讬讜砖讘 讘注专讘讛 讗诇讜 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讛专 注讬讘诇 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讛诐 讻讜转讬讬诐 诪讜诇 讛讙诇讙诇 住诪讜讱 诇讙诇讙诇 讗爪诇 讗诇讜谞讬 诪专讛 砖讻诐 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜讬注讘专 讗讘专诐 讘讗专抓 注讚 诪拽讜诐 砖讻诐 注讚 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 诪讛 讗诇讜谉 诪讜专讛 讛讗诪讜专 诇讛诇谉 砖讻诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 砖讻诐


鈥淚n the land of the Canaanites that dwell in the Arabah鈥; this is referring to Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, where the Samaritans now live. 鈥淥ver against Gilgal鈥; this means near Gilgal. 鈥淏eside the oaks of Moreh鈥; this is referring to Shechem. And from where is it derived that this is Shechem? There, with regard to Abraham, the verse states: 鈥淎nd Abram passed through the land until the place of Shechem, until the oaks of Moreh鈥 (Genesis 12:6). Just as the oaks of Moreh stated there are identified as Shechem, so too here, they are Shechem.


转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讚讘专 讝讛 讝讬讬驻转讬 住驻专讬 讻讜转讬讬诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讛诐 讝讬讬驻转诐 转讜专转讻诐 讜诇讗 讛注诇讬转诐 讘讬讚讻诐 讻诇讜诐 砖讗转诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖讻诐 讗祝 讗谞讜 诪讜讚讬诐 砖讗诇讜谞讬 诪讜专讛 砖讻诐 讗谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜讛 讘讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 讗转诐 讘诪讛 诇诪讚转讜诐


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: In this matter, I proved the falsehood of the books of the Samaritans. I said to them: You forged your Torah by making additions to it, and you have not gained anything from it, as, you say that the oaks of Moreh is referring to Shechem, and we too concede that the oaks of Moreh is referring to Shechem. However, we derived this by means of a verbal analogy between verses. You, who do not use verbal analogies, how did you derive it?


专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讛诇讗 讛诪讛 讘注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 住诪讜讱 诇讬专讚谉 讚讗讬 诪注讘专 讛讬专讚谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讛诇讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讘注讘专讻诐 讗转 讛讬专讚谉


Rabbi Elazar disagrees with Rabbi Yehuda and says: 鈥淎re they not beyond the Jordan鈥 means near the Jordan River, as, if it meant farther west beyond the Jordan, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd it shall be when you have passed over the Jordan, that you shall set up these stones which I command you this day, on Mount Ebal鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:4)? This implies that Mount Ebal was near the location where the Jewish people crossed the Jordan.


讗讞专讬 讚专讱 诪讘讜讗 讛砖诪砖 诪拽讜诐 砖讛讞诪讛 砖讜拽注转 讘讗专抓 讛讻谞注谞讬 讗专抓 讞讜讬 讛讬讗


鈥淏ehind the way of the coming of the sun,鈥 according to Rabbi Elazar, is referring to the place where the sun sets, in the west. This is distant from Shechem, which is in the center of Eretz Yisrael. Furthermore, the verse states: 鈥淚n the land of the Canaanites,鈥 and Shechem is located in the land of the Hivites (see Genesis 34:2).


讛讬讜砖讘 讘注专讘讛 讜讛诇讗 讘讬谉 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉 诪讜诇 讛讙诇讙诇 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 专讗讜 讗转 讛讙诇讙诇


Similarly, the phrase 鈥渢hat dwell in the Arabah鈥 cannot be a description of the mountains known as Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal that are next to Shechem; aren鈥檛 they situated among mountains and hills? The description 鈥渙ver against Gilgal鈥 is also difficult; they could not see Gilgal from Shechem, as it is far away. Rather, according to Rabbi Elazar, Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal mentioned in the Torah are located closer to the Jordan River. They are not the mountains known by the same names that are located near Shechem.


专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讘讗 讛讻转讜讘 讗诇讗 诇讛专讗讜转 诇讛谉 讚专讱 讘砖谞讬讛 讻讚专讱 砖讛专讗讛 诇讛谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讚专讱 讘讚专讱 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 讛讬讜砖讘 讘讬砖讜讘 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘诪讚讘专讜转 讘注专讘讛 讘注专讘讛 诇讻讜 讜诇讗 讘讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转


Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: The verse does not come to establish the location of Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. Rather, it comes to show the Jewish people the way the second time, when they were entering the land of Canaan, like the way He showed them the first time, when they left Egypt and a pillar of cloud went before them and made the terrain easier to transverse. The purpose of the verse is to instruct the Jewish people how to enter the land of Canaan with relative ease, despite the absence of the pillar of cloud. The word 鈥渨ay鈥 instructs them to go along a pre-established way, and not in fields and vineyards. The phrase 鈥渢hat dwell鈥 instructs them to go in settled areas and not in the wilderness. 鈥淚n the Arabah,鈥 which means plain, teaches them to go in the plains and not over mountains and hills.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬爪讚 注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讗专讜谉 谞讜住注 讗讞专 砖谞讬 讚讙诇讬诐 讜讛讬讜诐 谞住注 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讗专讜谉 讛讘专讬转 讗讚讜谉 讻诇 讛讗专抓 注讘专 诇驻谞讬讻诐 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诇讜讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讜讛讬讜诐 谞砖讗讜讛讜 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜讞 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬 讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬 讗专讜谉 讛壮 讜讙讜壮


The Sages taught (Tosefta 8:1): How did the Jewish people cross the Jordan? Every day the Ark would travel behind the two flags of Judah and Reuben, but on that day the Ark traveled in front, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth is passing before you鈥 (Joshua 3:11). On every other day, the Levites would carry the Ark, but on this day the priests carried it, as is stated: 鈥淎nd when the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the Ark of the Lord, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest鈥 (Joshua 3:13).


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讘砖诇砖讛 诪拽讜诪讜转 谞砖讗讜 讻讛谞讬诐 讗转 讛讗专讜谉 讻砖注讘专讜 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讻砖讛住讬讘讜 讗转 讬专讬讞讜 讜讻砖讛讞讝讬专讜讛讜 诇诪拽讜诪讜


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:2) that Rabbi Yosei says: In three different places the priests carried the Ark. They carried it when the Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and when they surrounded Jericho (Joshua 6:6), and when they returned it to its proper place in the Holy of Holies during the reign of King Solomon (I聽Kings 8:6).


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