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Today's Daf Yomi

May 4, 2023 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ืื™ื™ืจ ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • This month's learningย is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory ofย her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Batย Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

Sotah 36

The Gemara lists all the miracles that happened to the Jews on the day they crossed over the Jordan into Israel. When it is recorded in the book of Joshua about the blessings and curses it is written “half” went up to Mount Gerizim “and the half” went up to Mount Eival. Why is it written “and the half.” Rav Kahane says this comes to teach that the division of the tribes on the two mountains was the same division that is in the two stones in which the names of all the tribes were written that were on the efod that would sit on the shoulders of the high priest. But in a braita there are two opinions regarding the distribution of the names in the efod and neither opinion is in accordance with Rav Kahana. So they reject his opinion and offer a different interpretation of “and the half” – that those who stood on Mount Gerizim were more numerous than those on Mpunt Eival even though the tribe of Levi was with them and some of them stood below, because the tribe of Joseph was also there and they were numerous. How do we know that Joseph’s tribe was numerous? The Gemara continues with many drashot on Joseph.

ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ


In accordance with whose opinion is the baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that the verse: โ€œYou shall keep alive no one who breathesโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:16), is not referring to the gentiles living outside of Eretz Yisrael, because there is no concern that the Jewish people will learn โ€œto do like all their abominationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:18), as these Canaanites are not located in Eretz Yisrael.


ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื ืกื™ื ื ืขืฉื• ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืขื‘ืจื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื• ืœื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ื•ืœื”ืจ ืขื™ื‘ืœ ื™ืชืจ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ืžื™ืœ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ื”ื ืžื™ื“ ื ืชืจื– ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืช ืื™ืžืชื™ ืืฉืœื— ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ื”ืžืชื™ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขื ืืฉืจ ืชื‘ื ื‘ื”ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ


ยง The Gemara continues to discuss the entrance of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael: Come and see how many miracles were performed on that day: The Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and they arrived at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are more than sixty mil from the river, and on that day no entity was able to stand before them. And anyone who stood before them was immediately struck with diarrhea, as it is stated: โ€œI will send My terror before you, and will confound all the people that you encounterโ€ (Exodus 23:27).


ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืชืคืœ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื™ืžืชื” ื•ืคื—ื“ ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืขืžืš ื”ืณ ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืขื ื–ื• ืงื ื™ืช ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ื”


And similarly, the verse says: โ€œTerror and dread falls upon them; by the greatness of Your arm they are as still as a stone; till Your people pass over, Lordโ€ (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the first arrival of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael, during the period of Joshua. The verse continues: โ€œTill the people that You have gotten pass overโ€ (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the second arrival, when the Jews returned to Eretz Yisrael from Babylonia after the destruction of the First Temple.


ืืžื•ืจ ืžืขืชื” ืจืื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื”ื ื ืก ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื™ืื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืœื ืฉื’ืจื ื”ื—ื˜ื


Accordingly, say from now that the Jewish people were worthy of having a miracle performed for them during the second arrival, just like they were worthy of having miracles performed for them during the first arrival, but their sin caused them to enter Eretz Yisrael through a natural process, with the permission of the kings of other nations.


ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืืช ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื• ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื•ืกื“ื•ื”ื• ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืืจ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘


The Gemara continues its description of the entrance into Eretz Yisrael during the period of Joshua: And afterward they brought the stones and built the altar on Mount Ebal, and plastered it over with plaster, and wrote on the stones all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all of the words of this law clearly elucidatedโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8).


ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืฉืชื• ื•ืฉืžื—ื• ื•ื‘ืจื›ื• ื•ืงืœืœื• ื•ืงื™ืคืœื• ืืช ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืื• ื•ืœื ื• ื‘ื’ืœื’ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืชื ืื•ืชื ืขืžื›ื ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื ืื•ืชื ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ


And they sacrificed burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and they ate and drank and celebrated, and they uttered the blessings, and they uttered the curses, and they took [kippelu] the stones with them, and they arrived and slept in Gilgal, as it is stated: โ€œAnd carry them over with you, and lay them down in the lodging place, where you shall lodge this nightโ€ (Joshua 4:3).


ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืœื•ืŸ ื•ืžืœื•ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืฉืจ ืชืœื™ื ื• ื‘ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ


One might have thought that they were required to place these stones at each and every lodging place where they stayed. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œWhere you shall lodge this night,โ€ meaning only on that night. And it is written: โ€œAnd those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgalโ€ (Joshua 4:20).


ืชื ื ืฆืจืขื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืœื—ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฆืจืขื” ืœืคื ื™ืš


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:10): The hornet [tzira] did not cross the Jordan with them. The Gemara asks: And did it not? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will send the hornet before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, and the Canaanitesโ€ (Exodus 23:28)?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขืžื“ื” ื•ื–ืจืงื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžืจื” ื•ืกื™ืžืชื” ืขื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืกื™ืจืกืชืŸ ืžืœืžื˜ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืืฉืจ ื›ื’ื‘ื” ืืจื–ื™ื ื’ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื—ืกืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืœื•ื ื™ื ื•ืืฉืžื™ื“ ืคืจื™ื• ืžืžืขืœ ื•ืฉืจืฉื™ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The hornet stood on the banks of the Jordan and threw its venom at the inhabitants of the land and it blinded their eyes from above and castrated them from below, as it is stated: โ€œYet I destroyed the Amorites before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and they were strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed their fruit from above, and their roots from beneathโ€ (Amos 2:9).


ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ ืฆืจืขื•ืช ื”ื•ืื™ ื—ื“ื ื“ืžืฉื” ื•ื—ื“ื ื“ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืžืฉื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ื“ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืขื‘ืจ:


Rav Pappa said: There were two hornets. One was the hornet of Moses, which helped conquer the eastern side of the Jordan, and one was the hornet of Joshua. The hornet of Moses did not cross the Jordan, but the hornet of Joshua did cross.


ืฉืฉื” ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืขืœื• ืœืจืืฉ ื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ื›ื•ืณ: ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื—ืฆื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื›ืš ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“


ยง It is stated in the mishna: Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim, as it is stated: โ€œHalf of them in front of Mount Gerizim and the half of them in front of Mount Ebalโ€ (Joshua 8:33). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term โ€œand the half of themโ€? It seems to be referring to a division that already existed. Rav Kahana says: The same way that the tribes were divided up here on the mountains, so too were they divided on the stones of the ephod, a garment of the High Priest.


ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืชื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื›ืชื™ืคื™ื• ืื—ืช ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืฉืฉื” ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ื•ืฉืฉื” ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืฉื” ืžืฉืžื•ืชื ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื”ืื—ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


The Gemara raises an objection to this answer: The High Priest had two precious stones on the part of the ephod that rested on his shoulders, one on this side and one on that side, and the names of the twelve tribes were written on them, six on this stone and six on that stone, as it is stated: โ€œSix of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their birthโ€ (Exodus 28:10).


ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืชื ื•ืœื ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืชื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืงื“ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื•


It is derived from the verse that only the names on the second stone were written according to the order of their birth: Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin. But the names on the first stone were not written according to the order of their birth, as Judah was written first, and afterward came Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Dan, and Naphtali. And there were fifty letters on the two stones of the ephod, twenty-five letters on this stone and twenty-five on that stone.


ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ


Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel says:


ืœื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืžืฉ ื”ืคืงื•ื“ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ืืœื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืžืฉ ืฉื ื™


The names of the tribes were not divided on the stones of the ephod the same way that they were divided in the list found at the beginning of the book of Numbers (Numbers 1:1โ€“15). Rather they were divided the way that they were divided in the second book, i.e., Exodus (Exodus 1:2โ€“4).


ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื ื™ ืœืื” ื›ืกื™ื“ืจืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืจื—ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืข


How were they written? On one stone, the names of the sons of Leah were written in the order of their birth: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. On the other stone the sons of Rachel were written. One, Benjamin, was written on this side, i.e., at the bottom of the list, and one, Joseph, was written on that side, i.e., at the top of the list. And the children of the handmaids, i.e., Bilhah and Zilpah, who were Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, were written on the second stone in the middle.


ื•ืืœื ืžืื™ ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื›ืชื•ืœื“ืชื ื›ืฉืžื•ืชืŸ ืฉืงืจื ืœื”ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉืงืจื ืœื”ืŸ ืžืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืจืื•ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืฉืžืขื•ื ื™ ื“ืŸ ื•ืœื ื”ื“ื ื™ ื’ื“ ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื“ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


But rather, if their names were not written in the order of their births, then how do I establish the meaning of the phrase: โ€œAccording to their birthโ€ (Exodus 28:10)? It means that their names were written according to the names that their father, Jacob, called them, and not according to the names that Moses called them. On the stones it said Reuben, and not Reubenites; Simeon, and not Simeonites; Dan, and not Danites; Gad, and not Gadites. This baraita contradicts Rav Kahanaโ€™s opinion, as according to all of the opinions in the baraita, the division of the names on the ephod is not identical to the division of the tribes on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. The Gemara confirms: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Kahana is in fact a conclusive refutation.


ื•ืืœื ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื—ืฆื™ื• ืชื ื ื—ืฆื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื—ืฆื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืจ ืขื™ื‘ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื”


The Gemara asks: Rather, what is meant by the phrase: โ€œAnd the half of them facing Mount Ebalโ€ (Joshua 8:33)? It is taught in a baraita: The use of the definitive article in the verse indicates that the smaller half of the Jewish people was on Mount Ebal. The half that was facing Mount Gerizim was larger than the half on Mount Ebal, because the tribe of Levi was included in the group that was facing Mount Gerizim, and they remained on the bottom between the two mountains.


ืื“ืจื‘ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื” ื‘ืฆืจื™ ืœื”ื• ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืžื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ื‘ืจื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืช ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœืืžืจ ืžื“ื•ืข ื ืชืชื” ืœื™ ื ื—ืœื” ื’ื•ืจืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ื—ื‘ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืขื ืจื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื ืขื ืจื‘ ืืชื” ืขืœื” ืœืš ื”ื™ืขืจื”


The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: On the contrary, because the tribe of Levi remained on the bottom they were fewer in number. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita is saying: Although the tribe of Levi was on the bottom, the descendants of Joseph were among them, and the tribe of Joseph was numerous, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the children of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying: Why did you give me a single lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the Lord has blessed me thus, and Joshua said to them: If you are a great people, you should go up to the forestโ€ (Joshua 17:14โ€“15).


ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื›ื• ื•ื”ื—ื‘ืื• ืขืฆืžื›ื ื‘ื™ืขืจื™ื ืฉืœื ืชืฉืœื•ื˜ ื‘ื›ื ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื–ืจืขื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืฉืœื˜ื ื‘ื™ื” ืขื™ื ื ื‘ื™ืฉื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ืขืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืœ ืชื”ื™ ืงื•ืจื ืขืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขื•ืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ


The Gemara explains that Joshua said to them: Go and hide yourselves in the forests, so that the evil eye will not have dominion over you, as you are such a large number of people. The tribe of Joseph said to him: The evil eye does not have dominion over the offspring of Joseph, as it is written: โ€œJoseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountainโ€ (Genesis 49:22), and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: โ€œBy a fountain [alei ayin]โ€; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin], teaching that Joseph and his descendants are not susceptible to the evil eye.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ื“ื’ื• ืœืจื‘ ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื” ื“ื’ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ื ืžื™ื ืžื›ืกื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืฃ ื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ


The Gemara cites an alternative source for the assertion that the evil eye holds no sway over Joseph and his descendants: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi แธคanina, said that it is derived from here: Jacob blessed Josephโ€™s children and said: โ€œAnd let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earthโ€ (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, waters cover them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, so too, with regard to Josephโ€™s descendants, the evil eye has no dominion over them.


ื”ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื ื›ื™ ื—ื“ื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืœื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืžื• ื‘ืฆืืชื• ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื


The Gemara asks with regard to the baraita that contradicts Rav Kahanaโ€™s opinion: Are these names of the tribes, which were written on the ephod, composed of a total of fifty letters? There are only forty-nine. Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: They added one letter to the name of Joseph [Yosef] when it was written on the ephod, as it is stated: โ€œHe appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony when He went forth against the land of Egyptโ€ (Psalms 81:6).


ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืชื•ืœื“ืชื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืืœื ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื‘ื ื™ืžืŸ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ื ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื‘ื™ื• ืงืจื ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ


Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak objects to this: We require the names to be written โ€œaccording to their birth,โ€ and Joseph was not called Yehosef from birth. Rather, the explanation is as follows: Throughout the entire Torah, the name of Benjamin is written without a second letter yod between the letters mem and nun, and here, where he is born, Benjamin is written in full, spelled with a second yod. As it is written: โ€œBut his father called him Benjaminโ€ (Genesis 35:18). Therefore, his name was written on the ephod with a second yod, โ€œaccording to his birth.โ€


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืงื™ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืกืชืจ ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืขืœื™ื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืงื™ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ื ืงืจื ื›ื•ืœื• ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื


ยง Rav แธคana bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private, had one letter of the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the letter heh, added to his name. Whereas in the case of Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya] at the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt, merited that his entire name is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the entire four-letter name of God can be found within Judahโ€™s name.


ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉืฉื ื™ื”ื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื ืชื›ื•ื•ื ื• ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืžืžืฉ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืฆืจื›ื™ื• ื ื›ื ืก


The Gemara explains: What is the situation where Joseph sanctified Godโ€™s name in private? As it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his workโ€ (Genesis 39:11). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This teaches that both Joseph and Potipharโ€™s wife stayed in the house, as they intended to perform a matter of sin. With regard to the phrase โ€œwhen he went into the house to do his work,โ€ Rav and Shmuel engage in a dispute with regard to its meaning. One says: It means that he went into the house to do his work, literally. And one says: He entered the house in order to fulfill his sexual needs with her.


ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ืžืื ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื• ืื™ืฉ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ื ื—ื’ื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืœื›ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื”ื ื•ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื”ืŸ ื—ื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื™ื•ื ืฉื ื™ื–ืงืง ืœื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื”


The verse continues: โ€œAnd there was none of the men of the house there withinโ€ (Genesis 39:11). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that in such a large and important house like the house of that wicked man that no one was in there? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: That day was their festival day and they all went to their house of idol worship; and she told them that she was sick and could not go, as she said to herself: I have no day on which Joseph will attend to me like this day.


ื•ืชืชืคืฉื”ื• ื‘ื‘ื’ื“ื• ืœืืžืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื‘ืืชื” ื“ื™ื•ืงื ื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื ืจืืชื” ืœื• ื‘ื—ืœื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืชื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื—ื™ืš ืฉื™ื›ืชื‘ื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ื•ืืชื” ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืฉื™ืžื—ื” ืฉืžืš ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื•ืชืงืจื ืจื•ืขื” ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืจืขื” ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืื‘ื“ ื”ื•ืŸ


The verse states: โ€œAnd she caught him by his garment, saying: Lie with meโ€ (Genesis 39:12). At that moment his fatherโ€™s image [deyokeno] came and appeared to him in the window. The image said to him: Joseph, the names of your brothers are destined to be written on the stones of the ephod, and you are to be included among them. Do you desire your name to be erased from among them, and to be called an associate [roโ€™eh] of promiscuous women? As it is written: โ€œBut he who keeps company with harlots wastes his richesโ€ (Proverbs 29:3), as he loses his honor, which is more valuable than wealth.


ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืฉื‘ ื‘ืื™ืชืŸ ืงืฉืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืฉืฉื‘ื” ืงืฉืชื• ืœืื™ืชื ื• ื•ื™ืคื–ื• ื–ืจื•ืขื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื ืขืฅ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืงืจืงืข ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืขื• ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื•


Immediately: โ€œAnd his bow abode [teishev] firmโ€ (Genesis 49:24). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Meir: This means that his bow, i.e., his penis, returned [shava] to its strength, as he overcame his desire. The verse about Joseph continues: โ€œAnd the arms of his hands were made suppleโ€ (Genesis 49:24), meaning that he dug his hands into the ground and his semen was emitted between his fingernails.


ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื‘ื™ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœื• ืฉื™ื—ืงืง ืขืœ ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ืืœื ืื‘ื™ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื ืจืขื” ืื‘ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื ื–ื›ื” ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืจื•ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื•ืขื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืื–ื™ื ื” ื ื”ื’ ื›ืฆืืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ


โ€œBy the hands of the Mighty One of Jacobโ€ (Genesis 49:24): Who caused his name to be etched onto the stones of the ephod? It was only the might of Jacob. โ€œFrom there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israelโ€ (Genesis 49:24) means: From there, because of Josephโ€™s ability to withstand this trial, he merited to become a shepherd [roโ€™eh] of the Jewish people, as it is stated: โ€œListen, O Shepherd of Israel, who leads like the flock of Josephโ€ (Psalms 80:2).


ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจืื•ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืฆืืช ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ืฆืื• ืžื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืœื” ืชืœื“ื•ืช ื™ืขืงื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœื ืฉื™ืฆื ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืขื• ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ื™ืฆืื• ืžื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืื—ื™ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืœืข ื•ื‘ื›ืจ ื•ืืฉื‘ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ


It is taught in a baraita: Joseph was deserving of having twelve tribes descend from him, the same as twelve tribes descended from his father Jacob, as it is stated: โ€œThese are the generations of Jacob, Josephโ€ (Genesis 37:2). This implies that everything that happened to Jacob was destined to happen to Joseph. However, he did not merit this because his semen was emitted from between his fingernails. And even so, the offspring that were meant to descend from him descended from his brother Benjamin, who had ten sons. And they were all named after Joseph, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ardโ€ (Genesis 46:21).


ื‘ืœืข ืฉื ื‘ืœืข ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ื•ื‘ื›ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœืืžื• ื”ื™ื” ื•ืืฉื‘ืœ ืฉืฉื‘ืื• ืืœ ื’ืจื ืฉื’ืจ ื‘ืื›ืกื ื™ื•ึผืช


The Gemara explains how each name relates to Joseph: Bela was named after Joseph, who was swallowed [nivla] among the nations. And Becher received that name because Joseph was the firstborn [bekhor] of his mother, Rachel. And Ashbel received his name because God sent Joseph into captivity [shevao El] in Egypt. Gera was named after Joseph, who dwelled [gar] in a foreign land [akhsaneyut].


ื•ื ืขืžืŸ ืฉื ืขื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื—ื™ ื•ืจืืฉ ืื—ื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ืจืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืคื™ื ื•ื—ืคื™ื ื”ื•ื ืœื ืจืื” ื‘ื—ื•ืคืชื™ ื•ืื ื™ ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ ื‘ื—ื•ืคืชื• ื•ืืจื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืจื“ ืฉืคื ื™ื• ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœื•ื•ืจื“


And Naaman was called that because Joseph was extremely pleasing [naโ€™im]. Ehi and Rosh received these names, as Benjamin said: Joseph is my brother [aแธฅi] and my leader [roshi]. Benjamin named his sons Muppim and Huppim, as Benjamin said: Joseph did not see my wedding canopy [แธฅuppa] and I did not see his wedding canopy. And Ard was named after Joseph, who descended [yarad] to the lands of the nations of the world. Some say that the name Ard means that Josephโ€™s face was similar in its beauty to a rose [vered].


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ืคืจืขื” ืœื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ืš ืœื ื™ืจื™ื ืื™ืฉ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืฆื˜ื’ื ื™ื ื™ ืคืจืขื” ืขื‘ื“ ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืจื‘ื• ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื›ืกืฃ ืชืžืฉื™ืœื”ื• ืขืœื™ื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื’ื ื•ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืื ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื•


Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: When Pharaoh said to Joseph: โ€œAnd without you no man shall lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egyptโ€ (Genesis 41:44), Pharaohโ€™s astrologers said: You will appoint a slave whose master bought him for twenty silver coins to rule over us? He said to them: I perceive royal characteristics [ginnunei malkhut] in him and see that he was not initially a slave.


ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื ื›ืŸ ื™ื”ื ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ื• ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืงื’ืžืจ ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืœืžื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืžื• ื‘ืฆืืชื• ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืฉืคืช ืœื ื™ื“ืขืชื™ ืืฉืžืข ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ื›ืœ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืื™ืฉืชืขื™ ืคืจืขื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืื”ื“ืจ ืœื™ื”


They said to him: If that is so and he is a child of royalty, he should know the seventy languages that all kingsโ€™ children learn. The angel Gabriel then came and taught him the seventy languages, but he could not learn all of them. Gabriel then added one letter, the letter heh, to Josephโ€™s name from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then he was able to learn the languages, as it is stated: โ€œHe appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony, when he went forth against the land of Egypt, the speech of one that I did not know I heardโ€ (Psalms 81:6). And the next day, when he appeared before Pharaoh, in every language that Pharaoh spoke with him, he answered him.


ืื™ืฉืชืขื™ ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื’ืžืจื™ ืื’ืžืจื™ื” ื•ืœื ื’ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืžื’ืœื™ืช ืื™ืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื•


Joseph then spoke in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and Pharaoh did not know what he was saying. Pharaoh said to him: Teach me that language. He taught him, but he could not learn it. Pharaoh said to him: Take an oath for my benefit that you will not reveal that I do not know this language. He took an oath for his benefit.


ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื ื™ ืœืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืชืฉื™ืœ ืืฉื‘ื•ืขืชืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืื™ืชืฉืœื™ ื ืžื™ ืื“ื™ื“ืš ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขืœื” ื•ืงื‘ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขืš


Years later, when Joseph said to Pharaoh: โ€œMy father made me swear, sayingโ€ (Genesis 50:5) that I would bury him in Eretz Yisrael, Pharaoh said to him: Go request the dissolution of your oath. Joseph said to him: And should I also request dissolution for the oath that I took for your benefit? And consequently, even though Pharaoh was not amenable to letting Joseph go, he worried that Joseph would then request dissolution for the oath that he had taken for his benefit, and Pharaoh therefore said to him: โ€œGo up and bury your father according to what he made you swearโ€ (Genesis 50:6).


ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืฉืขืžื“ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืžื ืฆื—ื™ื ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื” ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืชื—ืœื” ืœื™ื ื•ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืชื—ืœื” ืœื™ื ืงืคืฅ


ยง What was the incident where Judah sanctified Godโ€™s name in public? As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: When the Jewish people stood at the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with one other. This one was saying: I am going into the sea first, and that one was saying: I am going into the sea first. Then, in jumped

  • This month's learningย is sponsored by Leah Goldford in loving memory ofย her grandmothers, Tzipporah bat Yechezkiel, Rivka Yoda Batย Dovide Tzvi, Bracha Bayla bat Beryl, her father-in-law, Chaim Gershon ben Tzvi Aryeh, her mother, Devorah Rivkah bat Tuvia Hacohen, her cousins, Avrum Baer ben Mordechai, and Sharon bat Yaakov.

  • Masechet Sotah is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag in honor of Dr. Bryna Levy who helped her fall deep in love with learning.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 36

ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ


In accordance with whose opinion is the baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that the verse: โ€œYou shall keep alive no one who breathesโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:16), is not referring to the gentiles living outside of Eretz Yisrael, because there is no concern that the Jewish people will learn โ€œto do like all their abominationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 20:18), as these Canaanites are not located in Eretz Yisrael.


ื‘ื ื•ืจืื” ื›ืžื” ื ืกื™ื ื ืขืฉื• ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืขื‘ืจื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื• ืœื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ื•ืœื”ืจ ืขื™ื‘ืœ ื™ืชืจ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ืžื™ืœ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ื”ื ืžื™ื“ ื ืชืจื– ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืช ืื™ืžืชื™ ืืฉืœื— ืœืคื ื™ืš ื•ื”ืžืชื™ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขื ืืฉืจ ืชื‘ื ื‘ื”ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ


ยง The Gemara continues to discuss the entrance of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael: Come and see how many miracles were performed on that day: The Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and they arrived at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are more than sixty mil from the river, and on that day no entity was able to stand before them. And anyone who stood before them was immediately struck with diarrhea, as it is stated: โ€œI will send My terror before you, and will confound all the people that you encounterโ€ (Exodus 23:27).


ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืชืคืœ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืื™ืžืชื” ื•ืคื—ื“ ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืขืžืš ื”ืณ ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ืขื ื–ื• ืงื ื™ืช ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ื”


And similarly, the verse says: โ€œTerror and dread falls upon them; by the greatness of Your arm they are as still as a stone; till Your people pass over, Lordโ€ (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the first arrival of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael, during the period of Joshua. The verse continues: โ€œTill the people that You have gotten pass overโ€ (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the second arrival, when the Jews returned to Eretz Yisrael from Babylonia after the destruction of the First Temple.


ืืžื•ืจ ืžืขืชื” ืจืื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืœื”ื ื ืก ื‘ื‘ื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ื‘ื™ืื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืœื ืฉื’ืจื ื”ื—ื˜ื


Accordingly, say from now that the Jewish people were worthy of having a miracle performed for them during the second arrival, just like they were worthy of having miracles performed for them during the first arrival, but their sin caused them to enter Eretz Yisrael through a natural process, with the permission of the kings of other nations.


ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืืช ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื• ืืช ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื•ืกื“ื•ื”ื• ื‘ืกื™ื“ ื•ื›ืชื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืืจ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘


The Gemara continues its description of the entrance into Eretz Yisrael during the period of Joshua: And afterward they brought the stones and built the altar on Mount Ebal, and plastered it over with plaster, and wrote on the stones all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall write on the stones all of the words of this law clearly elucidatedโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:8).


ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืฉืชื• ื•ืฉืžื—ื• ื•ื‘ืจื›ื• ื•ืงืœืœื• ื•ืงื™ืคืœื• ืืช ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืื• ื•ืœื ื• ื‘ื’ืœื’ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืชื ืื•ืชื ืขืžื›ื ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื ืื•ืชื ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ


And they sacrificed burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and they ate and drank and celebrated, and they uttered the blessings, and they uttered the curses, and they took [kippelu] the stones with them, and they arrived and slept in Gilgal, as it is stated: โ€œAnd carry them over with you, and lay them down in the lodging place, where you shall lodge this nightโ€ (Joshua 4:3).


ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืœื•ืŸ ื•ืžืœื•ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืฉืจ ืชืœื™ื ื• ื‘ื• ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ืืฉืจ ืœืงื—ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ


One might have thought that they were required to place these stones at each and every lodging place where they stayed. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œWhere you shall lodge this night,โ€ meaning only on that night. And it is written: โ€œAnd those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgalโ€ (Joshua 4:20).


ืชื ื ืฆืจืขื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืœื—ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฆืจืขื” ืœืคื ื™ืš


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:10): The hornet [tzira] did not cross the Jordan with them. The Gemara asks: And did it not? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will send the hornet before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, and the Canaanitesโ€ (Exodus 23:28)?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืขืœ ืฉืคืช ื™ืจื“ืŸ ืขืžื“ื” ื•ื–ืจืงื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืžืจื” ื•ืกื™ืžืชื” ืขื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืกื™ืจืกืชืŸ ืžืœืžื˜ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืื ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืžื“ืชื™ ืืช ื”ืืžืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ื”ื ืืฉืจ ื›ื’ื‘ื” ืืจื–ื™ื ื’ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื—ืกืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ืืœื•ื ื™ื ื•ืืฉืžื™ื“ ืคืจื™ื• ืžืžืขืœ ื•ืฉืจืฉื™ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The hornet stood on the banks of the Jordan and threw its venom at the inhabitants of the land and it blinded their eyes from above and castrated them from below, as it is stated: โ€œYet I destroyed the Amorites before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and they were strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed their fruit from above, and their roots from beneathโ€ (Amos 2:9).


ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืฉืชื™ ืฆืจืขื•ืช ื”ื•ืื™ ื—ื“ื ื“ืžืฉื” ื•ื—ื“ื ื“ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืžืฉื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ื“ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืขื‘ืจ:


Rav Pappa said: There were two hornets. One was the hornet of Moses, which helped conquer the eastern side of the Jordan, and one was the hornet of Joshua. The hornet of Moses did not cross the Jordan, but the hornet of Joshua did cross.


ืฉืฉื” ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืขืœื• ืœืจืืฉ ื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ื›ื•ืณ: ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื—ืฆื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื›ืš ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“


ยง It is stated in the mishna: Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim, as it is stated: โ€œHalf of them in front of Mount Gerizim and the half of them in front of Mount Ebalโ€ (Joshua 8:33). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term โ€œand the half of themโ€? It seems to be referring to a division that already existed. Rav Kahana says: The same way that the tribes were divided up here on the mountains, so too were they divided on the stones of the ephod, a garment of the High Priest.


ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืชื™ ืื‘ื ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื›ืชื™ืคื™ื• ืื—ืช ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืฉืฉื” ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ื•ืฉืฉื” ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืฉื” ืžืฉืžื•ืชื ืขืœ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ื”ืื—ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ


The Gemara raises an objection to this answer: The High Priest had two precious stones on the part of the ephod that rested on his shoulders, one on this side and one on that side, and the names of the twelve tribes were written on them, six on this stone and six on that stone, as it is stated: โ€œSix of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their birthโ€ (Exodus 28:10).


ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืชื ื•ืœื ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืชื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืงื“ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื• ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉ ืขืœ ืื‘ืŸ ื–ื•


It is derived from the verse that only the names on the second stone were written according to the order of their birth: Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin. But the names on the first stone were not written according to the order of their birth, as Judah was written first, and afterward came Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Dan, and Naphtali. And there were fifty letters on the two stones of the ephod, twenty-five letters on this stone and twenty-five on that stone.


ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ


Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel says:


ืœื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืžืฉ ื”ืคืงื•ื“ื™ื ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ืืœื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืžืฉ ืฉื ื™


The names of the tribes were not divided on the stones of the ephod the same way that they were divided in the list found at the beginning of the book of Numbers (Numbers 1:1โ€“15). Rather they were divided the way that they were divided in the second book, i.e., Exodus (Exodus 1:2โ€“4).


ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื ื™ ืœืื” ื›ืกื™ื“ืจืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืจื—ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืข


How were they written? On one stone, the names of the sons of Leah were written in the order of their birth: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. On the other stone the sons of Rachel were written. One, Benjamin, was written on this side, i.e., at the bottom of the list, and one, Joseph, was written on that side, i.e., at the top of the list. And the children of the handmaids, i.e., Bilhah and Zilpah, who were Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, were written on the second stone in the middle.


ื•ืืœื ืžืื™ ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื›ืชื•ืœื“ืชื ื›ืฉืžื•ืชืŸ ืฉืงืจื ืœื”ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉืงืจื ืœื”ืŸ ืžืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืจืื•ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืฉืžืขื•ื ื™ ื“ืŸ ื•ืœื ื”ื“ื ื™ ื’ื“ ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื“ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


But rather, if their names were not written in the order of their births, then how do I establish the meaning of the phrase: โ€œAccording to their birthโ€ (Exodus 28:10)? It means that their names were written according to the names that their father, Jacob, called them, and not according to the names that Moses called them. On the stones it said Reuben, and not Reubenites; Simeon, and not Simeonites; Dan, and not Danites; Gad, and not Gadites. This baraita contradicts Rav Kahanaโ€™s opinion, as according to all of the opinions in the baraita, the division of the names on the ephod is not identical to the division of the tribes on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. The Gemara confirms: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Kahana is in fact a conclusive refutation.


ื•ืืœื ืžืื™ ื•ื”ื—ืฆื™ื• ืชื ื ื—ืฆื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืจ ื’ืจื™ื–ื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžื—ืฆื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืจ ืขื™ื‘ืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื”


The Gemara asks: Rather, what is meant by the phrase: โ€œAnd the half of them facing Mount Ebalโ€ (Joshua 8:33)? It is taught in a baraita: The use of the definitive article in the verse indicates that the smaller half of the Jewish people was on Mount Ebal. The half that was facing Mount Gerizim was larger than the half on Mount Ebal, because the tribe of Levi was included in the group that was facing Mount Gerizim, and they remained on the bottom between the two mountains.


ืื“ืจื‘ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื” ื‘ืฆืจื™ ืœื”ื• ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืœื•ื™ ืœืžื˜ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืžื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ื‘ืจื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืช ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืœืืžืจ ืžื“ื•ืข ื ืชืชื” ืœื™ ื ื—ืœื” ื’ื•ืจืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ื—ื‘ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืขื ืจื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื ืขื ืจื‘ ืืชื” ืขืœื” ืœืš ื”ื™ืขืจื”


The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: On the contrary, because the tribe of Levi remained on the bottom they were fewer in number. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita is saying: Although the tribe of Levi was on the bottom, the descendants of Joseph were among them, and the tribe of Joseph was numerous, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the children of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying: Why did you give me a single lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the Lord has blessed me thus, and Joshua said to them: If you are a great people, you should go up to the forestโ€ (Joshua 17:14โ€“15).


ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื›ื• ื•ื”ื—ื‘ืื• ืขืฆืžื›ื ื‘ื™ืขืจื™ื ืฉืœื ืชืฉืœื•ื˜ ื‘ื›ื ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืจืข ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื–ืจืขื™ื” ื“ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืฉืœื˜ื ื‘ื™ื” ืขื™ื ื ื‘ื™ืฉื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ืขืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืœ ืชื”ื™ ืงื•ืจื ืขืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขื•ืœื™ ืขื™ืŸ


The Gemara explains that Joshua said to them: Go and hide yourselves in the forests, so that the evil eye will not have dominion over you, as you are such a large number of people. The tribe of Joseph said to him: The evil eye does not have dominion over the offspring of Joseph, as it is written: โ€œJoseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountainโ€ (Genesis 49:22), and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: โ€œBy a fountain [alei ayin]โ€; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin], teaching that Joseph and his descendants are not susceptible to the evil eye.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ื“ื’ื• ืœืจื‘ ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžื” ื“ื’ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ื ืžื™ื ืžื›ืกื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืฃ ื–ืจืขื• ืฉืœ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืขื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืœื˜ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ


The Gemara cites an alternative source for the assertion that the evil eye holds no sway over Joseph and his descendants: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi แธคanina, said that it is derived from here: Jacob blessed Josephโ€™s children and said: โ€œAnd let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earthโ€ (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, waters cover them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, so too, with regard to Josephโ€™s descendants, the evil eye has no dominion over them.


ื”ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื ื›ื™ ื—ื“ื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืœื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืžื• ื‘ืฆืืชื• ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื


The Gemara asks with regard to the baraita that contradicts Rav Kahanaโ€™s opinion: Are these names of the tribes, which were written on the ephod, composed of a total of fifty letters? There are only forty-nine. Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: They added one letter to the name of Joseph [Yosef] when it was written on the ephod, as it is stated: โ€œHe appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony when He went forth against the land of Egyptโ€ (Psalms 81:6).


ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืชื•ืœื“ืชื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืืœื ื›ืœ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื‘ื ื™ืžืŸ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ื ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื›ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื‘ื™ื• ืงืจื ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ


Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak objects to this: We require the names to be written โ€œaccording to their birth,โ€ and Joseph was not called Yehosef from birth. Rather, the explanation is as follows: Throughout the entire Torah, the name of Benjamin is written without a second letter yod between the letters mem and nun, and here, where he is born, Benjamin is written in full, spelled with a second yod. As it is written: โ€œBut his father called him Benjaminโ€ (Genesis 35:18). Therefore, his name was written on the ephod with a second yod, โ€œaccording to his birth.โ€


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืงื™ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืกืชืจ ื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ืขืœื™ื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืงื™ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ื ืงืจื ื›ื•ืœื• ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื


ยง Rav แธคana bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private, had one letter of the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the letter heh, added to his name. Whereas in the case of Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya] at the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt, merited that his entire name is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the entire four-letter name of God can be found within Judahโ€™s name.


ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื›ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉืฉื ื™ื”ื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื ืชื›ื•ื•ื ื• ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ืžืžืฉ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืฆืจื›ื™ื• ื ื›ื ืก


The Gemara explains: What is the situation where Joseph sanctified Godโ€™s name in private? As it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his workโ€ (Genesis 39:11). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This teaches that both Joseph and Potipharโ€™s wife stayed in the house, as they intended to perform a matter of sin. With regard to the phrase โ€œwhen he went into the house to do his work,โ€ Rav and Shmuel engage in a dispute with regard to its meaning. One says: It means that he went into the house to do his work, literally. And one says: He entered the house in order to fulfill his sexual needs with her.


ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ืžืื ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื›ื‘ื™ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื• ืื™ืฉ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ื ื—ื’ื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืœื›ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื”ื ื•ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื”ืŸ ื—ื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื™ื•ื ืฉื ื™ื–ืงืง ืœื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื”


The verse continues: โ€œAnd there was none of the men of the house there withinโ€ (Genesis 39:11). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that in such a large and important house like the house of that wicked man that no one was in there? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: That day was their festival day and they all went to their house of idol worship; and she told them that she was sick and could not go, as she said to herself: I have no day on which Joseph will attend to me like this day.


ื•ืชืชืคืฉื”ื• ื‘ื‘ื’ื“ื• ืœืืžืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื‘ืืชื” ื“ื™ื•ืงื ื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื ืจืืชื” ืœื• ื‘ื—ืœื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืชื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื—ื™ืš ืฉื™ื›ืชื‘ื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ื•ืืชื” ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืฉื™ืžื—ื” ืฉืžืš ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื•ืชืงืจื ืจื•ืขื” ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืจืขื” ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืื‘ื“ ื”ื•ืŸ


The verse states: โ€œAnd she caught him by his garment, saying: Lie with meโ€ (Genesis 39:12). At that moment his fatherโ€™s image [deyokeno] came and appeared to him in the window. The image said to him: Joseph, the names of your brothers are destined to be written on the stones of the ephod, and you are to be included among them. Do you desire your name to be erased from among them, and to be called an associate [roโ€™eh] of promiscuous women? As it is written: โ€œBut he who keeps company with harlots wastes his richesโ€ (Proverbs 29:3), as he loses his honor, which is more valuable than wealth.


ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืฉื‘ ื‘ืื™ืชืŸ ืงืฉืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืฉืฉื‘ื” ืงืฉืชื• ืœืื™ืชื ื• ื•ื™ืคื–ื• ื–ืจื•ืขื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื ืขืฅ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืงืจืงืข ื•ื™ืฆืื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืขื• ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื•


Immediately: โ€œAnd his bow abode [teishev] firmโ€ (Genesis 49:24). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Meir: This means that his bow, i.e., his penis, returned [shava] to its strength, as he overcame his desire. The verse about Joseph continues: โ€œAnd the arms of his hands were made suppleโ€ (Genesis 49:24), meaning that he dug his hands into the ground and his semen was emitted between his fingernails.


ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื‘ื™ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœื• ืฉื™ื—ืงืง ืขืœ ืื‘ื ื™ ืืคื•ื“ ืืœื ืื‘ื™ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืฉื ืจืขื” ืื‘ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื ื–ื›ื” ื•ื ืขืฉื” ืจื•ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื•ืขื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืื–ื™ื ื” ื ื”ื’ ื›ืฆืืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ


โ€œBy the hands of the Mighty One of Jacobโ€ (Genesis 49:24): Who caused his name to be etched onto the stones of the ephod? It was only the might of Jacob. โ€œFrom there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israelโ€ (Genesis 49:24) means: From there, because of Josephโ€™s ability to withstand this trial, he merited to become a shepherd [roโ€™eh] of the Jewish people, as it is stated: โ€œListen, O Shepherd of Israel, who leads like the flock of Josephโ€ (Psalms 80:2).


ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจืื•ื™ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœืฆืืช ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ืฆืื• ืžื™ืขืงื‘ ืื‘ื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืœื” ืชืœื“ื•ืช ื™ืขืงื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœื ืฉื™ืฆื ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืขื• ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ื™ืฆืื• ืžื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืื—ื™ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ืงืจืื• ืขืœ ืฉืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžืŸ ื‘ืœืข ื•ื‘ื›ืจ ื•ืืฉื‘ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ


It is taught in a baraita: Joseph was deserving of having twelve tribes descend from him, the same as twelve tribes descended from his father Jacob, as it is stated: โ€œThese are the generations of Jacob, Josephโ€ (Genesis 37:2). This implies that everything that happened to Jacob was destined to happen to Joseph. However, he did not merit this because his semen was emitted from between his fingernails. And even so, the offspring that were meant to descend from him descended from his brother Benjamin, who had ten sons. And they were all named after Joseph, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ardโ€ (Genesis 46:21).


ื‘ืœืข ืฉื ื‘ืœืข ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ื•ื‘ื›ืจ ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœืืžื• ื”ื™ื” ื•ืืฉื‘ืœ ืฉืฉื‘ืื• ืืœ ื’ืจื ืฉื’ืจ ื‘ืื›ืกื ื™ื•ึผืช


The Gemara explains how each name relates to Joseph: Bela was named after Joseph, who was swallowed [nivla] among the nations. And Becher received that name because Joseph was the firstborn [bekhor] of his mother, Rachel. And Ashbel received his name because God sent Joseph into captivity [shevao El] in Egypt. Gera was named after Joseph, who dwelled [gar] in a foreign land [akhsaneyut].


ื•ื ืขืžืŸ ืฉื ืขื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื—ื™ ื•ืจืืฉ ืื—ื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ืจืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ืžืคื™ื ื•ื—ืคื™ื ื”ื•ื ืœื ืจืื” ื‘ื—ื•ืคืชื™ ื•ืื ื™ ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ ื‘ื—ื•ืคืชื• ื•ืืจื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืืจื“ ืฉืคื ื™ื• ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœื•ื•ืจื“


And Naaman was called that because Joseph was extremely pleasing [naโ€™im]. Ehi and Rosh received these names, as Benjamin said: Joseph is my brother [aแธฅi] and my leader [roshi]. Benjamin named his sons Muppim and Huppim, as Benjamin said: Joseph did not see my wedding canopy [แธฅuppa] and I did not see his wedding canopy. And Ard was named after Joseph, who descended [yarad] to the lands of the nations of the world. Some say that the name Ard means that Josephโ€™s face was similar in its beauty to a rose [vered].


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ืคืจืขื” ืœื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ืœืขื“ื™ืš ืœื ื™ืจื™ื ืื™ืฉ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืฆื˜ื’ื ื™ื ื™ ืคืจืขื” ืขื‘ื“ ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืจื‘ื• ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื›ืกืฃ ืชืžืฉื™ืœื”ื• ืขืœื™ื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื’ื ื•ื ื™ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืื ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ื•


Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: When Pharaoh said to Joseph: โ€œAnd without you no man shall lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egyptโ€ (Genesis 41:44), Pharaohโ€™s astrologers said: You will appoint a slave whose master bought him for twenty silver coins to rule over us? He said to them: I perceive royal characteristics [ginnunei malkhut] in him and see that he was not initially a slave.


ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื ื›ืŸ ื™ื”ื ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ื•ืœื™ืžื“ื• ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืงื’ืžืจ ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื• ืื•ืช ืื—ืช ืžืฉืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืœืžื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื“ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื”ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืžื• ื‘ืฆืืชื• ืขืœ ืืจืฅ ืžืฆืจื™ื ืฉืคืช ืœื ื™ื“ืขืชื™ ืืฉืžืข ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ื›ืœ ืœื™ืฉื ื ื“ืื™ืฉืชืขื™ ืคืจืขื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืื”ื“ืจ ืœื™ื”


They said to him: If that is so and he is a child of royalty, he should know the seventy languages that all kingsโ€™ children learn. The angel Gabriel then came and taught him the seventy languages, but he could not learn all of them. Gabriel then added one letter, the letter heh, to Josephโ€™s name from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then he was able to learn the languages, as it is stated: โ€œHe appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony, when he went forth against the land of Egypt, the speech of one that I did not know I heardโ€ (Psalms 81:6). And the next day, when he appeared before Pharaoh, in every language that Pharaoh spoke with him, he answered him.


ืื™ืฉืชืขื™ ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืงื ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื’ืžืจื™ ืื’ืžืจื™ื” ื•ืœื ื’ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ ื“ืœื ืžื’ืœื™ืช ืื™ืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื•


Joseph then spoke in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and Pharaoh did not know what he was saying. Pharaoh said to him: Teach me that language. He taught him, but he could not learn it. Pharaoh said to him: Take an oath for my benefit that you will not reveal that I do not know this language. He took an oath for his benefit.


ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื ื™ ืœืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืชืฉื™ืœ ืืฉื‘ื•ืขืชืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืื™ืชืฉืœื™ ื ืžื™ ืื“ื™ื“ืš ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ื ื™ื—ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขืœื” ื•ืงื‘ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขืš


Years later, when Joseph said to Pharaoh: โ€œMy father made me swear, sayingโ€ (Genesis 50:5) that I would bury him in Eretz Yisrael, Pharaoh said to him: Go request the dissolution of your oath. Joseph said to him: And should I also request dissolution for the oath that I took for your benefit? And consequently, even though Pharaoh was not amenable to letting Joseph go, he worried that Joseph would then request dissolution for the oath that he had taken for his benefit, and Pharaoh therefore said to him: โ€œGo up and bury your father according to what he made you swearโ€ (Genesis 50:6).


ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืฉืขืžื“ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืžื ืฆื—ื™ื ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื” ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืชื—ืœื” ืœื™ื ื•ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืชื—ืœื” ืœื™ื ืงืคืฅ


ยง What was the incident where Judah sanctified Godโ€™s name in public? As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: When the Jewish people stood at the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with one other. This one was saying: I am going into the sea first, and that one was saying: I am going into the sea first. Then, in jumped

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