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Today's Daf Yomi

December 1, 2015 | 讬状讟 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sotah 36

How was the Torah written on the stones after they crossed over the Jordan? 聽What were all the miracles that happened on that day? 聽The Kohen Gadol had 2 stones on each shoulder with the names of the 12 tribes. 聽 How were the names split on the 2 stones? 聽Did Joseph have some intent to sleep with Potiphar’s wife?

Study Guide Sotah 36

讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

In accordance with whose opinion is the baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that the verse: 鈥淵ou shall keep alive no one who breathes鈥 (Deuteronomy 20:16), is not referring to the gentiles living outside of Eretz Yisrael, because there is no concern that the Jewish people will learn 鈥渢o do like all their abominations鈥 (Deuteronomy 20:18), as these Canaanites are not located in Eretz Yisrael.

讘讗 讜专讗讛 讻诪讛 谞住讬诐 谞注砖讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讘讗讜 诇讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜诇讛专 注讬讘诇 讬转专 诪砖砖讬诐 诪讬诇 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讘专讬讛 讬讻讜诇讛 诇注诪讜讚 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讻诇 讛注讜诪讚 讘驻谞讬讛诐 诪讬讚 谞转专讝 砖谞讗诪专 讗转 讗讬诪转讬 讗砖诇讞 诇驻谞讬讱 讜讛诪转讬 讗转 讻诇 讛注诐 讗砖专 转讘讗 讘讛诐 讜讙讜壮

搂 The Gemara continues to discuss the entrance of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael: Come and see how many miracles were performed on that day: The Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and they arrived at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are more than sixty mil from the river, and on that day no entity was able to stand before them. And anyone who stood before them was immediately struck with diarrhea, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will send My terror before you, and will confound all the people that you encounter鈥 (Exodus 23:27).

讜讗讜诪专 转驻诇 注诇讬讛诐 讗讬诪转讛 讜驻讞讚 注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛

And similarly, the verse says: 鈥淭error and dread falls upon them; by the greatness of Your arm they are as still as a stone; till Your people pass over, Lord鈥 (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the first arrival of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael, during the period of Joshua. The verse continues: 鈥淭ill the people that You have gotten pass over鈥 (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the second arrival, when the Jews returned to Eretz Yisrael from Babylonia after the destruction of the First Temple.

讗诪讜专 诪注转讛 专讗讜讬讬谉 讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇注砖讜转 诇讛诐 谞住 讘讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛 讻讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讗诇讗 砖讙专诐 讛讞讟讗

Accordingly, say from now that the Jewish people were worthy of having a miracle performed for them during the second arrival, just like they were worthy of having miracles performed for them during the first arrival, but their sin caused them to enter Eretz Yisrael through a natural process, with the permission of the kings of other nations.

讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讜 讗转 讛诪讝讘讞 讜住讚讜讛讜 讘住讬讚 讜讻转讘讜 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讻诇 讚讘专讬 讛转讜专讛 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗专 讛讬讟讘

The Gemara continues its description of the entrance into Eretz Yisrael during the period of Joshua: And afterward they brought the stones and built the altar on Mount Ebal, and plastered it over with plaster, and wrote on the stones all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall write on the stones all of the words of this law clearly elucidated鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:8).

讜讛注诇讜 注讜诇讜转 讜砖诇诪讬诐 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜砖诪讞讜 讜讘专讻讜 讜拽诇诇讜 讜拽讬驻诇讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘讗讜 讜诇谞讜 讘讙诇讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛注讘专转诐 讗讜转诐 注诪讻诐 讜讛谞讞转诐 讗讜转诐 讘诪诇讜谉

And they sacrificed burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and they ate and drank and celebrated, and they uttered the blessings, and they uttered the curses, and they took [kippelu] the stones with them, and they arrived and slept in Gilgal, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd carry them over with you, and lay them down in the lodging place, where you shall lodge this night鈥 (Joshua 4:3).

讬讻讜诇 讘讻诇 诪诇讜谉 讜诪诇讜谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 转诇讬谞讜 讘讜 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗转 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讗砖专 诇拽讞讜 讜讙讜壮

One might have thought that they were required to place these stones at each and every lodging place where they stayed. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲here you shall lodge this night,鈥 meaning only on that night. And it is written: 鈥淎nd those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal鈥 (Joshua 4:20).

转谞讗 爪专注讛 诇讗 注讘专讛 注诪讛诐 讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜砖诇讞转讬 讗转 讛爪专注讛 诇驻谞讬讱

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:10): The hornet [tzira] did not cross the Jordan with them. The Gemara asks: And did it not? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd I will send the hornet before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, and the Canaanites鈥 (Exodus 23:28)?

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 注诇 砖驻转 讬专讚谉 注诪讚讛 讜讝专拽讛 讘讛谉 诪专讛 讜住讬诪转讛 注讬谞讬讛谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜住讬专住转谉 诪诇诪讟讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗谞讻讬 讛砖诪讚转讬 讗转 讛讗诪专讬 诪驻谞讬讛诐 讗砖专 讻讙讘讛 讗专讝讬诐 讙讘讛讜 讜讞住谉 讛讜讗 讻讗诇讜谞讬诐 讜讗砖诪讬讚 驻专讬讜 诪诪注诇 讜砖专砖讬讜 诪转讞转 讜讙讜壮

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The hornet stood on the banks of the Jordan and threw its venom at the inhabitants of the land and it blinded their eyes from above and castrated them from below, as it is stated: 鈥淵et I destroyed the Amorites before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and they were strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed their fruit from above, and their roots from beneath鈥 (Amos 2:9).

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 砖转讬 爪专注讜转 讛讜讗讬 讞讚讗 讚诪砖讛 讜讞讚讗 讚讬讛讜砖注 讚诪砖讛 诇讗 注讘专 讚讬讛讜砖注 注讘专

Rav Pappa said: There were two hornets. One was the hornet of Moses, which helped conquer the eastern side of the Jordan, and one was the hornet of Joshua. The hornet of Moses did not cross the Jordan, but the hornet of Joshua did cross.

砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讜讛讞爪讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讻讗谉 讻讱 讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚

搂 It is stated in the mishna: Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim, as it is stated: 鈥淗alf of them in front of Mount Gerizim and the half of them in front of Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:33). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term 鈥渁nd the half of them鈥? It seems to be referring to a division that already existed. Rav Kahana says: The same way that the tribes were divided up here on the mountains, so too were they divided on the stones of the ephod, a garment of the High Priest.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖转讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诇 讻转讬驻讬讜 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜砖诪讜转 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 砖讘讟讬诐 讻转讜讘 注诇讬讛诐 砖砖讛 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 讜砖砖讛 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖砖讛 诪砖诪讜转诐 注诇 讛讗讘谉 讛讗讞转 讜讙讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection to this answer: The High Priest had two precious stones on the part of the ephod that rested on his shoulders, one on this side and one on that side, and the names of the twelve tribes were written on them, six on this stone and six on that stone, as it is stated: 鈥淪ix of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their birth鈥 (Exodus 28:10).

砖谞讬讛 讻转讜诇讚讜转诐 讜诇讗 专讗砖讜谞讛 讻转讜诇讚讜转诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讛讜讚讛 诪讜拽讚诐 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜转讬讜转 讛讬讜 注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 讜注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜

It is derived from the verse that only the names on the second stone were written according to the order of their birth: Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin. But the names on the first stone were not written according to the order of their birth, as Judah was written first, and afterward came Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Dan, and Naphtali. And there were fifty letters on the two stones of the ephod, twenty-five letters on this stone and twenty-five on that stone.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专

Rabbi 岣nina ben Gamliel says:

诇讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讞讜诪砖 讛驻拽讜讚讬诐 讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讗诇讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讞讜诪砖 砖谞讬

The names of the tribes were not divided on the stones of the ephod the same way that they were divided in the list found at the beginning of the book of Numbers (Numbers 1:1鈥15). Rather they were divided the way that they were divided in the second book, i.e., Exodus (Exodus 1:2鈥4).

讻讬爪讚 讘谞讬 诇讗讛 讻住讬讚专谉 讘谞讬 专讞诇 讗讞讚 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞讚 诪讻讗谉 讜讘谞讬 砖驻讞讜转 讘讗诪爪注

How were they written? On one stone, the names of the sons of Leah were written in the order of their birth: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. On the other stone the sons of Rachel were written. One, Benjamin, was written on this side, i.e., at the bottom of the list, and one, Joseph, was written on that side, i.e., at the top of the list. And the children of the handmaids, i.e., Bilhah and Zilpah, who were Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, were written on the second stone in the middle.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讻转讜诇讚转诐 讻砖诪讜转谉 砖拽专讗 诇讛谉 讗讘讬讛谉 讜诇讗 讻砖诪讜转 砖拽专讗 诇讛谉 诪砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 讜诇讗 专讗讜讘谞讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诇讗 砖诪注讜谞讬 讚谉 讜诇讗 讛讚谞讬 讙讚 讜诇讗 讛讙讚讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讻讛谞讗 转讬讜讘转讗

But rather, if their names were not written in the order of their births, then how do I establish the meaning of the phrase: 鈥淎ccording to their birth鈥 (Exodus 28:10)? It means that their names were written according to the names that their father, Jacob, called them, and not according to the names that Moses called them. On the stones it said Reuben, and not Reubenites; Simeon, and not Simeonites; Dan, and not Danites; Gad, and not Gadites. This baraita contradicts Rav Kahana鈥檚 opinion, as according to all of the opinions in the baraita, the division of the names on the ephod is not identical to the division of the tribes on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. The Gemara confirms: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Kahana is in fact a conclusive refutation.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讜讛讞爪讬讜 转谞讗 讞爪讬讜 砖诇 诪讜诇 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 诪专讜讘讛 诪讞爪讬讜 砖诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛

The Gemara asks: Rather, what is meant by the phrase: 鈥淎nd the half of them facing Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:33)? It is taught in a baraita: The use of the definitive article in the verse indicates that the smaller half of the Jewish people was on Mount Ebal. The half that was facing Mount Gerizim was larger than the half on Mount Ebal, because the tribe of Levi was included in the group that was facing Mount Gerizim, and they remained on the bottom between the two mountains.

讗讚专讘讛 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讘爪专讬 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讘谞讬 讬讜住祝 注诪讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚讘专讜 讘谞讬 讬讜住祝 讗转 讬讛讜砖注 诇讗诪专 诪讚讜注 谞转转讛 诇讬 谞讞诇讛 讙讜专诇 讗讞讚 讜讞讘诇 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 注诐 专讘 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讛诐 讬讛讜砖注 讗诐 注诐 专讘 讗转讛 注诇讛 诇讱 讛讬注专讛

The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: On the contrary, because the tribe of Levi remained on the bottom they were fewer in number. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita is saying: Although the tribe of Levi was on the bottom, the descendants of Joseph were among them, and the tribe of Joseph was numerous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the children of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying: Why did you give me a single lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the Lord has blessed me thus, and Joshua said to them: If you are a great people, you should go up to the forest鈥 (Joshua 17:14鈥15).

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讜 讜讛讞讘讗讜 注爪诪讻诐 讘讬注专讬诐 砖诇讗 转砖诇讜讟 讘讻诐 注讬谉 讛专注 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讝专注讬讛 讚讬讜住祝 诇讗 砖诇讟讗 讘讬讛 注讬谞讗 讘讬砖讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘谉 驻专转 讬讜住祝 讘谉 驻专转 注诇讬 注讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇 转讛讬 拽讜专讗 注诇讬 注讬谉 讗诇讗 注讜诇讬 注讬谉

The Gemara explains that Joshua said to them: Go and hide yourselves in the forests, so that the evil eye will not have dominion over you, as you are such a large number of people. The tribe of Joseph said to him: The evil eye does not have dominion over the offspring of Joseph, as it is written: 鈥淛oseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain鈥 (Genesis 49:22), and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: 鈥淏y a fountain [alei ayin]鈥; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin], teaching that Joseph and his descendants are not susceptible to the evil eye.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬讚讙讜 诇专讘 讘拽专讘 讛讗专抓 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 诪讬诐 诪讻住讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 讛注讬谉 砖讜诇讟转 讘讛谉 讗祝 讝专注讜 砖诇 讬讜住祝 讗讬谉 讛注讬谉 砖讜诇讟转 讘讛谉

The Gemara cites an alternative source for the assertion that the evil eye holds no sway over Joseph and his descendants: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that it is derived from here: Jacob blessed Joseph鈥檚 children and said: 鈥淎nd let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earth鈥 (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, waters cover them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, so too, with regard to Joseph鈥檚 descendants, the evil eye has no dominion over them.

讛谞讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜转讬讜转 讞诪砖讬诐 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 讛讜讬讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬讜住祝 讛讜住讬驻讜 诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 注讚讜转 讘讬讛讜住祝 砖诪讜 讘爪讗转讜 注诇 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐

The Gemara asks with regard to the baraita that contradicts Rav Kahana鈥檚 opinion: Are these names of the tribes, which were written on the ephod, composed of a total of fifty letters? There are only forty-nine. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: They added one letter to the name of Joseph [Yosef ] when it was written on the ephod, as it is stated: 鈥淗e appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef ] for a testimony when He went forth against the land of Egypt鈥 (Psalms 81:6).

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻转讜诇讚转诐 讘注讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘谞讬诪谉 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讗 讘谞讬诪讬谉 砖诇诐 讻讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讘讬讜 拽专讗 诇讜 讘谞讬诪讬谉

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k objects to this: We require the names to be written 鈥渁ccording to their birth,鈥 and Joseph was not called Yehosef from birth. Rather, the explanation is as follows: Throughout the entire Torah, the name of Benjamin is written without a second letter yod between the letters mem and nun, and here, where he is born, Benjamin is written in full, spelled with a second yod. As it is written: 鈥淏ut his father called him Benjamin鈥 (Genesis 35:18). Therefore, his name was written on the ephod with a second yod, 鈥渁ccording to his birth.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讬讜住祝 砖拽讬讚砖 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘住转专 讛讜住讬驻讜 注诇讬讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讛讜讚讛 砖拽讬讚砖 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗 谞拽专讗 讻讜诇讜 注诇 砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗

Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private, had one letter of the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the letter heh, added to his name. Whereas in the case of Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya] at the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt, merited that his entire name is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the entire four-letter name of God can be found within Judah鈥檚 name.

讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讜讬讘讗 讛讘讬转讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪诇诪讚 砖砖谞讬讛诐 诇讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 谞转讻讜讜谞讜 讜讬讘讗 讛讘讬转讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 诪诪砖 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 爪专讻讬讜 谞讻谞住

The Gemara explains: What is the situation where Joseph sanctified God鈥檚 name in private? As it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work鈥 (Genesis 39:11). Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This teaches that both Joseph and Potiphar鈥檚 wife stayed in the house, as they intended to perform a matter of sin. With regard to the phrase 鈥渨hen he went into the house to do his work,鈥 Rav and Shmuel engage in a dispute with regard to its meaning. One says: It means that he went into the house to do his work, literally. And one says: He entered the house in order to fulfill his sexual needs with her.

讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 诪讗谞砖讬 讛讘讬转 讜讙讜壮 讗驻砖专 讘讬转 讙讚讜诇 讻讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 讗讬砖 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讬讜诐 讞讙诐 讛讬讛 讜讛诇讻讜 讻讜诇谉 诇讘讬转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 砖诇讛诐 讜讛讬讗 讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 讞讜诇讛 讛讬讗 讗诪专讛 讗讬谉 诇讬 讬讜诐 砖谞讬讝拽拽 诇讬 讬讜住祝 讻讬讜诐 讛讝讛

The verse continues: 鈥淎nd there was none of the men of the house there within鈥 (Genesis 39:11). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that in such a large and important house like the house of that wicked man that no one was in there? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: That day was their festival day and they all went to their house of idol worship; and she told them that she was sick and could not go, as she said to herself: I have no day on which Joseph will attend to me like this day.

讜转转驻砖讛讜 讘讘讙讚讜 诇讗诪专 讜讙讜壮 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讘讗转讛 讚讬讜拽谞讜 砖诇 讗讘讬讜 讜谞专讗转讛 诇讜 讘讞诇讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讬讜住祝 注转讬讚讬谉 讗讞讬讱 砖讬讻转讘讜 注诇 讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讜讗转讛 讘讬谞讬讛诐 专爪讜谞讱 砖讬诪讞讛 砖诪讱 诪讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜转拽专讗 专讜注讛 讝讜谞讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜专注讛 讝讜谞讜转 讬讗讘讚 讛讜谉

The verse states: 鈥淎nd she caught him by his garment, saying: Lie with me鈥 (Genesis 39:12). At that moment his father鈥檚 image [deyokeno] came and appeared to him in the window. The image said to him: Joseph, the names of your brothers are destined to be written on the stones of the ephod, and you are to be included among them. Do you desire your name to be erased from among them, and to be called an associate [ro鈥檈h] of promiscuous women? As it is written: 鈥淏ut he who keeps company with harlots wastes his riches鈥 (Proverbs 29:3), as he loses his honor, which is more valuable than wealth.

诪讬讚 讜转砖讘 讘讗讬转谉 拽砖转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 砖砖讘讛 拽砖转讜 诇讗讬转谞讜 讜讬驻讝讜 讝专讜注讬 讬讚讬讜 谞注抓 讬讚讬讜 讘拽专拽注 讜讬爪讗讛 砖讻讘转 讝专注讜 诪讘讬谉 爪讬驻讜专谞讬 讬讚讬讜

Immediately: 鈥淎nd his bow abode [teishev] firm鈥 (Genesis 49:24). Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Meir: This means that his bow, i.e., his penis, returned [shava] to its strength, as he overcame his desire. The verse about Joseph continues: 鈥淎nd the arms of his hands were made supple鈥 (Genesis 49:24), meaning that he dug his hands into the ground and his semen was emitted between his fingernails.

诪讬讚讬 讗讘讬专 讬注拽讘 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讜 砖讬讞拽拽 注诇 讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讗诇讗 讗讘讬专 讬注拽讘 诪砖诐 专注讛 讗讘谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖诐 讝讻讛 讜谞注砖讛 专讜注讛 砖谞讗诪专 专讜注讛 讬砖专讗诇 讛讗讝讬谞讛 谞讛讙 讻爪讗谉 讬讜住祝

鈥淏y the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob鈥 (Genesis 49:24): Who caused his name to be etched onto the stones of the ephod? It was only the might of Jacob. 鈥淔rom there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel鈥 (Genesis 49:24) means: From there, because of Joseph鈥檚 ability to withstand this trial, he merited to become a shepherd [ro鈥檈h] of the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淟isten, O Shepherd of Israel, who leads like the flock of Joseph鈥 (Psalms 80:2).

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讗讜讬 讬讜住祝 诇爪讗转 诪诪谞讜 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 砖讘讟讬诐 讻讚专讱 砖讬爪讗讜 诪讬注拽讘 讗讘讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 转诇讚讜转 讬注拽讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讗 砖讬爪讗 砖讻讘转 讝专注讜 诪讘讬谉 爪讬驻讜专谞讬 讬讚讬讜 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讬爪讗讜 诪讘谞讬诪讬谉 讗讞讬讜 讜讻讜诇谉 谞拽专讗讜 注诇 砖诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诪谉 讘诇注 讜讘讻专 讜讗砖讘诇 讜讙讜壮

It is taught in a baraita: Joseph was deserving of having twelve tribes descend from him, the same as twelve tribes descended from his father Jacob, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the generations of Jacob, Joseph鈥 (Genesis 37:2). This implies that everything that happened to Jacob was destined to happen to Joseph. However, he did not merit this because his semen was emitted from between his fingernails. And even so, the offspring that were meant to descend from him descended from his brother Benjamin, who had ten sons. And they were all named after Joseph, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard鈥 (Genesis 46:21).

讘诇注 砖谞讘诇注 讘讬谉 讛讗讜诪讜转 讜讘讻专 讘讻讜专 诇讗诪讜 讛讬讛 讜讗砖讘诇 砖砖讘讗讜 讗诇 讙专讗 砖讙专 讘讗讻住谞讬讜旨转

The Gemara explains how each name relates to Joseph: Bela was named after Joseph, who was swallowed [nivla] among the nations. And Becher received that name because Joseph was the firstborn [bekhor] of his mother, Rachel. And Ashbel received his name because God sent Joseph into captivity [shevao El] in Egypt. Gera was named after Joseph, who dwelled [gar] in a foreign land [akhsaneyut].

讜谞注诪谉 砖谞注讬诐 讘讬讜转专 讗讞讬 讜专讗砖 讗讞讬 讛讜讗 讜专讗砖讬 讛讜讗 诪驻讬诐 讜讞驻讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 专讗讛 讘讞讜驻转讬 讜讗谞讬 诇讗 专讗讬转讬 讘讞讜驻转讜 讜讗专讚 砖讬专讚 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讜讗专讚 砖驻谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讜讜专讚

And Naaman was called that because Joseph was extremely pleasing [na鈥檌m]. Ehi and Rosh received these names, as Benjamin said: Joseph is my brother [a岣] and my leader [roshi]. Benjamin named his sons Muppim and Huppim, as Benjamin said: Joseph did not see my wedding canopy [岣ppa] and I did not see his wedding canopy. And Ard was named after Joseph, who descended [yarad] to the lands of the nations of the world. Some say that the name Ard means that Joseph鈥檚 face was similar in its beauty to a rose [vered].

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘砖注讛 砖讗诪专 诇讜 驻专注讛 诇讬讜住祝 讜讘诇注讚讬讱 诇讗 讬专讬诐 讗讬砖 讗转 讬讚讜 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讜 讗讬爪讟讙谞讬谞讬 驻专注讛 注讘讚 砖诇拽讞讜 专讘讜 讘注砖专讬诐 讻住祝 转诪砖讬诇讛讜 注诇讬谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讙谞讜谞讬 诪诇讻讜转 讗谞讬 专讜讗讛 讘讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: When Pharaoh said to Joseph: 鈥淎nd without you no man shall lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt鈥 (Genesis 41:44), Pharaoh鈥檚 astrologers said: You will appoint a slave whose master bought him for twenty silver coins to rule over us? He said to them: I perceive royal characteristics [ginnunei malkhut] in him and see that he was not initially a slave.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讬讛讗 讬讜讚注 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 讘讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讜诇讬诪讚讜 砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 拽讙诪专 讛讜住讬祝 诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜诇诪讚 砖谞讗诪专 注讚讜转 讘讬讛讜住祝 砖诪讜 讘爪讗转讜 注诇 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 砖驻转 诇讗 讬讚注转讬 讗砖诪注 讜诇诪讞专 讻诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗讬砖转注讬 驻专注讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讗讛讚专 诇讬讛

They said to him: If that is so and he is a child of royalty, he should know the seventy languages that all kings鈥 children learn. The angel Gabriel then came and taught him the seventy languages, but he could not learn all of them. Gabriel then added one letter, the letter heh, to Joseph鈥檚 name from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then he was able to learn the languages, as it is stated: 鈥淗e appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony, when he went forth against the land of Egypt, the speech of one that I did not know I heard鈥 (Psalms 81:6). And the next day, when he appeared before Pharaoh, in every language that Pharaoh spoke with him, he answered him.

讗讬砖转注讬 讗讬讛讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讚砖 诇讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讛讜讛 讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讙诪专讬 讗讙诪专讬讛 讜诇讗 讙诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬砖转讘注 诇讬 讚诇讗 诪讙诇讬转 讗讬砖转讘注 诇讜

Joseph then spoke in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and Pharaoh did not know what he was saying. Pharaoh said to him: Teach me that language. He taught him, but he could not learn it. Pharaoh said to him: Take an oath for my benefit that you will not reveal that I do not know this language. He took an oath for his benefit.

讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬 讛砖讘讬注谞讬 诇讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬转砖讬诇 讗砖讘讜注转讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讗讬转砖诇讬 谞诪讬 讗讚讬讚讱 讜讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 谞讬讞讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诇讛 讜拽讘专 讗转 讗讘讬讱 讻讗砖专 讛砖讘讬注讱

Years later, when Joseph said to Pharaoh: 鈥淢y father made me swear, saying鈥 (Genesis 50:5) that I would bury him in Eretz Yisrael, Pharaoh said to him: Go request the dissolution of your oath. Joseph said to him: And should I also request dissolution for the oath that I took for your benefit? And consequently, even though Pharaoh was not amenable to letting Joseph go, he worried that Joseph would then request dissolution for the oath that he had taken for his benefit, and Pharaoh therefore said to him: 鈥淕o up and bury your father according to what he made you swear鈥 (Genesis 50:6).

讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻砖注诪讚讜 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讛讬诐 讛讬讜 砖讘讟讬诐 诪谞爪讞讬诐 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞诇讛 诇讬诐 讜讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞诇讛 诇讬诐 拽驻抓

What was the incident where Judah sanctified God鈥檚 name in public? As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: When the Jewish people stood at the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with one other. This one was saying: I am going into the sea first, and that one was saying: I am going into the sea first. Then, in jumped

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Sotah 36

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 36

讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

In accordance with whose opinion is the baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that the verse: 鈥淵ou shall keep alive no one who breathes鈥 (Deuteronomy 20:16), is not referring to the gentiles living outside of Eretz Yisrael, because there is no concern that the Jewish people will learn 鈥渢o do like all their abominations鈥 (Deuteronomy 20:18), as these Canaanites are not located in Eretz Yisrael.

讘讗 讜专讗讛 讻诪讛 谞住讬诐 谞注砖讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注讘专讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讬专讚谉 讜讘讗讜 诇讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜诇讛专 注讬讘诇 讬转专 诪砖砖讬诐 诪讬诇 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讘专讬讛 讬讻讜诇讛 诇注诪讜讚 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讻诇 讛注讜诪讚 讘驻谞讬讛诐 诪讬讚 谞转专讝 砖谞讗诪专 讗转 讗讬诪转讬 讗砖诇讞 诇驻谞讬讱 讜讛诪转讬 讗转 讻诇 讛注诐 讗砖专 转讘讗 讘讛诐 讜讙讜壮

搂 The Gemara continues to discuss the entrance of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael: Come and see how many miracles were performed on that day: The Jewish people crossed the Jordan, and they arrived at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, which are more than sixty mil from the river, and on that day no entity was able to stand before them. And anyone who stood before them was immediately struck with diarrhea, as it is stated: 鈥淚 will send My terror before you, and will confound all the people that you encounter鈥 (Exodus 23:27).

讜讗讜诪专 转驻诇 注诇讬讛诐 讗讬诪转讛 讜驻讞讚 注讚 讬注讘专 注诪讱 讛壮 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 注讚 讬注讘专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转 讝讜 讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛

And similarly, the verse says: 鈥淭error and dread falls upon them; by the greatness of Your arm they are as still as a stone; till Your people pass over, Lord鈥 (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the first arrival of the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael, during the period of Joshua. The verse continues: 鈥淭ill the people that You have gotten pass over鈥 (Exodus 15:16). This alludes to the second arrival, when the Jews returned to Eretz Yisrael from Babylonia after the destruction of the First Temple.

讗诪讜专 诪注转讛 专讗讜讬讬谉 讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇注砖讜转 诇讛诐 谞住 讘讘讬讗讛 砖谞讬讛 讻讘讬讗讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 讗诇讗 砖讙专诐 讛讞讟讗

Accordingly, say from now that the Jewish people were worthy of having a miracle performed for them during the second arrival, just like they were worthy of having miracles performed for them during the first arrival, but their sin caused them to enter Eretz Yisrael through a natural process, with the permission of the kings of other nations.

讜讗讞专 讻讱 讛讘讬讗讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讜 讗转 讛诪讝讘讞 讜住讚讜讛讜 讘住讬讚 讜讻转讘讜 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讻诇 讚讘专讬 讛转讜专讛 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘讗专 讛讬讟讘

The Gemara continues its description of the entrance into Eretz Yisrael during the period of Joshua: And afterward they brought the stones and built the altar on Mount Ebal, and plastered it over with plaster, and wrote on the stones all of the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall write on the stones all of the words of this law clearly elucidated鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:8).

讜讛注诇讜 注讜诇讜转 讜砖诇诪讬诐 讜讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 讜砖诪讞讜 讜讘专讻讜 讜拽诇诇讜 讜拽讬驻诇讜 讗转 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讜讘讗讜 讜诇谞讜 讘讙诇讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛注讘专转诐 讗讜转诐 注诪讻诐 讜讛谞讞转诐 讗讜转诐 讘诪诇讜谉

And they sacrificed burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and they ate and drank and celebrated, and they uttered the blessings, and they uttered the curses, and they took [kippelu] the stones with them, and they arrived and slept in Gilgal, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd carry them over with you, and lay them down in the lodging place, where you shall lodge this night鈥 (Joshua 4:3).

讬讻讜诇 讘讻诇 诪诇讜谉 讜诪诇讜谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 转诇讬谞讜 讘讜 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗转 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 讛讗讘谞讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讗砖专 诇拽讞讜 讜讙讜壮

One might have thought that they were required to place these stones at each and every lodging place where they stayed. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淲here you shall lodge this night,鈥 meaning only on that night. And it is written: 鈥淎nd those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal鈥 (Joshua 4:20).

转谞讗 爪专注讛 诇讗 注讘专讛 注诪讛诐 讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜砖诇讞转讬 讗转 讛爪专注讛 诇驻谞讬讱

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:10): The hornet [tzira] did not cross the Jordan with them. The Gemara asks: And did it not? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd I will send the hornet before you, which shall drive out the Hivites, and the Canaanites鈥 (Exodus 23:28)?

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 注诇 砖驻转 讬专讚谉 注诪讚讛 讜讝专拽讛 讘讛谉 诪专讛 讜住讬诪转讛 注讬谞讬讛谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜住讬专住转谉 诪诇诪讟讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗谞讻讬 讛砖诪讚转讬 讗转 讛讗诪专讬 诪驻谞讬讛诐 讗砖专 讻讙讘讛 讗专讝讬诐 讙讘讛讜 讜讞住谉 讛讜讗 讻讗诇讜谞讬诐 讜讗砖诪讬讚 驻专讬讜 诪诪注诇 讜砖专砖讬讜 诪转讞转 讜讙讜壮

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The hornet stood on the banks of the Jordan and threw its venom at the inhabitants of the land and it blinded their eyes from above and castrated them from below, as it is stated: 鈥淵et I destroyed the Amorites before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and they were strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed their fruit from above, and their roots from beneath鈥 (Amos 2:9).

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 砖转讬 爪专注讜转 讛讜讗讬 讞讚讗 讚诪砖讛 讜讞讚讗 讚讬讛讜砖注 讚诪砖讛 诇讗 注讘专 讚讬讛讜砖注 注讘专

Rav Pappa said: There were two hornets. One was the hornet of Moses, which helped conquer the eastern side of the Jordan, and one was the hornet of Joshua. The hornet of Moses did not cross the Jordan, but the hornet of Joshua did cross.

砖砖讛 砖讘讟讬诐 注诇讜 诇专讗砖 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讜讛讞爪讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讻讗谉 讻讱 讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚

搂 It is stated in the mishna: Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim, as it is stated: 鈥淗alf of them in front of Mount Gerizim and the half of them in front of Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:33). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term 鈥渁nd the half of them鈥? It seems to be referring to a division that already existed. Rav Kahana says: The same way that the tribes were divided up here on the mountains, so too were they divided on the stones of the ephod, a garment of the High Priest.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖转讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 注诇 讻转讬驻讬讜 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜砖诪讜转 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 砖讘讟讬诐 讻转讜讘 注诇讬讛诐 砖砖讛 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 讜砖砖讛 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 砖谞讗诪专 砖砖讛 诪砖诪讜转诐 注诇 讛讗讘谉 讛讗讞转 讜讙讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection to this answer: The High Priest had two precious stones on the part of the ephod that rested on his shoulders, one on this side and one on that side, and the names of the twelve tribes were written on them, six on this stone and six on that stone, as it is stated: 鈥淪ix of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their birth鈥 (Exodus 28:10).

砖谞讬讛 讻转讜诇讚讜转诐 讜诇讗 专讗砖讜谞讛 讻转讜诇讚讜转诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讛讜讚讛 诪讜拽讚诐 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜转讬讜转 讛讬讜 注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜 讜注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 注诇 讗讘谉 讝讜

It is derived from the verse that only the names on the second stone were written according to the order of their birth: Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin. But the names on the first stone were not written according to the order of their birth, as Judah was written first, and afterward came Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Dan, and Naphtali. And there were fifty letters on the two stones of the ephod, twenty-five letters on this stone and twenty-five on that stone.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专

Rabbi 岣nina ben Gamliel says:

诇讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讞讜诪砖 讛驻拽讜讚讬诐 讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讗诇讗 讻讚专讱 砖讞诇讜拽讬谉 讘讞讜诪砖 砖谞讬

The names of the tribes were not divided on the stones of the ephod the same way that they were divided in the list found at the beginning of the book of Numbers (Numbers 1:1鈥15). Rather they were divided the way that they were divided in the second book, i.e., Exodus (Exodus 1:2鈥4).

讻讬爪讚 讘谞讬 诇讗讛 讻住讬讚专谉 讘谞讬 专讞诇 讗讞讚 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞讚 诪讻讗谉 讜讘谞讬 砖驻讞讜转 讘讗诪爪注

How were they written? On one stone, the names of the sons of Leah were written in the order of their birth: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. On the other stone the sons of Rachel were written. One, Benjamin, was written on this side, i.e., at the bottom of the list, and one, Joseph, was written on that side, i.e., at the top of the list. And the children of the handmaids, i.e., Bilhah and Zilpah, who were Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher, were written on the second stone in the middle.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讻转讜诇讚转诐 讻砖诪讜转谉 砖拽专讗 诇讛谉 讗讘讬讛谉 讜诇讗 讻砖诪讜转 砖拽专讗 诇讛谉 诪砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 讜诇讗 专讗讜讘谞讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诇讗 砖诪注讜谞讬 讚谉 讜诇讗 讛讚谞讬 讙讚 讜诇讗 讛讙讚讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讻讛谞讗 转讬讜讘转讗

But rather, if their names were not written in the order of their births, then how do I establish the meaning of the phrase: 鈥淎ccording to their birth鈥 (Exodus 28:10)? It means that their names were written according to the names that their father, Jacob, called them, and not according to the names that Moses called them. On the stones it said Reuben, and not Reubenites; Simeon, and not Simeonites; Dan, and not Danites; Gad, and not Gadites. This baraita contradicts Rav Kahana鈥檚 opinion, as according to all of the opinions in the baraita, the division of the names on the ephod is not identical to the division of the tribes on Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal. The Gemara confirms: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Kahana is in fact a conclusive refutation.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讜讛讞爪讬讜 转谞讗 讞爪讬讜 砖诇 诪讜诇 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 诪专讜讘讛 诪讞爪讬讜 砖诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛

The Gemara asks: Rather, what is meant by the phrase: 鈥淎nd the half of them facing Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:33)? It is taught in a baraita: The use of the definitive article in the verse indicates that the smaller half of the Jewish people was on Mount Ebal. The half that was facing Mount Gerizim was larger than the half on Mount Ebal, because the tribe of Levi was included in the group that was facing Mount Gerizim, and they remained on the bottom between the two mountains.

讗讚专讘讛 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讘爪专讬 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讘谞讬 讬讜住祝 注诪讛诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚讘专讜 讘谞讬 讬讜住祝 讗转 讬讛讜砖注 诇讗诪专 诪讚讜注 谞转转讛 诇讬 谞讞诇讛 讙讜专诇 讗讞讚 讜讞讘诇 讗讞讚 讜讗谞讬 注诐 专讘 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讬讛诐 讬讛讜砖注 讗诐 注诐 专讘 讗转讛 注诇讛 诇讱 讛讬注专讛

The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: On the contrary, because the tribe of Levi remained on the bottom they were fewer in number. The Gemara answers: This is what the baraita is saying: Although the tribe of Levi was on the bottom, the descendants of Joseph were among them, and the tribe of Joseph was numerous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the children of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying: Why did you give me a single lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the Lord has blessed me thus, and Joshua said to them: If you are a great people, you should go up to the forest鈥 (Joshua 17:14鈥15).

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讜 讜讛讞讘讗讜 注爪诪讻诐 讘讬注专讬诐 砖诇讗 转砖诇讜讟 讘讻诐 注讬谉 讛专注 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讝专注讬讛 讚讬讜住祝 诇讗 砖诇讟讗 讘讬讛 注讬谞讗 讘讬砖讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘谉 驻专转 讬讜住祝 讘谉 驻专转 注诇讬 注讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇 转讛讬 拽讜专讗 注诇讬 注讬谉 讗诇讗 注讜诇讬 注讬谉

The Gemara explains that Joshua said to them: Go and hide yourselves in the forests, so that the evil eye will not have dominion over you, as you are such a large number of people. The tribe of Joseph said to him: The evil eye does not have dominion over the offspring of Joseph, as it is written: 鈥淛oseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain鈥 (Genesis 49:22), and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: 鈥淏y a fountain [alei ayin]鈥; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin], teaching that Joseph and his descendants are not susceptible to the evil eye.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬讚讙讜 诇专讘 讘拽专讘 讛讗专抓 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 诪讬诐 诪讻住讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 讛注讬谉 砖讜诇讟转 讘讛谉 讗祝 讝专注讜 砖诇 讬讜住祝 讗讬谉 讛注讬谉 砖讜诇讟转 讘讛谉

The Gemara cites an alternative source for the assertion that the evil eye holds no sway over Joseph and his descendants: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said that it is derived from here: Jacob blessed Joseph鈥檚 children and said: 鈥淎nd let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earth鈥 (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, waters cover them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, so too, with regard to Joseph鈥檚 descendants, the evil eye has no dominion over them.

讛谞讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜转讬讜转 讞诪砖讬诐 谞讻讬 讞讚讗 讛讜讬讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬讜住祝 讛讜住讬驻讜 诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 注讚讜转 讘讬讛讜住祝 砖诪讜 讘爪讗转讜 注诇 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐

The Gemara asks with regard to the baraita that contradicts Rav Kahana鈥檚 opinion: Are these names of the tribes, which were written on the ephod, composed of a total of fifty letters? There are only forty-nine. Rabbi Yitz岣k says: They added one letter to the name of Joseph [Yosef ] when it was written on the ephod, as it is stated: 鈥淗e appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef ] for a testimony when He went forth against the land of Egypt鈥 (Psalms 81:6).

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻转讜诇讚转诐 讘注讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘谞讬诪谉 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讗 讘谞讬诪讬谉 砖诇诐 讻讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讘讬讜 拽专讗 诇讜 讘谞讬诪讬谉

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k objects to this: We require the names to be written 鈥渁ccording to their birth,鈥 and Joseph was not called Yehosef from birth. Rather, the explanation is as follows: Throughout the entire Torah, the name of Benjamin is written without a second letter yod between the letters mem and nun, and here, where he is born, Benjamin is written in full, spelled with a second yod. As it is written: 鈥淏ut his father called him Benjamin鈥 (Genesis 35:18). Therefore, his name was written on the ephod with a second yod, 鈥渁ccording to his birth.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讬讜住祝 砖拽讬讚砖 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘住转专 讛讜住讬驻讜 注诇讬讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讛讜讚讛 砖拽讬讚砖 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗 谞拽专讗 讻讜诇讜 注诇 砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗

Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private, had one letter of the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, the letter heh, added to his name. Whereas in the case of Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya] at the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt, merited that his entire name is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as the entire four-letter name of God can be found within Judah鈥檚 name.

讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讜讬讘讗 讛讘讬转讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪诇诪讚 砖砖谞讬讛诐 诇讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 谞转讻讜讜谞讜 讜讬讘讗 讛讘讬转讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻转讜 诪诪砖 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 爪专讻讬讜 谞讻谞住

The Gemara explains: What is the situation where Joseph sanctified God鈥檚 name in private? As it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work鈥 (Genesis 39:11). Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This teaches that both Joseph and Potiphar鈥檚 wife stayed in the house, as they intended to perform a matter of sin. With regard to the phrase 鈥渨hen he went into the house to do his work,鈥 Rav and Shmuel engage in a dispute with regard to its meaning. One says: It means that he went into the house to do his work, literally. And one says: He entered the house in order to fulfill his sexual needs with her.

讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 诪讗谞砖讬 讛讘讬转 讜讙讜壮 讗驻砖专 讘讬转 讙讚讜诇 讻讘讬转讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 讗讬砖 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讬讜诐 讞讙诐 讛讬讛 讜讛诇讻讜 讻讜诇谉 诇讘讬转 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 砖诇讛诐 讜讛讬讗 讗诪专讛 诇讛谉 讞讜诇讛 讛讬讗 讗诪专讛 讗讬谉 诇讬 讬讜诐 砖谞讬讝拽拽 诇讬 讬讜住祝 讻讬讜诐 讛讝讛

The verse continues: 鈥淎nd there was none of the men of the house there within鈥 (Genesis 39:11). The Gemara asks: Is it possible that in such a large and important house like the house of that wicked man that no one was in there? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: That day was their festival day and they all went to their house of idol worship; and she told them that she was sick and could not go, as she said to herself: I have no day on which Joseph will attend to me like this day.

讜转转驻砖讛讜 讘讘讙讚讜 诇讗诪专 讜讙讜壮 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讘讗转讛 讚讬讜拽谞讜 砖诇 讗讘讬讜 讜谞专讗转讛 诇讜 讘讞诇讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讬讜住祝 注转讬讚讬谉 讗讞讬讱 砖讬讻转讘讜 注诇 讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讜讗转讛 讘讬谞讬讛诐 专爪讜谞讱 砖讬诪讞讛 砖诪讱 诪讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜转拽专讗 专讜注讛 讝讜谞讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讜专注讛 讝讜谞讜转 讬讗讘讚 讛讜谉

The verse states: 鈥淎nd she caught him by his garment, saying: Lie with me鈥 (Genesis 39:12). At that moment his father鈥檚 image [deyokeno] came and appeared to him in the window. The image said to him: Joseph, the names of your brothers are destined to be written on the stones of the ephod, and you are to be included among them. Do you desire your name to be erased from among them, and to be called an associate [ro鈥檈h] of promiscuous women? As it is written: 鈥淏ut he who keeps company with harlots wastes his riches鈥 (Proverbs 29:3), as he loses his honor, which is more valuable than wealth.

诪讬讚 讜转砖讘 讘讗讬转谉 拽砖转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 砖砖讘讛 拽砖转讜 诇讗讬转谞讜 讜讬驻讝讜 讝专讜注讬 讬讚讬讜 谞注抓 讬讚讬讜 讘拽专拽注 讜讬爪讗讛 砖讻讘转 讝专注讜 诪讘讬谉 爪讬驻讜专谞讬 讬讚讬讜

Immediately: 鈥淎nd his bow abode [teishev] firm鈥 (Genesis 49:24). Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Meir: This means that his bow, i.e., his penis, returned [shava] to its strength, as he overcame his desire. The verse about Joseph continues: 鈥淎nd the arms of his hands were made supple鈥 (Genesis 49:24), meaning that he dug his hands into the ground and his semen was emitted between his fingernails.

诪讬讚讬 讗讘讬专 讬注拽讘 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讜 砖讬讞拽拽 注诇 讗讘谞讬 讗驻讜讚 讗诇讗 讗讘讬专 讬注拽讘 诪砖诐 专注讛 讗讘谉 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖诐 讝讻讛 讜谞注砖讛 专讜注讛 砖谞讗诪专 专讜注讛 讬砖专讗诇 讛讗讝讬谞讛 谞讛讙 讻爪讗谉 讬讜住祝

鈥淏y the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob鈥 (Genesis 49:24): Who caused his name to be etched onto the stones of the ephod? It was only the might of Jacob. 鈥淔rom there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel鈥 (Genesis 49:24) means: From there, because of Joseph鈥檚 ability to withstand this trial, he merited to become a shepherd [ro鈥檈h] of the Jewish people, as it is stated: 鈥淟isten, O Shepherd of Israel, who leads like the flock of Joseph鈥 (Psalms 80:2).

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讗讜讬 讬讜住祝 诇爪讗转 诪诪谞讜 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 砖讘讟讬诐 讻讚专讱 砖讬爪讗讜 诪讬注拽讘 讗讘讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 转诇讚讜转 讬注拽讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇讗 砖讬爪讗 砖讻讘转 讝专注讜 诪讘讬谉 爪讬驻讜专谞讬 讬讚讬讜 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讬爪讗讜 诪讘谞讬诪讬谉 讗讞讬讜 讜讻讜诇谉 谞拽专讗讜 注诇 砖诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诪谉 讘诇注 讜讘讻专 讜讗砖讘诇 讜讙讜壮

It is taught in a baraita: Joseph was deserving of having twelve tribes descend from him, the same as twelve tribes descended from his father Jacob, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the generations of Jacob, Joseph鈥 (Genesis 37:2). This implies that everything that happened to Jacob was destined to happen to Joseph. However, he did not merit this because his semen was emitted from between his fingernails. And even so, the offspring that were meant to descend from him descended from his brother Benjamin, who had ten sons. And they were all named after Joseph, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sons of Benjamin: Bela, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard鈥 (Genesis 46:21).

讘诇注 砖谞讘诇注 讘讬谉 讛讗讜诪讜转 讜讘讻专 讘讻讜专 诇讗诪讜 讛讬讛 讜讗砖讘诇 砖砖讘讗讜 讗诇 讙专讗 砖讙专 讘讗讻住谞讬讜旨转

The Gemara explains how each name relates to Joseph: Bela was named after Joseph, who was swallowed [nivla] among the nations. And Becher received that name because Joseph was the firstborn [bekhor] of his mother, Rachel. And Ashbel received his name because God sent Joseph into captivity [shevao El] in Egypt. Gera was named after Joseph, who dwelled [gar] in a foreign land [akhsaneyut].

讜谞注诪谉 砖谞注讬诐 讘讬讜转专 讗讞讬 讜专讗砖 讗讞讬 讛讜讗 讜专讗砖讬 讛讜讗 诪驻讬诐 讜讞驻讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 专讗讛 讘讞讜驻转讬 讜讗谞讬 诇讗 专讗讬转讬 讘讞讜驻转讜 讜讗专讚 砖讬专讚 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讜讗专讚 砖驻谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讜讜专讚

And Naaman was called that because Joseph was extremely pleasing [na鈥檌m]. Ehi and Rosh received these names, as Benjamin said: Joseph is my brother [a岣] and my leader [roshi]. Benjamin named his sons Muppim and Huppim, as Benjamin said: Joseph did not see my wedding canopy [岣ppa] and I did not see his wedding canopy. And Ard was named after Joseph, who descended [yarad] to the lands of the nations of the world. Some say that the name Ard means that Joseph鈥檚 face was similar in its beauty to a rose [vered].

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘砖注讛 砖讗诪专 诇讜 驻专注讛 诇讬讜住祝 讜讘诇注讚讬讱 诇讗 讬专讬诐 讗讬砖 讗转 讬讚讜 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讜 讗讬爪讟讙谞讬谞讬 驻专注讛 注讘讚 砖诇拽讞讜 专讘讜 讘注砖专讬诐 讻住祝 转诪砖讬诇讛讜 注诇讬谞讜 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讙谞讜谞讬 诪诇讻讜转 讗谞讬 专讜讗讛 讘讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: When Pharaoh said to Joseph: 鈥淎nd without you no man shall lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt鈥 (Genesis 41:44), Pharaoh鈥檚 astrologers said: You will appoint a slave whose master bought him for twenty silver coins to rule over us? He said to them: I perceive royal characteristics [ginnunei malkhut] in him and see that he was not initially a slave.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讬讛讗 讬讜讚注 讘砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 讘讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讜诇讬诪讚讜 砖讘注讬诐 诇砖讜谉 诇讗 讛讜讛 拽讙诪专 讛讜住讬祝 诇讜 讗讜转 讗讞转 诪砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜诇诪讚 砖谞讗诪专 注讚讜转 讘讬讛讜住祝 砖诪讜 讘爪讗转讜 注诇 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 砖驻转 诇讗 讬讚注转讬 讗砖诪注 讜诇诪讞专 讻诇 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗讬砖转注讬 驻专注讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讗讛讚专 诇讬讛

They said to him: If that is so and he is a child of royalty, he should know the seventy languages that all kings鈥 children learn. The angel Gabriel then came and taught him the seventy languages, but he could not learn all of them. Gabriel then added one letter, the letter heh, to Joseph鈥檚 name from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and then he was able to learn the languages, as it is stated: 鈥淗e appointed it in Joseph [Yehosef] for a testimony, when he went forth against the land of Egypt, the speech of one that I did not know I heard鈥 (Psalms 81:6). And the next day, when he appeared before Pharaoh, in every language that Pharaoh spoke with him, he answered him.

讗讬砖转注讬 讗讬讛讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讚砖 诇讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讛讜讛 讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讙诪专讬 讗讙诪专讬讛 讜诇讗 讙诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬砖转讘注 诇讬 讚诇讗 诪讙诇讬转 讗讬砖转讘注 诇讜

Joseph then spoke in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, and Pharaoh did not know what he was saying. Pharaoh said to him: Teach me that language. He taught him, but he could not learn it. Pharaoh said to him: Take an oath for my benefit that you will not reveal that I do not know this language. He took an oath for his benefit.

讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬 讛砖讘讬注谞讬 诇讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬转砖讬诇 讗砖讘讜注转讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讗讬转砖诇讬 谞诪讬 讗讚讬讚讱 讜讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 谞讬讞讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诇讛 讜拽讘专 讗转 讗讘讬讱 讻讗砖专 讛砖讘讬注讱

Years later, when Joseph said to Pharaoh: 鈥淢y father made me swear, saying鈥 (Genesis 50:5) that I would bury him in Eretz Yisrael, Pharaoh said to him: Go request the dissolution of your oath. Joseph said to him: And should I also request dissolution for the oath that I took for your benefit? And consequently, even though Pharaoh was not amenable to letting Joseph go, he worried that Joseph would then request dissolution for the oath that he had taken for his benefit, and Pharaoh therefore said to him: 鈥淕o up and bury your father according to what he made you swear鈥 (Genesis 50:6).

讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻砖注诪讚讜 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讛讬诐 讛讬讜 砖讘讟讬诐 诪谞爪讞讬诐 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞诇讛 诇讬诐 讜讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞诇讛 诇讬诐 拽驻抓

What was the incident where Judah sanctified God鈥檚 name in public? As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: When the Jewish people stood at the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with one other. This one was saying: I am going into the sea first, and that one was saying: I am going into the sea first. Then, in jumped

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