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Today's Daf Yomi

December 2, 2015 | 讻壮 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sotah 37

Who went into the Red Sea first – the tribe of Benjamin or Nachshon the son of Aminadav from the tribe of Judah? 聽 How were the blessings and curses recited? 聽How many covenants were formed聽on that day? 聽When else were there covenants formed as the ones on that day?

砖讘讟讜 砖诇 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讜讬专讚 诇讬诐 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖诐 讘谞讬诪讬谉 爪注讬专 专讚诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 专讚诐 讗诇讗 专讚 讬诐 讜讛讬讜 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讜讙诪讬诐 讗讜转诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讙诪转诐

the tribe of Benjamin and descended into the sea first, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them [rodem]鈥 (Psalms 68:28). Do not read it as: 鈥Ruling them [rodem]鈥; rather, read it as: Descending [red] into the sea [yam]. And the princes of the tribe of Judah were stoning them [rogmim otam] for plunging in first and not in the proper order, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淭he princes of Judah, their council [rigmatam]鈥 (Psalms 68:28).

诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讛爪讚讬拽 讜谞注砖讛 讗讜砖驻讬讝讻谉 诇讙讘讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讬谉 讻转驻讬讜 砖讻谉

Therefore, Benjamin the righteous was privileged to serve as host to the Divine Presence of the Almighty, as the Temple was built in the territory of Benjamin, as it is stated in Moses鈥 blessing for the tribe of Benjamin: 鈥淭he beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by Him; He covers him all the day, and He rests between his shoulders鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:12).

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讻讱 讛讬讛 诪注砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞讬诇讛 诇讬诐 讜讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞讬诇讛 诇讬诐 拽驻抓 谞讞砖讜谉 讘谉 注诪讬谞讚讘 讜讬专讚 诇讬诐 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 住讘讘谞讬 讘讻讞砖 讗驻专讬诐 讜讘诪专诪讛 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讬讛讜讚讛 注讚 专讚 注诐 讗诇

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: That is not how the incident took place. Rather, this tribe said: I am not going into the sea first, and that tribe said: I am not going into the sea first. Then, in jumped the prince of Judah, Nahshon ben Amminadab, and descended into the sea first, accompanied by his entire tribe, as it is stated: 鈥淓phraim surrounds Me with lies and the house of Israel with deceit, and Judah is yet wayward toward God [rad im El]鈥 (Hosea 12:1), which is interpreted homiletically as: And Judah descended [rad] with God [im El].

讜注诇讬讜 诪驻专砖 讘拽讘诇讛 讛讜砖讬注谞讬 讗诇讛讬诐 讻讬 讘讗讜 诪讬诐 注讚 谞驻砖 讟讘注转讬 讘讬讜谉 诪爪讜诇讛 讜讗讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜讙讜壮 讗诇 转砖讟驻谞讬 砖讘诇转 诪讬诐 讜讗诇 转讘诇注谞讬 诪爪讜诇讛 讜讙讜壮

And in this regard, the tradition, i.e., the Writings, explicates Nahshon鈥檚 prayer at that moment: 鈥淪ave me, God; for the waters are come in even unto the soul. I am sunk in deep mire, where there is no standing鈥et not the water flood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up鈥 (Psalms 69:2鈥3, 16).

讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讛讬讛 诪砖讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘转驻诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讚讬讚讬讬 讟讜讘注讬诐 讘讬诐 讜讗转讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘转驻诇讛 诇驻谞讬 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讜诪讛 讘讬讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讚讘专 讗诇 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讬住注讜 讜讗转讛 讛专诐 讗转 诪讟讱 讜谞讟讛 讗转 讬讚讱 讜讙讜壮

At that time, Moses was prolonging his prayer. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: My beloved ones are drowning in the sea and you prolong your prayer to me? Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, but what can I do? God said to him: 鈥淪peak to the children of Israel that they go forward. And you, lift up your rod and stretch out your hand鈥 (Exodus 14:15鈥16).

诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诪砖诇讛 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬转讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽讚砖讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪砖诇讜转讬讜 诪讛 讟注诐 讛讬转讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讬砖专讗诇 诪诪砖诇讜转讬讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讛讬诐 专讗讛 讜讬谞住

For this reason, because Nahshon and the tribe of Judah went into the sea first, the tribe of Judah merited to govern Israel, as it is stated: 鈥淛udah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it and fled鈥 (Psalms 114:2鈥3). The baraita interprets the verses in this manner: What is the reason that Judah became His sanctuary and Israel came under His dominion? It is because 鈥渢he sea saw it and fled.鈥

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 砖讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 诇诪注诇讛 砖讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇诪讟讛

搂 The Gemara returns to discussing the blessing and curses. It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:9) that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: It is impossible to say that the tribe of Levi stood below, between the two mountains, as it is already stated that they were above, in the verse: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people when you have passed over the Jordan: Simeon and Levi and Judah鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12). And it is impossible to say that they stood above on the mountain because it is already stated: 鈥淎nd all of Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side before the priests the Levites鈥 (Joshua 8:33). This shows that the Levites stood below, between the mountains, with the Ark.

讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讝拽谞讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讜诇讜讬讛 诇诪讟讛 讜讛砖讗专 诇诪注诇讛 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛专讗讜讬 诇砖专转 诇诪讟讛 讜讛砖讗专 诇诪注诇讛

How is this possible? Only the Elders of the priesthood and the Levites stood below, and the rest of the Levites stood above on the mountain. Rabbi Yoshiya says: Any Levite who was fit to serve in the Temple stood below, between the mountains, and the rest of the tribe, who were too young or too old to serve in the Temple, stood above on the mountain.

专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛谉 注讜诪讚讬诐 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讻诇驻讬 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜驻转讞讜 讘拽诇诇讛 诪讗讬 注诇 注诇 讘住诪讜讱

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Both the Levites and the Israelites were standing below. They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing, and then they turned toward Mount Ebal and opened with a curse. Therefore, what is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淭hese shall stand on [al ] Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12)? Al means adjacent to the mountain but not actually on the mountain itself.

讻讚转谞讬讗 讜谞转转 注诇 讛诪注专讻转 诇讘讜谞讛 讝讻讛 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 注诇 诪诪砖 讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜住讻转 注诇 讛讗专谉 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱

As it is taught in a baraita that discusses the shewbread: 鈥淎nd you shall put pure frankincense on [al ] each row鈥 (Leviticus 24:7). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: 鈥Al in this instance means adjacent to. Do you say that al means adjacent to, or perhaps it carries only its literal meaning of 鈥渙n鈥? When it says in the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall screen the Ark [al haAron] with the curtain鈥 (Exodus 40:3), the word 鈥al鈥 cannot mean on, as the curtain that separated the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies was not placed on top of the Ark, but near it. Therefore, you must say that al means adjacent to.

讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讜讱 讘讻诇诇 讘专讜讱 讘驻专讟 讗专讜专 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讘驻专讟 诇诇诪讜讚 讜诇诇诪讚 诇砖诪讜专 讜诇注砖讜转 讛专讬

搂 It is stated in the mishna: They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing: Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image (see Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people, i.e., the two groups standing on either mountain, answered: Amen. Then they turned to face Mount Ebal and opened with the curse: 鈥淐ursed be the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people answered: Amen. The Sages taught (Tosefta 8:10): The blessings and curses include a general blessing for one who fulfills the entire Torah, and a particular blessing for each individual statement mentioned in the blessings and curses. Likewise, there is a general curse for one who does not fulfill the entire Torah and a particular curse for each individual statement. And for each of the blessings and curses there is a mitzva to learn and to teach, and to keep and to perform. Consequently,

讗专讘注 讗专讘注 讜讗专讘注 讛专讬 砖诪讜谞讛 砖诪讜谞讛 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讛专讬 砖砖 注砖专讛 讜讻谉 讘住讬谞讬 讜讻谉 讘注专讘讜转 诪讜讗讘 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讚讘专讬 讛讘专讬转 讗砖专 爪讜讛 讛壮 讗转 诪砖讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜砖诪专转诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讛讘专讬转 讛讝讗转 讜讙讜壮 谞诪爪讗 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 注诇 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛

every mitzva contains four aspects. Four general aspects and four specific aspects add up to eight. Eight blessings and eight curses add up to sixteen. And so too at Mount Sinai, and so too at the plains of Moab, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the words of the covenant that the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant that He made with them in Horeb鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:69). And it is written: 鈥淥bserve therefore the words of this covenant鈥 (Deuteronomy 29:8). It follows that between the three events where sixteen covenants were made, God established forty-eight covenants for each and every mitzva.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜爪讬讗 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讛专 注讬讘诇 讜诪讻谞讬住 讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 砖讘诪讚讘专

Rabbi Shimon excludes Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal from this list because only some of the mitzvot were mentioned there, and he includes instead the covenant at the Tent of Meeting in the desert.

讜讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻诇诇讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘住讬谞讬 讜驻专讟讜转 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讻诇诇讜转 讜驻专讟讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘住讬谞讬 讜谞砖谞讜 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 讜谞砖转诇砖讜 讘注专讘讜转 诪讜讗讘

The Gemara explains: And it is in the dispute between these tanna鈥檌m that they disagree, as it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:11): Rabbi Yishmael says: General statements were said at Sinai, i.e., Moses received general mitzvot at Sinai, including the Ten Commandments. And the details of the mitzvot were explained to Moses at a later time in the Tent of Meeting. Rabbi Akiva says: Both general statements and the details of mitzvot were said at Sinai, and later repeated in the Tent of Meeting, and reiterated a third time by Moses to the Jewish people in the plains of Moab. Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Akiva, and counts Mount Sinai and the Tent of Meeting Tent as two distinct places where all of the mitzvot were given.

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转

The baraita concludes: And there is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬砖 讻驻专 注讻讜 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 砖诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐

Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko said in the name of Rabbi Shimon: There is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established 603,550 times, corresponding to the population of the Jewish people in the desert. This is because each member of the Jewish people received the covenant both for himself and as a guarantor for the rest of the Jewish people.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讚讘专讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬砖 讻驻专 注讻讜 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 砖诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 谞诪爪讗 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: According to the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko, who spoke in the name of Rabbi Shimon, there is no mitzva in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established 603,550 times; it follows that for every one of the Jewish people there were 603,550 covenants.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 注专讘讗 讜注专讘讗 讚注专讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the statements of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? What does the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi add? Rav Mesharshiyya said: The matter of a guarantor and a guarantor for a guarantor is the difference between them. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, every Jew is not only rendered a guarantor for every other Jew, but he is also rendered a guarantor for every other Jew鈥檚 responsibility as a guarantor. Therefore, according to his calculation, the number of covenants is multiplied again by 603,550.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 谞讞诪谞讬 诪转讜专讙诪谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 讗诇讗 讘谞讜讗祝 讜谞讜讗驻转

Rabbi Yehuda ben Na岣ani, the disseminator of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, taught: The entire passage of the blessings and curses is stated only in reference to an adulterer and adulteress.

讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讙讜壮 讘讗专讜专 住讙讬 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讛讘讗 注诇 讛注专讜讛 讜讛讜诇讬讚 讘谉 讜讛诇讱 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讜注讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗专讜专讬谉 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 砖诇 讝讛 砖讻讱 讙专诪讜 诇讜

This is proved from the verse: 鈥淐ursed is the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15). Is a curse a sufficient consequence for the actions of an idol worshipper? He has rebelled against the fundamental tenet of the Torah. Rather, this is referring to one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a forbidden relative and bore her a mamzer son. And the son, who is not allowed to marry a Jew of unflawed lineage, went to live among the other nations of the world and engaged in idol worship. His father and mother are cursed for causing him to worship idols. Likewise, the rest of the curses refer to sins that are the result of adultery.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜谞转转 讗转 讛讘专讻讛 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜讗转 讛拽诇诇讛 讜讙讜壮 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诐 诇诇诪讚 砖转讛讗 讘专讻讛 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜拽诇诇讛 注诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 讗转 讛注诐 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 注诇 讛拽诇诇讛 讘讛专 注讬讘诇 讗诇讗 诇讛拽讚讬诐 讘专讻讛 诇拽诇诇讛

The Sages taught: 鈥淎nd you shall give the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:29). Why must the verse state this? If it is to teach that the blessing must be given on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal, it is already stated: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12), and it is written: 鈥淎nd these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:13). Rather, the verse teaches that the proclamation of the blessing must precede the curse.

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讬讜 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇拽诇诇讜转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘专讻讛 讜拽诇诇讛 讘专讻讛 讗讞转 拽讜讚诪转 诇拽诇诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇拽诇诇讜转

One might have thought that all of the blessings should precede the curses. Therefore, the verse states 鈥渂lessing鈥 and 鈥渃urse鈥 in the singular, to teach that one blessing precedes each curse, but all of the blessings do not precede the curses. The blessings and curses were recited alternately, first one blessing and then one curse.

讜诇讛拽讬砖 讘专讻讛 诇拽诇诇讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘诇讜讬诐 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘诇讜讬诐 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉

And furthermore, the verse comes to juxtapose the blessing with the curse, to say to you that just as the curse is recited by the Levites, so too, the blessing is uttered by the Levites; and just as the curse is proclaimed loudly, so too, the blessing is proclaimed loudly; and just as the curse is proclaimed in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, so too, the blessing is proclaimed in the sacred tongue; and just as the curse is proclaimed both in general and in detail, so too, the blessing is proclaimed in general and in detail. And just as after the curse is uttered, both groups of people on each mountain respond and say amen, so too, after the blessing is uttered, both groups respond and say amen.

诪转谞讬壮 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讗讜诪专 讗讜转讛 砖诇砖 讘专讻讜转 讜讘诪拽讚砖 讘专讻讛 讗讞转 讘诪拽讚砖 讗讜诪专 讗转 讛砖诐

MISHNA: How is the Priestly Benediction recited? In the country, i.e., outside the Temple, the priest recites the verses as three blessings, pausing between each verse while the people respond amen. And in the Temple, the priests recite all three verses as one blessing, after which the people respond: Blessed be the Lord, God, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity, as is the customary response to blessings in the Temple. In the Temple, the priest utters the name of God

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Sotah 37

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 37

砖讘讟讜 砖诇 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讜讬专讚 诇讬诐 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖诐 讘谞讬诪讬谉 爪注讬专 专讚诐 讗诇 转拽专讬 专讚诐 讗诇讗 专讚 讬诐 讜讛讬讜 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讜讙诪讬诐 讗讜转诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讙诪转诐

the tribe of Benjamin and descended into the sea first, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them [rodem]鈥 (Psalms 68:28). Do not read it as: 鈥Ruling them [rodem]鈥; rather, read it as: Descending [red] into the sea [yam]. And the princes of the tribe of Judah were stoning them [rogmim otam] for plunging in first and not in the proper order, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淭he princes of Judah, their council [rigmatam]鈥 (Psalms 68:28).

诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讛爪讚讬拽 讜谞注砖讛 讗讜砖驻讬讝讻谉 诇讙讘讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讬谉 讻转驻讬讜 砖讻谉

Therefore, Benjamin the righteous was privileged to serve as host to the Divine Presence of the Almighty, as the Temple was built in the territory of Benjamin, as it is stated in Moses鈥 blessing for the tribe of Benjamin: 鈥淭he beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by Him; He covers him all the day, and He rests between his shoulders鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:12).

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讻讱 讛讬讛 诪注砖讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞讬诇讛 诇讬诐 讜讝讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讜专讚 转讞讬诇讛 诇讬诐 拽驻抓 谞讞砖讜谉 讘谉 注诪讬谞讚讘 讜讬专讚 诇讬诐 转讞讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 住讘讘谞讬 讘讻讞砖 讗驻专讬诐 讜讘诪专诪讛 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讬讛讜讚讛 注讚 专讚 注诐 讗诇

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Meir: That is not how the incident took place. Rather, this tribe said: I am not going into the sea first, and that tribe said: I am not going into the sea first. Then, in jumped the prince of Judah, Nahshon ben Amminadab, and descended into the sea first, accompanied by his entire tribe, as it is stated: 鈥淓phraim surrounds Me with lies and the house of Israel with deceit, and Judah is yet wayward toward God [rad im El]鈥 (Hosea 12:1), which is interpreted homiletically as: And Judah descended [rad] with God [im El].

讜注诇讬讜 诪驻专砖 讘拽讘诇讛 讛讜砖讬注谞讬 讗诇讛讬诐 讻讬 讘讗讜 诪讬诐 注讚 谞驻砖 讟讘注转讬 讘讬讜谉 诪爪讜诇讛 讜讗讬谉 诪注诪讚 讜讙讜壮 讗诇 转砖讟驻谞讬 砖讘诇转 诪讬诐 讜讗诇 转讘诇注谞讬 诪爪讜诇讛 讜讙讜壮

And in this regard, the tradition, i.e., the Writings, explicates Nahshon鈥檚 prayer at that moment: 鈥淪ave me, God; for the waters are come in even unto the soul. I am sunk in deep mire, where there is no standing鈥et not the water flood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up鈥 (Psalms 69:2鈥3, 16).

讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讛讬讛 诪砖讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘转驻诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讚讬讚讬讬 讟讜讘注讬诐 讘讬诐 讜讗转讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘转驻诇讛 诇驻谞讬 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讜诪讛 讘讬讚讬 诇注砖讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讚讘专 讗诇 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讬住注讜 讜讗转讛 讛专诐 讗转 诪讟讱 讜谞讟讛 讗转 讬讚讱 讜讙讜壮

At that time, Moses was prolonging his prayer. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: My beloved ones are drowning in the sea and you prolong your prayer to me? Moses said before Him: Master of the Universe, but what can I do? God said to him: 鈥淪peak to the children of Israel that they go forward. And you, lift up your rod and stretch out your hand鈥 (Exodus 14:15鈥16).

诇驻讬讻讱 讝讻讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇注砖讜转 诪诪砖诇讛 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬转讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽讚砖讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪诪砖诇讜转讬讜 诪讛 讟注诐 讛讬转讛 讬讛讜讚讛 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讬砖专讗诇 诪诪砖诇讜转讬讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讛讬诐 专讗讛 讜讬谞住

For this reason, because Nahshon and the tribe of Judah went into the sea first, the tribe of Judah merited to govern Israel, as it is stated: 鈥淛udah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it and fled鈥 (Psalms 114:2鈥3). The baraita interprets the verses in this manner: What is the reason that Judah became His sanctuary and Israel came under His dominion? It is because 鈥渢he sea saw it and fled.鈥

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 诇讜讬 诇诪讟讛 砖讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讜诪专 诇诪注诇讛 砖讻讘专 谞讗诪专 诇诪讟讛

搂 The Gemara returns to discussing the blessing and curses. It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:9) that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: It is impossible to say that the tribe of Levi stood below, between the two mountains, as it is already stated that they were above, in the verse: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people when you have passed over the Jordan: Simeon and Levi and Judah鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12). And it is impossible to say that they stood above on the mountain because it is already stated: 鈥淎nd all of Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the Ark and on that side before the priests the Levites鈥 (Joshua 8:33). This shows that the Levites stood below, between the mountains, with the Ark.

讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讝拽谞讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讜诇讜讬讛 诇诪讟讛 讜讛砖讗专 诇诪注诇讛 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛专讗讜讬 诇砖专转 诇诪讟讛 讜讛砖讗专 诇诪注诇讛

How is this possible? Only the Elders of the priesthood and the Levites stood below, and the rest of the Levites stood above on the mountain. Rabbi Yoshiya says: Any Levite who was fit to serve in the Temple stood below, between the mountains, and the rest of the tribe, who were too young or too old to serve in the Temple, stood above on the mountain.

专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讛谉 注讜诪讚讬诐 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讻诇驻讬 讛专 注讬讘诇 讜驻转讞讜 讘拽诇诇讛 诪讗讬 注诇 注诇 讘住诪讜讱

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Both the Levites and the Israelites were standing below. They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing, and then they turned toward Mount Ebal and opened with a curse. Therefore, what is the meaning of the verse: 鈥淭hese shall stand on [al ] Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12)? Al means adjacent to the mountain but not actually on the mountain itself.

讻讚转谞讬讗 讜谞转转 注诇 讛诪注专讻转 诇讘讜谞讛 讝讻讛 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 注诇 诪诪砖 讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜住讻转 注诇 讛讗专谉 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 讘住诪讜讱

As it is taught in a baraita that discusses the shewbread: 鈥淎nd you shall put pure frankincense on [al ] each row鈥 (Leviticus 24:7). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: 鈥Al in this instance means adjacent to. Do you say that al means adjacent to, or perhaps it carries only its literal meaning of 鈥渙n鈥? When it says in the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall screen the Ark [al haAron] with the curtain鈥 (Exodus 40:3), the word 鈥al鈥 cannot mean on, as the curtain that separated the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies was not placed on top of the Ark, but near it. Therefore, you must say that al means adjacent to.

讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜驻转讞讜 讘讘专讻讛 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讜讱 讘讻诇诇 讘专讜讱 讘驻专讟 讗专讜专 讘讻诇诇 讗专讜专 讘驻专讟 诇诇诪讜讚 讜诇诇诪讚 诇砖诪讜专 讜诇注砖讜转 讛专讬

搂 It is stated in the mishna: They turned to face Mount Gerizim and opened with a blessing: Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image (see Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people, i.e., the two groups standing on either mountain, answered: Amen. Then they turned to face Mount Ebal and opened with the curse: 鈥淐ursed be the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15), and these people and those people answered: Amen. The Sages taught (Tosefta 8:10): The blessings and curses include a general blessing for one who fulfills the entire Torah, and a particular blessing for each individual statement mentioned in the blessings and curses. Likewise, there is a general curse for one who does not fulfill the entire Torah and a particular curse for each individual statement. And for each of the blessings and curses there is a mitzva to learn and to teach, and to keep and to perform. Consequently,

讗专讘注 讗专讘注 讜讗专讘注 讛专讬 砖诪讜谞讛 砖诪讜谞讛 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讛专讬 砖砖 注砖专讛 讜讻谉 讘住讬谞讬 讜讻谉 讘注专讘讜转 诪讜讗讘 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讚讘专讬 讛讘专讬转 讗砖专 爪讜讛 讛壮 讗转 诪砖讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜砖诪专转诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讛讘专讬转 讛讝讗转 讜讙讜壮 谞诪爪讗 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 注诇 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛

every mitzva contains four aspects. Four general aspects and four specific aspects add up to eight. Eight blessings and eight curses add up to sixteen. And so too at Mount Sinai, and so too at the plains of Moab, as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the words of the covenant that the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant that He made with them in Horeb鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:69). And it is written: 鈥淥bserve therefore the words of this covenant鈥 (Deuteronomy 29:8). It follows that between the three events where sixteen covenants were made, God established forty-eight covenants for each and every mitzva.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜爪讬讗 讛专 讙专讬讝讬诐 讜讛专 注讬讘诇 讜诪讻谞讬住 讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 砖讘诪讚讘专

Rabbi Shimon excludes Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal from this list because only some of the mitzvot were mentioned there, and he includes instead the covenant at the Tent of Meeting in the desert.

讜讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚讛谞讬 转谞讗讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻诇诇讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘住讬谞讬 讜驻专讟讜转 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讻诇诇讜转 讜驻专讟讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘住讬谞讬 讜谞砖谞讜 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 讜谞砖转诇砖讜 讘注专讘讜转 诪讜讗讘

The Gemara explains: And it is in the dispute between these tanna鈥檌m that they disagree, as it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 8:11): Rabbi Yishmael says: General statements were said at Sinai, i.e., Moses received general mitzvot at Sinai, including the Ten Commandments. And the details of the mitzvot were explained to Moses at a later time in the Tent of Meeting. Rabbi Akiva says: Both general statements and the details of mitzvot were said at Sinai, and later repeated in the Tent of Meeting, and reiterated a third time by Moses to the Jewish people in the plains of Moab. Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Akiva, and counts Mount Sinai and the Tent of Meeting Tent as two distinct places where all of the mitzvot were given.

讜讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转

The baraita concludes: And there is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬砖 讻驻专 注讻讜 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讻转讜讘讛 讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 砖诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐

Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko said in the name of Rabbi Shimon: There is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established 603,550 times, corresponding to the population of the Jewish people in the desert. This is because each member of the Jewish people received the covenant both for himself and as a guarantor for the rest of the Jewish people.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讚讘专讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬砖 讻驻专 注讻讜 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬谉 诇讱 讻诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诪爪讜讛 砖讘转讜专讛 砖诇讗 谞讻专转讜 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪谞讛 讘专讬转讜转 砖诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 谞诪爪讗 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讗诇祝 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: According to the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko, who spoke in the name of Rabbi Shimon, there is no mitzva in the Torah for which forty-eight covenants were not established 603,550 times; it follows that for every one of the Jewish people there were 603,550 covenants.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 注专讘讗 讜注专讘讗 讚注专讘讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the statements of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? What does the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi add? Rav Mesharshiyya said: The matter of a guarantor and a guarantor for a guarantor is the difference between them. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, every Jew is not only rendered a guarantor for every other Jew, but he is also rendered a guarantor for every other Jew鈥檚 responsibility as a guarantor. Therefore, according to his calculation, the number of covenants is multiplied again by 603,550.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 谞讞诪谞讬 诪转讜专讙诪谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专讛 讗诇讗 讘谞讜讗祝 讜谞讜讗驻转

Rabbi Yehuda ben Na岣ani, the disseminator of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, taught: The entire passage of the blessings and curses is stated only in reference to an adulterer and adulteress.

讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 驻住诇 讜诪住讻讛 讜讙讜壮 讘讗专讜专 住讙讬 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讝讛 讛讘讗 注诇 讛注专讜讛 讜讛讜诇讬讚 讘谉 讜讛诇讱 诇讘讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讜注讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗专讜专讬谉 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 砖诇 讝讛 砖讻讱 讙专诪讜 诇讜

This is proved from the verse: 鈥淐ursed is the man who makes a graven or molten image鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:15). Is a curse a sufficient consequence for the actions of an idol worshipper? He has rebelled against the fundamental tenet of the Torah. Rather, this is referring to one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a forbidden relative and bore her a mamzer son. And the son, who is not allowed to marry a Jew of unflawed lineage, went to live among the other nations of the world and engaged in idol worship. His father and mother are cursed for causing him to worship idols. Likewise, the rest of the curses refer to sins that are the result of adultery.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜谞转转 讗转 讛讘专讻讛 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜讗转 讛拽诇诇讛 讜讙讜壮 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诐 诇诇诪讚 砖转讛讗 讘专讻讛 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜拽诇诇讛 注诇 讛专 注讬讘诇 讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 讗转 讛注诐 注诇 讛专 讙专讝讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 注诇 讛拽诇诇讛 讘讛专 注讬讘诇 讗诇讗 诇讛拽讚讬诐 讘专讻讛 诇拽诇诇讛

The Sages taught: 鈥淎nd you shall give the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:29). Why must the verse state this? If it is to teach that the blessing must be given on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal, it is already stated: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12), and it is written: 鈥淎nd these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:13). Rather, the verse teaches that the proclamation of the blessing must precede the curse.

讬讻讜诇 讬讛讬讜 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇拽诇诇讜转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘专讻讛 讜拽诇诇讛 讘专讻讛 讗讞转 拽讜讚诪转 诇拽诇诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讻诇 讛讘专讻讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇拽诇诇讜转

One might have thought that all of the blessings should precede the curses. Therefore, the verse states 鈥渂lessing鈥 and 鈥渃urse鈥 in the singular, to teach that one blessing precedes each curse, but all of the blessings do not precede the curses. The blessings and curses were recited alternately, first one blessing and then one curse.

讜诇讛拽讬砖 讘专讻讛 诇拽诇诇讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘诇讜讬诐 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘诇讜讬诐 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜诪讛 拽诇诇讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉 讗祝 讘专讻讛 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 注讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉

And furthermore, the verse comes to juxtapose the blessing with the curse, to say to you that just as the curse is recited by the Levites, so too, the blessing is uttered by the Levites; and just as the curse is proclaimed loudly, so too, the blessing is proclaimed loudly; and just as the curse is proclaimed in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, so too, the blessing is proclaimed in the sacred tongue; and just as the curse is proclaimed both in general and in detail, so too, the blessing is proclaimed in general and in detail. And just as after the curse is uttered, both groups of people on each mountain respond and say amen, so too, after the blessing is uttered, both groups respond and say amen.

诪转谞讬壮 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 讻讬爪讚 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讗讜诪专 讗讜转讛 砖诇砖 讘专讻讜转 讜讘诪拽讚砖 讘专讻讛 讗讞转 讘诪拽讚砖 讗讜诪专 讗转 讛砖诐

MISHNA: How is the Priestly Benediction recited? In the country, i.e., outside the Temple, the priest recites the verses as three blessings, pausing between each verse while the people respond amen. And in the Temple, the priests recite all three verses as one blessing, after which the people respond: Blessed be the Lord, God, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity, as is the customary response to blessings in the Temple. In the Temple, the priest utters the name of God

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