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Today's Daf Yomi

December 3, 2015 | 讻状讗 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sotah 38

There are a number of differences between the blessing of the Kohanim in the Beit Hamikdash and out side of the Beit Hamikdash. 聽Many details聽are derived relating to聽the blessing of the Kohanim – in Hebrew only, while standing, they face聽the people and the people face them, out loud, etc. 聽What if there is only one Kohen? 聽 Who calls聽up the聽Kohanim? 聽What if a Kohen doesn’t want to say the blessings?

Study Guide Sotah 38

讻讻转讘讜 讜讘诪讚讬谞讛 讘讻讬谞讜讬讜 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬诐 讗转 讬讚讬讛谉 讻谞讙讚 讻转驻讬讛谉 讜讘诪拽讚砖 注诇 讙讘讬 专讗砖讬讛谉 讞讜抓 诪讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讙讘讬讛 讗转 讬讚讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛爪讬抓 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诪讙讘讬讛 讬讚讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛爪讬抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐

as it is written in the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, and in the country they use its substitute name of Lordship. In the country, the priests lift their hands so they are aligned with their shoulders during the benediction. And in the Temple they lift them above their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate. Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them鈥 (Leviticus 9:22).

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 讗转 讛注诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖

GEMARA: The Sages taught: The mitzva given to the priests: 鈥淪o you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew. Do you say that the benediction must be recited in the sacred tongue, or perhaps it may be recited in any language? The baraita answers: It is stated here, with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the blessings and curses: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word 鈥渂less鈥: Just as there, the blessings and curses were recited in the sacred tongue, as stated above (33a), so too here, the Priestly Benediction is recited in the sacred tongue.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讛 注讚 砖讬讗诪专讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛

Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessary to derive this from a verbal analogy, as it says with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淭hus,鈥 which means that it is not recited correctly unless they recite it in this exact language, as it is written in the Torah.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬砖讬讘讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘注诪讬讚讛

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 means while standing. Do you say that the benediction must be recited while standing, or perhaps it may even be recited while sitting? It is stated here: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the blessings and curses: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless.鈥 Just as there, the blessing was recited while standing, so too here, the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction while standing.

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诇砖专转讜 讜诇讘专讱 讘砖诪讜 诪讛 诪砖专转 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗祝 诪讘专讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 讜诪砖专转 讙讜驻讬讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇注诪讚 诇砖专转

Rabbi Natan says: It is not necessary to derive this from a verbal analogy, as it says in the verse: 鈥淎t that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8). Just as a priest performs the Temple service while standing, so too, he blesses while standing. The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that he performs the service itself while standing? As it is written: 鈥淭o stand to minister in the name of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:5).

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless鈥 means with lifted hands. Do you say that the priests must recite the benediction with lifted hands, or perhaps they may recite it without lifted hands? It is stated here: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them鈥 (Leviticus 9:22). Just as there, Aaron blessed the nation with lifted hands, so too here, the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands.

拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讗讬 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讜注讘讜讚转 爪讘讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讜注讘讜讚转 爪讬讘讜专

This halakha was difficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: If this halakha is derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: Just as there, the High Priest was the one who recited the blessing, and it was the New Moon, and the offerings that were brought were a communal service, so too here, the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the High Priest, and on the New Moon, and when performing a communal service?

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讜讗 讜讘谞讬讜 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 诪拽讬砖 讘谞讬讜 诇讜 诪讛 讛讜讗 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗祝 讘谞讬讜 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 讜讗讬转拽砖 讘专讻讛 诇砖讬专讜转

Rabbi Natan says: It is not necessary to derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as it says with regard to Aaron: 鈥淭o stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons forever鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, his sons are juxtaposed with him. Just as Aaron recited the Priestly Benediction with lifted hands, so too, his sons recite the benediction with lifted hands. And furthermore, it is written 鈥渇orever,鈥 which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. And although the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the benediction is juxtaposed to the Temple service in another verse: 鈥淭o minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8).

讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘砖诐 讛诪驻讜专砖 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘砖诐 讛诪驻讜专砖 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻讬谞讜讬 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 砖诪讬 讛诪讬讜讞讚 诇讬

And it is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 means the blessing should be recited with the ineffable name. Do you say that the Priestly Benediction must be recited with the ineffable name, or perhaps it is recited with only the substitute name, Adonai? The verse states: 鈥淪o shall they put My name鈥 (Numbers 6:27), which means My name that is unique to Me.

讬讻讜诇 讗祝 讘讙讘讜诇讬谉 讻谉 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 诇砖讜诐 讗转 砖诪讜 砖诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛

One might have thought that even in the outlying areas, outside the Temple, this ineffable name is used. It is stated here, with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o shall they put My name,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: 鈥淭he place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes to put His name there鈥 (Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that just as there, the expression 鈥渢o put His name there鈥 is referring to the Temple, so too here, the mitzva of 鈥渟o shall they put My name鈥 applies in the Temple and not anywhere else.

专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讛诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 诪拽专讗 讝讛 诪住讜专住 讛讜讗 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜讘专讻转讬讱 砖诐 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讜讛讬讻谉 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜讘专讻转讬讱 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛 砖诐 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛

Rabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessary to derive this halakha from the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. It says in the verse: 鈥淚n every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to you and bless you鈥 (Exodus 20:20). Does it enter your mind that this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed everywhere? Rather, this verse must be interpreted by transposition. It must be reordered and read as follows: In every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned. Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: And where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple. Therefore, he derives: There, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned, but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讙专讬诐 谞砖讬诐 讜注讘讚讬诐 诪砖讜讞专专讬诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜诇讛讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless the sons of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23). I have derived only the halakha to bless the sons of Israel. From where do I derive the halakha of blessing converts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse states immediately afterward: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 meaning to all of the Jewish people.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 注讜专祝 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讻讗讚诐 讛讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction face-to-face with the congregation. Do you say that the Benediction must be recited face-to-face, or perhaps it is only recited with the faces of the priests facing the back of the necks of the congregation? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 face-to-face, like a person who is talking to another.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诇讞砖 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讻讗讚诐 砖讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless鈥 means that the benediction must be recited out loud. Or, perhaps, is it recited only in a whisper? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 like a person who is talking to another.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讟讬谞谉 诇砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讗讞讚 讗讬谞讜 拽讜专讗 讻讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇砖谞讬诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 谞拽讟讬谞谉 讻讛谉 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗诪讬专讛

Abaye said: We have a tradition with regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are two priests, he calls: Priests, but when there is one priest he does not call: Priest, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 in plural, meaning to a minimum of two priests. And Rav 岣sda said: We have a tradition that a priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 which means that the saying

诪砖诇讛诐 转讛讗 讜讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讜诇讬转 讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗

should be from them; one of the priests themselves should call: Priests. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Abaye, that when only one priest is present, the prayer leader does not call: Priest. And the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as an Israelite may also call: Priests.

(住讬诪谉 诪转讗讜讛 诇讘专讻讛 讚讜讻谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讻讜住 诪讻讬专 谞讛谞讛 讘注讙诇讛)

搂 The Gemara cites a mnemonic device for the statements of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Desires the benediction, platform, during the service, cup, recognize, derives benefit, from a heifer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬谉 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪转讗讜讛 诇讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 注诇 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗谞讬 讗讘专讻诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖诪讘专讱 诪转讘专讱 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诪讘专讱 讗讬谉 诪转讘专讱 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讘专讻讛 诪讘专讻讬讱

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, desires the Priestly Benediction? As it is stated: 鈥淪o shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them鈥 (Numbers 6:27). This shows that God waits for the priests to bless the people, and only then He Himself blesses them. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who blesses the people is blessed from Heaven, and one who does not bless the people is not blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I will bless those who bless you鈥 (Genesis 12:3).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诇讚讜讻谉 注讜讘专 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖讛 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend the platform to recite the Priestly Benediction violates three positive mitzvot: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 鈥淎nd you shall say to them鈥 (Numbers 6:23), and 鈥淪o shall they put My name鈥 (Numbers 6:27).

专讘 讗诪专 讞讜砖砖讬谉 砖诪讗 讘谉 讙专讜砖讛 讗讜 讘谉 讞诇讜爪讛 讛讜讗

Rav says: One need be concerned that a priest who does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction is perhaps the son of a priest and a divorced woman, or the son of a priest and a yevama who has performed 岣litza [岣lutza]. Perhaps he does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction because he is disqualified from the priesthood.

讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讚住诇讬拽 诇驻专拽讬诐 讛讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 诇驻专拽讬诐

The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. This statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is referring to a case where he ascends periodically. Therefore, there is no reason to believe that he is disqualified from the priesthood, and the assumption is that he violates three positive mitzvot. Whereas that statement of Rav is referring to a case where one does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction even periodically, and therefore there is reason to suspect that he is disqualified from the priesthood.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 讘注讘讜讚讛 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讬讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐 讜讬专讚 诪注砖转 讛讞讟讗转 讜讛注讜诇讛 讜讛砖诇诪讬诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘注讘讜讚讛

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend the platform during the blessing of the Temple service recited in the Amida prayer may no longer ascend to recite the benediction, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings鈥 (Leviticus 9:22). Just as there, in the Tabernacle, Aaron lifted up his hands during the service, as evident from the fact that only after he blessed them does it say that he came down from sacrificing the offerings, so too here, in the Amida prayer, the Priestly Benediction is recited during the blessing of Temple service.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 住诇拽讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪注讬拽专讗 讛讜讜 注拽专讬 讻专注讬讬讛讜 诪诪讟讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪讟讜 讛转诐 讜讻讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 注拽专 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 讗讘诇 注拽专 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 注讜诇讛

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 the priests Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi ascend after the blessing of the service? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would begin walking to the platform during the blessing of the service, but they would not arrive there until after the conclusion of this blessing. And this is sufficient in accordance with what Rabbi Oshaya taught: They taught that a priest may not recite the benediction if he did not ascend the platform during the blessing of Temple service only in a case where he did not begin walking. But if he began walking before the prayer leader finished the blessing, he may ascend the platform even after he has finished the blessing.

讜转谞谉 谞诪讬 讗诐 讛讘讟讞转讜 砖谞讜砖讗 讗转 讻驻讬讜 讜讞讜讝专 诇转驻诇转讜 专砖讗讬 讜讛讜讬谞谉 讘讛 讛讗 诇讗 注拽专 讗诇讗 讚谞讚 驻讜专转讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注拽专 驻讜专转讗

And concerning this issue, we also learned in a mishna (Berakhot 34a): A priest who serves as prayer leader does not recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is certain that he can lift his hands and recite the benediction, and then resume his prayer without becoming confused, he is permitted to do so. And we discussed it and raised the following difficulty: If he did not begin walking to ascend the platform during the blessing of the service, how is it permitted for him to recite the benediction? Rather, it must be explained that he moved slightly to show that he also wanted to ascend the platform. Here too, the statement of Rabbi Oshaya is referring even to a case where the priest uprooted himself slightly from his place during the blessing of the service.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 诇讘专讱 讗诇讗 诇讟讜讘 注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讟讜讘 注讬谉 讛讜讗 讬讘专讱 讻讬 谞转谉 诪诇讞诪讜 诇讚诇 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讬讘专讱 讗诇讗 讬讘专讱

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may give a cup of blessing to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals only to someone with a good eye, i.e., a generous person, as it is stated: 鈥淥ne who has a good eye will be blessed [yevorakh], for he gives of his bread to the poor鈥 (Proverbs 22:9). Do not read it: 鈥Will be blessed.鈥 Rather, read it: Will bless [yevarekh].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 注讜驻讜转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘爪专讬 讛注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讞谞诐 诪讝专讛 讛专砖转 讘注讬谞讬 讻诇 讘注诇 讻谞祝

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is it derived that even birds recognize miserly people and do not eat the food they have set in bird traps? As it is stated: 鈥淔or in vain the net is spread in the eyes of any bird鈥 (Proverbs 1:17).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛谞讛谞讛 诪爪专讬 讛注讬谉 注讜讘专 讘诇讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转诇讞诐 讗转 诇讞诐 专注 注讬谉 讜讙讜壮 讻讬 讻诪讜 砖注专 讘谞驻砖讜 讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讻讜诇 讜砖转讛 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讜讙讜壮 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 注讜讘专 讘砖谞讬 诇讗讜讬谉 讗诇 转诇讞诐 讜讗诇 转转讗讜

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who derives benefit from miserly people transgresses a prohibition, as it is stated: 鈥淒o not eat the bread of one who has an evil eye, and do not desire his delicacies, for as one that has reckoned within himself, so he is. He says to you: Eat and drink, but his heart is not with you鈥 (Proverbs 23:6鈥7). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: He transgresses two prohibitions, as it says 鈥渄o not eat鈥 and also 鈥渄o not desire.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讘讗讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 爪专讬 讛注讬谉

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: When a person is found slain between two cities and it is not known who killed him, a heifer whose neck is broken is brought. This occurs only because of miserly people.

砖谞讗诪专 讜注谞讜 讜讗诪专讜 讬讚讬谞讜 诇讗 砖驻讻讜 讗转 讛讚诐 讛讝讛 讜讻讬 注诇 诇讘谞讜 注诇转讛 砖讝拽谞讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜驻讻讬 讚诪讬诐 讛诐 讗诇讗 诇讗 讘讗 诇讬讚讬谞讜 讜驻讟专谞讜讛讜 讜诇讗 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讜讛谞讞谞讜讛讜 诇讗 讘讗 诇讬讚讬谞讜 讜驻讟专谞讜讛讜 讘诇讗 诪讝讜谞讜转 诇讗 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讜讛谞讞谞讜讛讜 讘诇讗 诇讜讬讬讛

As it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall speak and say: Our hands have not shed this blood鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:7). But did it enter our hearts to think that the Elders of the court are murderers? Why it is necessary for them to publicize that they did not kill him? Rather, they must declare: It is not so that this victim came to us and we dismissed him, and it is not so that we saw him and left him. In other words, he did not come to us and we in turn dismissed him without food, and we did not see him and then leave him without an escort. It is miserly people who do not provide others with food and cause them to travel to places where they might be murdered.

讗诪专 讗讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖讻讜诇讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻讜诇谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇讚讜讻谉 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘砖讚讜转

Adda said that Rabbi Samlai says: In a synagogue that is made up entirely of priests, everyone ascends the platform to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: If the entire congregation is composed of priests, for whom do they utter the blessing? Rabbi Zeira says: They say the blessing for their brethren who are in the fields.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讞讬讬讗 注诐 砖讗讞讜专讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讘讻诇诇 讘专讻讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗谞讬住讬 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗谞讬住讬

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar 岣yya, teach that the people who are standing behind the backs of the priests are not included in the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That is not difficult. This is a case where the people are compelled to be in the fields because of their work, and they are therefore included in the benediction. Whereas that statement is referring to people who are not compelled to be away but still do not stand face-to-face with the priests. Consequently, they are not included in the benediction.

讜讛转谞讬 专讘 砖讬诪讬 诪讘讬专转讗 讚砖讬讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖讻讜诇讛 讻讛谞讬诐 诪拽爪转谉 注讜诇讬谉 讜诪拽爪转谉 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rav Shimi of Birte deShi岣rei teach the following baraita: In a synagogue that is made up entirely of priests, some of them ascend to recite the benediction and some of them answer amen?

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗讬砖转讬讬专 讘讬 注砖专讛 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗讬砖转讬讬专 讘讬 注砖专讛

The Gemara answers: That is not difficult. That is a case where, if some of the priests recite the benediction, a quorum of ten priests still remains to receive the benediction and answer amen. Therefore, only some of the priests ascend to recite the benediction. By contrast, this case, which Rabbi Simlai was referring to, is a case where a quorum of ten does not remain to answer amen, so it is better for all of the priests to ascend and bless the people working in the fields.

讙讜驻讗 转谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讞讬讬讗 注诐 砖讗讞讜专讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讘讻诇诇 讘专讻讛

The Gemara returns to the matter itself cited above: Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar 岣yya, taught: The people who are standing behind the priests are not included in the benediction.

驻砖讬讟讗 讗专讬讻讬 讘讗驻讬 讙讜爪讬 诇讗 诪驻住拽讬 转讬讘讛 诇讗 诪驻住拽讗 诪讞讬爪讛 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讞讬爪讛 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讗讬谞讛 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讘讬讛诐 砖讘砖诪讬诐

The Gemara raises several questions with regard to this statement: It is obvious that tall people standing in front of short people do not interpose between the priests and the shorter people with regard to the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, a chest or ark containing a Torah scroll does not interpose between the priests and the people. However, what is the halakha with regard to a partition? Come and hear an answer from what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even an iron partition does not interpose between the Jewish people and their Father in Heaven; the people are included in the benediction.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 爪讚讚讬谉 诪讛讜 讗诪专 讗讘讗 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞谉 谞转讻讜讜谉 诇讛讝讜转 诇驻谞讬讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha in the case of people who are standing to the sides of the priests? Are they included in the blessing? Abba Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Come and hear an answer, as we learned in a mishna (Para 12:2) with regard to the halakha of sprinkling the waters of purification on vessels that contracted ritual impurity imparted by a corpse: If one intended to sprinkle the water forward

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Sotah 38

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sotah 38

讻讻转讘讜 讜讘诪讚讬谞讛 讘讻讬谞讜讬讜 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬诐 讗转 讬讚讬讛谉 讻谞讙讚 讻转驻讬讛谉 讜讘诪拽讚砖 注诇 讙讘讬 专讗砖讬讛谉 讞讜抓 诪讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讙讘讬讛 讗转 讬讚讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛爪讬抓 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诪讙讘讬讛 讬讚讬讜 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛爪讬抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐

as it is written in the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, and in the country they use its substitute name of Lordship. In the country, the priests lift their hands so they are aligned with their shoulders during the benediction. And in the Temple they lift them above their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate. Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them鈥 (Leviticus 9:22).

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 讗转 讛注诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖

GEMARA: The Sages taught: The mitzva given to the priests: 鈥淪o you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them in the sacred tongue, Hebrew. Do you say that the benediction must be recited in the sacred tongue, or perhaps it may be recited in any language? The baraita answers: It is stated here, with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the blessings and curses: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people鈥 (Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word 鈥渂less鈥: Just as there, the blessings and curses were recited in the sacred tongue, as stated above (33a), so too here, the Priestly Benediction is recited in the sacred tongue.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讻讛 注讚 砖讬讗诪专讜 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛

Rabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessary to derive this from a verbal analogy, as it says with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淭hus,鈥 which means that it is not recited correctly unless they recite it in this exact language, as it is written in the Torah.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬砖讬讘讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讗诇讛 讬注诪讚讜 诇讘专讱 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘注诪讬讚讛

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 means while standing. Do you say that the benediction must be recited while standing, or perhaps it may even be recited while sitting? It is stated here: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the blessings and curses: 鈥淭hese shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless.鈥 Just as there, the blessing was recited while standing, so too here, the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction while standing.

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诇砖专转讜 讜诇讘专讱 讘砖诪讜 诪讛 诪砖专转 讘注诪讬讚讛 讗祝 诪讘专讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 讜诪砖专转 讙讜驻讬讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 诇注诪讚 诇砖专转

Rabbi Natan says: It is not necessary to derive this from a verbal analogy, as it says in the verse: 鈥淎t that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8). Just as a priest performs the Temple service while standing, so too, he blesses while standing. The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that he performs the service itself while standing? As it is written: 鈥淭o stand to minister in the name of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:5).

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless鈥 means with lifted hands. Do you say that the priests must recite the benediction with lifted hands, or perhaps they may recite it without lifted hands? It is stated here: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them鈥 (Leviticus 9:22). Just as there, Aaron blessed the nation with lifted hands, so too here, the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands.

拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讗讬 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讜注讘讜讚转 爪讘讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讜专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讜注讘讜讚转 爪讬讘讜专

This halakha was difficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: If this halakha is derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: Just as there, the High Priest was the one who recited the blessing, and it was the New Moon, and the offerings that were brought were a communal service, so too here, the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the High Priest, and on the New Moon, and when performing a communal service?

专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讜讗 讜讘谞讬讜 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 诪拽讬砖 讘谞讬讜 诇讜 诪讛 讛讜讗 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讗祝 讘谞讬讜 讘谞砖讬讗讜转 讻驻讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 讜讗讬转拽砖 讘专讻讛 诇砖讬专讜转

Rabbi Natan says: It is not necessary to derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as it says with regard to Aaron: 鈥淭o stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons forever鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, his sons are juxtaposed with him. Just as Aaron recited the Priestly Benediction with lifted hands, so too, his sons recite the benediction with lifted hands. And furthermore, it is written 鈥渇orever,鈥 which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. And although the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the benediction is juxtaposed to the Temple service in another verse: 鈥淭o minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8).

讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘砖诐 讛诪驻讜专砖 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讘砖诐 讛诪驻讜专砖 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻讬谞讜讬 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 砖诪讬 讛诪讬讜讞讚 诇讬

And it is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless the children of Israel鈥 means the blessing should be recited with the ineffable name. Do you say that the Priestly Benediction must be recited with the ineffable name, or perhaps it is recited with only the substitute name, Adonai? The verse states: 鈥淪o shall they put My name鈥 (Numbers 6:27), which means My name that is unique to Me.

讬讻讜诇 讗祝 讘讙讘讜诇讬谉 讻谉 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 诇砖讜诐 讗转 砖诪讜 砖诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛

One might have thought that even in the outlying areas, outside the Temple, this ineffable name is used. It is stated here, with regard to the Priestly Benediction: 鈥淪o shall they put My name,鈥 and it is stated there, with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: 鈥淭he place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes to put His name there鈥 (Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that just as there, the expression 鈥渢o put His name there鈥 is referring to the Temple, so too here, the mitzva of 鈥渟o shall they put My name鈥 applies in the Temple and not anywhere else.

专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讛诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 诪拽专讗 讝讛 诪住讜专住 讛讜讗 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗砖专 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜讘专讻转讬讱 砖诐 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讜讛讬讻谉 讗讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜讘专讻转讬讱 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛 砖诐 讗讝讻讬专 讗转 砖诪讬 讘讘讬转 讛讘讞讬专讛

Rabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessary to derive this halakha from the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. It says in the verse: 鈥淚n every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to you and bless you鈥 (Exodus 20:20). Does it enter your mind that this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed everywhere? Rather, this verse must be interpreted by transposition. It must be reordered and read as follows: In every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned. Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: And where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple. Therefore, he derives: There, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned, but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讙专讬诐 谞砖讬诐 讜注讘讚讬诐 诪砖讜讞专专讬诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇讻讜诇讛讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless the sons of Israel鈥 (Numbers 6:23). I have derived only the halakha to bless the sons of Israel. From where do I derive the halakha of blessing converts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse states immediately afterward: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 meaning to all of the Jewish people.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬诐 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 驻谞讬诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 驻谞讬诐 讻谞讙讚 注讜专祝 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讻讗讚诐 讛讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction face-to-face with the congregation. Do you say that the Benediction must be recited face-to-face, or perhaps it is only recited with the faces of the priests facing the back of the necks of the congregation? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 face-to-face, like a person who is talking to another.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诇讞砖 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讻讗讚诐 砖讗讜诪专 诇讞讘讬专讜

It is taught in another baraita: 鈥淪o you shall bless鈥 means that the benediction must be recited out loud. Or, perhaps, is it recited only in a whisper? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 like a person who is talking to another.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讟讬谞谉 诇砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讗讞讚 讗讬谞讜 拽讜专讗 讻讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 诇砖谞讬诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 谞拽讟讬谞谉 讻讛谉 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 拽讜专讗 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讗诪讬专讛

Abaye said: We have a tradition with regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are two priests, he calls: Priests, but when there is one priest he does not call: Priest, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 in plural, meaning to a minimum of two priests. And Rav 岣sda said: We have a tradition that a priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou shall say to them,鈥 which means that the saying

诪砖诇讛诐 转讛讗 讜讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讜诇讬转 讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗

should be from them; one of the priests themselves should call: Priests. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Abaye, that when only one priest is present, the prayer leader does not call: Priest. And the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as an Israelite may also call: Priests.

(住讬诪谉 诪转讗讜讛 诇讘专讻讛 讚讜讻谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讻讜住 诪讻讬专 谞讛谞讛 讘注讙诇讛)

搂 The Gemara cites a mnemonic device for the statements of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Desires the benediction, platform, during the service, cup, recognize, derives benefit, from a heifer.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬谉 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪转讗讜讛 诇讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬 注诇 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗谞讬 讗讘专讻诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖诪讘专讱 诪转讘专讱 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诪讘专讱 讗讬谉 诪转讘专讱 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讘专讻讛 诪讘专讻讬讱

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, desires the Priestly Benediction? As it is stated: 鈥淪o shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them鈥 (Numbers 6:27). This shows that God waits for the priests to bless the people, and only then He Himself blesses them. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who blesses the people is blessed from Heaven, and one who does not bless the people is not blessed, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I will bless those who bless you鈥 (Genesis 12:3).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诇讚讜讻谉 注讜讘专 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖讛 讻讛 转讘专讻讜 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 讜砖诪讜 讗转 砖诪讬

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend the platform to recite the Priestly Benediction violates three positive mitzvot: 鈥淪o you shall bless,鈥 鈥淎nd you shall say to them鈥 (Numbers 6:23), and 鈥淪o shall they put My name鈥 (Numbers 6:27).

专讘 讗诪专 讞讜砖砖讬谉 砖诪讗 讘谉 讙专讜砖讛 讗讜 讘谉 讞诇讜爪讛 讛讜讗

Rav says: One need be concerned that a priest who does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction is perhaps the son of a priest and a divorced woman, or the son of a priest and a yevama who has performed 岣litza [岣lutza]. Perhaps he does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction because he is disqualified from the priesthood.

讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讚住诇讬拽 诇驻专拽讬诐 讛讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 诇驻专拽讬诐

The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree. This statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is referring to a case where he ascends periodically. Therefore, there is no reason to believe that he is disqualified from the priesthood, and the assumption is that he violates three positive mitzvot. Whereas that statement of Rav is referring to a case where one does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction even periodically, and therefore there is reason to suspect that he is disqualified from the priesthood.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讻讛谉 砖讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 讘注讘讜讚讛 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖讗 讗讛专谉 讗转 讬讚讬讜 讗诇 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻诐 讜讬专讚 诪注砖转 讛讞讟讗转 讜讛注讜诇讛 讜讛砖诇诪讬诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘注讘讜讚讛

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend the platform during the blessing of the Temple service recited in the Amida prayer may no longer ascend to recite the benediction, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings鈥 (Leviticus 9:22). Just as there, in the Tabernacle, Aaron lifted up his hands during the service, as evident from the fact that only after he blessed them does it say that he came down from sacrificing the offerings, so too here, in the Amida prayer, the Priestly Benediction is recited during the blessing of Temple service.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 住诇拽讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪注讬拽专讗 讛讜讜 注拽专讬 讻专注讬讬讛讜 诪诪讟讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪讟讜 讛转诐 讜讻讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 注拽专 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 讗讘诇 注拽专 讗转 专讙诇讬讜 注讜诇讛

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 the priests Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi ascend after the blessing of the service? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would begin walking to the platform during the blessing of the service, but they would not arrive there until after the conclusion of this blessing. And this is sufficient in accordance with what Rabbi Oshaya taught: They taught that a priest may not recite the benediction if he did not ascend the platform during the blessing of Temple service only in a case where he did not begin walking. But if he began walking before the prayer leader finished the blessing, he may ascend the platform even after he has finished the blessing.

讜转谞谉 谞诪讬 讗诐 讛讘讟讞转讜 砖谞讜砖讗 讗转 讻驻讬讜 讜讞讜讝专 诇转驻诇转讜 专砖讗讬 讜讛讜讬谞谉 讘讛 讛讗 诇讗 注拽专 讗诇讗 讚谞讚 驻讜专转讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注拽专 驻讜专转讗

And concerning this issue, we also learned in a mishna (Berakhot 34a): A priest who serves as prayer leader does not recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is certain that he can lift his hands and recite the benediction, and then resume his prayer without becoming confused, he is permitted to do so. And we discussed it and raised the following difficulty: If he did not begin walking to ascend the platform during the blessing of the service, how is it permitted for him to recite the benediction? Rather, it must be explained that he moved slightly to show that he also wanted to ascend the platform. Here too, the statement of Rabbi Oshaya is referring even to a case where the priest uprooted himself slightly from his place during the blessing of the service.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 讻讜住 砖诇 讘专讻讛 诇讘专讱 讗诇讗 诇讟讜讘 注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讟讜讘 注讬谉 讛讜讗 讬讘专讱 讻讬 谞转谉 诪诇讞诪讜 诇讚诇 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讬讘专讱 讗诇讗 讬讘专讱

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may give a cup of blessing to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals only to someone with a good eye, i.e., a generous person, as it is stated: 鈥淥ne who has a good eye will be blessed [yevorakh], for he gives of his bread to the poor鈥 (Proverbs 22:9). Do not read it: 鈥Will be blessed.鈥 Rather, read it: Will bless [yevarekh].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 注讜驻讜转 诪讻讬专讬谉 讘爪专讬 讛注讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讞谞诐 诪讝专讛 讛专砖转 讘注讬谞讬 讻诇 讘注诇 讻谞祝

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is it derived that even birds recognize miserly people and do not eat the food they have set in bird traps? As it is stated: 鈥淔or in vain the net is spread in the eyes of any bird鈥 (Proverbs 1:17).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛谞讛谞讛 诪爪专讬 讛注讬谉 注讜讘专 讘诇讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转诇讞诐 讗转 诇讞诐 专注 注讬谉 讜讙讜壮 讻讬 讻诪讜 砖注专 讘谞驻砖讜 讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讻讜诇 讜砖转讛 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讜讙讜壮 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 注讜讘专 讘砖谞讬 诇讗讜讬谉 讗诇 转诇讞诐 讜讗诇 转转讗讜

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who derives benefit from miserly people transgresses a prohibition, as it is stated: 鈥淒o not eat the bread of one who has an evil eye, and do not desire his delicacies, for as one that has reckoned within himself, so he is. He says to you: Eat and drink, but his heart is not with you鈥 (Proverbs 23:6鈥7). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: He transgresses two prohibitions, as it says 鈥渄o not eat鈥 and also 鈥渄o not desire.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讘讗讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 爪专讬 讛注讬谉

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: When a person is found slain between two cities and it is not known who killed him, a heifer whose neck is broken is brought. This occurs only because of miserly people.

砖谞讗诪专 讜注谞讜 讜讗诪专讜 讬讚讬谞讜 诇讗 砖驻讻讜 讗转 讛讚诐 讛讝讛 讜讻讬 注诇 诇讘谞讜 注诇转讛 砖讝拽谞讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讜驻讻讬 讚诪讬诐 讛诐 讗诇讗 诇讗 讘讗 诇讬讚讬谞讜 讜驻讟专谞讜讛讜 讜诇讗 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讜讛谞讞谞讜讛讜 诇讗 讘讗 诇讬讚讬谞讜 讜驻讟专谞讜讛讜 讘诇讗 诪讝讜谞讜转 诇讗 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讜讛谞讞谞讜讛讜 讘诇讗 诇讜讬讬讛

As it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall speak and say: Our hands have not shed this blood鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:7). But did it enter our hearts to think that the Elders of the court are murderers? Why it is necessary for them to publicize that they did not kill him? Rather, they must declare: It is not so that this victim came to us and we dismissed him, and it is not so that we saw him and left him. In other words, he did not come to us and we in turn dismissed him without food, and we did not see him and then leave him without an escort. It is miserly people who do not provide others with food and cause them to travel to places where they might be murdered.

讗诪专 讗讚讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖讻讜诇讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻讜诇谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇讚讜讻谉 诇诪讬 诪讘专讻讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘砖讚讜转

Adda said that Rabbi Samlai says: In a synagogue that is made up entirely of priests, everyone ascends the platform to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: If the entire congregation is composed of priests, for whom do they utter the blessing? Rabbi Zeira says: They say the blessing for their brethren who are in the fields.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讞讬讬讗 注诐 砖讗讞讜专讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讘讻诇诇 讘专讻讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗谞讬住讬 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗谞讬住讬

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar 岣yya, teach that the people who are standing behind the backs of the priests are not included in the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That is not difficult. This is a case where the people are compelled to be in the fields because of their work, and they are therefore included in the benediction. Whereas that statement is referring to people who are not compelled to be away but still do not stand face-to-face with the priests. Consequently, they are not included in the benediction.

讜讛转谞讬 专讘 砖讬诪讬 诪讘讬专转讗 讚砖讬讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 砖讻讜诇讛 讻讛谞讬诐 诪拽爪转谉 注讜诇讬谉 讜诪拽爪转谉 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rav Shimi of Birte deShi岣rei teach the following baraita: In a synagogue that is made up entirely of priests, some of them ascend to recite the benediction and some of them answer amen?

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗讬砖转讬讬专 讘讬 注砖专讛 讛讗 讚诇讗 讗讬砖转讬讬专 讘讬 注砖专讛

The Gemara answers: That is not difficult. That is a case where, if some of the priests recite the benediction, a quorum of ten priests still remains to receive the benediction and answer amen. Therefore, only some of the priests ascend to recite the benediction. By contrast, this case, which Rabbi Simlai was referring to, is a case where a quorum of ten does not remain to answer amen, so it is better for all of the priests to ascend and bless the people working in the fields.

讙讜驻讗 转谞讗 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬诪讬谉 讘专 讞讬讬讗 注诐 砖讗讞讜专讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讗讬谞谉 讘讻诇诇 讘专讻讛

The Gemara returns to the matter itself cited above: Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar 岣yya, taught: The people who are standing behind the priests are not included in the benediction.

驻砖讬讟讗 讗专讬讻讬 讘讗驻讬 讙讜爪讬 诇讗 诪驻住拽讬 转讬讘讛 诇讗 诪驻住拽讗 诪讞讬爪讛 诪讗讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讞讬爪讛 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讗讬谞讛 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讘讬讛诐 砖讘砖诪讬诐

The Gemara raises several questions with regard to this statement: It is obvious that tall people standing in front of short people do not interpose between the priests and the shorter people with regard to the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, a chest or ark containing a Torah scroll does not interpose between the priests and the people. However, what is the halakha with regard to a partition? Come and hear an answer from what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even an iron partition does not interpose between the Jewish people and their Father in Heaven; the people are included in the benediction.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 爪讚讚讬谉 诪讛讜 讗诪专 讗讘讗 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞谉 谞转讻讜讜谉 诇讛讝讜转 诇驻谞讬讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha in the case of people who are standing to the sides of the priests? Are they included in the blessing? Abba Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Come and hear an answer, as we learned in a mishna (Para 12:2) with regard to the halakha of sprinkling the waters of purification on vessels that contracted ritual impurity imparted by a corpse: If one intended to sprinkle the water forward

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