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Today's Daf Yomi

December 14, 2015 | 讘壮 讘讟讘转 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Siyum Masechet Sotah

The masechet聽ends with a number of statements describing the difficult historical-political situation after the time of the destruction and discusses what religious factors caused it. 聽However it ends with a note of hope.


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砖诪讘讝讘讝讬谉 讚讬谉 讗讘讬讛诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讜讗 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讗讞专 砖讗转讛 注转讬讚 诇讬驻专注 诪讛谉 诇诪讛 讛拽讛讬转讛 砖讬谞讬讛诐 讘诐

who plunder, i.e., destroy, their fathers鈥 future judgment. When God sits in judgment of their parents, these children say before Him: Master of the Universe, because You were destined to exact punishment from our fathers in the World-to-Come for their wickedness, why did You blunt their teeth with the death of their children in their lifetimes? In this way, the death of their children atones for the fathers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 讗诇诪诇讗 转驻诇转讜 砖诇 讚讜讚 讛讬讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜讻专讬 专讘讘 砖谞讗诪专 砖讬转讛 讛壮 诪讜专讛 诇讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 讗诇诪诇讗 转驻诇转讜 砖诇 讞讘拽讜拽 讛讬讜 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讻住讬诐 讘讟诇讬转 讗讞转 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 砖诪注转讬 砖诪注讱 讬专讗转讬 讛壮 驻注诇讱 讘拽专讘 砖谞讬诐 讞讬讬讛讜 讗诇 转拽专讗 讘拽专讘 砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 讘拽专讜讘 砖谞讬诐

Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: If it were not for the prayer of David for Israel to have sustenance, all Israel would be sellers of fat [revav], i.e., involved in debased occupations, as it is stated: 鈥淧lace for them mastery, O Lord鈥 (Psalms 9:21), that is, may God grant them dignity. And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya also says: If it were not for the prayer of Habakkuk, two Torah scholars would have to cover themselves with a single cloak due to poverty and engage in Torah study dressed that way, as it is stated: 鈥淟ord, I heard Your report and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years鈥 (Habakkuk 3:2). Do not read: 鈥淚n the midst [bekerev] of the years [shanim],鈥 but in the closeness [bikrov] of two [shenayim]. In other words, Habakkuk prayed that God would nullify His decree of two Torah scholars having to share a single cloak.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讛诪讛诇讻讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 专讗讜讬谉 诇讬砖专祝 讘讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讛诪讛 讛诇讻讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讚讘专 讜讛谞讛 专讻讘 讗砖 讜讙讜壮 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 讛讗 诇讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 专讗讜讬谉 诇讬砖专祝

And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: In the case of two Torah scholars who are walking along the way and there are no words of Torah between them, but they are conversing about other matters, they are deserving of being burned in fire. As it is stated with regard to Elijah and his disciple Elisha: 鈥淎nd it was as they walked along, talking, that behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder鈥 (II聽Kings 2:11). The reason they were not burned by the chariot of fire is that there was speech exchanged between them, which presumably was words of Torah, but if there had been no speech, they would have been deserving of being burned by the chariot.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讚专讬谉 讘注讬专 讗讞转 讜讗讬谉 谞讜讞讬谉 讝讛 诇讝讛 讘讛诇讻讛 讗讞讚 诪转 讜讗讞讚 讙讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇谞住 砖诪讛 专讜爪讞 讗砖专 讬专爪讞 讗转 专注讛讜 讘讘诇讬 讚注转 讜讗讬谉 讚注转 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞讚诪讜 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讛讚注转

And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: If there are two Torah scholars who reside in the same city and they are not pleasant to each other with regard to halakha, but are constantly fighting, one of them will die and the other one will be exiled. As it is stated: 鈥淭hat the manslayer might flee there, who slays his neighbor without knowledge鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:42), and 鈥渒nowledge鈥 means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淢y people are destroyed for lack of knowledge鈥 (Hosea 4:6).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 诪转讜讱 讛讚讞拽 转驻诇转讜 谞砖诪注转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 注诐 讘爪讬讜谉 讬砖讘 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讘讻讜 诇讗 转讘讻讛 讞谞讜谉 讬讞谞讱 诇拽讜诇 讝注拽讱 讻砖诪注转讜 注谞讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讜谞转谉 讛壮 诇讻诐 诇讞诐 爪专 讜诪讬诐 诇讞抓

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi 岣yya, says: With regard to any Torah scholar who engages in Torah study while experiencing the pressure of poverty, his prayer is listened to, as it is stated: 鈥淔or, O people that dwells in Zion at Jerusalem, you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry. When He shall hear, He will answer you鈥 (Isaiah 30:19), and after it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord shall give you sparse bread and scant water鈥 (Isaiah 30:20). This verse indicates that those who sit and study Torah, that is, the people who dwell in Zion, and eat bread sparingly, will have their prayers answered by God.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗讜诪专 诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讝讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讜 注讬谞讬讱 专讗讜转 讗转 诪讜专讬讱 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗祝 讗讬谉 讛驻专讙讜讚 谞谞注诇 讘驻谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 讬讻谞祝 注讜讚 诪讜专讬讱

Rabbi Abbahu says: A Torah scholar who engages in Torah study despite economic pressures is satiated with the glory of the Divine Presence, as it is stated in the same verse, above: 鈥淎nd your eyes shall behold your Teacher.鈥 Rabbi A岣, son of 岣nina, said: Even the concealing partition [pargod] before the Divine Presence is not locked before him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your Teacher shall not hide Himself anymore鈥 (Isaiah 30:20).

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诪专讜讘讛 拽诇诇转讜 诪砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 转讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谉 注专讘 讜讘注专讘 转讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谉 讘拽专 讛讬 讘拽专 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘拽专 讚诇诪讞专 诪讬 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讛讜讬 讗诇讗 讚讞诇讬祝

搂 The mishna states that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, there is no day that does not include some form of curse. Rava says: Each and every day is more cursed than the previous one, as it is stated in the chapter detailing the curses in the book of Deuteronomy: 鈥淚n the morning you will say, would that it were evening, and in the evening you will say, would that it were morning鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:67). It is unclear which morning the verse means. If we say that in the evening he will wish it would be the following morning, does he know what will be the outcome of the next morning, which would cause him to yearn for its arrival? Rather, it must mean the morning that has passed; that is, in the evening they will pine for the previous morning, because their situation is continuously worsening.

讜讗诇讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪讗讬 拽讗 诪拽讬讬诐 讗拽讚讜砖讛 讚住讬讚专讗 讜讗讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 专讘讗 讚讗讙讚转讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗专抓 注驻转讛 讻诪讜 讗驻诇 爪诇诪讜转 讜诇讗 住讚专讬诐 讛讗 讬砖 住讚专讬诐 转讜驻讬注 诪讗讜驻诇

The Gemara poses a question: But if everything is deteriorating, why does the world continue to exist? The Gemara answers: By the sanctification that is said in the order of prayers, after the passage that begins: And a redeemer shall come to Israel, which includes the recitation and translation of the sanctification said by the angels, and by the response: Let His great name be blessed, etc., which is recited after the study of aggada. As it is stated: 鈥淎 land of thick darkness, as darkness itself; a land of the shadow of death, without any order鈥 (Job 10:22). Therefore, it can be inferred from this verse that if there are orders of prayer and study, the land shall appear from amidst the darkness.

讜诇讗 讬专讚 讟诇 诇讘专讻讛 讜谞讬讟诇 讟注诐 驻讬专讜转 讜讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讟讛专讛 讘讟诇讛 讟注诐 讜专讬讞 诪注砖专 讘讬讟诇 砖讜诪谉 讚讙谉

搂 The mishna taught that since the destruction of the Temple, dew has not descended for a blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The lost purity has removed the taste and the aroma; the tithes that were not separated have removed the fat of grain.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖讻讞 转讜诪专转讗 讚讞讬谞讜谞讬转讗 砖拽诇讛 讻专讻讛 讘住讜讚专讬讛 讗转讗 专讘讛 讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜专讞讬谞讗 专讬讞讗 讚讞讬谞讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 讟讛专讛 讬砖 讘讱 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讗 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 砖拽诇讛 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 砖诪讞转 讗转 诇讘讬 讜讛拽讛讬转讛 讗转 砖讬谞讬 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讞诪讬 讚讗讘讗 讗讘谞讬 专讞诪讬 讚讘谞讬 讗讘谞讬 讚讛讜讜 诇讬讛

The Gemara relates that Rav Huna found a fragrant date. He took it and wrapped it in his shawl. Rabba, his son, came and said to him: I smell the aroma of a fragrant date. Rav Huna said to him: My son, there is clearly purity in you, as you were able to notice the fragrance. He gave it to him. Meanwhile, Abba, Rabba鈥檚 son, arrived. Rabba took the date and gave it to him. Rav Huna said to Rabba: My son, you have made my heart rejoice with your purity, and you have blunted my teeth, by showing your preference for your own son. The Gemara comments: This explains the folk saying that people say: The love of a father is for the sons; the love of the sons is for their own sons, more than for their father.

专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗讬讟驻诇 讘讬讛 讘专讘 讬注拽讘 讘专 讘专转讬讛 讻讬 讙讚诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖拽讬讬谉 诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讘专讬讱 讗谞讗 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 讘专 讘专转讱 讗谞讗

The Gemara relates another incident: Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov took care of Rav Ya鈥檃kov, the son of his daughter, who was an orphan. When the grandchild grew up, his grandfather once said to him: Give me water to drink. He said to him: I am not your son, and I am not obligated in your honor as a son must honor his father. The Gemara again comments: And this explains the folk saying that people say: Raise, raise your grandchild, but in the end he will retort: I am the son of your daughter, and I do not have to take care of you.

诪转谞讬壮 讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讞转谞讬诐 讜注诇 讛讗讬专讜住

MISHNA: In the war [pulemus] of Vespasian the Sages decreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms, i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, and upon the drums, meaning they also banned the playing of drums.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讟讬讟讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讜砖诇讗 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 讗转 讘谞讜 讬讜讜谞讬转

In the war of Titus they also decreed upon the crowns of brides, and they decreed that a person should not teach his son Greek.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 讛讗讞专讜谉 讙讝专讜 砖诇讗 转爪讗 讛讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讘转讜讱 讛注讬专 讜专讘讜转讬谞讜 讛转讬专讜 砖转爪讗 讛讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讘转讜讱 讛注讬专

In the last war, meaning the bar Kokheva revolt, they decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but our Sages permitted a bride to go out in a palanquin inside the city, as this helps the bride maintain her modesty.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讟诇讜 诪讜砖诇讬 诪砖诇讬诐 诪砖诪转 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘讟诇讜 讛砖拽讚谞讬诐 诪砖诪转 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讘讟诇讜 讛讚专砖谞讬诐 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 讛转讜专讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讘讟诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽讟谞转讗 驻住拽讜 讞住讬讚讬诐 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 拽讟谞转讗 砖讛讬讛 拽讟谞转讗 砖诇 讞住讬讚讬诐

The mishna lists more things that ceased: From the time when Rabbi Meir died, those who relate parables ceased; from the time when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from the time when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased; from the time when Rabbi Akiva died, the honor of the Torah ceased; from the time when Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa died, the men of wondrous action ceased; from the time when Rabbi Yosei the Small died, the pious were no more. And why was he called the Small? Because he was the smallest of the pious, meaning he was one of the least important of the pious men.

诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讘讟诇 讝讬讜 讛讞讻诪讛 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 讛转讜专讛 讜诪转讛 讟讛专讛 讜驻专讬砖讜转 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 驻讗讘讬 讘讟诇讛 讝讬讜 讛讻讛讜谞讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讘讟诇 注谞讜讛 讜讬专讗转 讞讟讗

From the time when Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai died, the glory of wisdom ceased; from the time when Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, the honor of the Torah ceased, and purity and asceticism died. From the time when Rabbi Yishmael ben Pavi died, the glory of the priesthood ceased; from the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, humility and fear of sin ceased.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讜砖讜 讞讘专讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讞讜专讬谉 讜讞驻讜 专讗砖诐 讜谞讚诇讚诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 讜讙讘专讜 讘注诇讬 讝专讜注 讜讘注诇讬 诇砖讜谉 讜讗讬谉 讚讜专砖 讜讗讬谉 诪讘拽砖 讜讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇

gemara The Sages taught: Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r says: From the time when the Second Temple was destroyed, the 岣verim and free men of noble lineage were ashamed, and their heads were covered in shame, and men of action dwindled, and violent and smooth-talking men gained the upper hand, and none seek, and none ask, and none inquire of the fear of Heaven.

注诇 诪讬 诇谞讜 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

Upon whom is there for us to rely? Only upon our Father in Heaven.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖专讜 讞讻讬诪讬讗 诇诪讛讜讬 讻住驻专讬讗 讜住驻专讬讗 讻讞讝谞讬讗 讜讞讝谞讬讗 讻注诪讗 讚讗专注讗 讜注诪讗 讚讗专注讗

Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: From the day the Second Temple was destroyed, the generations have deteriorated: Scholars have begun to become like scribes that teach children, and scribes have become like beadles, and beadles have become like ignoramuses, and ignoramuses

讗讝诇讗 讜讚诇讚诇讛 讜讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇 讜讗讬谉 诪讘拽砖 注诇 诪讬 讬砖 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

are increasingly diminished, and none ask and none seek. Upon whom is there to rely? Only upon our Father in Heaven.

讘注拽讘讜转 诪砖讬讞讗 讞讜爪驻讗 讬住讙讗 讜讬讜拽专 讬讗诪讬专 讛讙驻谉 转转谉 驻专讬讛 讜讛讬讬谉 讘讬讜拽专 讜诪诇讻讜转 转讛驻讱 诇诪讬谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 转讜讻讞转 讘讬转 讜讜注讚 讬讛讬讛 诇讝谞讜转 讜讛讙诇讬诇 讬讞专讘 讜讛讙讘诇谉 讬砖讜诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讛讙讘讜诇 讬住讜讘讘讜 诪注讬专 诇注讬专 讜诇讗 讬讞讜谞谞讜

He also said: In the times of the approach of the Messiah, impudence will increase and high costs will pile up. Although the vine shall bring forth its fruit, wine will nevertheless be expensive. And the monarchy shall turn to heresy, and there will be no one to give reproof about this. The meeting place of the Sages will become a place of promiscuity, and the Galilee shall be destroyed, and the Gavlan will be desolate, and the men of the border shall go round from city to city to seek charity, but they will find no mercy.

讜讞讻诪讜转 住讜驻专讬诐 转住专讞 讜讬专讗讬 讞讟讗 讬诪讗住讜 讜讛讗诪转 转讛讗 谞注讚专转 谞注专讬诐 驻谞讬 讝拽谞讬诐 讬诇讘讬谞讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讬注诪讚讜 诪驻谞讬 拽讟谞讬诐 讘谉 诪谞讜讜诇 讗讘 讘转 拽诪讛 讘讗诪讛 讻诇讛 讘讞诪讜转讛 讗讜讬讘讬 讗讬砖 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 驻谞讬 讛讚讜专 讻驻谞讬 讛讻诇讘 讛讘谉 讗讬谞讜 诪转讘讬讬砖 诪讗讘讬讜 讜注诇 诪讛 讬砖 诇谞讜 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

And the wisdom of scribes will putrefy, and people who fear sin will be held in disgust, and the truth will be absent. The youth will shame the face of elders, elders will stand before minors. Normal family relations will be ruined: A son will disgrace a father; a daughter will rise up against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. A man鈥檚 enemies will be the members of his household. The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog; a son will no longer be ashamed before his father. And upon what is there for us to rely? Only upon our Father in heaven.

讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇 诪诇讞 讜讙驻专讬转 讗讘诇 砖诇 讛讚住 讜砖诇 讜讜专讚 诪讜转专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 砖诇 讛讚住 讜砖诇 讜讜专讚 讗住讜专 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 诪讜转专 讜诇讜讬 讗诪专 讗祝 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 讗住讜专 讜讻谉 转谞讬 诇讜讬 讘诪转谞讬转讬讛 讗祝 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 讗住讜专

Rav says concerning the decree banning the wearing of crowns that they taught this halakha only with regard to crowns of salt and sulfur, but those of myrtle and rose are permitted. And Shmuel says that even crowns of myrtle and rose are prohibited, but those made of reeds and bulrush are permitted. And Levi says: Even crowns of reeds and bulrush are prohibited. And likewise Levi teaches in his baraita: Even those of reeds and bulrush are prohibited.

讜注诇 讛讗讬专讜住 诪讗讬 讗讬专讜住 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讟讘诇讗 讚讞讚 驻讜诪讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讘讚 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讟谞讘讜专讗 讗转讗 讗讘讜讛 转讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讞诇祝 讘讟讘诇讗 讚讞讚 驻讜诪讗 讝讬诇 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讞爪讘讗 讗讜 讗驻讜诪讗 讚拽驻讬讝讗

The mishna taught that the Sages decreed against the wearing of crowns for bridegrooms and upon the drums. The Gemara poses a question: What is this drum [irus]? Rabbi Elazar says: A drum with one mouth. The Gemara relates a story involving this instrument: Rabba bar Rav Huna made a tambourine for his son. His father, Rav Huna, came and broke it. He said to him: This instrument will be confused for a drum with one mouth, and people will assume that a drum with one mouth is permitted. Instead, go and make for him a small drum on the mouth of an earthen jug [岣tzava], or on the mouth of a container used for measuring a kefiza, a small measurement, which did not pose the concern of being confused with a drum with one mouth.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讟讬讟讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注讬专 砖诇 讝讛讘 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗讬讝讛讜 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 注讬专 砖诇 讝讛讘 讗讘诇 注讜砖讛 讗讜转讛 讻讬驻讛 砖诇 诪讬诇转

They further taught that in the war of Titus the Sages decreed upon the crowns of brides. The Gemara clarifies: What are the crowns of brides? Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: A city of gold, a gold crown engraved with the design of a city, worn by women as an ornament. This is also taught in a baraita: Which are the crowns of brides that were forbidden? The crown of a bride is a city of gold. However, one may make it as a cap of fine wool [meilat].

转谞讗 讗祝 注诇 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讙讝专讜 诪讗讬 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讝讛讜专讬转 讛诪讜讝讛讘讜转 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诇讜 讛谉 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讝讛讜专讬转 讛诪讜讝讛讘讜转 讗讘诇 注讜砖讛 驻驻讬专讬转 讜转讜诇讛 讘讛 讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讛

The Sage taught: The Sages even decreed upon the canopy of grooms. The Gemara asks: What is the type of canopy of grooms that was prohibited, as they certainly did not ban the marriage canopy. The Gemara answers: It means the golden crimson [zehorit] clothes, dyed red and crimson and decorated with gold, which they would hang on a marriage canopy. This is also taught in a baraita: These are the canopy of grooms the Sages banned: The golden crimson clothes. But he may make a papyrus [papirit] construction and hang upon it whatever he wants, even ornaments made of gold.

讜砖诇讗 讬诇诪讚 讗转 讘谞讜 讬讜讜谞讬转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖爪专讜 诪诇讻讬 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讛讬讛 讛讜专拽谞讜住 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗专讬住讟讜讘诇讜住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讬讜 诪砖诇砖诇讬谉 讚讬谞专讬诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讜诪注诇讬谉 诇讛谉 转诪讬讚讬诐

搂 The mishna taught that during the war of Titus the Sages decreed that a person should not teach his son Greek. The Sages taught that this decree came about as a result of the following incident: When the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy besieged each other in their civil war, Hyrcanus was outside of Jerusalem, besieging it, and Aristoblus was inside. On each and every day they would lower dinars in a box from inside the city, and those on the outside would send up animals for them to bring the daily offerings in the Temple.

讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇注讝 诇讛诐 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖注讜住拽讬诐 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗讬谉 谞诪住专讬谉 讘讬讚讻诐 诇诪讞专 砖诇砖诇讜 诇讛诐 讚讬谞专讬诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讜讛注诇讜 诇讛诐 讞讝讬专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇讞爪讬 讞讜诪讛 谞注抓 爪驻专谞讬讜 谞讝讚注讝注讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛

A certain Elder was there, in Jerusalem, who was familiar with Greek wisdom. He communicated to those on the outside by means of Greek wisdom, using words understood only by those proficient in Greek wisdom. He said to them: As long as they are engaged in the Temple service, they will not be delivered into your hands. Upon hearing this, on the following day, when they lowered dinars in a box, they sent up a pig to them. Once the pig reached halfway up the wall, it inserted its hooves into the wall and Eretz Yisrael shuddered four hundred parasangs.

讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讗诪专讜 讗专讜专 讗讚诐 砖讬讙讚诇 讞讝讬专讬诐 讜讗专讜专 讗讚诐 砖讬诇诪讚 诇讘谞讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜注诇 讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬谞讜 诪注砖讛 讜讘讗 注讜诪专 诪讙讙讜转 爪专讬驻讬诐 讜砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诪讘拽注转 注讬谉 住讜讻专

When the Sages saw this, they said at that time: Cursed is the person who raises pigs, and cursed is the person who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And with regard to that year of civil war, in which the land was destroyed, we learned (Mena岣t 64b): An incident occurred in which the omer, the measure of barley brought as a communal offering on the sixteenth of Nisan, came from Gaggot Tzerifim, and the two loaves offered on Shavuot came from the valley of Ein Sokher.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诇砖讜谉 住讜专住讬 诇诪讛 讗诇讗 讗讬 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讬 诇砖讜谉 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘讘讘诇 诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 诇诪讛 讗诇讗 讗讜 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讜 诇砖讜谉 驻专住讬

It is understood from both the mishna and the baraita that it is prohibited to learn Greek. The Gemara raises a question: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi say: In Eretz Yisrael, why should people speak the tongue of Syriac [Sursi], the Aramaic commonly spoken in Eretz Yisrael? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the beautiful tongue of Greek. And Rav Yosef similarly said: In Babylonia, why should they speak in the vernacular tongue of Aramaic? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the tongue of Persian, used by the authorities.

诇砖讜谉 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇讞讜讚 讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇讞讜讚

The Gemara answers that there is a difference: The Greek tongue is discrete and Greek wisdom is discrete, and the Sages prohibited the latter but not the former.

讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪讬 讗住讬专讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖讜诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注讬谞讬 注讜诇诇讛 诇谞驻砖讬 诪讻诇 讘谞讜转 注讬专讬 讗诇祝 讬诇讚讬诐 讛讬讜 讘讘讬转 讗讘讗 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诇诪讚讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜诇讗 谞砖转讬讬专 诪讛谉 讗诇讗 讗谞讬 讻讗谉 讜讘谉 讗讞讬 讗讘讗 讘注住讬讗

The Gemara poses a question: And is Greek wisdom prohibited? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y eye affected my soul, due to all the daughters of my city鈥 (Lamentations 3:51)? There were a thousand children in my father鈥檚 house, the princes鈥 household. Five hundred of them learned Torah, and the other five hundred learned Greek wisdom, and there only remained of them, after the bar Kokheva revolt, me, here in Eretz Yisrael, and the son of my father鈥檚 brother, who lives in Asia Minor [Asya]. The fact that Rabban Gamliel allowed half of his household to study Greek wisdom indicates that it is permitted.

砖讗谞讬 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚拽专讜讘讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转 讛讜讜 讚转谞讬讗 诪住驻专 拽讜诪讬 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讚专讻讬 讛讗诪讜专讬 讗讘讟讜诇讜住 讘谉 专讗讜讘谉 讛转讬专讜 诇住驻专 拽讜诪讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专讜讘 诇诪诇讻讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛转讬专讜 诇讛谉 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖拽专讜讘讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转

The Gemara answers: The members of the house of Rabban Gamliel are different, as they were close to the monarchy, and therefore had to learn Greek wisdom in order to converse with people of authority. As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Shabbat 7:1): One who cuts his hair in the komi style, which was the gentile fashion of cutting and wearing the hair, is considered to be acting in the ways of the Amorites, and it is prohibited to act in their way. However, they permitted Avtolos ben Reuven to cut his hair in the komi style, as he is close to the monarchy, and similarly they permitted the house of Rabban Gamliel to study Greek wisdom, because they are close to the monarchy.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 讛讗讞专讜谉 讙讝专讜 砖诇讗 转爪讗 讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讬注讜转讗

搂 The mishna taught: In the last war the Sages decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but the later Sages permitted it. The Gemara explains: What is the reason they permitted this practice? Due to modesty, so that brides should not have to go out into the street and be seen by all.

诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讟诇讛 讛讞讻诪讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞讙谞讝 住驻专 转讜专讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讟诇讛 注爪讛 讜诪讞砖讘讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘讟诇讜 讝专讜注讬 转讜专讛 讜谞住转转诪讜 诪注讬讬谞讜转 讛讞讻诪讛

The mishna taught that from the time when Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai died, wisdom ceased. The Sages taught: From the time when Rabbi Eliezer died, it was as if the Torah scroll had been interred, as he had memorized many secrets of the Torah. From the time when Rabbi Yehoshua died, council and deliberate thought ceased, as he had the sharpest mind in Israel. From the time when Rabbi Akiva died, the powerful arm of Torah, meaning the exposition of all the details of Torah scripture, ceased, and the fountains of wisdom were sealed.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讘讟诇讜 注讟专讜转 讞讻诪讛 砖注讟专转 讞讻诪讬诐 注砖专诐 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讘讟诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 诪砖诪转 讗讘讗 讬讜住讬 讘谉 拽讟讜谞转讗 讘讟诇讜 讞住讬讚讬诐 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讗讘讗 讬讜住讬 讘谉 拽讟讜谞转讗 砖讛讬讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讞住讬讚讬诐

From the time when Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya died, the crowns of wisdom ceased, as 鈥渢he crown of the wise is their riches鈥 (Proverbs 14:24), and he was both a great Torah scholar and a very wealthy man. From the time when Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa died, the men of wondrous deeds ceased. From the time when Abba Yosei ben Katonta died, the pious men ceased. And why was he called Abba Yosei ben Katonta? Because he was among the diminished [miktanei] of the pious people, i.e., he lived in an era when the pious had become few.

诪砖诪转 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘讟诇讜 讛砖拽讚谞讬谉 诪砖诪转 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讘讟诇讜 讛讚专砖谞讬谉 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注诇讛 讙讜讘讗讬 讜专讘讜 爪专讜转 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讛讜讻驻诇讜 爪专讜转

From the time when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from the time when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased. From the time when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel died, locusts ascended upon the land and troubles proliferated. From the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, the troubles multiplied.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讘讟诇讛 注谞讜讛 讜讬专讗转 讞讟讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 注谞讜讛 讚讗讬讻讗 讗谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讗谞讗

The final line of the mishna states that from the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rav Yosef said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that humility ceased, for there is still one who is humble, namely me. Rav Na岣an similarly said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that fear of sin ceased, for there is still one who fears sin, namely me.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜住诇讬拽讗 诇讛 诪住讻转 住讜讟讛

 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Siyum Masechet Sotah

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Siyum Masechet Sotah

砖诪讘讝讘讝讬谉 讚讬谉 讗讘讬讛诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讜讗 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讗讞专 砖讗转讛 注转讬讚 诇讬驻专注 诪讛谉 诇诪讛 讛拽讛讬转讛 砖讬谞讬讛诐 讘诐

who plunder, i.e., destroy, their fathers鈥 future judgment. When God sits in judgment of their parents, these children say before Him: Master of the Universe, because You were destined to exact punishment from our fathers in the World-to-Come for their wickedness, why did You blunt their teeth with the death of their children in their lifetimes? In this way, the death of their children atones for the fathers.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 讗诇诪诇讗 转驻诇转讜 砖诇 讚讜讚 讛讬讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜讻专讬 专讘讘 砖谞讗诪专 砖讬转讛 讛壮 诪讜专讛 诇讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 讗诇诪诇讗 转驻诇转讜 砖诇 讞讘拽讜拽 讛讬讜 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讻住讬诐 讘讟诇讬转 讗讞转 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛壮 砖诪注转讬 砖诪注讱 讬专讗转讬 讛壮 驻注诇讱 讘拽专讘 砖谞讬诐 讞讬讬讛讜 讗诇 转拽专讗 讘拽专讘 砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 讘拽专讜讘 砖谞讬诐

Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: If it were not for the prayer of David for Israel to have sustenance, all Israel would be sellers of fat [revav], i.e., involved in debased occupations, as it is stated: 鈥淧lace for them mastery, O Lord鈥 (Psalms 9:21), that is, may God grant them dignity. And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya also says: If it were not for the prayer of Habakkuk, two Torah scholars would have to cover themselves with a single cloak due to poverty and engage in Torah study dressed that way, as it is stated: 鈥淟ord, I heard Your report and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years鈥 (Habakkuk 3:2). Do not read: 鈥淚n the midst [bekerev] of the years [shanim],鈥 but in the closeness [bikrov] of two [shenayim]. In other words, Habakkuk prayed that God would nullify His decree of two Torah scholars having to share a single cloak.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讛诪讛诇讻讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 专讗讜讬谉 诇讬砖专祝 讘讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讛诪讛 讛诇讻讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讚讘专 讜讛谞讛 专讻讘 讗砖 讜讙讜壮 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 讛讗 诇讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 专讗讜讬谉 诇讬砖专祝

And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: In the case of two Torah scholars who are walking along the way and there are no words of Torah between them, but they are conversing about other matters, they are deserving of being burned in fire. As it is stated with regard to Elijah and his disciple Elisha: 鈥淎nd it was as they walked along, talking, that behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder鈥 (II聽Kings 2:11). The reason they were not burned by the chariot of fire is that there was speech exchanged between them, which presumably was words of Torah, but if there had been no speech, they would have been deserving of being burned by the chariot.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讘专 讬讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讚专讬谉 讘注讬专 讗讞转 讜讗讬谉 谞讜讞讬谉 讝讛 诇讝讛 讘讛诇讻讛 讗讞讚 诪转 讜讗讞讚 讙讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇谞住 砖诪讛 专讜爪讞 讗砖专 讬专爪讞 讗转 专注讛讜 讘讘诇讬 讚注转 讜讗讬谉 讚注转 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞讚诪讜 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讛讚注转

And Rabbi Ile鈥檃 bar Yeverekhya says: If there are two Torah scholars who reside in the same city and they are not pleasant to each other with regard to halakha, but are constantly fighting, one of them will die and the other one will be exiled. As it is stated: 鈥淭hat the manslayer might flee there, who slays his neighbor without knowledge鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:42), and 鈥渒nowledge鈥 means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淢y people are destroyed for lack of knowledge鈥 (Hosea 4:6).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 诪转讜讱 讛讚讞拽 转驻诇转讜 谞砖诪注转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 注诐 讘爪讬讜谉 讬砖讘 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讘讻讜 诇讗 转讘讻讛 讞谞讜谉 讬讞谞讱 诇拽讜诇 讝注拽讱 讻砖诪注转讜 注谞讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讜谞转谉 讛壮 诇讻诐 诇讞诐 爪专 讜诪讬诐 诇讞抓

Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi 岣yya, says: With regard to any Torah scholar who engages in Torah study while experiencing the pressure of poverty, his prayer is listened to, as it is stated: 鈥淔or, O people that dwells in Zion at Jerusalem, you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry. When He shall hear, He will answer you鈥 (Isaiah 30:19), and after it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord shall give you sparse bread and scant water鈥 (Isaiah 30:20). This verse indicates that those who sit and study Torah, that is, the people who dwell in Zion, and eat bread sparingly, will have their prayers answered by God.

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗讜诪专 诪砖讘讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讝讬讜 砖讻讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讜 注讬谞讬讱 专讗讜转 讗转 诪讜专讬讱 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗祝 讗讬谉 讛驻专讙讜讚 谞谞注诇 讘驻谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 讬讻谞祝 注讜讚 诪讜专讬讱

Rabbi Abbahu says: A Torah scholar who engages in Torah study despite economic pressures is satiated with the glory of the Divine Presence, as it is stated in the same verse, above: 鈥淎nd your eyes shall behold your Teacher.鈥 Rabbi A岣, son of 岣nina, said: Even the concealing partition [pargod] before the Divine Presence is not locked before him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your Teacher shall not hide Himself anymore鈥 (Isaiah 30:20).

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 诪专讜讘讛 拽诇诇转讜 诪砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 转讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谉 注专讘 讜讘注专讘 转讗诪专 诪讬 讬转谉 讘拽专 讛讬 讘拽专 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘拽专 讚诇诪讞专 诪讬 讬讚注 诪讗讬 讛讜讬 讗诇讗 讚讞诇讬祝

搂 The mishna states that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, there is no day that does not include some form of curse. Rava says: Each and every day is more cursed than the previous one, as it is stated in the chapter detailing the curses in the book of Deuteronomy: 鈥淚n the morning you will say, would that it were evening, and in the evening you will say, would that it were morning鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:67). It is unclear which morning the verse means. If we say that in the evening he will wish it would be the following morning, does he know what will be the outcome of the next morning, which would cause him to yearn for its arrival? Rather, it must mean the morning that has passed; that is, in the evening they will pine for the previous morning, because their situation is continuously worsening.

讜讗诇讗 注诇诪讗 讗诪讗讬 拽讗 诪拽讬讬诐 讗拽讚讜砖讛 讚住讬讚专讗 讜讗讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 专讘讗 讚讗讙讚转讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗专抓 注驻转讛 讻诪讜 讗驻诇 爪诇诪讜转 讜诇讗 住讚专讬诐 讛讗 讬砖 住讚专讬诐 转讜驻讬注 诪讗讜驻诇

The Gemara poses a question: But if everything is deteriorating, why does the world continue to exist? The Gemara answers: By the sanctification that is said in the order of prayers, after the passage that begins: And a redeemer shall come to Israel, which includes the recitation and translation of the sanctification said by the angels, and by the response: Let His great name be blessed, etc., which is recited after the study of aggada. As it is stated: 鈥淎 land of thick darkness, as darkness itself; a land of the shadow of death, without any order鈥 (Job 10:22). Therefore, it can be inferred from this verse that if there are orders of prayer and study, the land shall appear from amidst the darkness.

讜诇讗 讬专讚 讟诇 诇讘专讻讛 讜谞讬讟诇 讟注诐 驻讬专讜转 讜讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讟讛专讛 讘讟诇讛 讟注诐 讜专讬讞 诪注砖专 讘讬讟诇 砖讜诪谉 讚讙谉

搂 The mishna taught that since the destruction of the Temple, dew has not descended for a blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The lost purity has removed the taste and the aroma; the tithes that were not separated have removed the fat of grain.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖讻讞 转讜诪专转讗 讚讞讬谞讜谞讬转讗 砖拽诇讛 讻专讻讛 讘住讜讚专讬讛 讗转讗 专讘讛 讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜专讞讬谞讗 专讬讞讗 讚讞讬谞讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 讟讛专讛 讬砖 讘讱 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讗 讗讘讗 讘专讬讛 砖拽诇讛 讬讛讘讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 砖诪讞转 讗转 诇讘讬 讜讛拽讛讬转讛 讗转 砖讬谞讬 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讞诪讬 讚讗讘讗 讗讘谞讬 专讞诪讬 讚讘谞讬 讗讘谞讬 讚讛讜讜 诇讬讛

The Gemara relates that Rav Huna found a fragrant date. He took it and wrapped it in his shawl. Rabba, his son, came and said to him: I smell the aroma of a fragrant date. Rav Huna said to him: My son, there is clearly purity in you, as you were able to notice the fragrance. He gave it to him. Meanwhile, Abba, Rabba鈥檚 son, arrived. Rabba took the date and gave it to him. Rav Huna said to Rabba: My son, you have made my heart rejoice with your purity, and you have blunted my teeth, by showing your preference for your own son. The Gemara comments: This explains the folk saying that people say: The love of a father is for the sons; the love of the sons is for their own sons, more than for their father.

专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗讬讟驻诇 讘讬讛 讘专讘 讬注拽讘 讘专 讘专转讬讛 讻讬 讙讚诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖拽讬讬谉 诪讬讗 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗讜 讘专讬讱 讗谞讗 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 讘专 讘专转讱 讗谞讗

The Gemara relates another incident: Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov took care of Rav Ya鈥檃kov, the son of his daughter, who was an orphan. When the grandchild grew up, his grandfather once said to him: Give me water to drink. He said to him: I am not your son, and I am not obligated in your honor as a son must honor his father. The Gemara again comments: And this explains the folk saying that people say: Raise, raise your grandchild, but in the end he will retort: I am the son of your daughter, and I do not have to take care of you.

诪转谞讬壮 讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讗住驻住讬讬谞讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讞转谞讬诐 讜注诇 讛讗讬专讜住

MISHNA: In the war [pulemus] of Vespasian the Sages decreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms, i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, and upon the drums, meaning they also banned the playing of drums.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讟讬讟讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讜砖诇讗 讬诇诪讚 讗讚诐 讗转 讘谞讜 讬讜讜谞讬转

In the war of Titus they also decreed upon the crowns of brides, and they decreed that a person should not teach his son Greek.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 讛讗讞专讜谉 讙讝专讜 砖诇讗 转爪讗 讛讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讘转讜讱 讛注讬专 讜专讘讜转讬谞讜 讛转讬专讜 砖转爪讗 讛讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讘转讜讱 讛注讬专

In the last war, meaning the bar Kokheva revolt, they decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but our Sages permitted a bride to go out in a palanquin inside the city, as this helps the bride maintain her modesty.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讟诇讜 诪讜砖诇讬 诪砖诇讬诐 诪砖诪转 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘讟诇讜 讛砖拽讚谞讬诐 诪砖诪转 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讘讟诇讜 讛讚专砖谞讬诐 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 讛转讜专讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讘讟诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽讟谞转讗 驻住拽讜 讞住讬讚讬诐 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 拽讟谞转讗 砖讛讬讛 拽讟谞转讗 砖诇 讞住讬讚讬诐

The mishna lists more things that ceased: From the time when Rabbi Meir died, those who relate parables ceased; from the time when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from the time when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased; from the time when Rabbi Akiva died, the honor of the Torah ceased; from the time when Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa died, the men of wondrous action ceased; from the time when Rabbi Yosei the Small died, the pious were no more. And why was he called the Small? Because he was the smallest of the pious, meaning he was one of the least important of the pious men.

诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讘讟诇 讝讬讜 讛讞讻诪讛 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 讛转讜专讛 讜诪转讛 讟讛专讛 讜驻专讬砖讜转 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 驻讗讘讬 讘讟诇讛 讝讬讜 讛讻讛讜谞讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讘讟诇 注谞讜讛 讜讬专讗转 讞讟讗

From the time when Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai died, the glory of wisdom ceased; from the time when Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, the honor of the Torah ceased, and purity and asceticism died. From the time when Rabbi Yishmael ben Pavi died, the glory of the priesthood ceased; from the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, humility and fear of sin ceased.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 专讘讬 驻谞讞住 讘谉 讬讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讜砖讜 讞讘专讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讞讜专讬谉 讜讞驻讜 专讗砖诐 讜谞讚诇讚诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 讜讙讘专讜 讘注诇讬 讝专讜注 讜讘注诇讬 诇砖讜谉 讜讗讬谉 讚讜专砖 讜讗讬谉 诪讘拽砖 讜讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇

gemara The Sages taught: Rabbi Pine岣s ben Ya鈥檌r says: From the time when the Second Temple was destroyed, the 岣verim and free men of noble lineage were ashamed, and their heads were covered in shame, and men of action dwindled, and violent and smooth-talking men gained the upper hand, and none seek, and none ask, and none inquire of the fear of Heaven.

注诇 诪讬 诇谞讜 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

Upon whom is there for us to rely? Only upon our Father in Heaven.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讙讚讜诇 讗讜诪专 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖专讜 讞讻讬诪讬讗 诇诪讛讜讬 讻住驻专讬讗 讜住驻专讬讗 讻讞讝谞讬讗 讜讞讝谞讬讗 讻注诪讗 讚讗专注讗 讜注诪讗 讚讗专注讗

Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: From the day the Second Temple was destroyed, the generations have deteriorated: Scholars have begun to become like scribes that teach children, and scribes have become like beadles, and beadles have become like ignoramuses, and ignoramuses

讗讝诇讗 讜讚诇讚诇讛 讜讗讬谉 砖讜讗诇 讜讗讬谉 诪讘拽砖 注诇 诪讬 讬砖 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

are increasingly diminished, and none ask and none seek. Upon whom is there to rely? Only upon our Father in Heaven.

讘注拽讘讜转 诪砖讬讞讗 讞讜爪驻讗 讬住讙讗 讜讬讜拽专 讬讗诪讬专 讛讙驻谉 转转谉 驻专讬讛 讜讛讬讬谉 讘讬讜拽专 讜诪诇讻讜转 转讛驻讱 诇诪讬谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 转讜讻讞转 讘讬转 讜讜注讚 讬讛讬讛 诇讝谞讜转 讜讛讙诇讬诇 讬讞专讘 讜讛讙讘诇谉 讬砖讜诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讛讙讘讜诇 讬住讜讘讘讜 诪注讬专 诇注讬专 讜诇讗 讬讞讜谞谞讜

He also said: In the times of the approach of the Messiah, impudence will increase and high costs will pile up. Although the vine shall bring forth its fruit, wine will nevertheless be expensive. And the monarchy shall turn to heresy, and there will be no one to give reproof about this. The meeting place of the Sages will become a place of promiscuity, and the Galilee shall be destroyed, and the Gavlan will be desolate, and the men of the border shall go round from city to city to seek charity, but they will find no mercy.

讜讞讻诪讜转 住讜驻专讬诐 转住专讞 讜讬专讗讬 讞讟讗 讬诪讗住讜 讜讛讗诪转 转讛讗 谞注讚专转 谞注专讬诐 驻谞讬 讝拽谞讬诐 讬诇讘讬谞讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讬注诪讚讜 诪驻谞讬 拽讟谞讬诐 讘谉 诪谞讜讜诇 讗讘 讘转 拽诪讛 讘讗诪讛 讻诇讛 讘讞诪讜转讛 讗讜讬讘讬 讗讬砖 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜 驻谞讬 讛讚讜专 讻驻谞讬 讛讻诇讘 讛讘谉 讗讬谞讜 诪转讘讬讬砖 诪讗讘讬讜 讜注诇 诪讛 讬砖 诇谞讜 诇讛砖注谉 注诇 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讘砖诪讬诐

And the wisdom of scribes will putrefy, and people who fear sin will be held in disgust, and the truth will be absent. The youth will shame the face of elders, elders will stand before minors. Normal family relations will be ruined: A son will disgrace a father; a daughter will rise up against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. A man鈥檚 enemies will be the members of his household. The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog; a son will no longer be ashamed before his father. And upon what is there for us to rely? Only upon our Father in heaven.

讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇 诪诇讞 讜讙驻专讬转 讗讘诇 砖诇 讛讚住 讜砖诇 讜讜专讚 诪讜转专 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 砖诇 讛讚住 讜砖诇 讜讜专讚 讗住讜专 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 诪讜转专 讜诇讜讬 讗诪专 讗祝 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 讗住讜专 讜讻谉 转谞讬 诇讜讬 讘诪转谞讬转讬讛 讗祝 砖诇 拽谞讬诐 讜砖诇 讞讬诇转 讗住讜专

Rav says concerning the decree banning the wearing of crowns that they taught this halakha only with regard to crowns of salt and sulfur, but those of myrtle and rose are permitted. And Shmuel says that even crowns of myrtle and rose are prohibited, but those made of reeds and bulrush are permitted. And Levi says: Even crowns of reeds and bulrush are prohibited. And likewise Levi teaches in his baraita: Even those of reeds and bulrush are prohibited.

讜注诇 讛讗讬专讜住 诪讗讬 讗讬专讜住 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讟讘诇讗 讚讞讚 驻讜诪讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讘讚 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 讟谞讘讜专讗 讗转讗 讗讘讜讛 转讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讞诇祝 讘讟讘诇讗 讚讞讚 驻讜诪讗 讝讬诇 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讞爪讘讗 讗讜 讗驻讜诪讗 讚拽驻讬讝讗

The mishna taught that the Sages decreed against the wearing of crowns for bridegrooms and upon the drums. The Gemara poses a question: What is this drum [irus]? Rabbi Elazar says: A drum with one mouth. The Gemara relates a story involving this instrument: Rabba bar Rav Huna made a tambourine for his son. His father, Rav Huna, came and broke it. He said to him: This instrument will be confused for a drum with one mouth, and people will assume that a drum with one mouth is permitted. Instead, go and make for him a small drum on the mouth of an earthen jug [岣tzava], or on the mouth of a container used for measuring a kefiza, a small measurement, which did not pose the concern of being confused with a drum with one mouth.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 砖诇 讟讬讟讜住 讙讝专讜 注诇 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注讬专 砖诇 讝讛讘 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗讬讝讛讜 注讟专讜转 讻诇讜转 注讬专 砖诇 讝讛讘 讗讘诇 注讜砖讛 讗讜转讛 讻讬驻讛 砖诇 诪讬诇转

They further taught that in the war of Titus the Sages decreed upon the crowns of brides. The Gemara clarifies: What are the crowns of brides? Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: A city of gold, a gold crown engraved with the design of a city, worn by women as an ornament. This is also taught in a baraita: Which are the crowns of brides that were forbidden? The crown of a bride is a city of gold. However, one may make it as a cap of fine wool [meilat].

转谞讗 讗祝 注诇 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讙讝专讜 诪讗讬 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讝讛讜专讬转 讛诪讜讝讛讘讜转 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诇讜 讛谉 讞讜驻转 讞转谞讬诐 讝讛讜专讬转 讛诪讜讝讛讘讜转 讗讘诇 注讜砖讛 驻驻讬专讬转 讜转讜诇讛 讘讛 讻诇 诪讛 砖讬专爪讛

The Sage taught: The Sages even decreed upon the canopy of grooms. The Gemara asks: What is the type of canopy of grooms that was prohibited, as they certainly did not ban the marriage canopy. The Gemara answers: It means the golden crimson [zehorit] clothes, dyed red and crimson and decorated with gold, which they would hang on a marriage canopy. This is also taught in a baraita: These are the canopy of grooms the Sages banned: The golden crimson clothes. But he may make a papyrus [papirit] construction and hang upon it whatever he wants, even ornaments made of gold.

讜砖诇讗 讬诇诪讚 讗转 讘谞讜 讬讜讜谞讬转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖爪专讜 诪诇讻讬 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讛讬讛 讛讜专拽谞讜住 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗专讬住讟讜讘诇讜住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讬讜 诪砖诇砖诇讬谉 讚讬谞专讬诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讜诪注诇讬谉 诇讛谉 转诪讬讚讬诐

搂 The mishna taught that during the war of Titus the Sages decreed that a person should not teach his son Greek. The Sages taught that this decree came about as a result of the following incident: When the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy besieged each other in their civil war, Hyrcanus was outside of Jerusalem, besieging it, and Aristoblus was inside. On each and every day they would lower dinars in a box from inside the city, and those on the outside would send up animals for them to bring the daily offerings in the Temple.

讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇注讝 诇讛诐 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖注讜住拽讬诐 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗讬谉 谞诪住专讬谉 讘讬讚讻诐 诇诪讞专 砖诇砖诇讜 诇讛诐 讚讬谞专讬诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讜讛注诇讜 诇讛诐 讞讝讬专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇讞爪讬 讞讜诪讛 谞注抓 爪驻专谞讬讜 谞讝讚注讝注讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛

A certain Elder was there, in Jerusalem, who was familiar with Greek wisdom. He communicated to those on the outside by means of Greek wisdom, using words understood only by those proficient in Greek wisdom. He said to them: As long as they are engaged in the Temple service, they will not be delivered into your hands. Upon hearing this, on the following day, when they lowered dinars in a box, they sent up a pig to them. Once the pig reached halfway up the wall, it inserted its hooves into the wall and Eretz Yisrael shuddered four hundred parasangs.

讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讗诪专讜 讗专讜专 讗讚诐 砖讬讙讚诇 讞讝讬专讬诐 讜讗专讜专 讗讚诐 砖讬诇诪讚 诇讘谞讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜注诇 讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬谞讜 诪注砖讛 讜讘讗 注讜诪专 诪讙讙讜转 爪专讬驻讬诐 讜砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诪讘拽注转 注讬谉 住讜讻专

When the Sages saw this, they said at that time: Cursed is the person who raises pigs, and cursed is the person who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And with regard to that year of civil war, in which the land was destroyed, we learned (Mena岣t 64b): An incident occurred in which the omer, the measure of barley brought as a communal offering on the sixteenth of Nisan, came from Gaggot Tzerifim, and the two loaves offered on Shavuot came from the valley of Ein Sokher.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诇砖讜谉 住讜专住讬 诇诪讛 讗诇讗 讗讬 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讬 诇砖讜谉 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘讘讘诇 诇砖讜谉 讗专诪讬 诇诪讛 讗诇讗 讗讜 诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 讗讜 诇砖讜谉 驻专住讬

It is understood from both the mishna and the baraita that it is prohibited to learn Greek. The Gemara raises a question: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi say: In Eretz Yisrael, why should people speak the tongue of Syriac [Sursi], the Aramaic commonly spoken in Eretz Yisrael? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the beautiful tongue of Greek. And Rav Yosef similarly said: In Babylonia, why should they speak in the vernacular tongue of Aramaic? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the tongue of Persian, used by the authorities.

诇砖讜谉 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇讞讜讚 讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诇讞讜讚

The Gemara answers that there is a difference: The Greek tongue is discrete and Greek wisdom is discrete, and the Sages prohibited the latter but not the former.

讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪讬 讗住讬专讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖讜诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注讬谞讬 注讜诇诇讛 诇谞驻砖讬 诪讻诇 讘谞讜转 注讬专讬 讗诇祝 讬诇讚讬诐 讛讬讜 讘讘讬转 讗讘讗 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诇诪讚讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜诇讗 谞砖转讬讬专 诪讛谉 讗诇讗 讗谞讬 讻讗谉 讜讘谉 讗讞讬 讗讘讗 讘注住讬讗

The Gemara poses a question: And is Greek wisdom prohibited? But didn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y eye affected my soul, due to all the daughters of my city鈥 (Lamentations 3:51)? There were a thousand children in my father鈥檚 house, the princes鈥 household. Five hundred of them learned Torah, and the other five hundred learned Greek wisdom, and there only remained of them, after the bar Kokheva revolt, me, here in Eretz Yisrael, and the son of my father鈥檚 brother, who lives in Asia Minor [Asya]. The fact that Rabban Gamliel allowed half of his household to study Greek wisdom indicates that it is permitted.

砖讗谞讬 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚拽专讜讘讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转 讛讜讜 讚转谞讬讗 诪住驻专 拽讜诪讬 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讚专讻讬 讛讗诪讜专讬 讗讘讟讜诇讜住 讘谉 专讗讜讘谉 讛转讬专讜 诇住驻专 拽讜诪讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专讜讘 诇诪诇讻讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛转讬专讜 诇讛谉 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪驻谞讬 砖拽专讜讘讬谉 诇诪诇讻讜转

The Gemara answers: The members of the house of Rabban Gamliel are different, as they were close to the monarchy, and therefore had to learn Greek wisdom in order to converse with people of authority. As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Shabbat 7:1): One who cuts his hair in the komi style, which was the gentile fashion of cutting and wearing the hair, is considered to be acting in the ways of the Amorites, and it is prohibited to act in their way. However, they permitted Avtolos ben Reuven to cut his hair in the komi style, as he is close to the monarchy, and similarly they permitted the house of Rabban Gamliel to study Greek wisdom, because they are close to the monarchy.

讘驻讜诇诪讜住 讛讗讞专讜谉 讙讝专讜 砖诇讗 转爪讗 讻诇讛 讘讗驻专讬讜谉 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讬注讜转讗

搂 The mishna taught: In the last war the Sages decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but the later Sages permitted it. The Gemara explains: What is the reason they permitted this practice? Due to modesty, so that brides should not have to go out into the street and be seen by all.

诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘讟诇讛 讛讞讻诪讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 谞讙谞讝 住驻专 转讜专讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讟诇讛 注爪讛 讜诪讞砖讘讛 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讘讟诇讜 讝专讜注讬 转讜专讛 讜谞住转转诪讜 诪注讬讬谞讜转 讛讞讻诪讛

The mishna taught that from the time when Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai died, wisdom ceased. The Sages taught: From the time when Rabbi Eliezer died, it was as if the Torah scroll had been interred, as he had memorized many secrets of the Torah. From the time when Rabbi Yehoshua died, council and deliberate thought ceased, as he had the sharpest mind in Israel. From the time when Rabbi Akiva died, the powerful arm of Torah, meaning the exposition of all the details of Torah scripture, ceased, and the fountains of wisdom were sealed.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讘讟诇讜 注讟专讜转 讞讻诪讛 砖注讟专转 讞讻诪讬诐 注砖专诐 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讚讜住讗 讘讟诇讜 讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 诪砖诪转 讗讘讗 讬讜住讬 讘谉 拽讟讜谞转讗 讘讟诇讜 讞住讬讚讬诐 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讗讘讗 讬讜住讬 讘谉 拽讟讜谞转讗 砖讛讬讛 诪拽讟谞讬 讞住讬讚讬诐

From the time when Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya died, the crowns of wisdom ceased, as 鈥渢he crown of the wise is their riches鈥 (Proverbs 14:24), and he was both a great Torah scholar and a very wealthy man. From the time when Rabbi 岣nina ben Dosa died, the men of wondrous deeds ceased. From the time when Abba Yosei ben Katonta died, the pious men ceased. And why was he called Abba Yosei ben Katonta? Because he was among the diminished [miktanei] of the pious people, i.e., he lived in an era when the pious had become few.

诪砖诪转 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘讟诇讜 讛砖拽讚谞讬谉 诪砖诪转 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讘讟诇讜 讛讚专砖谞讬谉 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注诇讛 讙讜讘讗讬 讜专讘讜 爪专讜转 诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讛讜讻驻诇讜 爪专讜转

From the time when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from the time when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased. From the time when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel died, locusts ascended upon the land and troubles proliferated. From the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, the troubles multiplied.

诪砖诪转 专讘讬 讘讟诇讛 注谞讜讛 讜讬专讗转 讞讟讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 注谞讜讛 讚讗讬讻讗 讗谞讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇转谞讗 诇讗 转讬转谞讬 讬专讗转 讞讟讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讗谞讗

The final line of the mishna states that from the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rav Yosef said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that humility ceased, for there is still one who is humble, namely me. Rav Na岣an similarly said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that fear of sin ceased, for there is still one who fears sin, namely me.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜住诇讬拽讗 诇讛 诪住讻转 住讜讟讛

 

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