Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

August 27, 2021 | 讬状讟 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Sukkah 51

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Shulamit Tyberg-Isaacs in honor of her daughter, Dr. Shifra Tyberg. 鈥淗appy birthday! May your life continue to be enriched by your Torah study and may the blessings continue. With much love, Mommy and Kim.” And in memory of Pinchas Mordechai ben Reuven Moshe who passed away tragically this week, by his brother-in-law and sister-in-law, Moshe and Jeanne Klempner. “Pinny was a tzaddik with a pure soul, who lived a life of Torah, chesed and mitzvot with absolute joy.”

Is the central dimension of the 鈥榮inging鈥 in the temple performed by the person singing or is it the instrument?聽 The gemara quotes the mishna Arakhin, Chapter 2, Mishnah 4, which focuses on the lineage of the people who sang during the temple service, and seeks to determine from this that there is a tannitic debate regarding what the main dimension of the signing is.聽 Ultimately, the gemara rejects this line of reasoning and explains the controversy is simply a historical one with some legal ramifications regarding lineage. Rav Yosef (on Sukkah 50b) had suggested that the dispute between Rabbi Yossi Bar Yehuda and the sages relates to the flute played during the sacrificial sacrifices and not the flute of the Simchat Beit Hashoeva. In his theory, no one would claim that a flute could be used at a Simchat Bet Hashoeva on Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmiya bar Abba holds the opposite: The dispute is only about the 鈥渟inging鈥 of Simchat Bat Hashoeva, but as regards the 鈥渟igning鈥 at the time of a sacrifice, instruments could be used on Shabbat according to all. In order to support his opinion, the gemara brings a braita which in effect challenges both assumptions latent in Rabbi Yosef鈥檚 statement. In concluding this discussion, the gemara seeks proof texts (from the Book of Chronicles) for each of the two positions. The next mishna describes the drama of the Simchat Bet Hashoeva ceremony with the words 鈥渙ne who has not seen the joy of the joy of the Simchat Bet Hashoeva has never seen joy.鈥 Candelabras were lit by children of kohanim, Levites stood on the steps playing musical instruments played and people would dance with torches. There were temporary structures placed in the temple for the Simchat Bet Hashoeva and two kohanim held a procession in which they blew trumpets as they exited the Temple. The gemara begins by describing other instances where the words “One who has not seen the… of… has not seen…” The structures described in the mishna that were built for the Simchat Beit Hashoeva were meant to separate men and women. The gemara describes the changes regarding these structures over time.

讻转谞讗讬 (讚转谞讬讗) 注讘讚讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讛讬讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖驻讞转 讘讬转 讛驻讙专讬诐 讜诪砖驻讞转 讘讬转 爪讬驻专讬讗 讜诪讗诪讗讜诐 讛讬讜 砖讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛

This dispute is parallel to another dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a mishna in tractate Arakhin: The Temple musicians were slaves of priests; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The musicians were not slaves; they were Israelites from the family of the House of Happegarim and the family of the House of Tzipperaya. And they were from the city of Emma鈥檜m, and their lineage was sufficiently distinguished that they would marry their daughters to members of the priesthood.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 讗讜诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬

Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites. What, is it not that they disagree with regard to this; that the one who said that the musicians were slaves holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. Since the instrumental music is mere accompaniment, it could be performed by slaves. And the one who said that the musicians were Levites holds that the primary essence of song is accompaniment by musical instruments. Therefore, the musicians were Levites, who were tasked with the song that was part of the Temple service.

讜转住讘专讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讗讬 拽住讘专 讗讬 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注讘讚讬诐 谞诪讬 讗讬 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬 诇讜讬诐 讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讗

The Gemara asks: And how can you understand the mishna that way? According to that explanation, what does Rabbi Yosei hold? If he holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, then even slaves can also play the instruments. Why then does he require that the musicians be from Israelite families of distinguished lineage? If he holds that the primary essence of song is accompaniment by musical instruments, he should have said: Levites, yes, they may play the instruments, but Israelites, no, they may not.

讗诇讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讜讘讛讗 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚诪专 住讘专 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖讛

Rather, the explanation of the dispute is that everyone agrees that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth and the musical instruments are merely for accompaniment. And it is with regard to this that they disagree: It is that one Sage holds that the event took place in this manner, i.e., slaves played the instruments, and one Sage holds that the event took place in this manner, i.e., Israelite families of distinguished lineage played the instruments.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讜诇诪注砖专 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬

The Gemara asks: What practical halakhic difference is there whether one group or another played the instruments? The Gemara answers: It is with regard to whether one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes that they disagree. Is it possible to draw the conclusion that a family is of distinguished lineage or eligible to receive tithes based on the fact that a member or ancestor of that family played a musical instrument on the Temple platform?

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 讗讬谉 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讜诇讗 诇诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬砖专讗诇 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 讬讜讞住讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 讘讬谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讘讬谉 诇诪注砖专

The one who said that the musicians were slaves holds that one does not elevate from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes. And the one who said that the musicians were Israelites holds that one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage but not eligibility to receive tithes. And the one who said that the musicians were Levites holds that one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes.

讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 砖诪讞讛 讬转讬专讛 谞诪讬 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 砖诪讞讛 讬转讬专讛 讗讬谞讛 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讗讘诇 讘砖讬专 砖诇 拽专讘谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 注讘讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转

搂 The Gemara cites an opinion that disagrees with that of Rav Yosef. And Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: The dispute between Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and the Rabbis is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda holds that extra rejoicing also overrides Shabbat, and the Rabbis hold that extra rejoicing does not override Shabbat. However, with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying an offering, everyone agrees that it is part of the Temple service, and overrides Shabbat.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Yosef that the dispute is with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering: The song of the Drawing of the Water overrides Shabbat; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It does not override even the Festival. Apparently, their dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Yosef. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

诇讬诪讗 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讛讜讗 讚驻诇讬讙讬 讗讘诇 讘砖讬专 砖诇 拽专讘谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 诇讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘转专转讬

The Gemara suggests: Let us say, based on this baraita, that it is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water alone that they disagree; however, with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering, everyone says that it overrides Shabbat. If so, let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Yosef on two counts. According to Rav Yosef, the dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water, and not with regard to the song the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering. The above suggestion refutes both aspects of his opinion.

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻诇讬讙讬 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诇拽专讘谉 讜讛讗讬 讚拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 诇讛讜讚讬注讱 讻讞讜 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讚砖讜讗讘讛 谞诪讬 讚讞讬

Rav Yosef could have said to you: They disagree with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water and the same is true for the song that the Levites sang accompanying an offering. And the fact that they disagree specifically with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water and do not specifically mention the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering is to convey to you the far-reaching nature of the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, that even the song of the Drawing of the Water also overrides Shabbat.

讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 讝讛讜 讞诇讬诇 砖诇 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 砖讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 诇讗 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜诇讗 讗转 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讝讛讜 讚讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 讗讘诇 讚拽专讘谉 讚讜讞讛 诪谞讬 讗讬 谞讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗诪专 砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 谞诪讬 讚讜讞讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 专讘谞谉 讜转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘转专转讬 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in the mishna: This is the flute of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, which overrides neither Shabbat nor the Festival. By inference, this is the flute that does not override Shabbat; however, the flute that accompanies the daily offering overrides Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? If we say it is Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, didn鈥檛 he say that the song of the Drawing of the Water also overrides Shabbat? Rather, is it not the Rabbis, and say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav Yosef on two counts. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛注诇讜转 讛注讜诇讛 诇讛诪讝讘讞 讜讘注转 讛讞诇 讛注讜诇讛 讛讞诇 砖讬专 讛壮 讜讛讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜注诇 讬讚讬 讻诇讬 讚讜讬讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of the one who said: The primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments? The Gemara answers: It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd Hezekiah commanded to sacrifice the burnt-offering upon the altar. And when the burnt-offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David, king of Israel鈥 (II Chronicles 29:27), indicating that the song of God that accompanies the offering is played by trumpets and other instruments.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讗讞讚 诇诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讜诇诪砖讜专专讬诐 诇讛砖诪讬注 拽讜诇 讗讞讚

The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of the one who said: The primary essence of song is singing with the mouth? The Gemara answers: It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one to make one sound鈥 (II Chronicles 5:13). Since the verse does not mention any musical instrument played with the singing other than the trumpets, and the trumpets were not sounded as accompaniment for the singers, apparently the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. The trumpets were sounded in order to accompany the sacrifice of the daily and additional offerings with the requisite sounds of tekia and terua.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛讞诇 砖讬专 讛壮 讘驻讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讻诇讬 讚讜讬讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 诇讘住讜诪讬 拽诇讗

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna too, who holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd Hezekiah commanded鈥he song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments,鈥 indicating that the instruments are the primary essence? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: 鈥淭he song of the Lord began,鈥 indicates that the primary essence is with the mouth; 鈥渨ith the instruments of David, King of Israel,鈥 is to sweeten the sound, as the instruments are merely to accompany and enhance the singing.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讗讞讚 诇诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讜诇诪砖讜专专讬诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪砖讜专专讬诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚诪讞爪爪专讬诐 诪讛 诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讘讻诇讬 讗祝 诪砖讜专专讬诐 讘讻诇讬

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna too, who holds that the primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one,鈥 indicating that the primary essence is with the mouth? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: Through their juxtaposition, one derives that the singers are similar to the trumpeters; just as trumpeters produce their sound with an instrument, so too the singers produce their song with an instrument.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞转 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞讛 诪讬诪讬讜 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 讞讙 讬专讚讜 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讜诪转拽谞讬谉 砖诐 转讬拽讜谉 讙讚讜诇 诪谞讜专讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讛讬讜 砖诐 讜讗专讘注讛 住驻诇讬诐 砖诇 讝讛讘 讘专讗砖讬讛诐 讜讗专讘注讛 住讜诇诪讜转 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诇讚讬诐 诪驻讬专讞讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讜讘讬讚讬讛诐 讻讚讬诐 砖诇 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诇讜讙 砖讛谉 诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇讻诇 住驻诇 讜住驻诇 诪讘诇讗讬 诪讻谞住讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诪讛诪讬讬谞讬讛谉 诪讛谉 讛讬讜 诪驻拽讬注讬谉 讜讘讛谉 讛讬讜 诪讚诇讬拽讬谉 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讞爪专 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖讗讬谞讛 诪讗讬专讛 诪讗讜专 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛

MISHNA: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water never saw celebration in his days. This was the sequence of events: At the conclusion of the first Festival day the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair, as the Gemara will explain. There were golden candelabra atop poles there in the courtyard. And there were four basins made of gold at the top of each candelabrum. And there were four ladders for each and every pole and there were four children from the priesthood trainees, and in their hands were pitchers with a capacity of 120 log of oil that they would pour into each and every basin. From the worn trousers of the priests and their belts they would loosen and tear strips to use as wicks, and with them they would light the candelabra. And the light from the candelabra was so bright that there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water.

讞住讬讚讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讜 诪专拽讚讬谉 讘驻谞讬讛诐

The pious and the men of action would dance before the people who attended the celebration,

讘讗讘讜拽讜转 砖诇 讗讜专 砖讘讬讚讬讛谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讚讘专讬 砖讬专讜转 讜转讜砖讘讞讜转 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讘讻谞讜专讜转 讜讘谞讘诇讬诐 讜讘诪爪诇转讬诐 讜讘讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜讘讻诇讬 砖讬专 讘诇讗 诪住驻专 注诇 讞诪砖 注砖专讛 诪注诇讜转 讛讬讜专讚讜转 诪注讝专转 讬砖专讗诇 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讻谞讙讚 讞诪砖 注砖专讛 (诪注诇讜转) 砖讘转讛诇讬诐 砖注诇讬讛谉 诇讜讬诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讻诇讬 砖讬专 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讬专讛

with flaming torches that they would juggle in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise to God. And the Levites would play on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless other musical instruments. The musicians would stand on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms, i.e., chapters 120鈥134, and upon which the Levites stand with musical instruments and recite their song.

讜注诪讚讜 砖谞讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讘砖注专 讛注诇讬讜谉 砖讬讜专讚 诪注讝专转 讬砖专讗诇 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讜砖谞讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讘讬讚讬讛谉 拽专讗 讛讙讘专 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜 讛讙讬注讜 诇诪注诇讛 注砖讬专讬转 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜 讛讙讬注讜 诇注讝专讛 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜

And this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. When the rooster crowed at dawn, they sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. When they who would draw the water reached the tenth stair the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia, to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When they reached the Women鈥檚 Courtyard with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia.

(讛讙讬注讜 诇拽专拽注 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜) 讛讬讜 转讜拽注讬谉 讜讛讜诇讻讬谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬谉 诇砖注专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪诪讝专讞 讛讙讬注讜 诇砖注专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪诪讝专讞 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛谉 诪诪讝专讞 诇诪注专讘 讜讗诪专讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讛讬讜 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讝讛 讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讗诇 讛讛讬讻诇 讜驻谞讬讛诐 拽讚诪讛 讜诪砖转讞讜讬诐 拽讚诪讛 诇砖诪砖 讜讗谞讜 诇讬讛 注讬谞讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讬讜 砖讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讬讛 讜诇讬讛 注讬谞讬谞讜

When they reached the ground of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. They continued sounding the trumpets until they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, from the Women鈥檚 Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, they turned from facing east to facing west, toward the Holy of Holies, and said: Our ancestors who were in this place during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood 鈥渨ith their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east鈥 (Ezekiel 8:16), and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says that they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞转 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞讛 诪讬诪讬讜 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘转驻讗专转讛 诇讗 专讗讛 讻专讱 谞讞诪讚 诪注讜诇诐 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讘谞讬谞讜 诇讗 专讗讛 讘谞讬谉 诪驻讜讗专 诪注讜诇诐 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝讛 讘谞讬谉 讛讜专讚讜住

GEMARA: The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed state, never saw a magnificent structure. The Gemara asks: What is the Temple building to which the Sages refer? Abaye said, and some say that it was Rav 岣sda who said: This is referring to the magnificent building of Herod, who renovated the Second Temple.

讘诪讗讬 讘谞讬讛 讗诪专 (专讘讗) 讘讗讘谞讬 砖讬砖讗 讜诪专诪专讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讗讘谞讬 砖讬砖讗 讻讜讞诇讗 讜诪专诪专讗 讗驻讬拽 砖驻讛 讜注讬讬诇 砖驻讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇拽讘诇 住讬讚讗 住讘专 诇诪砖注讬讬谉 讘讚讛讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 砖讘拽讬讛 讚讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 讟驻讬 讚诪讬转讞讝讬 讻讗讚讜转讗 讚讬诪讗

The Gemara asks: With what materials did he construct it? Rava said: It was with stones of green-gray marble and white marble [marmara]. Some say: It was with stones of blue marble and white marble. The rows of stones were set with one row slightly protruded and one row slightly indented, so that the plaster would take better. He thought to plate the Temple with gold, but the Sages said to him: Leave it as is, and do not plate it, as it is better this way, as with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, it has the appearance of waves of the sea.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讚讬讜驻诇讜住讟讜谉 砖诇 讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗 专讗讛 讘讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜 讻诪讬谉 讘住讬诇拽讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讬转讛 住讟讬讜 诇驻谞讬诐 诪住讟讬讜 驻注诪讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 (砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注诇 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗) 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讘讛 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞转 拽转讚专讗讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讻谞讙讚 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讗讬谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 专讘讜讗 讻讻专讬 讝讛讘 讜讘讬诪讛 砖诇 注抓 讘讗诪爪注讬转讛 讜讞讝谉 讛讻谞住转 注讜诪讚 注诇讬讛 讜讛住讜讚专讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇注谞讜转 讗诪谉 讛诇讛 诪谞讬祝 讘住讜讚专 讜讻诇 讛注诐 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [deyofloston] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said that its structure was like a large basilica [basileki], with a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand men and another six hundred thousand men in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [katedraot], corresponding to the seventy-one members of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which consisted of no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And there was a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue would stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, when the prayer leader reached the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people to answer amen, the sexton waved the scarf and all the people would answer amen.

讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜砖讘讬谉 诪注讜专讘讬谉 讗诇讗 讝讛讘讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讻住驻讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜谞驻讞讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讟专住讬讬诐 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讙专讚讬讬诐 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讻砖注谞讬 谞讻谞住 砖诐 讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘注诇讬 讗讜诪谞转讜 讜谞驻谞讛 砖诐 讜诪砖诐 驻专谞住转讜 讜驻专谞住转 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜

And the members of the various crafts would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths would sit among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor stranger entered there, he would recognize people who plied his craft, and he would turn to join them there. And from there he would secure his livelihood as well as the livelihood of the members of his household, as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讻讜诇讛讜 拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬注谞砖讜 诪砖讜诐 讚注讘专讬 讗讛讗讬 拽专讗 诇讗 转讜住讬驻讜谉 诇砖讜讘 讘讚专讱 讛讝讛 注讜讚 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讛讚讜专 讗转讜

After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that Abaye said: All of the people who congregated in that synagogue were killed by Alexander the Great of Macedonia. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that they were punished and killed? It is due to the fact that they violated the prohibition with regard to Egypt in this verse: 鈥淵ou shall henceforth return no more that way鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:16), and they returned. Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished.

讻讬 讗转讗 讗砖讻讞讬谞讛讜 讚讛讜讜 拽专讜 讘住讬驻专讗 讬砖讗 讛壮 注诇讬讱 讙讜讬 诪专讞讜拽 讗诪专 诪讻讚讬 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬转讬 住驻讬谞转讗 讘注砖专讛 讬讜诪讬 讚诇讬讛 讝讬拽讗 讜讗转讬 住驻讬谞转讗 讘讞诪砖讗 讬讜诪讬 谞驻诇 注诇讬讬讛讜 讜拽讟诇讬谞讛讜

When Alexander arrived, he found them, and saw that they were reading the verse in the Torah scroll: 鈥淭he Lord will bring a nation against you from far, from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:49). He said, referring to himself: Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, and a wind carried it and the ship arrived in only five days, apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, he set upon them and slaughtered them.

讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜谉 讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讗讜转讛 砖砖谞讬谞讜 讞诇拽讛 讛讬转讛 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讛拽讬驻讜讛 讙讝讜讝讟专讗 讜讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪诇诪讟讛

搂 The mishna continues: At the conclusion of the first Festival day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: What is this significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said that it is like that which we learned: The walls of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard were smooth, without protrusions, initially. Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women鈥檚 Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and surrounded the courtyard with a balcony [gezuztra]. And they instituted that the women should sit above and the men below.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 谞砖讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛讬讜 讘讗讬诐 诇讬讚讬 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讬谉 诇讬讚讬 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪诇诪讟讛

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: Initially, women would stand on the inside of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, and the men were on the outside in the courtyard and on the rampart. And they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity in each other鈥檚 company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity. Therefore, they instituted in the interest of complete separation that the women would sit above and the men below.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛讻转讬讘 讛讻诇 讘讻转讘 诪讬讚 讛壮 注诇讬 讛砖讻讬诇

The Gemara asks: How could one do so, i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? But isn鈥檛 it written with regard to the Temple: 鈥淎ll this I give you in writing, as the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern鈥 (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?

讗诪专 专讘 拽专讗 讗砖讻讞讜 讜讚专讜砖

Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically and acted accordingly:

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).
  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Sukkah 49-56 + Siyum – Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

We are going to be finishing the 4th chapter this week and learning about the 2 pipes that were built...
alexandria.jpg

Seeing is believing: Sukkah 51

In its list of superlatives (the greatest party, greatest building, etc) our Gemara includes the Great Synagogue in Alexandria: 鈥渋f...

Sukkah 51

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sukkah 51

讻转谞讗讬 (讚转谞讬讗) 注讘讚讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讛讬讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪砖驻讞转 讘讬转 讛驻讙专讬诐 讜诪砖驻讞转 讘讬转 爪讬驻专讬讗 讜诪讗诪讗讜诐 讛讬讜 砖讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讻讛讜谞讛

This dispute is parallel to another dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a mishna in tractate Arakhin: The Temple musicians were slaves of priests; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The musicians were not slaves; they were Israelites from the family of the House of Happegarim and the family of the House of Tzipperaya. And they were from the city of Emma鈥檜m, and their lineage was sufficiently distinguished that they would marry their daughters to members of the priesthood.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讗谞讟讬讙谞讜住 讗讜诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讘讛讗 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬

Rabbi 岣nina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites. What, is it not that they disagree with regard to this; that the one who said that the musicians were slaves holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. Since the instrumental music is mere accompaniment, it could be performed by slaves. And the one who said that the musicians were Levites holds that the primary essence of song is accompaniment by musical instruments. Therefore, the musicians were Levites, who were tasked with the song that was part of the Temple service.

讜转住讘专讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讗讬 拽住讘专 讗讬 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注讘讚讬诐 谞诪讬 讗讬 拽住讘专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬 诇讜讬诐 讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讗

The Gemara asks: And how can you understand the mishna that way? According to that explanation, what does Rabbi Yosei hold? If he holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, then even slaves can also play the instruments. Why then does he require that the musicians be from Israelite families of distinguished lineage? If he holds that the primary essence of song is accompaniment by musical instruments, he should have said: Levites, yes, they may play the instruments, but Israelites, no, they may not.

讗诇讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讜讘讛讗 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚诪专 住讘专 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 诪注砖讛

Rather, the explanation of the dispute is that everyone agrees that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth and the musical instruments are merely for accompaniment. And it is with regard to this that they disagree: It is that one Sage holds that the event took place in this manner, i.e., slaves played the instruments, and one Sage holds that the event took place in this manner, i.e., Israelite families of distinguished lineage played the instruments.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讜诇诪注砖专 拽讗 诪讬驻诇讙讬

The Gemara asks: What practical halakhic difference is there whether one group or another played the instruments? The Gemara answers: It is with regard to whether one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes that they disagree. Is it possible to draw the conclusion that a family is of distinguished lineage or eligible to receive tithes based on the fact that a member or ancestor of that family played a musical instrument on the Temple platform?

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 讗讬谉 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讜诇讗 诇诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬砖专讗诇 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 讬讜讞住讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 诇诪注砖专 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜讬诐 讛讬讜 拽住讘专 诪注诇讬谉 诪讚讜讻谉 讘讬谉 诇讬讜讞住讬谉 讘讬谉 诇诪注砖专

The one who said that the musicians were slaves holds that one does not elevate from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes. And the one who said that the musicians were Israelites holds that one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage but not eligibility to receive tithes. And the one who said that the musicians were Levites holds that one elevates a Levite from the platform to the presumptive status of distinguished lineage and eligibility to receive tithes.

讜专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 砖诪讞讛 讬转讬专讛 谞诪讬 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 砖诪讞讛 讬转讬专讛 讗讬谞讛 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讗讘诇 讘砖讬专 砖诇 拽专讘谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 注讘讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转

搂 The Gemara cites an opinion that disagrees with that of Rav Yosef. And Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: The dispute between Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda and the Rabbis is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda holds that extra rejoicing also overrides Shabbat, and the Rabbis hold that extra rejoicing does not override Shabbat. However, with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying an offering, everyone agrees that it is part of the Temple service, and overrides Shabbat.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Yosef that the dispute is with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering: The song of the Drawing of the Water overrides Shabbat; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It does not override even the Festival. Apparently, their dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water. Say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Yosef. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

诇讬诪讗 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讛讜讗 讚驻诇讬讙讬 讗讘诇 讘砖讬专 砖诇 拽专讘谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讚讜讞讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 诇讬诪讗 转讬讛讜讬 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘转专转讬

The Gemara suggests: Let us say, based on this baraita, that it is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water alone that they disagree; however, with regard to the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering, everyone says that it overrides Shabbat. If so, let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Yosef on two counts. According to Rav Yosef, the dispute is with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water, and not with regard to the song the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering. The above suggestion refutes both aspects of his opinion.

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻诇讬讙讬 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诇拽专讘谉 讜讛讗讬 讚拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讘砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 诇讛讜讚讬注讱 讻讞讜 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讚砖讜讗讘讛 谞诪讬 讚讞讬

Rav Yosef could have said to you: They disagree with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water and the same is true for the song that the Levites sang accompanying an offering. And the fact that they disagree specifically with regard to the song of the Drawing of the Water and do not specifically mention the song that the Levites sang accompanying the daily offering is to convey to you the far-reaching nature of the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, that even the song of the Drawing of the Water also overrides Shabbat.

讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 讝讛讜 讞诇讬诇 砖诇 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 砖讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 诇讗 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜诇讗 讗转 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讝讛讜 讚讗讬谞讜 讚讜讞讛 讗讘诇 讚拽专讘谉 讚讜讞讛 诪谞讬 讗讬 谞讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗诪专 砖讬专 砖诇 砖讜讗讘讛 谞诪讬 讚讜讞讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 专讘谞谉 讜转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘转专转讬 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in the mishna: This is the flute of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, which overrides neither Shabbat nor the Festival. By inference, this is the flute that does not override Shabbat; however, the flute that accompanies the daily offering overrides Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna of the mishna? If we say it is Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, didn鈥檛 he say that the song of the Drawing of the Water also overrides Shabbat? Rather, is it not the Rabbis, and say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav Yosef on two counts. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘讻诇讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛注诇讜转 讛注讜诇讛 诇讛诪讝讘讞 讜讘注转 讛讞诇 讛注讜诇讛 讛讞诇 砖讬专 讛壮 讜讛讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜注诇 讬讚讬 讻诇讬 讚讜讬讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of the one who said: The primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments? The Gemara answers: It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd Hezekiah commanded to sacrifice the burnt-offering upon the altar. And when the burnt-offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David, king of Israel鈥 (II Chronicles 29:27), indicating that the song of God that accompanies the offering is played by trumpets and other instruments.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讬拽专 砖讬专讛 讘驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讗讞讚 诇诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讜诇诪砖讜专专讬诐 诇讛砖诪讬注 拽讜诇 讗讞讚

The Gemara asks: What is the rationale for the opinion of the one who said: The primary essence of song is singing with the mouth? The Gemara answers: It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one to make one sound鈥 (II Chronicles 5:13). Since the verse does not mention any musical instrument played with the singing other than the trumpets, and the trumpets were not sounded as accompaniment for the singers, apparently the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth. The trumpets were sounded in order to accompany the sacrifice of the daily and additional offerings with the requisite sounds of tekia and terua.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛讞诇 砖讬专 讛壮 讘驻讛 注诇 讬讚讬 讻诇讬 讚讜讬讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 诇讘住讜诪讬 拽诇讗

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna too, who holds that the primary essence of song is singing with the mouth, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd Hezekiah commanded鈥he song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments,鈥 indicating that the instruments are the primary essence? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: 鈥淭he song of the Lord began,鈥 indicates that the primary essence is with the mouth; 鈥渨ith the instruments of David, King of Israel,鈥 is to sweeten the sound, as the instruments are merely to accompany and enhance the singing.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讻讗讞讚 诇诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讜诇诪砖讜专专讬诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诪砖讜专专讬诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚诪讞爪爪专讬诐 诪讛 诪讞爪爪专讬诐 讘讻诇讬 讗祝 诪砖讜专专讬诐 讘讻诇讬

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna too, who holds that the primary essence of song is singing accompanied by musical instruments, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, when the trumpeters and the singers were as one,鈥 indicating that the primary essence is with the mouth? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: Through their juxtaposition, one derives that the singers are similar to the trumpeters; just as trumpeters produce their sound with an instrument, so too the singers produce their song with an instrument.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞转 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞讛 诪讬诪讬讜 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讛专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 讞讙 讬专讚讜 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讜诪转拽谞讬谉 砖诐 转讬拽讜谉 讙讚讜诇 诪谞讜专讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讛讬讜 砖诐 讜讗专讘注讛 住驻诇讬诐 砖诇 讝讛讘 讘专讗砖讬讛诐 讜讗专讘注讛 住讜诇诪讜转 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诇讚讬诐 诪驻讬专讞讬 讻讛讜谞讛 讜讘讬讚讬讛诐 讻讚讬诐 砖诇 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诇讜讙 砖讛谉 诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇讻诇 住驻诇 讜住驻诇 诪讘诇讗讬 诪讻谞住讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诪讛诪讬讬谞讬讛谉 诪讛谉 讛讬讜 诪驻拽讬注讬谉 讜讘讛谉 讛讬讜 诪讚诇讬拽讬谉 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讞爪专 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖讗讬谞讛 诪讗讬专讛 诪讗讜专 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛

MISHNA: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water never saw celebration in his days. This was the sequence of events: At the conclusion of the first Festival day the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair, as the Gemara will explain. There were golden candelabra atop poles there in the courtyard. And there were four basins made of gold at the top of each candelabrum. And there were four ladders for each and every pole and there were four children from the priesthood trainees, and in their hands were pitchers with a capacity of 120 log of oil that they would pour into each and every basin. From the worn trousers of the priests and their belts they would loosen and tear strips to use as wicks, and with them they would light the candelabra. And the light from the candelabra was so bright that there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water.

讞住讬讚讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讜 诪专拽讚讬谉 讘驻谞讬讛诐

The pious and the men of action would dance before the people who attended the celebration,

讘讗讘讜拽讜转 砖诇 讗讜专 砖讘讬讚讬讛谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讚讘专讬 砖讬专讜转 讜转讜砖讘讞讜转 讜讛诇讜讬诐 讘讻谞讜专讜转 讜讘谞讘诇讬诐 讜讘诪爪诇转讬诐 讜讘讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜讘讻诇讬 砖讬专 讘诇讗 诪住驻专 注诇 讞诪砖 注砖专讛 诪注诇讜转 讛讬讜专讚讜转 诪注讝专转 讬砖专讗诇 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讻谞讙讚 讞诪砖 注砖专讛 (诪注诇讜转) 砖讘转讛诇讬诐 砖注诇讬讛谉 诇讜讬诐 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讻诇讬 砖讬专 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讬专讛

with flaming torches that they would juggle in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise to God. And the Levites would play on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless other musical instruments. The musicians would stand on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms, i.e., chapters 120鈥134, and upon which the Levites stand with musical instruments and recite their song.

讜注诪讚讜 砖谞讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讘砖注专 讛注诇讬讜谉 砖讬讜专讚 诪注讝专转 讬砖专讗诇 诇注讝专转 谞砖讬诐 讜砖谞讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讘讬讚讬讛谉 拽专讗 讛讙讘专 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜 讛讙讬注讜 诇诪注诇讛 注砖讬专讬转 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜 讛讙讬注讜 诇注讝专讛 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜

And this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. When the rooster crowed at dawn, they sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. When they who would draw the water reached the tenth stair the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia, to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When they reached the Women鈥檚 Courtyard with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia.

(讛讙讬注讜 诇拽专拽注 转拽注讜 讜讛专讬注讜 讜转拽注讜) 讛讬讜 转讜拽注讬谉 讜讛讜诇讻讬谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬谉 诇砖注专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪诪讝专讞 讛讙讬注讜 诇砖注专 讛讬讜爪讗 诪诪讝专讞 讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬讛谉 诪诪讝专讞 诇诪注专讘 讜讗诪专讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讛讬讜 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讝讛 讗讞讜专讬讛诐 讗诇 讛讛讬讻诇 讜驻谞讬讛诐 拽讚诪讛 讜诪砖转讞讜讬诐 拽讚诪讛 诇砖诪砖 讜讗谞讜 诇讬讛 注讬谞讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讬讜 砖讜谞讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讬讛 讜诇讬讛 注讬谞讬谞讜

When they reached the ground of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. They continued sounding the trumpets until they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, from the Women鈥檚 Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, they turned from facing east to facing west, toward the Holy of Holies, and said: Our ancestors who were in this place during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood 鈥渨ith their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east鈥 (Ezekiel 8:16), and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says that they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞转 讘讬转 讛砖讜讗讘讛 诇讗 专讗讛 砖诪讞讛 诪讬诪讬讜 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讘转驻讗专转讛 诇讗 专讗讛 讻专讱 谞讞诪讚 诪注讜诇诐 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讘谞讬谞讜 诇讗 专讗讛 讘谞讬谉 诪驻讜讗专 诪注讜诇诐 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝讛 讘谞讬谉 讛讜专讚讜住

GEMARA: The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed state, never saw a magnificent structure. The Gemara asks: What is the Temple building to which the Sages refer? Abaye said, and some say that it was Rav 岣sda who said: This is referring to the magnificent building of Herod, who renovated the Second Temple.

讘诪讗讬 讘谞讬讛 讗诪专 (专讘讗) 讘讗讘谞讬 砖讬砖讗 讜诪专诪专讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讗讘谞讬 砖讬砖讗 讻讜讞诇讗 讜诪专诪专讗 讗驻讬拽 砖驻讛 讜注讬讬诇 砖驻讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇拽讘诇 住讬讚讗 住讘专 诇诪砖注讬讬谉 讘讚讛讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 砖讘拽讬讛 讚讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 讟驻讬 讚诪讬转讞讝讬 讻讗讚讜转讗 讚讬诪讗

The Gemara asks: With what materials did he construct it? Rava said: It was with stones of green-gray marble and white marble [marmara]. Some say: It was with stones of blue marble and white marble. The rows of stones were set with one row slightly protruded and one row slightly indented, so that the plaster would take better. He thought to plate the Temple with gold, but the Sages said to him: Leave it as is, and do not plate it, as it is better this way, as with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, it has the appearance of waves of the sea.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖诇讗 专讗讛 讚讬讜驻诇讜住讟讜谉 砖诇 讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗 专讗讛 讘讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专讜 讻诪讬谉 讘住讬诇拽讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讛讬转讛 住讟讬讜 诇驻谞讬诐 诪住讟讬讜 驻注诪讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘讛 (砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗 注诇 砖砖讬诐 专讘讜讗) 讻驻诇讬诐 讻讬讜爪讗讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讘讛 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞转 拽转讚专讗讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讻谞讙讚 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞转 砖诇 住谞讛讚专讬 讙讚讜诇讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讗讬谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 专讘讜讗 讻讻专讬 讝讛讘 讜讘讬诪讛 砖诇 注抓 讘讗诪爪注讬转讛 讜讞讝谉 讛讻谞住转 注讜诪讚 注诇讬讛 讜讛住讜讚专讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇注谞讜转 讗诪谉 讛诇讛 诪谞讬祝 讘住讜讚专 讜讻诇 讛注诐 注讜谞讬谉 讗诪谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [deyofloston] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said that its structure was like a large basilica [basileki], with a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand men and another six hundred thousand men in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [katedraot], corresponding to the seventy-one members of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which consisted of no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And there was a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue would stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, when the prayer leader reached the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people to answer amen, the sexton waved the scarf and all the people would answer amen.

讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜砖讘讬谉 诪注讜专讘讬谉 讗诇讗 讝讛讘讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讻住驻讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜谞驻讞讬谉 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讟专住讬讬诐 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讙专讚讬讬诐 讘驻谞讬 注爪诪谉 讜讻砖注谞讬 谞讻谞住 砖诐 讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘注诇讬 讗讜诪谞转讜 讜谞驻谞讛 砖诐 讜诪砖诐 驻专谞住转讜 讜驻专谞住转 讗谞砖讬 讘讬转讜

And the members of the various crafts would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths would sit among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor stranger entered there, he would recognize people who plied his craft, and he would turn to join them there. And from there he would secure his livelihood as well as the livelihood of the members of his household, as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讜讻讜诇讛讜 拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬注谞砖讜 诪砖讜诐 讚注讘专讬 讗讛讗讬 拽专讗 诇讗 转讜住讬驻讜谉 诇砖讜讘 讘讚专讱 讛讝讛 注讜讚 讜讗讬谞讛讜 讛讚讜专 讗转讜

After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that Abaye said: All of the people who congregated in that synagogue were killed by Alexander the Great of Macedonia. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that they were punished and killed? It is due to the fact that they violated the prohibition with regard to Egypt in this verse: 鈥淵ou shall henceforth return no more that way鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:16), and they returned. Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished.

讻讬 讗转讗 讗砖讻讞讬谞讛讜 讚讛讜讜 拽专讜 讘住讬驻专讗 讬砖讗 讛壮 注诇讬讱 讙讜讬 诪专讞讜拽 讗诪专 诪讻讚讬 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讘注讬 诇诪讬转讬 住驻讬谞转讗 讘注砖专讛 讬讜诪讬 讚诇讬讛 讝讬拽讗 讜讗转讬 住驻讬谞转讗 讘讞诪砖讗 讬讜诪讬 谞驻诇 注诇讬讬讛讜 讜拽讟诇讬谞讛讜

When Alexander arrived, he found them, and saw that they were reading the verse in the Torah scroll: 鈥淭he Lord will bring a nation against you from far, from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:49). He said, referring to himself: Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, and a wind carried it and the ship arrived in only five days, apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, he set upon them and slaughtered them.

讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜谉 讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讗讜转讛 砖砖谞讬谞讜 讞诇拽讛 讛讬转讛 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讛拽讬驻讜讛 讙讝讜讝讟专讗 讜讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪诇诪讟讛

搂 The mishna continues: At the conclusion of the first Festival day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites鈥 courtyard to the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: What is this significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said that it is like that which we learned: The walls of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard were smooth, without protrusions, initially. Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women鈥檚 Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and surrounded the courtyard with a balcony [gezuztra]. And they instituted that the women should sit above and the men below.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 谞砖讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛讬讜 讘讗讬诐 诇讬讚讬 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讬谉 诇讬讚讬 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 谞砖讬诐 讬讜砖讘讜转 诪诇诪注诇讛 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪诇诪讟讛

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: Initially, women would stand on the inside of the Women鈥檚 Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, and the men were on the outside in the courtyard and on the rampart. And they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity in each other鈥檚 company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity. Therefore, they instituted in the interest of complete separation that the women would sit above and the men below.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛讻转讬讘 讛讻诇 讘讻转讘 诪讬讚 讛壮 注诇讬 讛砖讻讬诇

The Gemara asks: How could one do so, i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? But isn鈥檛 it written with regard to the Temple: 鈥淎ll this I give you in writing, as the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern鈥 (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?

讗诪专 专讘 拽专讗 讗砖讻讞讜 讜讚专讜砖

Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically and acted accordingly:

Scroll To Top