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Today's Daf Yomi

August 28, 2021 | ื›ืณ ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Sukkah 52

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Judy Shapiro for the 8th yahrzeit of her mother Deera Tychman, Tzvia Bracha bat Mordechai v’Chaya Tova. “I hope my mother’s neshama is uplifted by my study of Torah and Daf Yomi.”

How did they build a new structure for separating the men and women? Doesn’t the Temple have to be built exactly the way it was handed down by tradition? The rabbis derived it from a verse in Zacharia which describes how the people will separate from each other during a great funeral that will be held in the future. Whose funeral? It is either the Meshaich who descends from Joseph or the evil inclination. Why would there be a funeral when God will “kill” the evil inclination? The gemara brings many statements regarding the evil inclination – how strong is it and how does it strengthen over time, by what names is it called, who has a bigger one, how often does it appear? Learning Torah is an antidote. God helps us also to overcome it. How are the four craftsmen described in Zecharia? Who are the seven shepherds and eight princes described in Micha? The gemara delves into the description in the mishna of the children of the kohanim who lit the lamps – how much oil did each of them carry?

ื•ืกืคื“ื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืœื‘ื“ ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ืœื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉื™ื”ื ืœื‘ื“ ืืžืจื• ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืฉืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื”ื ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื“ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืขืกื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื”ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

It is stated: โ€œThe land will eulogize, each family separately; the family of the house of David separately, and their women separately, the family of the house of Nathan separately, and their women separatelyโ€ (Zechariah 12:12). This indicates that at the end of days a great eulogy will be organized during which men and women will be separate. They said: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If in the future, at the end of days referred to in this prophecy, when people are involved in a great eulogy and consequently the evil inclination does not dominate them, as typically during mourning inappropriate thoughts and conduct are less likely, and nevertheless the Torah says: Men separately and women separately; then now that they are involved in the Celebration of the Drawing of the Water, and as such the evil inclination dominates them, since celebration lends itself to levity, all the more so should men and women be separate.

ื”ื ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื™ื” ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ื”ืจื’

Apropos the eulogy at the end of days, the Gemara asks: For what is the nature of this eulogy? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis disagree concerning this matter. One said that this eulogy is for Messiah ben Yosef who was killed in the war of Gog from the land of Magog prior to the ultimate redemption with the coming of Messiah ben David. And one said that this eulogy is for the evil inclination that was killed.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืืœื™ ืืช ืืฉืจ ื“ืงืจื• ื•ืกืคื“ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื›ืžืกืคื“ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื”ืื™ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืฉืžื—ื” ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืืžืื™ ื‘ื›ื•

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that the lament is for Messiah ben Yosef who was killed, this would be the meaning of that which is written in that context: โ€œAnd they shall look unto Me because they have thrust him through; and they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for his only sonโ€ (Zechariah 12:10). However, according to the one who said that the eulogy is for the evil inclination that was killed, does one need to conduct a eulogy for this? On the contrary, one should conduct a celebration. Why, then, did they cry?

ื›ื“ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืžื‘ื™ืื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื•ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื ื“ืžื” ืœื”ื ื›ื”ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืจืฉืขื™ื ื ื“ืžื” ื”ื ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื”ืœืœื• ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ื™ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื›ื–ื” ื•ืจืฉืขื™ื ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื”ื–ื” ื•ืืฃ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืชืžื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช ื›ื™ ื™ืคืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืฉืืจื™ืช ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ื”ื ื’ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ื™ืคืœื

The Gemara answers: This can be understood as Rabbi Yehuda taught: In the future, at the end of days, God will bring the evil inclination and slaughter it in the presence of the righteous and in the presence of the wicked. For the righteous the evil inclination appears to them as a high mountain, and for the wicked it appears to them as a mere strand of hair. These weep and those weep. The righteous weep and say: How were we able to overcome so high a mountain? And the wicked weep and say: How were we unable to overcome this strand of hair? And even the Holy One, Blessed be He, will wonder with them, as it is stated with regard to the eulogy: โ€œSo says the Lord of hosts: If it be wondrous in the eyes of the remnant of this people in those days, it should also be wondrous in My eyesโ€ (Zechariah 8:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื›ื™ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื“ื•ืžื” ื›ืขื‘ื•ืชื•ืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ ื”ืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื—ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ื›ืขื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื—ื˜ืื”

Apropos the evil inclination and the battle against it, the Gemara cites that which Rav Asi said: Initially, when it begins to entice someone, the evil inclination is like a strand of a spiderโ€™s web [bukhya]; and ultimately it is like the thick ropes of a wagon, as it is stated: โ€œWoe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as if it were with a wagon ropeโ€ (Isaiah 5:18). Initially, the enticement is almost imperceptible, like a thin strand; however, after one sins, it is like wagon ropes tied tightly around him.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ืฉืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžื”ืจื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืืชืŸ ืœืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืกืคืจื” ืืœ ื—ื•ืง ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ื™ ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ืœื“ืชื™ืš ืฉืืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื•ืืชื ื” ื’ื•ื™ื ื ื—ืœืชืš ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืจืื” ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื™ื ื™ ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžืš ืืœื ื—ื™ื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื ืืžืจืช ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ืชื ื‘ื ืขืœื™ืš ื“ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืืœ ืžืžืš ื ืชืชื” ืœื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

The Sages taught: To Messiah ben David, who is destined to be revealed swiftly in our time, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Ask of Me anything and I will give you whatever you wish, as it is stated: โ€œI will tell of the decree; the Lord said unto me: You are My son, this day have I begotten you, ask of Me, and I will give the nations for your inheritance, and the ends of the earth for your possessionโ€ (Psalms 2:7โ€“8). Once the Messiah ben David saw Messiah ben Yosef, who was killed, he says to the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I ask of you only life; that I will not suffer the same fate. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to him: Life? Even before you stated this request, your father, David, already prophesied about you with regard to this matter precisely, as it is stated: โ€œHe asked life of You, You gave it to him; even length of days for ever and everโ€ (Psalms 21:5).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉืžื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืœื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืงืจืื• ืจืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆืจ ืœื‘ ื”ืื“ื ืจืข ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ืžืฉื” ืงืจืื• ืขืจืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืžืœืชื ืืช ืขืจืœืช ืœื‘ื‘ื›ื ื“ื•ื“ ืงืจืื• ื˜ืžื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื‘ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื‘ืจื ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื˜ืžื

ยง Rabbi Avira, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, taught: The evil inclination has seven names. The Holy One, Blessed be He, called it evil, as it is stated: โ€œFor the inclination of a manโ€™s heart is evil from his youthโ€ (Genesis 8:21). Moses called it uncircumcised, as it is stated: โ€œAnd circumcise the foreskin of your heartsโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:16). David called it impure, as it is stated: โ€œCreate for me a pure heart, O Godโ€ (Psalms 51:12); by inference, there is an impure heart that is the evil inclination.

ืฉืœืžื” ืงืจืื• ืฉื•ื ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืจืขื‘ ืฉื ืืš ื”ืื›ื™ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื ื•ืื ืฆืžื ื”ืฉืงื”ื• ืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื’ื—ืœื™ื ืืชื” ื—ื•ืชื” ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื•ื”ืณ ื™ืฉืœื ืœืš ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื™ืฉืœื ืœืš ืืœื ื™ืฉืœื™ืžื ื• ืœืš

Solomon called it enemy, as it is stated: โ€œIf your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat, and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink; for you will heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord will reward youโ€ (Proverbs 25:21โ€“22). Do not read it as: And the Lord will reward you [yeshalem lakh]; rather read it as: And the Lord will reconcile it to you [yashlimenu lakh]. God will cause the evil inclination to love you and no longer seek to entice you to sin.

ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ืงืจืื• ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืกื•ืœื• ืกื•ืœื• ืคื ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืจื™ืžื• ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืžื“ืจืš ืขืžื™ ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ืงืจืื• ืื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืกืจืชื™ ืืช ืœื‘ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ืžื‘ืฉืจื›ื ื•ื ืชืชื™ ืœื›ื ืœื‘ ื‘ืฉืจ ื™ื•ืืœ ืงืจืื• ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ื›ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ื›ื ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืœื‘ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื

Isaiah called it a stumbling block, as it is stated: โ€œAnd He will say: Cast you up, cast you up, clear the way, take up the stumbling block out of the way of My peopleโ€ (Isaiah 57:14). Ezekiel called it stone, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of fleshโ€ (Ezekiel 36:26). Joel called it hidden one, as it says: โ€œBut I will remove the northern one [hatzefoni] far off from youโ€ (Joel 2:20). The Sages taught concerning the verse: โ€œBut I will remove the northern one [hatzefoni] far off from you,โ€ that this is referring to the evil inclination. And why is the evil inclination referred to as tzefoni? It is due to the fact that it is always hidden [tzafun] in the heart of man.

ื•ื”ื“ื—ืชื™ื• ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืฆื™ื” ื•ืฉืžืžื” ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื”ืชื’ืจื•ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื• ื•ืกื•ืคื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื• ื•ืขืœื” ื‘ืืฉื• ื•ืชืขืœ ืฆื—ื ืชื• ืฉืžื ื™ื— ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื•ืžืชื’ืจื” ื‘ืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื›ื•ืœื

The baraita continues interpreting the verse in the book of Joel. โ€œAnd will drive it to a land barren and desolateโ€ (Joel 2:20), where there are no people for the evil inclination to incite. And what damage does the evil inclination cause? โ€œWith its face toward the eastern [hakadmoni] seaโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it set its eyes on the First [mukdam] Temple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars that were in it; โ€œand its end toward the western [haโ€™aแธฅaron] seaโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it set its eyes on the Second [aแธฅaron] Temple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars that were in it; โ€œits foulness may come up, and its ill odor may come upโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it forsakes the nations of the world and incites the enemies of the Jewish people: In this context, the term the nations is a euphemism for the Jewish people. The evil inclination seeks to corrupt the Jews more than it does the members of any other nation. โ€œBecause it has done greatlyโ€ (Joel 2:20): Abaye said: And it provokes Torah scholars more than it provokes everyone else.

ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื”ื™ื ืืชืชื ื ืงื“ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืืคืจืฉื™ื ื”ื• ืžืื™ืกื•ืจื ืื–ืœ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ืชืœืชื ืคืจืกื™ ื‘ืื’ืžื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืคืจืฉื™ ืžื”ื“ื“ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืืžืจื™ ืื•ืจื—ื™ืŸ ืจื—ื™ืงื ื•ืฆื•ื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืกื™ืžื

The Gemara illustrates that point. It is like this incident, as Abaye once heard a certain man say to a certain woman: Let us rise early and go on the road. Upon hearing this, Abaye said to himself: I will go and accompany them and prevent them from violating the prohibition that they certainly intend to violate. He went after them for a distance of three parasangs in a marsh among the reeds, while they walked on the road, and they did not engage in any wrongful activity. When they were taking leave of each other, he heard that they were saying: We traveled a long distance together, and the company was pleasant company.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืกื ื™ ืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืžืฆื™ ืœืื•ืงื•ืžื™ื” ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืื–ืœ ืชืœื ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื ื•ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืชื ื ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื™ืฆืจื• ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืžื ื•

Abaye said: In that situation, if instead of that man it had been one whom I hate, a euphemism for himself, he would not have been able to restrain himself from sinning. After becoming aware of so great a shortcoming he went and leaned against the doorpost, thinking and feeling regret. A certain Elder came and taught him: Anyone who is greater than another, his evil inclination is greater than his. Therefore, Abaye should not feel regret, as his realization is a consequence of his greatness.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื™ืฆืจื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืžืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจืง

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: A personโ€™s inclination overcomes him each day, as it is stated: โ€œOnly

ืจืข ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื™ืฆืจื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืžืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืžื™ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฆื•ืคื” ืจืฉืข ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืžื™ืชื• ื•ืืœืžืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืœื ื™ืขื–ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืจืฉื™ืขื ื• ื‘ื”ืฉืคื˜ื•

evil all dayโ€ (Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A personโ€™s evil inclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: โ€œThe wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill himโ€ (Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside oneโ€™s heart. And if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assists him with the good inclination, he would not overcome it, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judgedโ€ (Psalms 37:33).

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื ืคื’ืข ื‘ืš ืžื ื•ื•ืœ ื–ื” ืžืฉื›ื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืื ืื‘ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ืžื•ื— ืื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžืชืคื•ืฆืฅ ืื ืื‘ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ืžื•ื— ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืฆืžื ืœื›ื• ืœืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉื—ืงื• ืžื™ื ืื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžืชืคื•ืฆืฅ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื›ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื›ืืฉ ื ืื ื”ืณ ื•ื›ืคื˜ื™ืฉ ื™ืคื•ืฆืฅ ืกืœืข

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel, the evil inclination, accosted you, seeking to tempt you to sin, drag it to the study hall and study Torah. If it is like a stone, it will be dissolved by the Torah. If it is like iron, it will be shattered. The Gemara elaborates: If it is like stone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: โ€œHo, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the waterโ€ (Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; and it is written: โ€œStones were worn by waterโ€ (Job 14:19). If it is like iron, it will be shattered, as it is written: โ€œIs not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rockโ€ (Jeremiah 23:29).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืžืกื™ืชื• ืœืื“ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืžืขื™ื“ ืขืœื™ื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืคื ืง ืžื ื•ืขืจ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืื—ืจื™ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžื ื•ืŸ ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ืื˜ื‘ื— ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืกื”ื“ื” ืžื ื•ืŸ

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The evil inclination incites a person to sin in this world, and then testifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: โ€œHe that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [manon] at the lastโ€ (Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in oneโ€™s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his manon. Manon means witness, as in Rabbi แธคiyyaโ€™s coded alphabet in which alef and tet and beit and แธฅet, etc., are interchanged. Witness [sahada] is called manon. The letters mem and samekh, nun and heh, and vav and dalet are interchanged with other letters.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืจื•ื— ื–ื ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืชืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื”ืชืขื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื

Rav Huna raised a contradiction between two verses. It is written: โ€œFor the spirit of harlotry caused them to errโ€ (Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. And it is also written: โ€œFor the spirit of harlotry is within themโ€ (Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: Initially, it causes them to err from without, and ultimately, it is from within them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืงืจืื• ื”ืœืš ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืงืจืื• ืื•ืจื— ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืงืจืื• ืื™ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ืœืš ืœืื™ืฉ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจ ื•ื™ื—ืžื•ืœ ืœืงื—ืช ืžืฆืื ื• ื•ืžื‘ืงืจื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืื•ืจื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืงื— ืืช ื›ื‘ืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื”ืจืฉ ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืœืื™ืฉ ื”ื‘ื ืืœื™ื•

Rava said: Initially, the verse called the evil inclination a traveler coming from afar. Subsequently, the verse calls it a guest, as one welcomes it. Ultimately, the verse calls it man, indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. As it is stated in the parable of the poor manโ€™s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: โ€œAnd there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guestโ€ (II Samuel 12:4). And it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd he took the poor manโ€™s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.โ€ In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื‘ืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืžืจืขื™ื‘ื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื• ืจืขื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืžืจืขื™ืชื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืขื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: A man has a small organ used in sexual relations. If he starves the organ, and does not overindulge, it is satiated; however, if he satiates the organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it is starving, and desires more, as it is stated: โ€œWhen they were fed, they became full, they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Meโ€ (Hosea 13:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ืื—ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืชื—ืจื˜ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืจืื ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื’ืœื•ืช ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื’ืœื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืชื” ืžื” ืœื™ ืคื” ื ืื ื”ืณ ื›ื™ ืœืงื— ืขืžื™ ื—ื ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื–ื” ื”ืขื ืœื ื”ื™ื”

Rav แธคana bar Aแธฅa said that the Sages in the school of Rav say: There are four creations that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, yet He, as it were, regrets that He created them, as they do more harm than good. And these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: โ€œNow therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naughtโ€ (Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? Chaldeans, as it is written: โ€œBehold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was notโ€ (Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were.

ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉืœื™ื• ืื”ืœื™ื ืœืฉื•ื“ื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื•ืช ืœืžืจื’ื™ื–ื™ ืืœ ืœืืฉืจ ื”ื‘ื™ื ืืœื•ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ืจืขืชื™

Ishmaelites, as it is written: โ€œThe tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His handโ€ (Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. The evil inclination, as it is written: โ€œOn that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, and her that I corruptedโ€ (Micah 4:6). God is saying thatย He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื ืฉืœืฉ ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื ืชืžื•ื˜ื˜ื• ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื—ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ืจืขืชื™ ื•ื—ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื” ื›ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ื™ื•ืฆืจ ื›ืŸ ืืชื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื•ื”ืกืจืชื™ ืืช ืœื‘ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ืžื‘ืฉืจื›ื ื•ื ืชืชื™ ืœื›ื ืœื‘ ื‘ืฉืจ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Were it not for these three verses that follow that indicate that God controls peopleโ€™s hearts, the legs of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have collapsed, unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. One, as it is written: โ€œAnd her that I corrupted,โ€ indicating Godโ€™s regret for doing so. And one, as it is written: โ€œBehold, as the clay in the potterโ€™s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israelโ€ (Jeremiah 18:6). And the other verse: โ€œAnd I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of fleshโ€ (Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ืืช ืจื•ื—ื™ ืืชืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื›ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rav Pappa said: It is derived from this verse as well: โ€œAnd I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordinances, and do themโ€ (Ezekiel 36:27).

ื•ื™ืจืื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืจืฉื™ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืจืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืืœื™ื”ื• ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืฆื“ืง ืžืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ ืืœื” ื”ืงืจื ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื–ืจื• ืืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ื™ ืœืฉื•ื‘ื” ืืชื•

ยง Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: โ€œThe Lord then showed me four craftsmenโ€ (Zechariah 2:3). Who are these four craftsmen? Rav แธคana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said: They are Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteous High Priest, who will serve in the Messianic era. Rav Sheshet raised an objection: If so, if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then that which is written in the previous verse: โ€œAnd he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judeaโ€ (Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; these four in the first verse are coming for their enemies, and are not redeemers.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืคื™ืœ ืœืกื™ืคื™ื” ื“ืงืจื ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืื• ืืœื” ืœื”ื—ืจื™ื“ ืื•ืชื ืœื™ื“ื•ืช ืืช ืงืจื ื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ืงืจืŸ ืืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื–ืจื•ืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื—ื ื ื‘ืื’ื“ืชื ืœืžื” ืœื™

Rav แธคana said to Rav Sheshet: Go to the end of the verse: โ€œThese then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.โ€ This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet said to him: Why should I disagree with Rav แธคana in matters of aggada, where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?

ื•ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ืฉืœื•ื ืืฉื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื™ื‘ื ื‘ืืจืฆื ื• ื•ื›ื™ ื™ื“ืจื•ืš ื‘ืืจืžื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื•ื”ืงืžื ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื•ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื” ื ืกื™ื›ื™ ืื“ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื•ืขื™ื ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืื“ื ืฉืช ื•ืžืชื•ืฉืœื— ืžื™ืžื™ื ื• ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืžืฉื” ื‘ืฉืžืืœื• ื•ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืฉืžื ื” ื ืกื™ื›ื™ ืื“ื ื™ืฉื™ ื•ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืžื•ืก ื•ืฆืคื ื™ื” ืฆื“ืงื™ื” ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ืืœื™ื”ื•

The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: โ€œAnd this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among menโ€ (Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: Who are these seven shepherds? The Gemara explains: David is in the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men? They are Yishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah.

ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืžื” ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉื”ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’

ยง The mishna continues: And there were four ladders for each pole. One of the Sages taught: The height of the candelabrum upon the pole is fifty cubits. And there were four children from the priesthood trainees holding and in their hands jugs of oil with a capacity of 120 log of oil. A dilemma was raised: Was it 120 log altogether, or perhaps each and every child carried that amount? Come and hear proof from this baraita: And in their hands were jugs of oil, each with a capacity of thirty log, that were all together 120 log.

ืชื ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžืจืชื ื‘ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืก ืืžืจื• ืขืœ ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžืจืชื ื‘ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืก ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืฉืชื™ ื™ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœืงื•ื— ื‘ืืœืฃ ื–ื•ื– ื•ืžื”ืœืš ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืฆื“ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื”ื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืจื‘ ืขื ื”ื“ืจืช ืžืœืš

One of the Sages taught: And these young priests who held the pitchers were superior in strength to the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, who was a priest renowned for his might. They said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bull that was so large that it would be purchased for one thousand zuz, and walk up the ramp in small steps, heel to toe, without hurrying, due to his strength. However, his brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due to the principle: โ€œIn the multitude of people is the Kingโ€™s gloryโ€ (Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืงืจื ื”ื ื™ ื™ืงื™ืจื™ ื˜ืคื™ ืืœื ื”ืชื ื›ื‘ืฉ ื•ืžืจื•ื‘ืข ื•ืœื ื–ืงื™ืฃ ื”ื›ื ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื•ื–ืงื™ืฃ ื˜ื•ื‘ื

The Gemara asks: In what sense were these young priests superior? If we say it is due to the weight of the pitchers that they carried, these two thighs are heavier than the thirty log of oil. The Gemara answers: Rather, the difference is that there, in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a ramp that was wide, and with a moderate gradient of only one cubit every four cubits of length, and it is not steep; here they climbed ladders, and those are very steep.

ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื—ืฆืจ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืชื ื

ยง The mishna continues: And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages taught:

Masechet Sukkah is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his mother Margaret Katz (Ruth bat Avraham).
  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Sukkah 49-56 + Siyum – Daf Yomi: One Week at a Time

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Sukkah 52

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sukkah 52

ื•ืกืคื“ื” ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืœื‘ื“ ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื•ื“ ืœื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉื™ื”ื ืœื‘ื“ ืืžืจื• ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืฉืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื”ื ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื“ ื•ื ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื“ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืขืกื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื•ืœื˜ ื‘ื”ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

It is stated: โ€œThe land will eulogize, each family separately; the family of the house of David separately, and their women separately, the family of the house of Nathan separately, and their women separatelyโ€ (Zechariah 12:12). This indicates that at the end of days a great eulogy will be organized during which men and women will be separate. They said: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If in the future, at the end of days referred to in this prophecy, when people are involved in a great eulogy and consequently the evil inclination does not dominate them, as typically during mourning inappropriate thoughts and conduct are less likely, and nevertheless the Torah says: Men separately and women separately; then now that they are involved in the Celebration of the Drawing of the Water, and as such the evil inclination dominates them, since celebration lends itself to levity, all the more so should men and women be separate.

ื”ื ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื™ื” ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ื”ืจื’

Apropos the eulogy at the end of days, the Gemara asks: For what is the nature of this eulogy? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis disagree concerning this matter. One said that this eulogy is for Messiah ben Yosef who was killed in the war of Gog from the land of Magog prior to the ultimate redemption with the coming of Messiah ben David. And one said that this eulogy is for the evil inclination that was killed.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื• ืืœื™ ืืช ืืฉืจ ื“ืงืจื• ื•ืกืคื“ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื›ืžืกืคื“ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ื”ืื™ ื”ืกืคื™ื“ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืฉืžื—ื” ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืืžืื™ ื‘ื›ื•

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who said that the lament is for Messiah ben Yosef who was killed, this would be the meaning of that which is written in that context: โ€œAnd they shall look unto Me because they have thrust him through; and they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for his only sonโ€ (Zechariah 12:10). However, according to the one who said that the eulogy is for the evil inclination that was killed, does one need to conduct a eulogy for this? On the contrary, one should conduct a celebration. Why, then, did they cry?

ื›ื“ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืžื‘ื™ืื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื•ืฉื•ื—ื˜ื• ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื•ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื ื“ืžื” ืœื”ื ื›ื”ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื•ืจืฉืขื™ื ื ื“ืžื” ื”ื ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื”ืœืœื• ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ื™ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ืจ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื›ื–ื” ื•ืจืฉืขื™ื ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืœื ื• ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืืช ื—ื•ื˜ ื”ืฉืขืจื” ื”ื–ื” ื•ืืฃ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืชืžื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช ื›ื™ ื™ืคืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ืฉืืจื™ืช ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื”ื”ื ื’ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ ื™ืคืœื

The Gemara answers: This can be understood as Rabbi Yehuda taught: In the future, at the end of days, God will bring the evil inclination and slaughter it in the presence of the righteous and in the presence of the wicked. For the righteous the evil inclination appears to them as a high mountain, and for the wicked it appears to them as a mere strand of hair. These weep and those weep. The righteous weep and say: How were we able to overcome so high a mountain? And the wicked weep and say: How were we unable to overcome this strand of hair? And even the Holy One, Blessed be He, will wonder with them, as it is stated with regard to the eulogy: โ€œSo says the Lord of hosts: If it be wondrous in the eyes of the remnant of this people in those days, it should also be wondrous in My eyesโ€ (Zechariah 8:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ื›ื™ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื“ื•ืžื” ื›ืขื‘ื•ืชื•ืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ ื”ืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื—ื‘ืœื™ ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ื›ืขื‘ื•ืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื—ื˜ืื”

Apropos the evil inclination and the battle against it, the Gemara cites that which Rav Asi said: Initially, when it begins to entice someone, the evil inclination is like a strand of a spiderโ€™s web [bukhya]; and ultimately it is like the thick ropes of a wagon, as it is stated: โ€œWoe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as if it were with a wagon ropeโ€ (Isaiah 5:18). Initially, the enticement is almost imperceptible, like a thin strand; however, after one sins, it is like wagon ropes tied tightly around him.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ืฉืขืชื™ื“ ืœื”ื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžื”ืจื” ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืืชืŸ ืœืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืกืคืจื” ืืœ ื—ื•ืง ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืื ื™ ื”ื™ื•ื ื™ืœื“ืชื™ืš ืฉืืœ ืžืžื ื™ ื•ืืชื ื” ื’ื•ื™ื ื ื—ืœืชืš ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืจืื” ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื™ื ื™ ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžืš ืืœื ื—ื™ื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื ืืžืจืช ื›ื‘ืจ ื”ืชื ื‘ื ืขืœื™ืš ื“ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืืœ ืžืžืš ื ืชืชื” ืœื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

The Sages taught: To Messiah ben David, who is destined to be revealed swiftly in our time, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Ask of Me anything and I will give you whatever you wish, as it is stated: โ€œI will tell of the decree; the Lord said unto me: You are My son, this day have I begotten you, ask of Me, and I will give the nations for your inheritance, and the ends of the earth for your possessionโ€ (Psalms 2:7โ€“8). Once the Messiah ben David saw Messiah ben Yosef, who was killed, he says to the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I ask of you only life; that I will not suffer the same fate. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to him: Life? Even before you stated this request, your father, David, already prophesied about you with regard to this matter precisely, as it is stated: โ€œHe asked life of You, You gave it to him; even length of days for ever and everโ€ (Psalms 21:5).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉืžื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืœื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืงืจืื• ืจืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆืจ ืœื‘ ื”ืื“ื ืจืข ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ืžืฉื” ืงืจืื• ืขืจืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืžืœืชื ืืช ืขืจืœืช ืœื‘ื‘ื›ื ื“ื•ื“ ืงืจืื• ื˜ืžื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื‘ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื‘ืจื ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื˜ืžื

ยง Rabbi Avira, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, taught: The evil inclination has seven names. The Holy One, Blessed be He, called it evil, as it is stated: โ€œFor the inclination of a manโ€™s heart is evil from his youthโ€ (Genesis 8:21). Moses called it uncircumcised, as it is stated: โ€œAnd circumcise the foreskin of your heartsโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:16). David called it impure, as it is stated: โ€œCreate for me a pure heart, O Godโ€ (Psalms 51:12); by inference, there is an impure heart that is the evil inclination.

ืฉืœืžื” ืงืจืื• ืฉื•ื ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืจืขื‘ ืฉื ืืš ื”ืื›ื™ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื ื•ืื ืฆืžื ื”ืฉืงื”ื• ืžื™ื ื›ื™ ื’ื—ืœื™ื ืืชื” ื—ื•ืชื” ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื•ื”ืณ ื™ืฉืœื ืœืš ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื™ืฉืœื ืœืš ืืœื ื™ืฉืœื™ืžื ื• ืœืš

Solomon called it enemy, as it is stated: โ€œIf your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat, and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink; for you will heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord will reward youโ€ (Proverbs 25:21โ€“22). Do not read it as: And the Lord will reward you [yeshalem lakh]; rather read it as: And the Lord will reconcile it to you [yashlimenu lakh]. God will cause the evil inclination to love you and no longer seek to entice you to sin.

ื™ืฉืขื™ื” ืงืจืื• ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืกื•ืœื• ืกื•ืœื• ืคื ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืจื™ืžื• ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืžื“ืจืš ืขืžื™ ื™ื—ื–ืงืืœ ืงืจืื• ืื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ืกืจืชื™ ืืช ืœื‘ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ืžื‘ืฉืจื›ื ื•ื ืชืชื™ ืœื›ื ืœื‘ ื‘ืฉืจ ื™ื•ืืœ ืงืจืื• ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ื›ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืืช ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™ ืืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ื›ื ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืฉืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืœื‘ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื

Isaiah called it a stumbling block, as it is stated: โ€œAnd He will say: Cast you up, cast you up, clear the way, take up the stumbling block out of the way of My peopleโ€ (Isaiah 57:14). Ezekiel called it stone, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of fleshโ€ (Ezekiel 36:26). Joel called it hidden one, as it says: โ€œBut I will remove the northern one [hatzefoni] far off from youโ€ (Joel 2:20). The Sages taught concerning the verse: โ€œBut I will remove the northern one [hatzefoni] far off from you,โ€ that this is referring to the evil inclination. And why is the evil inclination referred to as tzefoni? It is due to the fact that it is always hidden [tzafun] in the heart of man.

ื•ื”ื“ื—ืชื™ื• ืืœ ืืจืฅ ืฆื™ื” ื•ืฉืžืžื” ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื”ืชื’ืจื•ืช ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ืคื ื™ื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืงื“ืžื•ื ื™ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื• ื•ืกื•ืคื• ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ืฉื ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื”ื—ืจื™ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ื• ื•ืขืœื” ื‘ืืฉื• ื•ืชืขืœ ืฆื—ื ืชื• ืฉืžื ื™ื— ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื•ืžืชื’ืจื” ื‘ืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื›ื•ืœื

The baraita continues interpreting the verse in the book of Joel. โ€œAnd will drive it to a land barren and desolateโ€ (Joel 2:20), where there are no people for the evil inclination to incite. And what damage does the evil inclination cause? โ€œWith its face toward the eastern [hakadmoni] seaโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it set its eyes on the First [mukdam] Temple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars that were in it; โ€œand its end toward the western [haโ€™aแธฅaron] seaโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it set its eyes on the Second [aแธฅaron] Temple and destroyed it, and killed the Torah scholars that were in it; โ€œits foulness may come up, and its ill odor may come upโ€ (Joel 2:20), as it forsakes the nations of the world and incites the enemies of the Jewish people: In this context, the term the nations is a euphemism for the Jewish people. The evil inclination seeks to corrupt the Jews more than it does the members of any other nation. โ€œBecause it has done greatlyโ€ (Joel 2:20): Abaye said: And it provokes Torah scholars more than it provokes everyone else.

ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื”ื™ื ืืชืชื ื ืงื“ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืืžืจ ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืืคืจืฉื™ื ื”ื• ืžืื™ืกื•ืจื ืื–ืœ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ืชืœืชื ืคืจืกื™ ื‘ืื’ืžื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืคืจืฉื™ ืžื”ื“ื“ื™ ืฉืžืขื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืืžืจื™ ืื•ืจื—ื™ืŸ ืจื—ื™ืงื ื•ืฆื•ื•ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืกื™ืžื

The Gemara illustrates that point. It is like this incident, as Abaye once heard a certain man say to a certain woman: Let us rise early and go on the road. Upon hearing this, Abaye said to himself: I will go and accompany them and prevent them from violating the prohibition that they certainly intend to violate. He went after them for a distance of three parasangs in a marsh among the reeds, while they walked on the road, and they did not engage in any wrongful activity. When they were taking leave of each other, he heard that they were saying: We traveled a long distance together, and the company was pleasant company.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืกื ื™ ืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืžืฆื™ ืœืื•ืงื•ืžื™ื” ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืื–ืœ ืชืœื ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื ื•ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืชื ื ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื™ืฆืจื• ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืžื ื•

Abaye said: In that situation, if instead of that man it had been one whom I hate, a euphemism for himself, he would not have been able to restrain himself from sinning. After becoming aware of so great a shortcoming he went and leaned against the doorpost, thinking and feeling regret. A certain Elder came and taught him: Anyone who is greater than another, his evil inclination is greater than his. Therefore, Abaye should not feel regret, as his realization is a consequence of his greatness.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื™ืฆืจื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืžืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจืง

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: A personโ€™s inclination overcomes him each day, as it is stated: โ€œOnly

ืจืข ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื™ืฆืจื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืžืชื’ื‘ืจ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืžื™ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฆื•ืคื” ืจืฉืข ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืžื™ืชื• ื•ืืœืžืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉืขื•ื–ืจ ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืœื ื™ืขื–ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืจืฉื™ืขื ื• ื‘ื”ืฉืคื˜ื•

evil all dayโ€ (Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A personโ€™s evil inclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: โ€œThe wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill himโ€ (Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside oneโ€™s heart. And if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assists him with the good inclination, he would not overcome it, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judgedโ€ (Psalms 37:33).

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื ืคื’ืข ื‘ืš ืžื ื•ื•ืœ ื–ื” ืžืฉื›ื”ื• ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืื ืื‘ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ืžื•ื— ืื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžืชืคื•ืฆืฅ ืื ืื‘ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ืžื•ื— ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืฆืžื ืœื›ื• ืœืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉื—ืงื• ืžื™ื ืื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื”ื•ื ืžืชืคื•ืฆืฅ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื›ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื›ืืฉ ื ืื ื”ืณ ื•ื›ืคื˜ื™ืฉ ื™ืคื•ืฆืฅ ืกืœืข

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel, the evil inclination, accosted you, seeking to tempt you to sin, drag it to the study hall and study Torah. If it is like a stone, it will be dissolved by the Torah. If it is like iron, it will be shattered. The Gemara elaborates: If it is like stone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: โ€œHo, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the waterโ€ (Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; and it is written: โ€œStones were worn by waterโ€ (Job 14:19). If it is like iron, it will be shattered, as it is written: โ€œIs not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rockโ€ (Jeremiah 23:29).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืžืกื™ืชื• ืœืื“ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืžืขื™ื“ ืขืœื™ื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžืคื ืง ืžื ื•ืขืจ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืื—ืจื™ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžื ื•ืŸ ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ืื˜ื‘ื— ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืกื”ื“ื” ืžื ื•ืŸ

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The evil inclination incites a person to sin in this world, and then testifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: โ€œHe that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [manon] at the lastโ€ (Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in oneโ€™s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his manon. Manon means witness, as in Rabbi แธคiyyaโ€™s coded alphabet in which alef and tet and beit and แธฅet, etc., are interchanged. Witness [sahada] is called manon. The letters mem and samekh, nun and heh, and vav and dalet are interchanged with other letters.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืจื•ื— ื–ื ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืชืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื”ืชืขื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื

Rav Huna raised a contradiction between two verses. It is written: โ€œFor the spirit of harlotry caused them to errโ€ (Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. And it is also written: โ€œFor the spirit of harlotry is within themโ€ (Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: Initially, it causes them to err from without, and ultimately, it is from within them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืงืจืื• ื”ืœืš ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืงืจืื• ืื•ืจื— ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ืงืจืื• ืื™ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ื ื”ืœืš ืœืื™ืฉ ื”ืขืฉื™ืจ ื•ื™ื—ืžื•ืœ ืœืงื—ืช ืžืฆืื ื• ื•ืžื‘ืงืจื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืื•ืจื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืงื— ืืช ื›ื‘ืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื”ืจืฉ ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืœืื™ืฉ ื”ื‘ื ืืœื™ื•

Rava said: Initially, the verse called the evil inclination a traveler coming from afar. Subsequently, the verse calls it a guest, as one welcomes it. Ultimately, the verse calls it man, indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. As it is stated in the parable of the poor manโ€™s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: โ€œAnd there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guestโ€ (II Samuel 12:4). And it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd he took the poor manโ€™s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.โ€ In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื‘ืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืžืจืขื™ื‘ื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื• ืจืขื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืžืจืขื™ืชื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืขื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: A man has a small organ used in sexual relations. If he starves the organ, and does not overindulge, it is satiated; however, if he satiates the organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it is starving, and desires more, as it is stated: โ€œWhen they were fed, they became full, they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Meโ€ (Hosea 13:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ืื—ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืžืชื—ืจื˜ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืจืื ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื’ืœื•ืช ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ื•ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื’ืœื•ืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขืชื” ืžื” ืœื™ ืคื” ื ืื ื”ืณ ื›ื™ ืœืงื— ืขืžื™ ื—ื ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืŸ ืืจืฅ ื›ืฉื“ื™ื ื–ื” ื”ืขื ืœื ื”ื™ื”

Rav แธคana bar Aแธฅa said that the Sages in the school of Rav say: There are four creations that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, yet He, as it were, regrets that He created them, as they do more harm than good. And these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: โ€œNow therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naughtโ€ (Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? Chaldeans, as it is written: โ€œBehold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was notโ€ (Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were.

ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉืœื™ื• ืื”ืœื™ื ืœืฉื•ื“ื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื•ืช ืœืžืจื’ื™ื–ื™ ืืœ ืœืืฉืจ ื”ื‘ื™ื ืืœื•ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ืจืขืชื™

Ishmaelites, as it is written: โ€œThe tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His handโ€ (Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. The evil inclination, as it is written: โ€œOn that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, and her that I corruptedโ€ (Micah 4:6). God is saying thatย He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื ืฉืœืฉ ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื ืชืžื•ื˜ื˜ื• ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื—ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ืจืขืชื™ ื•ื—ื“ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื” ื›ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ื“ ื”ื™ื•ืฆืจ ื›ืŸ ืืชื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื•ื”ืกืจืชื™ ืืช ืœื‘ ื”ืื‘ืŸ ืžื‘ืฉืจื›ื ื•ื ืชืชื™ ืœื›ื ืœื‘ ื‘ืฉืจ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Were it not for these three verses that follow that indicate that God controls peopleโ€™s hearts, the legs of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have collapsed, unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. One, as it is written: โ€œAnd her that I corrupted,โ€ indicating Godโ€™s regret for doing so. And one, as it is written: โ€œBehold, as the clay in the potterโ€™s hand, so are you in My hand, O house of Israelโ€ (Jeremiah 18:6). And the other verse: โ€œAnd I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of fleshโ€ (Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ืืช ืจื•ื—ื™ ืืชืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื›ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rav Pappa said: It is derived from this verse as well: โ€œAnd I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordinances, and do themโ€ (Ezekiel 36:27).

ื•ื™ืจืื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืจืฉื™ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืจืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ืืœื™ื”ื• ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืฆื“ืง ืžืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ ืืœื” ื”ืงืจื ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื–ืจื• ืืช ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ื™ ืœืฉื•ื‘ื” ืืชื•

ยง Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: โ€œThe Lord then showed me four craftsmenโ€ (Zechariah 2:3). Who are these four craftsmen? Rav แธคana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said: They are Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteous High Priest, who will serve in the Messianic era. Rav Sheshet raised an objection: If so, if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then that which is written in the previous verse: โ€œAnd he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judeaโ€ (Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; these four in the first verse are coming for their enemies, and are not redeemers.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืคื™ืœ ืœืกื™ืคื™ื” ื“ืงืจื ื•ื™ื‘ื•ืื• ืืœื” ืœื”ื—ืจื™ื“ ืื•ืชื ืœื™ื“ื•ืช ืืช ืงืจื ื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ืงืจืŸ ืืœ ืืจืฅ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื–ืจื•ืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื—ื ื ื‘ืื’ื“ืชื ืœืžื” ืœื™

Rav แธคana said to Rav Sheshet: Go to the end of the verse: โ€œThese then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.โ€ This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet said to him: Why should I disagree with Rav แธคana in matters of aggada, where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?

ื•ื”ื™ื” ื–ื” ืฉืœื•ื ืืฉื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื™ื‘ื ื‘ืืจืฆื ื• ื•ื›ื™ ื™ื“ืจื•ืš ื‘ืืจืžื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื•ื”ืงืžื ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื•ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื” ื ืกื™ื›ื™ ืื“ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ืจื•ืขื™ื ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืื“ื ืฉืช ื•ืžืชื•ืฉืœื— ืžื™ืžื™ื ื• ืื‘ืจื”ื ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืžืฉื” ื‘ืฉืžืืœื• ื•ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืฉืžื ื” ื ืกื™ื›ื™ ืื“ื ื™ืฉื™ ื•ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืžื•ืก ื•ืฆืคื ื™ื” ืฆื“ืงื™ื” ื•ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ืืœื™ื”ื•

The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: โ€œAnd this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among menโ€ (Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: Who are these seven shepherds? The Gemara explains: David is in the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men? They are Yishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah.

ืืจื‘ืขื” ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืžื” ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉื”ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžืื” ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ื’

ยง The mishna continues: And there were four ladders for each pole. One of the Sages taught: The height of the candelabrum upon the pole is fifty cubits. And there were four children from the priesthood trainees holding and in their hands jugs of oil with a capacity of 120 log of oil. A dilemma was raised: Was it 120 log altogether, or perhaps each and every child carried that amount? Come and hear proof from this baraita: And in their hands were jugs of oil, each with a capacity of thirty log, that were all together 120 log.

ืชื ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžืจืชื ื‘ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืก ืืžืจื• ืขืœ ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžืจืชื ื‘ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืก ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืฉืชื™ ื™ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืฉื•ืจ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœืงื•ื— ื‘ืืœืฃ ื–ื•ื– ื•ืžื”ืœืš ืขืงื‘ ื‘ืฆื“ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื”ื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืจื‘ ืขื ื”ื“ืจืช ืžืœืš

One of the Sages taught: And these young priests who held the pitchers were superior in strength to the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, who was a priest renowned for his might. They said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bull that was so large that it would be purchased for one thousand zuz, and walk up the ramp in small steps, heel to toe, without hurrying, due to his strength. However, his brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due to the principle: โ€œIn the multitude of people is the Kingโ€™s gloryโ€ (Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื‘ื—ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื™ื•ืงืจื ื”ื ื™ ื™ืงื™ืจื™ ื˜ืคื™ ืืœื ื”ืชื ื›ื‘ืฉ ื•ืžืจื•ื‘ืข ื•ืœื ื–ืงื™ืฃ ื”ื›ื ืกื•ืœืžื•ืช ื•ื–ืงื™ืฃ ื˜ื•ื‘ื

The Gemara asks: In what sense were these young priests superior? If we say it is due to the weight of the pitchers that they carried, these two thighs are heavier than the thirty log of oil. The Gemara answers: Rather, the difference is that there, in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a ramp that was wide, and with a moderate gradient of only one cubit every four cubits of length, and it is not steep; here they climbed ladders, and those are very steep.

ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื—ืฆืจ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืชื ื

ยง The mishna continues: And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages taught:

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