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Today's Daf Yomi

November 22, 2021 | 讬状讞 讘讻住诇讜 转砖驻状讘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 10

Today鈥檚 learning is dedicated in memory of Eliyahu Dovid Kay who was murdered yesterday in the Old City.

Today’s daf is also sponsored anonymously for a friend for a full and speedy recovery.

The Gemara brings several statements about the uniqueness of Israel as compared to other countries in the world. A braita is brought regarding the rainwater and it is attributed to Rabbi Yehoshua as it assumes the rainwater comes from the heavens. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says that the world gets all of its rain from the waters that overflow from Gan Eden. A comparison is made between different countries in the world to each other and then to gan Eden and ultimately to Gehenom. From when do we begin to ask for rain? Tana Kama says on 3 Marcheshvan and Rabban Gamliel says on the 7th. Who do we hold like? In Babylonia, we ask for rain much later (60 days after the autumnal equinox) as there is less need for rainfall at the earlier dates. If there is no rain by the 17 of Marcheshvan, individuals begin to fast 3 fasts. Most things, such as wearing leather shoes, etc. are permitted on these fast days as they are less serious. The fast begins in the morning.聽 If it still doesn’t rain by Rosh Chodesh Kislev, the court institutes public fast days. The severity of these fasts is the same as the first set. Who is considered an individual that is allowed to fast on the first set of fasts? If the issue resolved itself during the day that one was fasting, they still fast all day. If one goes from a place where they fast to a place where they are not fasting or the reverse, one acts more stringently in all cases. If one accidentally forgot and ate, one should not eat in a noticeable manner and shouldn’t eat a lot of food. This is derived from a verse regarding Yaakov and his sons during the famine. When the brothers leave Egypt to go back home to get Yaakov, Joseph tells them “al tirgazi baderech.” This is explained to mean don’t speak Torah as you will get lost. But wasn’t it said that if two Torah scholars are walking on the road and aren’t learning, they should be burned? From where is this derived and how is the contradiction resolved? One should not take long strides and one should get into a city when it is still light.

讘讘专讬讬转讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐

verse deals with the creation of the world, when all the water was contained in the deep.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 谞讘专讗转 转讞讬诇讛 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞讘专讗 诇讘住讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 注讚 诇讗 注砖讛 讗专抓 讜讞讜爪讜转 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖拽讛 讗讜转讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注爪诪讜 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 注诇 讬讚讬 砖诇讬讞 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜砖诇讞 诪讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讞讜爪讜转

The Sages taught in a baraita: Eretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: 鈥淲hile as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields鈥 (Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term 鈥渓and鈥 is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while 鈥渢he fields鈥 means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, Eretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire world is watered through an intermediary, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields鈥 (Job 5:10).

讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖讜转讛 诪讬 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转诪爪讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖讜转讛 转讞讬诇讛 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇讘住讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讙讘诇 讗转 讛讙讘讬谞讛 谞讜讟诇 讗转 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪谞讬讞 讗转 讛驻住讜诇转

Additionally, Eretz Yisrael drinks rainwater and the rest of the entire world drinks from the remaining residue of rainwater left in the clouds, as it is stated that God is He 鈥渨ho gives rain upon the land鈥 and only afterward takes what is left 鈥渁nd sends water upon the fields.鈥 Eretz Yisrael drinks first, and the rest of the entire world afterward, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the land and sends water upon the fields.鈥 There is a parable that illustrates this: A person who kneads his cheese after it has curdled takes the food and leaves the refuse.

讗诪专 诪专 诪诪转拽讬谉 讛谉 讘注讘讬诐 诪谞诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻转讬讘 讞砖讻转 诪讬诐 注讘讬 砖讞拽讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讞砖专转 诪讬诐 注讘讬 砖讞拽讬诐

The Master said above: The ocean waters are sweetened in the clouds. The Gemara asks: From where does Rabbi Eliezer derive this? The Gemara answers that Rav Yitz岣k bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said that it is written: 鈥淒arkness [岣shkhat] of waters, thick clouds of the skies鈥 (Psalms 18:12). And it is written, in a similar verse: 鈥淕athering of [岣shrat] waters, thick clouds of the skies鈥 (II聽Samuel 22:12).

砖拽讜诇 讻祝 讜砖讚讬 讗专讬砖 讜拽专讬 讘讬讛 讞讻砖专转

The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a kaf for a reish. If you join the two versions together, and take the letter kaf from the first version and place it with the second version of the word, which has a reish, you can read into the verse a new word meaning rendering fit [岣khsharat]. Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.

讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讛谞讬 拽专讗讬 诪讗讬 讚专讬砖 讘讛讜 住讘专 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 谞讛讜专 注谞谞讬 讝注讬专讬谉 诪讜讛讬 讞砖讜讱 注谞谞讬 住讙讬讬谉 诪讜讛讬

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yehoshua, with regard to these verses, what does he learn from them? The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua holds in accordance with the opinion of this Sage, Rav Dimi. As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that they say in the West, Eretz Yisrael: When clouds are bright, they have little water; when clouds are dark, they have much water. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is 鈥渁 darkness of waters鈥 in the clouds, there is also 鈥渁 gathering of waters,鈥 as rain will fall from them.

讻诪讗谉 讗讝诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪讬诐 讛注诇讬讜谞讬诐 讘诪讗诪专 讛诐 转诇讜讬诐 讜驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 诪讬 讙砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪驻专讬 诪注砖讬讱 转砖讘注 讛讗专抓 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The upper waters do not stand in any defined place; rather, they are suspended by the word of God, and their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho waters the mountains from His upper chambers; the earth is full of the fruit of Your works鈥 (Psalms 104:13). In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer, how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: That verse from Psalms is written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He, not the upper waters.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转诪爪讬转 讙谉 注讚谉 讛讜讗 砖讜转讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞讛专 讬爪讗 诪注讚谉 讜讙讜壮 转谞讗 诪转诪爪讬转 讘讬转 讻讜专 砖讜转讛 转专拽讘

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a river went out of Eden to water the garden鈥 (Genesis 2:10). It was taught in a baraita: From the runoff of a beit kor, a field in which a kor of seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which a half-se鈥檃 [tarkav], of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a beit kor, can be watered. If the runoff from a beit kor is sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讛讜讬讗 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 注诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 讜讛讜讗 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘讻讜砖 讜讻讜砖 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讜注讜诇诐 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘讙谉 讜讙谉 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 诇注讚谉 讜注讚谉 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 诇讙讬讛谞诐 谞诪爪讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讻讻讬住讜讬 拽讚专讛 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讙讬讛谞诐 讗讬谉 诇讛 砖讬注讜专 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚谉 讗讬谉 诇讛 砖讬注讜专

The Sages taught in a baraita: The area of the land of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [parsa] by four hundred parasangs. And this is one sixtieth the size of Cush, and Cush itself is one sixtieth the size of the rest of the world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one sixtieth of Eden itself, and Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna. You find that the entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna, as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. And some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some say that Eden has no measure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 砖讻谞转 注诇 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 专讘转 讗讜爪专转 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讘讘诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜爪专讜转讬讛 诪诇讗讜转 讘专 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖砖讜讻谞转 注诇 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 注转讬专讛 讘讘诇 讚讞爪讚讗 讘诇讗 诪讬讟专讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讬讟讬谞谉 讟讜讘注谞讬 讜诇讗 讬讜讘砖谞讬

Rabbi Oshaya said: What is the meaning of that which is written about Babylonia: 鈥淵ou who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses鈥 (Jeremiah 51:13)? What caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must say that it is due to the fact that it resides on many waters, the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, Rav said: Babylonia is wealthy since it can grow crops for harvest even without rain. Abaye said: We hold that it is better for a land to be swampy like Babylonia, and not dry, as crops in Babylonia grow all year.

诪转谞讬壮 讘砖诇砖讛 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘砖讘注讛 讘讜 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 讗讞专 讛讞讙 讻讚讬 砖讬讙讬注 讗讞专讜谉 砖讘讬砖专讗诇 诇谞讛专 驻专转

MISHNA: On the third of the month of Mar岣shvan one starts to request rain by inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the Amida. Rabban Gamliel says: One starts to request rain on the seventh of Mar岣shvan, which is fifteen days after the festival of Sukkot. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days so that the last pilgrim of the Jewish people, who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, can reach the Euphrates River without being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 转谞讬讗 讞谞谞讬讛 讗讜诪专 讜讘讙讜诇讛 注讚 砖砖讬诐 讘转拽讜驻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讞谞谞讬讛

GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Mar岣shvan. It is taught in a baraita that 岣nanya says: And in the Diaspora one does not begin to request rain until sixty days into the season, i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. Rav Huna bar 岣yya said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of 岣nanya.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬诪转 诪讚讻专讬谞谉 讜转谉 讟诇 讜诪讟专 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讻讬 诪注讬讬诇讬 爪讬讘讬 诇讘讬 讟讘讜转 专讬砖讘讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [rishba]. This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by 岣nanya. The Gemara suggests: Perhaps this and that are one measure of time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 砖砖讬诐 讗讜 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐 转讗 砖诪注 专讘 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 砖砖讬诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the sixtieth day itself treated as part of the period before the sixtieth day or is it included in the period after the sixtieth day? The Gemara answers. Come and hear that there is a dispute in this regard. Rav said: The sixtieth day is part of the period after the sixtieth day, and Shmuel said: The sixtieth day is part of the period before the sixtieth.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜住讬诪谞讱 注诇讗讬 讘注讜 诪讬讗 转转讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 诪讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛诇讻转讗 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: And your mnemonic to remember the divergent opinions is: Those above require water; those below do not require water. Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. Rav Pappa said: The halakha is that the sixtieth day is part of the period after the sixtieth day, as stated by Rav, and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讙讬注 砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 诪转注谞讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讛讙讬注 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛

MISHNA: If the seventeenth of Mar岣shvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals, but not the entire community, begin to fast three fasts for rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one may eat and drink after dark, and one is permitted during the days of the fasts themselves to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing oil on one鈥檚 body, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. If the New Moon of Kislev arrived and rain has still not fallen, the court decrees three fasts on the entire community. Similar to the individual fasts, everyone may eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing one鈥檚 body with oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.

讙诪壮 诪讗谉 讬讞讬讚讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专讘谞谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬讞讬讚讬诐 诪转注谞讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Who are these individuals mentioned in the mishna? Rav Huna said: This is referring to the Sages, who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. And Rav Huna further said: The individuals who fast the three fasts do so on a Monday, and on the next Thursday, and again on the following Monday.

诪讗讬 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 转谞讬谞讗 讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讞诪讬砖讬 砖诇讗 诇讛驻拽讬注 讗转 讛砖注专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬

The Gemara asks: What is Rav Huna teaching us? We already learned this (15b): The court may not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather, the first three fasts are established on Monday, and Thursday, and Monday. What does Rav Huna鈥檚 statement add to this ruling?

诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 爪讘讜专 讗讘诇 讬讞讬讚 诇讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讻砖讛转讞讬诇讜 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 诇讛转注谞讜转 诪转注谞讬谉 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara answers: Rav Huna鈥檚 comment is necessary, lest you say that this applies only to a community, but that in the case of an individual, no, the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. This opinion is also taught in a baraita with regard to those mentioned in the mishna: When the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. And if one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, they interrupt the sequence for New Moons,

讜讘讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转

and for commemorative holidays that are written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, which contains a list of dates on which the Sages prohibited fasting.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗诇 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 转诇诪讬讚 讗谞讬 讗讬谞讬 专讗讜讬 诇讛讬讜转 讬讞讬讚 讗诇讗 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讬讞讬讚讬诐 讗讬讝讛讜 讬讞讬讚 讜讗讬讝讛讜 转诇诪讬讚 讬讞讬讚 讻诇 砖专讗讜讬 诇诪谞讜转讜 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 转诇诪讬讚 讻诇 砖砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讘转诇诪讜讚讜 讜讗讜诪专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪住讻转 讚讻诇讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not say: I am only a student, and consequently I am unworthy to be considered an individual who fasts, as stated in the mishna. Rather, with regard to the fasts of individuals, all Torah scholars are individuals. The baraita elaborates: Who is an individual and who is a student? An individual is anyone who is learned in Torah and worthy to be appointed leader and teacher over the community. A student is any Torah scholar who is asked a matter of halakha in his studies and he says the correct answer, and this is the case even if he is familiar only with the tractate of the kalla month, i.e., the tractate the community studied that year.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 注爪诪讜 讬讞讬讚 注讜砖讛 转诇诪讬讚 注讜砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注讜砖讛 讜讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 砖讘讞 讛讜讗 诇讜 讗诇讗 爪注专 讛讜讗 诇讜

The Sages taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual and conduct himself accordingly may do so, and nor may everyone who wants to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: One may do so, and he is even remembered for good, as the conduct of a Torah student is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him. It is proper for one to take these obligations upon himself and he is not considered to be acting inappropriately.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 注爪诪讜 讬讞讬讚 注讜砖讛 转诇诪讬讚 注讜砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘讚讘专 砖诇 砖讘讞 讗讘诇 讘讚讘专 砖诇 爪注专 注讜砖讛 讜讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 砖讗讬谉 砖讘讞 讛讜讗 诇讜 讗诇讗 爪注专 讛讜讗 诇讜

It is taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual may do so, and nor may everyone who wishes to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to a matter of praise, e.g., adorning oneself with the garments of a Torah scholar. However, with regard to a matter of pain, when Torah scholars act strictly, one may do so, and one who acts strictly is remembered for good, as it is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖讛讬讛 诪转注谞讛 注诇 讛爪专讛 讜注讘专讛 注诇 讛讞讜诇讛 讜谞转专驻讗 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 讜诪砖诇讬诐 讛讛讜诇讱 诪诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪转注谞讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 注诪讛谉 诪诪拽讜诐 砖诪转注谞讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 讜诪砖诇讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who was fasting for a certain trouble and the trouble passed, or if one was fasting for the recovery of a sick person and that person was healed, one may not cease his fast merely because its cause has been removed; rather, he completes his fast. The baraita continues: With regard to one who goes from a place where they are not fasting to a place where they are fasting, he fasts with them. Conversely, with regard to one who goes from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting, he completes his fast as a resident of his hometown.

砖讻讞 讜讗讻诇 讜砖转讛 讗诇 讬转专讗讛 讘驻谞讬 讛爪讘讜专 讜讗诇 讬谞讛讬讙 注讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 诇讘谞讬讜 诇诪讛 转转专讗讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬注拽讘 诇讘谞讬讜 讗诇 转专讗讜 注爪诪讻诐 讻砖讗转诐 砖讘注讬谉 诇讗 讘驻谞讬 注砖讜 讜诇讗 讘驻谞讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转拽谞讗讜 讘讻诐

With regard to one who forgot the fast and ate and drank, he should not show himself before the community while satiated, and he should not indulge in luxuries. One should not think that because one has already eaten, his fast is completely nullified, and one may conduct himself as if it were not a fast day at all. Rather, one should minimize one鈥檚 eating, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Jacob said to his sons: Why do you show yourselves?鈥 (Genesis 42:1). Jacob said to his sons: Do not show yourselves when you are satiated, not before the members of the house of Esau, nor before those of Ishmael, so that they not be jealous of you, as they suffer from hunger. This teaches that one should not show he is full when others are hungry.

讗诇 转专讙讝讜 讘讚专讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬讜住祝 诇讗讞讬讜 讗诇 转转注住拽讜 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 砖诪讗 转专讙讝讜 注诇讬讻诐 讛讚专讱

搂 The Gemara presents another piece of advice related to the story of Joseph and his brothers. Joseph said to them: 鈥淪ee that you not fall out by the way鈥 (Genesis 45:24). Rabbi Elazar said that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not become occupied in a matter of halakha, lest you fall out on the way. If you discuss a halakha while traveling you might get into an argument, and it is important for travelers to remain on good terms.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 讘专 讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪讛诇讻讬诐 讘讚专讱 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬砖专祝 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讛诪讛 讛诇讻讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讚讘专 讜讛谞讛 专讻讘 讗砖 讜住讜住讬 讗砖 讜讬驻专讚讜 讘讬谉 砖谞讬讛诐 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 讛讗 诇讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬砖专祝

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya say: With regard to two Torah scholars who are walking along the road and there are no Torah matters discussed between them, they are worthy of being burned, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder鈥 (II聽Kings 2:11). The reason that the chariot of fire did not harm Elisha is because there was a Torah matter between them, from which it may be inferred that had they not been discussing a Torah matter, they would have been worthy of being burned.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诇诪讬讙专住 讛讗 诇注讬讜谞讬

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This opinion of Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya is referring to studying by rote, by reviewing material one has already learned, which is permitted and even appropriate while traveling, whereas that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is referring to examining a halakha in depth, in which case it is likely that the scholars will come into conflict.

讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讗诇 转驻住讬注讜 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 讜讛讻谞讬住讜 讞诪讛 诇注讬专 讗诇 转驻住讬注讜 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 讚讗诪专 诪专 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 谞讜讟诇转 讗讞讚 诪讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诪诪讗讜专 注讬谞讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐

It is taught in a baraita that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not take long strides and bring the sun into the city, i.e., you should enter the city to spend the night there before the sun has set. The Gemara elaborates: Do not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes away one five-hundredth of a person鈥檚 eyesight, and this loss is not worth the time saved.

讜讛讻谞讬住讜 讞诪讛 诇注讬专 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬爪讗 讗讚诐 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讬讻谞住 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 砖谞讗诪专 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讜讛讗谞砖讬诐 砖诇讞讜

The Gemara further explains: And bring the sun into the city, this is in accordance with a statement that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always leave the place where he has spent the night with 鈥渋t is good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), i.e., after sunrise, as the Torah uses the expression 鈥渋t is good鈥 with regard to the creation of light. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one comes into an unfamiliar city he should enter with 鈥渋t is good,鈥 before sunset, as it is stated: 鈥淎s soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away鈥 (Genesis 44:3).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讛诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讗诇 讬讗讻诇 讬讜转专 诪砖谞讬 专注讘讜谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 诪砖讜诐 诪注讬讬谞讗 讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 诪讝讜谞讬 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Similarly, Rav Yehuda said that Rabbi 岣yya said: One who is walking along the road should not eat more each day than he would normally eat each day in a year of famine. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Here in Babylonia they interpreted that the reason is due to one鈥檚 bowels. Since the exertion of traveling can damage full bowels, it is preferable to eat less than the normal amount. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that the reason is due to food, i.e., if one eats too much, his food may not last the entire journey, and therefore he should ration his meals. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them

This month's shiurim are dedicated by聽the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

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Taanit 10

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Taanit 10

讘讘专讬讬转讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐

verse deals with the creation of the world, when all the water was contained in the deep.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 谞讘专讗转 转讞讬诇讛 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 谞讘专讗 诇讘住讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 注讚 诇讗 注砖讛 讗专抓 讜讞讜爪讜转 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖拽讛 讗讜转讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注爪诪讜 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 注诇 讬讚讬 砖诇讬讞 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜砖诇讞 诪讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讞讜爪讜转

The Sages taught in a baraita: Eretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: 鈥淲hile as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields鈥 (Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term 鈥渓and鈥 is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while 鈥渢he fields鈥 means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, Eretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire world is watered through an intermediary, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields鈥 (Job 5:10).

讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖讜转讛 诪讬 讙砖诪讬诐 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转诪爪讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖讜转讛 转讞讬诇讛 讜讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇讘住讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞转谉 诪讟专 注诇 驻谞讬 讗专抓 讜讙讜壮 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讙讘诇 讗转 讛讙讘讬谞讛 谞讜讟诇 讗转 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪谞讬讞 讗转 讛驻住讜诇转

Additionally, Eretz Yisrael drinks rainwater and the rest of the entire world drinks from the remaining residue of rainwater left in the clouds, as it is stated that God is He 鈥渨ho gives rain upon the land鈥 and only afterward takes what is left 鈥渁nd sends water upon the fields.鈥 Eretz Yisrael drinks first, and the rest of the entire world afterward, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the land and sends water upon the fields.鈥 There is a parable that illustrates this: A person who kneads his cheese after it has curdled takes the food and leaves the refuse.

讗诪专 诪专 诪诪转拽讬谉 讛谉 讘注讘讬诐 诪谞诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻转讬讘 讞砖讻转 诪讬诐 注讘讬 砖讞拽讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讞砖专转 诪讬诐 注讘讬 砖讞拽讬诐

The Master said above: The ocean waters are sweetened in the clouds. The Gemara asks: From where does Rabbi Eliezer derive this? The Gemara answers that Rav Yitz岣k bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said that it is written: 鈥淒arkness [岣shkhat] of waters, thick clouds of the skies鈥 (Psalms 18:12). And it is written, in a similar verse: 鈥淕athering of [岣shrat] waters, thick clouds of the skies鈥 (II聽Samuel 22:12).

砖拽讜诇 讻祝 讜砖讚讬 讗专讬砖 讜拽专讬 讘讬讛 讞讻砖专转

The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a kaf for a reish. If you join the two versions together, and take the letter kaf from the first version and place it with the second version of the word, which has a reish, you can read into the verse a new word meaning rendering fit [岣khsharat]. Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.

讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘讛谞讬 拽专讗讬 诪讗讬 讚专讬砖 讘讛讜 住讘专 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗 讚讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讗诪专讬 讘诪注专讘讗 谞讛讜专 注谞谞讬 讝注讬专讬谉 诪讜讛讬 讞砖讜讱 注谞谞讬 住讙讬讬谉 诪讜讛讬

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yehoshua, with regard to these verses, what does he learn from them? The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua holds in accordance with the opinion of this Sage, Rav Dimi. As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that they say in the West, Eretz Yisrael: When clouds are bright, they have little water; when clouds are dark, they have much water. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is 鈥渁 darkness of waters鈥 in the clouds, there is also 鈥渁 gathering of waters,鈥 as rain will fall from them.

讻诪讗谉 讗讝诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪讬诐 讛注诇讬讜谞讬诐 讘诪讗诪专 讛诐 转诇讜讬诐 讜驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 诪讬 讙砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪驻专讬 诪注砖讬讱 转砖讘注 讛讗专抓 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讬讚讬讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The upper waters do not stand in any defined place; rather, they are suspended by the word of God, and their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated: 鈥淲ho waters the mountains from His upper chambers; the earth is full of the fruit of Your works鈥 (Psalms 104:13). In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer, how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: That verse from Psalms is written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He, not the upper waters.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪转诪爪讬转 讙谉 注讚谉 讛讜讗 砖讜转讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞讛专 讬爪讗 诪注讚谉 讜讙讜壮 转谞讗 诪转诪爪讬转 讘讬转 讻讜专 砖讜转讛 转专拽讘

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a river went out of Eden to water the garden鈥 (Genesis 2:10). It was taught in a baraita: From the runoff of a beit kor, a field in which a kor of seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which a half-se鈥檃 [tarkav], of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a beit kor, can be watered. If the runoff from a beit kor is sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讛讜讬讗 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 注诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 讜讛讜讗 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘讻讜砖 讜讻讜砖 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讜注讜诇诐 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 讘讙谉 讜讙谉 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 诇注讚谉 讜注讚谉 讗讞讚 诪砖砖讬诐 诇讙讬讛谞诐 谞诪爪讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讻讻讬住讜讬 拽讚专讛 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讙讬讛谞诐 讗讬谉 诇讛 砖讬注讜专 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚谉 讗讬谉 诇讛 砖讬注讜专

The Sages taught in a baraita: The area of the land of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [parsa] by four hundred parasangs. And this is one sixtieth the size of Cush, and Cush itself is one sixtieth the size of the rest of the world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one sixtieth of Eden itself, and Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna. You find that the entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna, as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. And some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some say that Eden has no measure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 砖讻谞转 注诇 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 专讘转 讗讜爪专转 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讘讘诇 砖讬讛讜 讗讜爪专讜转讬讛 诪诇讗讜转 讘专 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖砖讜讻谞转 注诇 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 注转讬专讛 讘讘诇 讚讞爪讚讗 讘诇讗 诪讬讟专讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 谞拽讬讟讬谞谉 讟讜讘注谞讬 讜诇讗 讬讜讘砖谞讬

Rabbi Oshaya said: What is the meaning of that which is written about Babylonia: 鈥淵ou who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses鈥 (Jeremiah 51:13)? What caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must say that it is due to the fact that it resides on many waters, the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, Rav said: Babylonia is wealthy since it can grow crops for harvest even without rain. Abaye said: We hold that it is better for a land to be swampy like Babylonia, and not dry, as crops in Babylonia grow all year.

诪转谞讬壮 讘砖诇砖讛 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘砖讘注讛 讘讜 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 讗讞专 讛讞讙 讻讚讬 砖讬讙讬注 讗讞专讜谉 砖讘讬砖专讗诇 诇谞讛专 驻专转

MISHNA: On the third of the month of Mar岣shvan one starts to request rain by inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the Amida. Rabban Gamliel says: One starts to request rain on the seventh of Mar岣shvan, which is fifteen days after the festival of Sukkot. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days so that the last pilgrim of the Jewish people, who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, can reach the Euphrates River without being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 转谞讬讗 讞谞谞讬讛 讗讜诪专 讜讘讙讜诇讛 注讚 砖砖讬诐 讘转拽讜驻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讞谞谞讬讛

GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Mar岣shvan. It is taught in a baraita that 岣nanya says: And in the Diaspora one does not begin to request rain until sixty days into the season, i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. Rav Huna bar 岣yya said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of 岣nanya.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讘注讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬诪转 诪讚讻专讬谞谉 讜转谉 讟诇 讜诪讟专 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讻讬 诪注讬讬诇讬 爪讬讘讬 诇讘讬 讟讘讜转 专讬砖讘讗 讚讬诇诪讗 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [rishba]. This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by 岣nanya. The Gemara suggests: Perhaps this and that are one measure of time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 砖砖讬诐 讗讜 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐 转讗 砖诪注 专讘 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 砖砖讬诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the sixtieth day itself treated as part of the period before the sixtieth day or is it included in the period after the sixtieth day? The Gemara answers. Come and hear that there is a dispute in this regard. Rav said: The sixtieth day is part of the period after the sixtieth day, and Shmuel said: The sixtieth day is part of the period before the sixtieth.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜住讬诪谞讱 注诇讗讬 讘注讜 诪讬讗 转转讗讬 诇讗 讘注讜 诪讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛诇讻转讗 讬讜诐 砖砖讬诐 讻诇讗讞专 砖砖讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: And your mnemonic to remember the divergent opinions is: Those above require water; those below do not require water. Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. Rav Pappa said: The halakha is that the sixtieth day is part of the period after the sixtieth day, as stated by Rav, and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讙讬注 砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 诪转注谞讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讛讙讬注 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 讜诇讗 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖讞砖讬讻讛 讜诪讜转专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛

MISHNA: If the seventeenth of Mar岣shvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals, but not the entire community, begin to fast three fasts for rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one may eat and drink after dark, and one is permitted during the days of the fasts themselves to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing oil on one鈥檚 body, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. If the New Moon of Kislev arrived and rain has still not fallen, the court decrees three fasts on the entire community. Similar to the individual fasts, everyone may eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing one鈥檚 body with oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.

讙诪壮 诪讗谉 讬讞讬讚讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专讘谞谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讬讞讬讚讬诐 诪转注谞讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Who are these individuals mentioned in the mishna? Rav Huna said: This is referring to the Sages, who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. And Rav Huna further said: The individuals who fast the three fasts do so on a Monday, and on the next Thursday, and again on the following Monday.

诪讗讬 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 转谞讬谞讗 讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讞诪讬砖讬 砖诇讗 诇讛驻拽讬注 讗转 讛砖注专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬

The Gemara asks: What is Rav Huna teaching us? We already learned this (15b): The court may not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather, the first three fasts are established on Monday, and Thursday, and Monday. What does Rav Huna鈥檚 statement add to this ruling?

诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 爪讘讜专 讗讘诇 讬讞讬讚 诇讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讻砖讛转讞讬诇讜 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 诇讛转注谞讜转 诪转注谞讬谉 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara answers: Rav Huna鈥檚 comment is necessary, lest you say that this applies only to a community, but that in the case of an individual, no, the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. This opinion is also taught in a baraita with regard to those mentioned in the mishna: When the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. And if one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, they interrupt the sequence for New Moons,

讜讘讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转

and for commemorative holidays that are written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, which contains a list of dates on which the Sages prohibited fasting.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗诇 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 转诇诪讬讚 讗谞讬 讗讬谞讬 专讗讜讬 诇讛讬讜转 讬讞讬讚 讗诇讗 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讬讞讬讚讬诐 讗讬讝讛讜 讬讞讬讚 讜讗讬讝讛讜 转诇诪讬讚 讬讞讬讚 讻诇 砖专讗讜讬 诇诪谞讜转讜 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 转诇诪讬讚 讻诇 砖砖讜讗诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讘转诇诪讜讚讜 讜讗讜诪专 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪住讻转 讚讻诇讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not say: I am only a student, and consequently I am unworthy to be considered an individual who fasts, as stated in the mishna. Rather, with regard to the fasts of individuals, all Torah scholars are individuals. The baraita elaborates: Who is an individual and who is a student? An individual is anyone who is learned in Torah and worthy to be appointed leader and teacher over the community. A student is any Torah scholar who is asked a matter of halakha in his studies and he says the correct answer, and this is the case even if he is familiar only with the tractate of the kalla month, i.e., the tractate the community studied that year.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 注爪诪讜 讬讞讬讚 注讜砖讛 转诇诪讬讚 注讜砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注讜砖讛 讜讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 砖讘讞 讛讜讗 诇讜 讗诇讗 爪注专 讛讜讗 诇讜

The Sages taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual and conduct himself accordingly may do so, and nor may everyone who wants to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: One may do so, and he is even remembered for good, as the conduct of a Torah student is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him. It is proper for one to take these obligations upon himself and he is not considered to be acting inappropriately.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 注爪诪讜 讬讞讬讚 注讜砖讛 转诇诪讬讚 注讜砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘讚讘专 砖诇 砖讘讞 讗讘诇 讘讚讘专 砖诇 爪注专 注讜砖讛 讜讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 砖讗讬谉 砖讘讞 讛讜讗 诇讜 讗诇讗 爪注专 讛讜讗 诇讜

It is taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual may do so, and nor may everyone who wishes to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to a matter of praise, e.g., adorning oneself with the garments of a Torah scholar. However, with regard to a matter of pain, when Torah scholars act strictly, one may do so, and one who acts strictly is remembered for good, as it is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬 砖讛讬讛 诪转注谞讛 注诇 讛爪专讛 讜注讘专讛 注诇 讛讞讜诇讛 讜谞转专驻讗 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 讜诪砖诇讬诐 讛讛讜诇讱 诪诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪转注谞讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 注诪讛谉 诪诪拽讜诐 砖诪转注谞讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诪转注谞讛 讜诪砖诇讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who was fasting for a certain trouble and the trouble passed, or if one was fasting for the recovery of a sick person and that person was healed, one may not cease his fast merely because its cause has been removed; rather, he completes his fast. The baraita continues: With regard to one who goes from a place where they are not fasting to a place where they are fasting, he fasts with them. Conversely, with regard to one who goes from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting, he completes his fast as a resident of his hometown.

砖讻讞 讜讗讻诇 讜砖转讛 讗诇 讬转专讗讛 讘驻谞讬 讛爪讘讜专 讜讗诇 讬谞讛讬讙 注讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘注爪诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 诇讘谞讬讜 诇诪讛 转转专讗讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬注拽讘 诇讘谞讬讜 讗诇 转专讗讜 注爪诪讻诐 讻砖讗转诐 砖讘注讬谉 诇讗 讘驻谞讬 注砖讜 讜诇讗 讘驻谞讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转拽谞讗讜 讘讻诐

With regard to one who forgot the fast and ate and drank, he should not show himself before the community while satiated, and he should not indulge in luxuries. One should not think that because one has already eaten, his fast is completely nullified, and one may conduct himself as if it were not a fast day at all. Rather, one should minimize one鈥檚 eating, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Jacob said to his sons: Why do you show yourselves?鈥 (Genesis 42:1). Jacob said to his sons: Do not show yourselves when you are satiated, not before the members of the house of Esau, nor before those of Ishmael, so that they not be jealous of you, as they suffer from hunger. This teaches that one should not show he is full when others are hungry.

讗诇 转专讙讝讜 讘讚专讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讬讜住祝 诇讗讞讬讜 讗诇 转转注住拽讜 讘讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 砖诪讗 转专讙讝讜 注诇讬讻诐 讛讚专讱

搂 The Gemara presents another piece of advice related to the story of Joseph and his brothers. Joseph said to them: 鈥淪ee that you not fall out by the way鈥 (Genesis 45:24). Rabbi Elazar said that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not become occupied in a matter of halakha, lest you fall out on the way. If you discuss a halakha while traveling you might get into an argument, and it is important for travelers to remain on good terms.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 讘专 讘专讻讬讛 砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖诪讛诇讻讬诐 讘讚专讱 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬砖专祝 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讛诪讛 讛诇讻讬诐 讛诇讜讱 讜讚讘专 讜讛谞讛 专讻讘 讗砖 讜住讜住讬 讗砖 讜讬驻专讚讜 讘讬谉 砖谞讬讛诐 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 讛讗 诇讬讻讗 讚讬讘讜专 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬砖专祝

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya say: With regard to two Torah scholars who are walking along the road and there are no Torah matters discussed between them, they are worthy of being burned, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder鈥 (II聽Kings 2:11). The reason that the chariot of fire did not harm Elisha is because there was a Torah matter between them, from which it may be inferred that had they not been discussing a Torah matter, they would have been worthy of being burned.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诇诪讬讙专住 讛讗 诇注讬讜谞讬

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This opinion of Rabbi Elai bar Berekhya is referring to studying by rote, by reviewing material one has already learned, which is permitted and even appropriate while traveling, whereas that opinion of Rabbi Elazar is referring to examining a halakha in depth, in which case it is likely that the scholars will come into conflict.

讘诪转谞讬转讗 转谞讗 讗诇 转驻住讬注讜 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 讜讛讻谞讬住讜 讞诪讛 诇注讬专 讗诇 转驻住讬注讜 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 讚讗诪专 诪专 驻住讬注讛 讙住讛 谞讜讟诇转 讗讞讚 诪讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 诪诪讗讜专 注讬谞讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐

It is taught in a baraita that Joseph said to his brothers: Do not take long strides and bring the sun into the city, i.e., you should enter the city to spend the night there before the sun has set. The Gemara elaborates: Do not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes away one five-hundredth of a person鈥檚 eyesight, and this loss is not worth the time saved.

讜讛讻谞讬住讜 讞诪讛 诇注讬专 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬爪讗 讗讚诐 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讬讻谞住 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 砖谞讗诪专 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讜讛讗谞砖讬诐 砖诇讞讜

The Gemara further explains: And bring the sun into the city, this is in accordance with a statement that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always leave the place where he has spent the night with 鈥渋t is good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), i.e., after sunrise, as the Torah uses the expression 鈥渋t is good鈥 with regard to the creation of light. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one comes into an unfamiliar city he should enter with 鈥渋t is good,鈥 before sunset, as it is stated: 鈥淎s soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away鈥 (Genesis 44:3).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讛诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讗诇 讬讗讻诇 讬讜转专 诪砖谞讬 专注讘讜谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 诪砖讜诐 诪注讬讬谞讗 讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 诪讝讜谞讬 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Similarly, Rav Yehuda said that Rabbi 岣yya said: One who is walking along the road should not eat more each day than he would normally eat each day in a year of famine. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Here in Babylonia they interpreted that the reason is due to one鈥檚 bowels. Since the exertion of traveling can damage full bowels, it is preferable to eat less than the normal amount. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say that the reason is due to food, i.e., if one eats too much, his food may not last the entire journey, and therefore he should ration his meals. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them

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