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Today's Daf Yomi

December 8, 2021 | 讚壮 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 26

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Geri Goldstein Guedalia in loving memory of her mother, Helen Saipe, Tzippa Hinda bat Avraham v鈥橠evora Draza on her shloshim.

Today鈥檚 daf is also sponsored by David and Jael Eichin on behalf of their daughter’s first birthday. “Mazal Tov to our wonderful daughter Maayan Rachel. One year ago today you joined us in this world on the eve of the ninth day of Chanuka, as we now call it. This past year has been a journey of so much joy, awe to HaKadosh Baruch Hu, amazement, fun, and exhaustion. Even while you were still in my tummy, you got to hear the wonderful Michelle Farber. And in the first few months after you were born, we learned the daf together. May Torah be a guide to you and Derech Eretz your way of life. We love you and are immensely happy to be your parents. Thank you Michelle Farber for your amazing work!”

If it rains on the day of a fast, is Hallel to be recited before or after the people eat? On what does it depend? On public fasts, Yom Kippur and the prayers recited by the maamadTheot, rotations of people who prayed that the sacrificed would be accepted, the kohanim bless the people four times 鈥 shacharit, musaf, mincha and neila. Why were there maamadot? What was the Torah reading that the people who were in the maamadot would read on each day of the week when they were on duty? What days of the year were there no prayers are Torah reading of the maamadot or they were limited to certain prayers? There were nine days a year that were celebratory days for certain families as they would donate wood to the Temple on those days. The Mishna lists which family brought on which day. On those days the maamadot were also limited somewhat and were not said in either mincha or musaf (subject of debate between Rabbi Akiva and Ben Azai). Five tragic events happened on the 17th of Tamuz and five on Tisha B鈥檃v. What were they? What are things that should be limited from Rosh Chodesh Av, the week of Tisha B鈥檃v and erev Tisha B鈥檃v in the afternoon? The happiest days of the year were the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur. Why? The Mishna had stated that there are three days where the kohanim bless the people in four tefillot. However, this is not so accurate as on some of those days there is no musaf. How is this resolved? In addition, there is a debate about whether the kohanim bless the people in both mincha and neila. What is at the root of the debate? Who do we hold like? From where do we derive that a kohen who is drunk cannot bless the people? From the nazir.

讗诇讗 注诇 谞驻砖 砖讘注讛 讜讻专住 诪诇讗讛 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讚讗讘讬 讙讜讘专 讜讙讝专 转注谞讬转 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讗诪专 讛诇诇 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 砖讗谞讬 讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讚砖讻讬讞讬 讘讛讜 砖讻专讜转

only on a satisfied soul and a full stomach. Consequently, it is preferable to return home to eat and drink so as to recite hallel in the proper frame of mind. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But Rav Pappa happened to come to the synagogue of Avi Govar in Me岣za, and he decreed a fast, and rain fell for them before midday, and yet he recited hallel immediately, and only afterward they ate and drank. The Gemara explains: The inhabitants of the city of Me岣za are different, as drunkenness is common among them. Had Rav Pappa told them to go home to eat and drink, they would have become drunk and been unable to pray.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讗诇讜

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讘砖谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛谉 讗专讘注 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讘砖讞专讬转 讘诪讜住祝 讘诪谞讞讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 砖注专讬诐 讘转注谞讬讜转 讜讘诪注诪讚讜转 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

MISHNA: At three times in the year priests raise their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction four times in a single day, in the morning prayer, in the additional prayer, in the afternoon prayer, and in the evening in the closing of the gates, i.e., the ne鈥檌la prayer. And these are the three times: During communal fasts held due to lack of rain, on which the closing prayer is recited; and during non-priestly watches [ma鈥檃madot], when the Israelite members of the guard parallel to the priestly watch come and read the act of Creation from the Torah, as explained below; and on Yom Kippur.

讗诇讜 讛谉 诪注诪讚讜转 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 爪讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 拽专讘谞讬 诇讞诪讬 讜讻讬 讛讬讗讱 拽专讘谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜讗 讗讬谞讜 注讜诪讚 注诇 讙讘讬讜

These are the non-priestly watches: Since it is stated: 鈥淐ommand the children of Israel and say to them: My offering of food, which is presented to Me made by a fire, of a sweet savor to Me, you shall guard the sacrifice to Me in its due season鈥 (Numbers 28:2), this verse teaches that the daily offering was a communal obligation that applied to every member of the Jewish people. The mishna asks: But how can a person鈥檚 offering be sacrificed when he is not standing next to it?

讛转拽讬谞讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诪砖诪专讜转 注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讛讬讛 诪注诪讚 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖诇 讻讛谞讬诐 砖诇 诇讜讬诐 讜砖诇 讬砖专讗诇讬诐

The mishna explains: Since it is impossible for the entire nation to be present in Jerusalem when the daily offering is brought, the early prophets, Samuel and David, instituted the division of the priests into twenty-four priestly watches, each of which served for approximately one week, twice per year. For each and every priestly watch there was a corresponding non-priestly watch in Jerusalem of priests, Levites, and Israelites who would stand by the communal offerings for that day to represent the community.

讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讛诪砖诪专 诇注诇讜转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讜讬诐 注讜诇讬诐 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讗讜转讜 诪砖诪专 诪转讻谞住讬谉 诇注专讬讛谉 讜拽讜专讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗谞砖讬 讛诪注诪讚 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘砖讘讜注 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讬 讜注讚 讬讜诐 讞诪讬砖讬 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 注专讘 砖讘转 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转 讜诇讗 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讜讞讛 讜注讜谞讙 诇讬讙讬注讛 讜转注谞讬转 讜讬诪讜转讜

When the time arrived for the members of a certain priestly watch to ascend, the priests and Levites of that watch would ascend to Jerusalem to perform the Temple service. And as for the Israelites assigned to that priestly watch, some of them went up to Jerusalem, while the rest of them assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation. And the members of the non-priestly watch, who represented the entire community that week, would fast four days a week, from Monday until Thursday. And they would not fast on Shabbat eve, in deference to Shabbat, as they did not wish to start Shabbat while fasting. And they did not fast on Sunday, so as not to go from rest and delight immediately to exertion and fasting, and run the risk that they might die as a result of the abrupt change.

讘讬讜诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讬讛讬 专拽讬注 讘砖谞讬 讬讛讬 专拽讬注 讜讬拽讜讜 讛诪讬诐 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讬拽讜讜 讛诪讬诐 讜讬讛讬 诪讗专转 讘专讘讬注讬 讬讛讬 诪讗专转 讜讬砖专爪讜 讛诪讬诐 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讬砖专爪讜 讛诪讬诐 讜转讜爪讗 讛讗专抓 讘砖砖讬 转讜爪讗 讛讗专抓 讜讬讻诇讜 讛砖诪讬诐

Which portions of the Torah would the members of the non-priestly watch read on each day? On Sunday they would read the portions starting with: 鈥淚n the beginning鈥 and 鈥淟et there be a firmament鈥 (Genesis 1:1鈥8). On Monday they would read: 鈥淟et there be a firmament鈥 and 鈥淟et the waters be gathered鈥 (Genesis 1:9鈥13). On Tuesday they would read: 鈥淟et the waters be gathered鈥 and 鈥淟et there be lights鈥 (Genesis 1:14鈥19). On Wednesday: 鈥淟et there be lights鈥 and 鈥淟et the waters swarm鈥 (Genesis 1:20鈥23). On Thursday: 鈥淟et the waters swarm鈥 and 鈥淟et the earth bring forth鈥 (Genesis 1:24鈥31). On Friday: 鈥淟et the earth bring forth鈥 and 鈥淎nd the heaven and the earth were finished鈥 (Genesis 2:1鈥3).

驻专砖讛 讙讚讜诇讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘砖谞讬诐 讜讛拽讟谞讛 讘讬讞讬讚 讘砖讞专讬转 讜讘诪讜住祝 讜讘诪谞讞讛 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 注诇 驻讬讛谉 讻拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 注专讘 砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 谞讻谞住讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

A long passage, consisting of six verses or more, is read by two people, and a short passage is read by one, as one cannot read fewer than three verses from the Torah together. They read from the Torah in the morning prayer and in the additional prayer. In the afternoon prayer the members of the non-priestly watch enter the synagogue and read the daily portion by heart, just as one recites Shema every day. On Shabbat eve at the afternoon prayer, they would not enter the synagogue for the communal Torah readings, in deference to Shabbat.

讻诇 讬讜诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 讛诇诇 讗讬谉 诪注诪讚 讘砖讞专讬转 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讗讬谉 讘谞注讬诇讛 拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

The mishna states a principle: On any day that has the recitation of hallel, but on which the additional offering was not sacrificed, e.g., Hanukkah, there is no reading of the Torah by the non-priestly watch in the morning prayer. On days that have both hallel and an additional offering, such as Festivals, the non-priestly watch would also not read from the Torah at the closing prayer. When a wood offering was brought, as explained below, there was no non-priestly watch in the afternoon prayer. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 诇讜 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讻讱 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 砖讜谞讛 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘谞注讬诇讛 讞讝专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讛讬讜转 砖讜谞讛 讻讘谉 注讝讗讬

Ben Azzai said to Rabbi Akiva that this is how Rabbi Yehoshua would teach this halakha: On days when an additional offering was sacrificed, there was no non-priestly watch in the afternoon prayer. When a wood offering was brought, there was no non-priestly watch in the closing prayer. Upon hearing this, Rabbi Akiva retracted his ruling and began to teach in accordance with the opinion of ben Azzai.

讝诪谉 注爪讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讛注诐 转砖注讛 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 讘谞讬 讗专讞 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讘转诪讜讝 讘谞讬 讚讜讚 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讞诪砖讛 讘讗讘 讘谞讬 驻专注讜砖 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘砖讘注讛 讘讜 讘谞讬 讬讜谞讚讘 讘谉 专讻讘 讘注砖专讛 讘讜 讘谞讬 住谞讗讛 讘谉 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讜 讘谞讬 讝转讜讗 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛

The mishna details the times for the wood offering of priests and the people. These were private holidays specific to certain families, on which their members would volunteer a wood offering for the altar. There were nine such days and families: On the first of Nisan, the descendants of Ara岣 ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Tammuz, the descendants of David ben Yehuda; on the fifth of Av, the descendants of Parosh ben Yehuda; on the seventh of Av, the descendants of Jonadab ben Rechab; on the tenth of Av, the descendants of Sena鈥檃 ben Binyamin; on the fifteenth of Av, the descendants of Zattu ben Yehuda.

讜注诪讛诐 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讜讬诐 讜讻诇 诪讬 砖讟注讛 讘砖讘讟讜 讜讘谞讬 讙讜谞讘讬 注诇讬 讜讘谞讬 拽讜爪注讬 拽爪讬注讜转

And included with this group of Zattu ben Yehuda鈥檚 descendants were other priests; and Levites; and anyone who erred with regard to his tribe, i.e., Israelites who did not know which tribe they were from, and the descendants of those who deceived the authorities with a pestle; and the descendants of those who packed dried figs. These last groups and their descriptions are explained in the Gemara.

讘注砖专讬诐 讘讜 讘谞讬 驻讞转 诪讜讗讘 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讘讗诇讜诇 讘谞讬 注讚讬谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讗讞讚 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 讘谞讬 驻专注讜砖 砖谞讬讛 讘讗讞讚 讘讟讘转 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 诪注诪讚 砖讛讬讛 讘讜 讛诇诇 讜拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讜拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐

The mishna resumes its list. On the twentieth of Av, the descendants of Pa岣t Moav ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Elul, the descendants of Adin ben Yehuda; on the first of Tevet, the descendants of Parosh returned to bring wood for a second time; likewise on the first of Tevet, there was no non-priestly watch, as it is Hanukkah, on which hallel is recited, and it is the New Moon, on which an additional offering is sacrificed, and there was also a wood offering.

讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讬专注讜 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 讘砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘转诪讜讝 讜讞诪砖讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘转诪讜讝

The mishna discusses the five major communal fast days. Five calamitous matters occurred to our forefathers on the seventeenth of Tammuz, and five other disasters happened on the Ninth of Av. On the seventeenth of Tammuz

谞砖转讘专讜 讛诇讜讞讜转 讜讘讟诇 讛转诪讬讚 讜讛讜讘拽注讛 讛注讬专 讜砖专祝 讗驻讜住讟诪讜住 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讜讛注诪讬讚 爪诇诐 讘讛讬讻诇

the tablets were broken by Moses when he saw that the Jews had made the golden calf; the daily offering was nullified by the Roman authorities and was never sacrificed again; the city walls of Jerusalem were breached; the general Apostemos publicly burned a Torah scroll; and Manasseh placed an idol in the Sanctuary.

讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 谞讙讝专 注诇 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讻谞住讜 诇讗专抓 讜讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讘砖谞讬讛 讜谞诇讻讚讛 讘讬转专 讜谞讞专砖讛 讛注讬专

On the Ninth of Av it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would all die in the wilderness and not enter Eretz Yisrael; and the Temple was destroyed the first time, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, and the second time, by the Romans; and Beitar was captured; and the city of Jerusalem was plowed, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt.

诪砖谞讻谞住 讗讘 诪诪注讟讬谉 讘砖诪讞讛 砖讘转 砖讞诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讛讬讜转 讘转讜讻讛 讗住讜专 诪诇住驻专 讜诪诇讻讘住 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转 注专讘 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讘砖专 讜诇讗 讬砖转讛 讬讬谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讬讬讘 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐

Not only does one fast on the Ninth of Av, but from when the month of Av begins, one decreases acts of rejoicing. During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one鈥檚 hair and to launder clothes, but if the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. On the eve of the Ninth of Av a person may not eat two cooked dishes in one meal. Furthermore, one may neither eat meat nor drink wine. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One must adjust and decrease the amount he eats. Rabbi Yehuda obligates one to overturn the bed and sleep on the floor like one in a state of mourning, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.

讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 讜讻讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讘讻诇讬 诇讘谉 砖讗讜诇讬谉 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讻诇 讛讻诇讬诐 讟注讜谞讬谉 讟讘讬诇讛

The mishna cites a passage that concludes its discussion of the month of Av, as well as the entire tractate of Ta鈥檃nit, on a positive note. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as joyous for the Jewish people as the fifteenth of Av and as Yom Kippur, as on them the daughters of Jerusalem would go out in white clothes, which each woman borrowed from another. Why were they borrowed? They did this so as not to embarrass one who did not have her own white garments. All the garments that the women borrowed require immersion, as those who previously wore them might have been ritually impure.

讜讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讜讞讜诇讜转 讘讻专诪讬诐 讜诪讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讜转 讘讞讜专 砖讗 谞讗 注讬谞讬讱 讜专讗讛 诪讛 讗转讛 讘讜专专 诇讱 讗诇 转转谉 注讬谞讬讱 讘谞讜讬 转谉 注讬谞讬讱 讘诪砖驻讞讛 砖拽专 讛讞谉 讜讛讘诇 讛讬驻讬 讗砖讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 转转讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 转谞讜 诇讛 诪驻专讬 讬讚讬讛 讜讬讛诇诇讜讛 讘砖注专讬诐 诪注砖讬讛

And the daughters of Jerusalem would go out and dance in the vineyards. And what would they say? Young man, please lift up your eyes and see what you choose for yourself for a wife. Do not set your eyes toward beauty, but set your eyes toward a good family, as the verse states: 鈥淕race is deceitful and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised鈥 (Proverbs 31:30), and it further says: 鈥淕ive her the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates鈥 (Proverbs 31:31).

讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 爪讗讬谞讛 讜专讗讬谞讛 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 讘诪诇讱 砖诇诪讛 讘注讟专讛 砖注讟专讛 诇讜 讗诪讜 讘讬讜诐 讞转谞转讜 讜讘讬讜诐 砖诪讞转 诇讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讞转谞转讜 讝讛 诪转谉 转讜专讛 讜讘讬讜诐 砖诪讞转 诇讘讜 讝讛 讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖讬讘谞讛 讘诪讛专讛 讘讬诪讬谞讜

And similarly, it says in another verse: 鈥淕o forth, daughters of Zion, and gaze upon King Solomon, upon the crown with which his mother crowned him on the day of his wedding, and on the day of the gladness of his heart鈥 (Song of Songs 3:11). This verse is explained as an allusion to special days: 鈥淥n the day of his wedding鈥; this is the giving of the Torah through the second set of tablets on Yom Kippur. The name King Solomon in this context, which also means king of peace, is interpreted as a reference to God. 鈥淎nd on the day of the gladness of his heart鈥; this is the building of the Temple, may it be rebuilt speedily in our days.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讘砖谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛诐 讻讜壮 转注谞讬讜转 讜诪注诪讚讜转 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诪讜住祝 讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讜讬砖 诪讛谉 讗专讘注讛 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇转 砖注专讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 转注谞讬讜转 讜诪注诪讚讜转 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

GEMARA: The mishna taught: At three times in the year priests raise their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction four times in a single day: On communal fasts, non-priestly watches, and Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks: How do they recite the Priestly Benediction four times on these days? Do fast days and gatherings of non-priestly watches have an additional prayer? The Gemara explains that the mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: At three times in the year priests raise their hands each time they pray, and on some of these they bless four times a day, in the morning prayer, in the additional prayer, in the afternoon prayer, and in the closing of the gates, i.e., the ne鈥檌la prayer. And these are the three times: Communal fasts, non-priestly watches, and Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐

Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This mishna is the statement of Rabbi Meir. However, the Rabbis say: The morning prayer and the additional prayer have the Priestly Benediction of the raising of the hands, whereas the afternoon prayer and the closing prayer [ne鈥檌la] do not have the raising of the hands.

诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讻讜诇谉 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 谞注讬诇讛 讬砖 讘讛 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讗讬谉 讘讛 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐

The Gemara asks: Who are these Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: The morning prayer, the additional prayer, the afternoon prayer, and ne鈥檌la all have the Priestly Benediction of the raising of the hands. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: The morning prayer and the additional prayer have the raising of the hands, whereas the afternoon prayer and ne鈥檌la do not have the raising of the hands. Rabbi Yosei says: Ne鈥檌la has the raising of the hands; the afternoon prayer does not have the raising of the hands.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诇讗 驻专砖讬 讻讛谞讬 讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘诪谞讞转讗 诪砖讜诐 砖讻专讜转 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讬讻讗 砖讻专讜转

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? Rabbi Meir maintains: What is the reason that priests do not spread their hands to bless the people every day in the afternoon prayer? It is due to potential drunkenness, as people occasionally become intoxicated during their lunch, and it is prohibited for an inebriated priest to bless. However, now, on a fast day, there is no concern about drunkenness, and therefore the priests may recite the Priestly Benediction even in the afternoon prayer.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞 砖讻专讜转 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉

Conversely, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that with regard to the morning prayer and the additional prayer, when drunkenness is not common on every ordinary day, the Sages did not issue a decree that the Priestly Benediction be omitted during them. However, with regard to the afternoon prayer and ne鈥檌la, when drunkenness is common on every day, the Sages issued a decree that the Priestly Benediction should not be recited during them, despite the fact that intoxication is not a concern on a fast day.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 诪谞讞讛 讚讗讬转讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉 谞注讬诇讛 讚诇讬转讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉

Finally, Rabbi Yosei maintains that with regard to the afternoon prayer, which is recited every day, the Sages issued a decree concerning it, whereas with regard to ne鈥檌la, which is not recited every day, the Sages did not issue and apply their decree to it, as there is no concern that people might become confused between ne鈥檌la and an afternoon prayer of a regular weekday.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 谞讛讙讜 讛注诐 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讗 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The people act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. And Rava said: The custom is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讚专砖讬谞谉 诇讛 讘驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪谞讛讙 诪讬讚专砖 诇讗 讚专砖讬谞谉 讗讜专讜讬讬 诪讜专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞讛讙讜 讗讜专讜讬讬 诇讗 诪讜专讬谞谉 讜讗讬 注讘讬讚 注讘讬讚 讜诇讗 诪讛讚专讬谞谉 诇讬讛

The Gemara clarifies these statements. The one who said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that this ruling is taught in the public lectures on Shabbat. The one who said that the custom is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that one does not teach this in public, but if someone comes to ask for a practical ruling, one instructs them in private that this is the halakha. And the one who said that the people act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that one does not even instruct someone that this is the halakha, but if he acts in accordance with Rabbi Meir, he has acted in a valid manner and we do not require him to return and recite the prayer again.

讜专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻专砖讬 讻讛谞讬 讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘诪谞讞转讗 讚转注谞讬转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讘住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛 拽讗 驻专砖讬 讻转驻讬诇转 谞注讬诇讛 讚诪讬讗

And Rav Na岣an said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara concludes: And indeed, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara asks: And nowadays, what is the reason that priests spread their hands to bless the people in the afternoon prayer of a fast? The Gemara explains: Since they spread their hands near sunset, it is considered like ne鈥檌la, and therefore the decree of the Sages does not apply.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛转 砖讻讜专 讗住讜专 讘谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪砖讜诐 讘专 拽驻专讗 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 驻专砖转 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 诇驻专砖转 谞讝讬专 诇讜诪专 诪讛 谞讝讬专 讗住讜专 讘讬讬谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 讗住讜专 讘讬讬谉

In any event, based on the above, everyone agrees that it is prohibited for a drunken priest to raise his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Why is the portion of the priest who recites the benediction (see Numbers 6:22鈥27) juxtaposed with the portion of the nazirite (see Numbers 6:1鈥21)? They are juxtaposed to say that just as it is prohibited for a nazirite to drink wine, so too, it is prohibited for a priest who recites the benediction to drink wine.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讜砖注讬讗 讘专 讝讘讚讗 讗讬 诪讛 谞讝讬专 讗住讜专 讘讞专爪谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 讗住讜专 讘讞专爪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇砖专转讜 讜诇讘专讱 讘砖诪讜 诪讛 诪砖专转 诪讜转专 讘讞专爪谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 诪讜转专 讘讞专爪谉

Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 father, and some say it was Oshaya bar Zavda, strongly objects to this explanation. If you wish to compare these two cases, you can argue as follows: Just as it is prohibited for a nazirite to eat grape pits, as he may not partake of any of the products of a grapevine, so too, it should be prohibited for a priest who recites the benediction to eat grape pits. Certainly a priest is not barred from raising his hands after eating a few grape pits. Rather, Rabbi Yitz岣k said that the verse states: 鈥淭o minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8). Just as it is permitted for a priest who ministers to God in the Temple to partake of grape pits, so too, it is permitted for a priest who recites the benediction to partake of grape pits.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Taanit 26

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Taanit 26

讗诇讗 注诇 谞驻砖 砖讘注讛 讜讻专住 诪诇讗讛 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讚讗讘讬 讙讜讘专 讜讙讝专 转注谞讬转 讜讬专讚讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讗诪专 讛诇诇 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讗讻诇讜 讜砖转讜 砖讗谞讬 讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讚砖讻讬讞讬 讘讛讜 砖讻专讜转

only on a satisfied soul and a full stomach. Consequently, it is preferable to return home to eat and drink so as to recite hallel in the proper frame of mind. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But Rav Pappa happened to come to the synagogue of Avi Govar in Me岣za, and he decreed a fast, and rain fell for them before midday, and yet he recited hallel immediately, and only afterward they ate and drank. The Gemara explains: The inhabitants of the city of Me岣za are different, as drunkenness is common among them. Had Rav Pappa told them to go home to eat and drink, they would have become drunk and been unable to pray.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讗诇讜

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讘砖谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛谉 讗专讘注 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讘砖讞专讬转 讘诪讜住祝 讘诪谞讞讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 砖注专讬诐 讘转注谞讬讜转 讜讘诪注诪讚讜转 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

MISHNA: At three times in the year priests raise their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction four times in a single day, in the morning prayer, in the additional prayer, in the afternoon prayer, and in the evening in the closing of the gates, i.e., the ne鈥檌la prayer. And these are the three times: During communal fasts held due to lack of rain, on which the closing prayer is recited; and during non-priestly watches [ma鈥檃madot], when the Israelite members of the guard parallel to the priestly watch come and read the act of Creation from the Torah, as explained below; and on Yom Kippur.

讗诇讜 讛谉 诪注诪讚讜转 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 爪讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 拽专讘谞讬 诇讞诪讬 讜讻讬 讛讬讗讱 拽专讘谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 拽专讘 讜讛讜讗 讗讬谞讜 注讜诪讚 注诇 讙讘讬讜

These are the non-priestly watches: Since it is stated: 鈥淐ommand the children of Israel and say to them: My offering of food, which is presented to Me made by a fire, of a sweet savor to Me, you shall guard the sacrifice to Me in its due season鈥 (Numbers 28:2), this verse teaches that the daily offering was a communal obligation that applied to every member of the Jewish people. The mishna asks: But how can a person鈥檚 offering be sacrificed when he is not standing next to it?

讛转拽讬谞讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诪砖诪专讜转 注诇 讻诇 诪砖诪专 讜诪砖诪专 讛讬讛 诪注诪讚 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖诇 讻讛谞讬诐 砖诇 诇讜讬诐 讜砖诇 讬砖专讗诇讬诐

The mishna explains: Since it is impossible for the entire nation to be present in Jerusalem when the daily offering is brought, the early prophets, Samuel and David, instituted the division of the priests into twenty-four priestly watches, each of which served for approximately one week, twice per year. For each and every priestly watch there was a corresponding non-priestly watch in Jerusalem of priests, Levites, and Israelites who would stand by the communal offerings for that day to represent the community.

讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讛诪砖诪专 诇注诇讜转 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讜讬诐 注讜诇讬诐 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讗讜转讜 诪砖诪专 诪转讻谞住讬谉 诇注专讬讛谉 讜拽讜专讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗谞砖讬 讛诪注诪讚 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘砖讘讜注 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讬 讜注讚 讬讜诐 讞诪讬砖讬 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 注专讘 砖讘转 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转 讜诇讗 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讜讞讛 讜注讜谞讙 诇讬讙讬注讛 讜转注谞讬转 讜讬诪讜转讜

When the time arrived for the members of a certain priestly watch to ascend, the priests and Levites of that watch would ascend to Jerusalem to perform the Temple service. And as for the Israelites assigned to that priestly watch, some of them went up to Jerusalem, while the rest of them assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation. And the members of the non-priestly watch, who represented the entire community that week, would fast four days a week, from Monday until Thursday. And they would not fast on Shabbat eve, in deference to Shabbat, as they did not wish to start Shabbat while fasting. And they did not fast on Sunday, so as not to go from rest and delight immediately to exertion and fasting, and run the risk that they might die as a result of the abrupt change.

讘讬讜诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讬讛讬 专拽讬注 讘砖谞讬 讬讛讬 专拽讬注 讜讬拽讜讜 讛诪讬诐 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讬拽讜讜 讛诪讬诐 讜讬讛讬 诪讗专转 讘专讘讬注讬 讬讛讬 诪讗专转 讜讬砖专爪讜 讛诪讬诐 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讬砖专爪讜 讛诪讬诐 讜转讜爪讗 讛讗专抓 讘砖砖讬 转讜爪讗 讛讗专抓 讜讬讻诇讜 讛砖诪讬诐

Which portions of the Torah would the members of the non-priestly watch read on each day? On Sunday they would read the portions starting with: 鈥淚n the beginning鈥 and 鈥淟et there be a firmament鈥 (Genesis 1:1鈥8). On Monday they would read: 鈥淟et there be a firmament鈥 and 鈥淟et the waters be gathered鈥 (Genesis 1:9鈥13). On Tuesday they would read: 鈥淟et the waters be gathered鈥 and 鈥淟et there be lights鈥 (Genesis 1:14鈥19). On Wednesday: 鈥淟et there be lights鈥 and 鈥淟et the waters swarm鈥 (Genesis 1:20鈥23). On Thursday: 鈥淟et the waters swarm鈥 and 鈥淟et the earth bring forth鈥 (Genesis 1:24鈥31). On Friday: 鈥淟et the earth bring forth鈥 and 鈥淎nd the heaven and the earth were finished鈥 (Genesis 2:1鈥3).

驻专砖讛 讙讚讜诇讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘砖谞讬诐 讜讛拽讟谞讛 讘讬讞讬讚 讘砖讞专讬转 讜讘诪讜住祝 讜讘诪谞讞讛 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 注诇 驻讬讛谉 讻拽讜专讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 注专讘 砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 诇讗 讛讬讜 谞讻谞住讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

A long passage, consisting of six verses or more, is read by two people, and a short passage is read by one, as one cannot read fewer than three verses from the Torah together. They read from the Torah in the morning prayer and in the additional prayer. In the afternoon prayer the members of the non-priestly watch enter the synagogue and read the daily portion by heart, just as one recites Shema every day. On Shabbat eve at the afternoon prayer, they would not enter the synagogue for the communal Torah readings, in deference to Shabbat.

讻诇 讬讜诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 讛诇诇 讗讬谉 诪注诪讚 讘砖讞专讬转 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讗讬谉 讘谞注讬诇讛 拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

The mishna states a principle: On any day that has the recitation of hallel, but on which the additional offering was not sacrificed, e.g., Hanukkah, there is no reading of the Torah by the non-priestly watch in the morning prayer. On days that have both hallel and an additional offering, such as Festivals, the non-priestly watch would also not read from the Torah at the closing prayer. When a wood offering was brought, as explained below, there was no non-priestly watch in the afternoon prayer. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 诇讜 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讻讱 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 砖讜谞讛 拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐 讗讬谉 讘谞注讬诇讛 讞讝专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诇讛讬讜转 砖讜谞讛 讻讘谉 注讝讗讬

Ben Azzai said to Rabbi Akiva that this is how Rabbi Yehoshua would teach this halakha: On days when an additional offering was sacrificed, there was no non-priestly watch in the afternoon prayer. When a wood offering was brought, there was no non-priestly watch in the closing prayer. Upon hearing this, Rabbi Akiva retracted his ruling and began to teach in accordance with the opinion of ben Azzai.

讝诪谉 注爪讬 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讛注诐 转砖注讛 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 讘谞讬 讗专讞 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讘转诪讜讝 讘谞讬 讚讜讚 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讞诪砖讛 讘讗讘 讘谞讬 驻专注讜砖 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘砖讘注讛 讘讜 讘谞讬 讬讜谞讚讘 讘谉 专讻讘 讘注砖专讛 讘讜 讘谞讬 住谞讗讛 讘谉 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讜 讘谞讬 讝转讜讗 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛

The mishna details the times for the wood offering of priests and the people. These were private holidays specific to certain families, on which their members would volunteer a wood offering for the altar. There were nine such days and families: On the first of Nisan, the descendants of Ara岣 ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Tammuz, the descendants of David ben Yehuda; on the fifth of Av, the descendants of Parosh ben Yehuda; on the seventh of Av, the descendants of Jonadab ben Rechab; on the tenth of Av, the descendants of Sena鈥檃 ben Binyamin; on the fifteenth of Av, the descendants of Zattu ben Yehuda.

讜注诪讛诐 讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讜讬诐 讜讻诇 诪讬 砖讟注讛 讘砖讘讟讜 讜讘谞讬 讙讜谞讘讬 注诇讬 讜讘谞讬 拽讜爪注讬 拽爪讬注讜转

And included with this group of Zattu ben Yehuda鈥檚 descendants were other priests; and Levites; and anyone who erred with regard to his tribe, i.e., Israelites who did not know which tribe they were from, and the descendants of those who deceived the authorities with a pestle; and the descendants of those who packed dried figs. These last groups and their descriptions are explained in the Gemara.

讘注砖专讬诐 讘讜 讘谞讬 驻讞转 诪讜讗讘 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讘讗诇讜诇 讘谞讬 注讚讬谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讗讞讚 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 讘谞讬 驻专注讜砖 砖谞讬讛 讘讗讞讚 讘讟讘转 诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 诪注诪讚 砖讛讬讛 讘讜 讛诇诇 讜拽专讘谉 诪讜住祝 讜拽专讘谉 注爪讬诐

The mishna resumes its list. On the twentieth of Av, the descendants of Pa岣t Moav ben Yehuda; on the twentieth of Elul, the descendants of Adin ben Yehuda; on the first of Tevet, the descendants of Parosh returned to bring wood for a second time; likewise on the first of Tevet, there was no non-priestly watch, as it is Hanukkah, on which hallel is recited, and it is the New Moon, on which an additional offering is sacrificed, and there was also a wood offering.

讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗讬专注讜 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 讘砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘转诪讜讝 讜讞诪砖讛 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘砖讘注讛 注砖专 讘转诪讜讝

The mishna discusses the five major communal fast days. Five calamitous matters occurred to our forefathers on the seventeenth of Tammuz, and five other disasters happened on the Ninth of Av. On the seventeenth of Tammuz

谞砖转讘专讜 讛诇讜讞讜转 讜讘讟诇 讛转诪讬讚 讜讛讜讘拽注讛 讛注讬专 讜砖专祝 讗驻讜住讟诪讜住 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讜讛注诪讬讚 爪诇诐 讘讛讬讻诇

the tablets were broken by Moses when he saw that the Jews had made the golden calf; the daily offering was nullified by the Roman authorities and was never sacrificed again; the city walls of Jerusalem were breached; the general Apostemos publicly burned a Torah scroll; and Manasseh placed an idol in the Sanctuary.

讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 谞讙讝专 注诇 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讻谞住讜 诇讗专抓 讜讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讘砖谞讬讛 讜谞诇讻讚讛 讘讬转专 讜谞讞专砖讛 讛注讬专

On the Ninth of Av it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would all die in the wilderness and not enter Eretz Yisrael; and the Temple was destroyed the first time, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, and the second time, by the Romans; and Beitar was captured; and the city of Jerusalem was plowed, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt.

诪砖谞讻谞住 讗讘 诪诪注讟讬谉 讘砖诪讞讛 砖讘转 砖讞诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讛讬讜转 讘转讜讻讛 讗住讜专 诪诇住驻专 讜诪诇讻讘住 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转 注专讘 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讘砖专 讜诇讗 讬砖转讛 讬讬谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讬讬讘 讘讻驻讬讬转 讛诪讟讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐

Not only does one fast on the Ninth of Av, but from when the month of Av begins, one decreases acts of rejoicing. During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut one鈥檚 hair and to launder clothes, but if the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. On the eve of the Ninth of Av a person may not eat two cooked dishes in one meal. Furthermore, one may neither eat meat nor drink wine. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One must adjust and decrease the amount he eats. Rabbi Yehuda obligates one to overturn the bed and sleep on the floor like one in a state of mourning, but the Rabbis did not agree with him.

讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘讗讘 讜讻讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘讛谉 讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讘讻诇讬 诇讘谉 砖讗讜诇讬谉 砖诇讗 诇讘讬讬砖 讗转 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讻诇 讛讻诇讬诐 讟注讜谞讬谉 讟讘讬诇讛

The mishna cites a passage that concludes its discussion of the month of Av, as well as the entire tractate of Ta鈥檃nit, on a positive note. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as joyous for the Jewish people as the fifteenth of Av and as Yom Kippur, as on them the daughters of Jerusalem would go out in white clothes, which each woman borrowed from another. Why were they borrowed? They did this so as not to embarrass one who did not have her own white garments. All the garments that the women borrowed require immersion, as those who previously wore them might have been ritually impure.

讜讘谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讬讜爪讗讜转 讜讞讜诇讜转 讘讻专诪讬诐 讜诪讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讜转 讘讞讜专 砖讗 谞讗 注讬谞讬讱 讜专讗讛 诪讛 讗转讛 讘讜专专 诇讱 讗诇 转转谉 注讬谞讬讱 讘谞讜讬 转谉 注讬谞讬讱 讘诪砖驻讞讛 砖拽专 讛讞谉 讜讛讘诇 讛讬驻讬 讗砖讛 讬专讗转 讛壮 讛讬讗 转转讛诇诇 讜讗讜诪专 转谞讜 诇讛 诪驻专讬 讬讚讬讛 讜讬讛诇诇讜讛 讘砖注专讬诐 诪注砖讬讛

And the daughters of Jerusalem would go out and dance in the vineyards. And what would they say? Young man, please lift up your eyes and see what you choose for yourself for a wife. Do not set your eyes toward beauty, but set your eyes toward a good family, as the verse states: 鈥淕race is deceitful and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised鈥 (Proverbs 31:30), and it further says: 鈥淕ive her the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the gates鈥 (Proverbs 31:31).

讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 爪讗讬谞讛 讜专讗讬谞讛 讘谞讜转 爪讬讜谉 讘诪诇讱 砖诇诪讛 讘注讟专讛 砖注讟专讛 诇讜 讗诪讜 讘讬讜诐 讞转谞转讜 讜讘讬讜诐 砖诪讞转 诇讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讞转谞转讜 讝讛 诪转谉 转讜专讛 讜讘讬讜诐 砖诪讞转 诇讘讜 讝讛 讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖讬讘谞讛 讘诪讛专讛 讘讬诪讬谞讜

And similarly, it says in another verse: 鈥淕o forth, daughters of Zion, and gaze upon King Solomon, upon the crown with which his mother crowned him on the day of his wedding, and on the day of the gladness of his heart鈥 (Song of Songs 3:11). This verse is explained as an allusion to special days: 鈥淥n the day of his wedding鈥; this is the giving of the Torah through the second set of tablets on Yom Kippur. The name King Solomon in this context, which also means king of peace, is interpreted as a reference to God. 鈥淎nd on the day of the gladness of his heart鈥; this is the building of the Temple, may it be rebuilt speedily in our days.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讘砖谞讛 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛诐 讻讜壮 转注谞讬讜转 讜诪注诪讚讜转 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诪讜住祝 讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讘砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 讻讛谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗转 讻驻讬讛谉 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讜讬砖 诪讛谉 讗专讘注讛 驻注诪讬诐 讘讬讜诐 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇转 砖注专讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 砖诇砖讛 驻专拽讬诐 转注谞讬讜转 讜诪注诪讚讜转 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

GEMARA: The mishna taught: At three times in the year priests raise their hands to recite the Priestly Benediction four times in a single day: On communal fasts, non-priestly watches, and Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks: How do they recite the Priestly Benediction four times on these days? Do fast days and gatherings of non-priestly watches have an additional prayer? The Gemara explains that the mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: At three times in the year priests raise their hands each time they pray, and on some of these they bless four times a day, in the morning prayer, in the additional prayer, in the afternoon prayer, and in the closing of the gates, i.e., the ne鈥檌la prayer. And these are the three times: Communal fasts, non-priestly watches, and Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐

Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This mishna is the statement of Rabbi Meir. However, the Rabbis say: The morning prayer and the additional prayer have the Priestly Benediction of the raising of the hands, whereas the afternoon prayer and the closing prayer [ne鈥檌la] do not have the raising of the hands.

诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讻讜诇谉 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讬砖 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讗讬谉 讘讛谉 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 谞注讬诇讛 讬砖 讘讛 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讞讛 讗讬谉 讘讛 谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐

The Gemara asks: Who are these Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: The morning prayer, the additional prayer, the afternoon prayer, and ne鈥檌la all have the Priestly Benediction of the raising of the hands. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: The morning prayer and the additional prayer have the raising of the hands, whereas the afternoon prayer and ne鈥檌la do not have the raising of the hands. Rabbi Yosei says: Ne鈥檌la has the raising of the hands; the afternoon prayer does not have the raising of the hands.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诇讗 驻专砖讬 讻讛谞讬 讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘诪谞讞转讗 诪砖讜诐 砖讻专讜转 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讬讻讗 砖讻专讜转

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? Rabbi Meir maintains: What is the reason that priests do not spread their hands to bless the people every day in the afternoon prayer? It is due to potential drunkenness, as people occasionally become intoxicated during their lunch, and it is prohibited for an inebriated priest to bless. However, now, on a fast day, there is no concern about drunkenness, and therefore the priests may recite the Priestly Benediction even in the afternoon prayer.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 砖讞专讬转 讜诪讜住祝 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞 砖讻专讜转 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 诪谞讞讛 讜谞注讬诇讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 砖讻讬讞讗 砖讻专讜转 讙讝专讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉

Conversely, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that with regard to the morning prayer and the additional prayer, when drunkenness is not common on every ordinary day, the Sages did not issue a decree that the Priestly Benediction be omitted during them. However, with regard to the afternoon prayer and ne鈥檌la, when drunkenness is common on every day, the Sages issued a decree that the Priestly Benediction should not be recited during them, despite the fact that intoxication is not a concern on a fast day.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 诪谞讞讛 讚讗讬转讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉 谞注讬诇讛 讚诇讬转讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉

Finally, Rabbi Yosei maintains that with regard to the afternoon prayer, which is recited every day, the Sages issued a decree concerning it, whereas with regard to ne鈥檌la, which is not recited every day, the Sages did not issue and apply their decree to it, as there is no concern that people might become confused between ne鈥檌la and an afternoon prayer of a regular weekday.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 谞讛讙讜 讛注诐 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讗 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The people act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. And Rava said: The custom is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讚专砖讬谞谉 诇讛 讘驻讬专拽讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪谞讛讙 诪讬讚专砖 诇讗 讚专砖讬谞谉 讗讜专讜讬讬 诪讜专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞讛讙讜 讗讜专讜讬讬 诇讗 诪讜专讬谞谉 讜讗讬 注讘讬讚 注讘讬讚 讜诇讗 诪讛讚专讬谞谉 诇讬讛

The Gemara clarifies these statements. The one who said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that this ruling is taught in the public lectures on Shabbat. The one who said that the custom is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that one does not teach this in public, but if someone comes to ask for a practical ruling, one instructs them in private that this is the halakha. And the one who said that the people act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir means that one does not even instruct someone that this is the halakha, but if he acts in accordance with Rabbi Meir, he has acted in a valid manner and we do not require him to return and recite the prayer again.

讜专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻专砖讬 讻讛谞讬 讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘诪谞讞转讗 讚转注谞讬转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讘住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛 拽讗 驻专砖讬 讻转驻讬诇转 谞注讬诇讛 讚诪讬讗

And Rav Na岣an said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara concludes: And indeed, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara asks: And nowadays, what is the reason that priests spread their hands to bless the people in the afternoon prayer of a fast? The Gemara explains: Since they spread their hands near sunset, it is considered like ne鈥檌la, and therefore the decree of the Sages does not apply.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛转 砖讻讜专 讗住讜专 讘谞砖讬讗转 讻驻讬诐 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪砖讜诐 讘专 拽驻专讗 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 驻专砖转 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 诇驻专砖转 谞讝讬专 诇讜诪专 诪讛 谞讝讬专 讗住讜专 讘讬讬谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 讗住讜专 讘讬讬谉

In any event, based on the above, everyone agrees that it is prohibited for a drunken priest to raise his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Why is the portion of the priest who recites the benediction (see Numbers 6:22鈥27) juxtaposed with the portion of the nazirite (see Numbers 6:1鈥21)? They are juxtaposed to say that just as it is prohibited for a nazirite to drink wine, so too, it is prohibited for a priest who recites the benediction to drink wine.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讜砖注讬讗 讘专 讝讘讚讗 讗讬 诪讛 谞讝讬专 讗住讜专 讘讞专爪谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 讗住讜专 讘讞专爪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇砖专转讜 讜诇讘专讱 讘砖诪讜 诪讛 诪砖专转 诪讜转专 讘讞专爪谉 讗祝 讻讛谉 诪讘专讱 诪讜转专 讘讞专爪谉

Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 father, and some say it was Oshaya bar Zavda, strongly objects to this explanation. If you wish to compare these two cases, you can argue as follows: Just as it is prohibited for a nazirite to eat grape pits, as he may not partake of any of the products of a grapevine, so too, it should be prohibited for a priest who recites the benediction to eat grape pits. Certainly a priest is not barred from raising his hands after eating a few grape pits. Rather, Rabbi Yitz岣k said that the verse states: 鈥淭o minister to Him and to bless in His name鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:8). Just as it is permitted for a priest who ministers to God in the Temple to partake of grape pits, so too, it is permitted for a priest who recites the benediction to partake of grape pits.

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