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Today's Daf Yomi

May 8, 2022 | 讝壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Yevamot 62

This week鈥檚 learning is sponsored by the Mondrow family in loving memory of Bessie 鈥淣anny鈥 Mauskopf, Basha Leah bat Meir Yehudah and Tzivyah Chayah. 鈥淪he was a woman that exemplified the true meaning of Torah by the way she conducted herself. She was a wise kind and gentle person. May her neshama have an aliyah鈥.

Today’s daf is sponsored in honor of Gabrielle Altman by her children. 鈥淲e are in awe of her commitment to learning Torah and the Daf. We love you so much and thank you for being a role model and showing us how to live with humility while giving to your community.鈥

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Hadran Zoom group in memory of Dr. Dennis Kuchar. 鈥淥ur hearts mourn with you, our dear friend Di Kuchar, on the loss of your husband of over 40 years. Di, you are a vibrant member of the Hadran Zoom community, the force behind our Pesach cookbook and a warm face we see at every Zoom shiur. Your love for Torah and your passion for impact, action, and 诪注砖讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 were undoubtedly also present in the home and life that you and Dennis built together. 讛诪拽讜诐 讬谞讞诐 讗转讻诐… With love and comfort, your Hadran Zoom family.鈥

On what basis does Beit Shamai hold that one needs to have two sons in order to fulfill the mitzva of having children? On what basis does Beit Hillel hold one son and one daughter? Beit Shamai based his opinion on Moshe Rabbeinu who had two sons and then separated from his wife. Beit Hillel disagrees as he says that this is one of the three things that Moshe did on his own and afterward God supported his decision. The reason had nothing to do with having fulfilled the mitzva but he separated from Tzipora for a different reason. What are the other two things? Rabbi Natan had a different tradition about the debate between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel. Two versions of his tradition are brought. Can a convert fulfill the mitzva with children born before the conversion? Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree about this. Their opinions are consistent with a debate they have about whether a convert鈥檚 eldest son born after the conversion (in the event that he had sons previously) had the law of a bechor, firstborn. Rabbi Yochanan brings a source to raise a difficulty against Reish Lakish, but it is resolved. If one of one鈥檚 children dies, is the mitzva fulfilled anyway? Rav Huna and Rabbi Yochanan disagree on this issue. Two questions are raised against Rav Huna鈥檚 position from tannaitic sources discussing that one can fulfill one鈥檚 obligation through grandchildren. One is resolved, the other is not. Do grandchildren count in all cases? On what may it depend? What is the source for this? Rabbi Yehoshua has a third position regarding the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply 鈥 according to him, even after having two children, one needs to continue to have more children, as derived from a verse in Kohelet 11:6. The verse is used by Rabbi Akiva to stress the importance of learning and teaching Torah. Rabbi Akiva had 12,000 pairs of students and they all died in one period between Pesach and Shavuot because they did not respect each other. In the end, Rabbi Akiva passed on his Torah to five students 鈥 Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosi, Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Elazar ben Shamoa. Rabbi Tanchum says in the name of Rabbi Chanilai that one who is without a wife is lacking many things, including peace, Torah, bracha, etc. From where are each of these derived? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi explains that there are certain situations when a husband is obligated to have intercourse with his wife, if she so desires. From where are these derived? One of them could be derived from another verse. What does the verse of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi add? A braita is brought which stresses the importance of treating one鈥檚 wife well, as well as other commendable behaviors.

诪砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 谞诪讬 诇讬诇驻讜 诪诪砖讛 讗诪专讬 诇讱 诪砖讛 诪讚注转讬讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讛 诪砖讛 诪讚注转讜 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 驻讬专砖 诪谉 讛讗砖讛 讜砖讬讘专 讛诇讜讞讜转 讜讛讜住讬祝 讬讜诐 讗讞讚

from one that is not possible. Mankind was initially created with a male and female because otherwise reproduction would not have been possible. However, this fact cannot serve as a source that the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled only once one has a son and a daughter. The Gemara asks: And Beit Hillel, let them also learn from Moses. Beit Hillel could say to you: Moses acted based on his own perception when he separated from his wife, but this does not mean that a man is permitted to neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply after fathering two males, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent: He separated from his wife, he broke the tablets, and he added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai.

驻讬专砖 诪谉 讛讗砖讛 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讗诪专 讜诪讛 讬砖专讗诇 砖诇讗 讚讘专讛 注诪讛诐 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诇讗 诇驻讬 砖注讛 讜拽讘注 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讗诇 转讙砖讜 讗诇 讗砖讛 讗谞讬 砖诪讬讜讞讚 诇讚讘讜专 讘讻诇 砖注讛 讜砖注讛 讜诇讗 拽讘注 诇讬 讝诪谉 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 砖讜讘讜 诇讻诐 诇讗讛诇讬讻诐 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讜讚 注诪讚讬

The Gemara clarifies: When Moses separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He said: If in the case of Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only temporarily and for whom God set a specific time for revelation, the Torah stated: 鈥淒o not approach a woman鈥 (Exodus 19:15), I, Moses, who am set aside for divine speech all the time and for whom God did not set a specific time, all the more so I must separate from my wife. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: 鈥淕o say to them: Return to your tents; and you, stand here with Me鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:26鈥27). This indicates that whereas others could return to their homes and normal married life after the revelation at Sinai, Moses was to stay with God and not return to his wife.

砖讬讘专 讗转 讛诇讜讞讜转 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讗诪专 讜诪讛 驻住讞 砖讛讜讗 讗讞讚 诪砖砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪爪讜转 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讻诇 讘谉 谞讻专 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讘讜 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Moses broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: If in the case of the Paschal lamb, which is only one of 613 mitzvot, the Torah states: 鈥淣o alien shall eat of it鈥 (Exodus 12:43), excluding not only gentiles but apostate Jews as well, then here, in the case of the Golden Calf, where the tablets represent the entire Torah and where the Jewish people are apostates, as they are worshipping the calf, all the more so must they be excluded from receiving them.

讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 砖讘专转 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讬讬砖专 讻讞讱 砖砖讘专转

And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is written: 鈥淭he first tablets that you broke [asher shibbarta]鈥 (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be true [yishar ko岣kha] that you broke the tablets.

讛讜住讬祝 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 诪讚注转讜 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讚讻转讬讘 讜拽讚砖转诐 讛讬讜诐 讜诪讞专 讛讬讜诐 讻诪讞专 诪讛 诪讞专 诇讬诇讜 注诪讜 讗祝 讛讬讜诐 诇讬诇讜 注诪讜 讜诇讬诇讛 讚讛讗讬讚谞讗 谞驻拽 诇讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 诇讘专 诪讛讗讬讚谞讗 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 讚诇讗 砖专讬讗 砖讻讬谞讛 注讚 砖讘转讗

When Moses added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since it is written: 鈥淎nd sanctify them today and tomorrow鈥 (Exodus 19:10), the juxtaposition of the words 鈥渢oday鈥 and 鈥渢omorrow鈥 teaches that today is like tomorrow: Just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses said: Conclude from this that separation must be in effect for two days aside from now, i.e., not including the day of the command. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖谞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讜砖转讬 谞拽讘讜转 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with two males and two females. And Beit Hillel say: A male and a female.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诇讬讘讗 讚讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜转讜住祝 诇诇讚转 讗转 讗讞讬讜 讗转 讛讘诇 讛讘诇 讜讗讞讜转讜 拽讬谉 讜讗讞讜转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 砖转 诇讬 讗诇讛讬诐 讝专注 讗讞专 转讞转 讛讘诇 讻讬 讛专讙讜 拽讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 讗讜讚讜讬讬 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪讜讚讬转

Rav Huna said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan, in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd again she bore his brother [et a岣v] Abel [et Hevel]鈥 (Genesis 4:2). The use of the superfluous word 鈥渆t鈥 indicates that she gave birth to Abel and his sister, in addition to Cain and his sister. And it states: 鈥淔or God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him鈥 (Genesis 4:25). This indicates that one must have at least four children. And the Rabbis, how do they understand this verse? In their opinion, Eve was thanking God for granting her another child, but one is not obligated to have four children.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讝讻专 讗讜 谞拽讘讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诇讬讘讗 讚讘讬转 讛诇诇 砖谞讗诪专 诇讗 转讛讜 讘专讗讛 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讜讛讗 注讘讚 诇讛 砖讘转

It is taught in another baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with a male and a female. And Beit Hillel say: Either a male or a female. Rava said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? It is as it is stated: 鈥淗e did not create it a waste; He formed it to be inhabited鈥 (Isaiah 45:18), and one has made the earth inhabited to a greater degree by adding even one child to the world.

讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讙讜讬讜转讜 讜谞转讙讬讬专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讚讛讗 讛讜讜 诇讬讛 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讻拽讟谉 砖谞讜诇讚 讚诪讬

It was stated that amora鈥檌m disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, and Reish Lakish said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Rabbi Yo岣nan said he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as he already had children. And Reish Lakish said he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born, and it is considered as though he did not have children.

讜讗讝讚讜 诇讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讙讜讬讜转讜 讜谞转讙讬讬专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 诇讜 讘讻讜专 诇谞讞诇讛 讚讛讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 专讗砖讬转 讗讜谞讜 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讬砖 诇讜 讘讻讜专 诇谞讞诇讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讻拽讟谉 砖谞讜诇讚 讚诪讬

The Gemara comments: And they follow their regular line of reasoning, as it was stated: If one had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, i.e., the first son born to him after his conversion does not inherit a double portion, as this man already had 鈥渢he first of his strength鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:17), the Torah鈥檚 description of the firstborn in this context, before he converted. And Reish Lakish said: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born.

讜爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 讘讛讛讬讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 讘讛讛讬讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚诪注讬拽专讗 谞诪讬 讘谞讬 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讘诇 诇注谞讬谉 谞讞诇讛 讚诇讗讜 讘谞讬 谞讞诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讬 诇讬讛 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖

The Gemara adds: And it is necessary to state their opinions in both cases. As, had it only been taught to us with regard to that first case of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might have said that it is only in that case that Rabbi Yo岣nan said his opinion, because from the outset, gentiles are also subject to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. However, with regard to inheritance, since they are not subject to the halakhot of inheritance, one might say that Rabbi Yo岣nan concedes to Reish Lakish.

讜讗讬 讗讬转诪专 讘讛讗 讘讛讗 拽讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讘诇 讘讛讛讬讗 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 爪专讬讻讗

And conversely, if their dispute was stated only with regard to this issue of inheritance, I would have said that it is only in this case that Reish Lakish said his opinion, as the halakhot of inheritance do not apply to gentiles. But with regard to that case, the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yo岣nan. Consequently, it is necessary for both disputes to be recorded.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 砖诇讞 讘专讗讚讱 讘诇讗讚谉 讘谉 讘诇讗讚谉 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讙讜讬讜转谉 讗讬转 诇讛讜 讞讬讬住 谞转讙讬讬专讜 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讞讬讬住

Rabbi Yo岣nan raises an objection to Reish Lakish based upon the verse: 鈥淎t that time Berodach-baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent a letter鈥 (II聽Kings 20:12), which indicates that gentiles are considered to be the children of their parents. Therefore, when they convert, they should already have fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: When they are gentiles they do have family lineage, but when they convert they do not have lineage, as they now belong to the family of the Jewish people and their previous lineage is disregarded.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬谉 讘注讘讚 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讞讬讬住 讚讻转讬讘 砖讘讜 诇讻诐 驻讛 注诐 讛讞诪讜专 注诐 讛讚讜诪讛 诇讞诪讜专 诪讬转讬讘讬 讜诇爪讬讘讗 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬诐 讜注砖专讬诐 注讘讚讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讻驻专 讘谉 讘拽专

Rav said: Everyone agrees with regard to a Canaanite slave, that he does not have lineage, as it is written that Abraham said to his slaves: 鈥淩emain here with the donkey鈥 (Genesis 22:5). This verse is interpreted to mean that they are a nation comparable to a donkey, which has no lineage. The Gemara raises an objection based upon a verse pertaining to Jonathan鈥檚 Canaanite slave: 鈥淎nd Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants鈥 (II聽Samuel 9:10), which indicates that a slave鈥檚 sons are in fact considered his sons. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: This is like the expression: A bullock, son of a bull. The word son in this context merely denotes progeny, not lineage.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讬讞住讬谞讛讜 讘砖诪讬讬讛讜 讜讘砖诪讗 讚讗讘讜讛讜谉 讜讛讻讗 诇讗 诪驻专砖 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬讞住讬谞讛讜 讘讚讜讻转讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讘讗讘讜讛讜谉 讜讘讗讘讗 讚讗讘讜讛讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞诐 讛诪诇讱 讗住讗 讗诇 讘谉 讛讚讚 讘谉 讟讘专讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讞讝讬讜谉 诪诇讱 讗专诐 讛讬讜砖讘 讘讚诪砖拽 诇讗诪专

The Gemara asks: If so, here too, with regard to gentiles, there is no proof from the verse about Berodach-baladan that they have family lineage. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the Bible identified him by his name and by his father鈥檚 name, thereby emphasizing the family connection. But here, it does not specify the names of Ziba鈥檚 children. And if you wish, say instead that the Bible identified gentiles elsewhere by their father and their father鈥檚 father, as it is written: 鈥淎nd King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, king of Aram, who dwelled in Damascus, saying鈥 (I聽Kings 15:18). This indicates that there is lineage for gentiles.

讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜诪转讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐

It was stated that amora鈥檌m disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children and they died, Rav Huna said: He has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through these children. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚专讘 讗住讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 讘谉 讚讜讚 讘讗 注讚 砖讬讻诇讜 讻诇 谞砖诪讜转 砖讘讙讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 专讜讞 诪诇驻谞讬 讬注讟讜祝 讜讙讜壮 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讘注讬谞谉 讜讛讗 诇讬讻讗

The Gemara clarifies the reasons for their opinions: Rav Huna said he has fulfilled the mitzva due to a statement of Rav Asi, as Rav Asi said that the reason for this mitzva is that the Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so, as it is stated: 鈥淔or the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made鈥 (Isaiah 57:16). Consequently, once a child has been born and his soul has entered a body the mitzva has been fulfilled, even if the child subsequently dies. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said he has not fulfilled the mitzva, as we require 鈥淗e formed it to be inhabited鈥 (Isaiah 45:18), and this is not fulfilled when the children have passed away and no longer inhabit the earth.

诪讬转讬讘讬

The Gemara raises an objection with regard to the opinion of Rav Huna based upon the following baraita:

讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讘谞讬诐 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讛砖诇讬诐

Grandchildren are considered like children. This indicates that if one鈥檚 children have passed away, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply only if they had children of their own, as they are considered like his own children. The Gemara responds: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to completing the required number of children, e.g., if he had only a son, but his son had a daughter, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛诐 讻讘谞讬诐 诪转 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讗讜 砖谞诪爪讗 住专讬住 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from another baraita: Grandchildren are considered like children. If one of a man鈥檚 children died or was discovered to be a eunuch, the father has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. This directly contradicts Rav Huna鈥檚 statement that one fulfills the mitzva even if his children die. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna is indeed a conclusive refutation.

讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛诐 讻讘谞讬诐 住讘专 讗讘讬讬 诇诪讬诪专 讘专讗 诇讘专讗 讜讘专转讗 诇讘专转讗 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讘专讗 诇讘专转讗 讗讘诇 讘专转讗 诇讘专讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讘注讬讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗

搂 It was taught in the baraita that grandchildren are considered like children. Abaye thought to say that if one鈥檚 children die, he fulfills the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through grandchildren, provided a son was born to his son and a daughter to his daughter, and all the more so if a son was born to his daughter, as his grandchildren take the place of his children in these cases. However, if a daughter was born to his son, no, she cannot take the place of her father. Rava said to him: We require merely fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淗e formed it to be inhabited,鈥 and there is fulfillment in this case, as the earth is inhabited by his descendants.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛转 转专讬 诪讞讚 诇讗 讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 砖砖转 谞住讬讘 讗讬转转讗 讜讗讜诇讬讚 讘谞讬 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘谞讬 讘专转讬 讘谞讬 谞讬谞讛讜

The Gemara comments: In any event, everyone agrees that if one has two grandchildren from one child, no, he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, even if he has both a grandson and a granddaughter. The Gemara asks: And has he not? Didn鈥檛 the Rabbis say to Rav Sheshet: Marry a woman and have sons, as you have not yet fathered any sons, and Rav Sheshet said to them: The sons of my daughter are my sons? This indicates that one can fulfill the mitzva through grandchildren even if he did not have a son and daughter of his own.

讛转诐 讚讞讜讬讬 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讛讜 讚专讘 砖砖转 讗讬注拽专 诪驻讬专拽讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗

The Gemara answers: There, Rav Sheshet was merely putting them off. The real reason he did not want to get remarried was because Rav Sheshet became impotent from Rav Huna鈥檚 discourse. Rav Huna鈥檚 discourses were so lengthy that Rav Sheshet became impotent after waiting for so long without relieving himself.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 诇专讘讗 讘专 诪讗专讬 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讘谞讬诐 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讚讻转讬讘 讛讘谞讜转 讘谞讜转讬 讜讛讘谞讬诐 讘谞讬 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜讛爪讗谉 爪讗谞讬 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诇讗 讚拽谞讬转 诪讬谞讗讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚拽谞讬转 诪讬谞讗讬

Rabba said to Rava bar Mari: From where is this matter that the Sages stated derived, that grandchildren are considered like children? If we say it is derived from the fact that it is written in Laban鈥檚 speech to Jacob: 鈥淭he daughters are my daughters and the children are my children鈥 (Genesis 31:43), which indicates that Jacob鈥檚 children were also considered to be the children of their grandfather Laban, if that is so, does the continuation of Laban鈥檚 statement: 鈥淎nd the flocks are my flocks鈥 (Genesis 31:43), indicate that so too, Jacob鈥檚 flocks were considered as belonging to Laban? Rather, Laban was saying that you, Jacob, acquired them from me. Here too, with regard to the children, Laban was saying: You acquired them from me, i.e., it is only due to me that you have children.

讗诇讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讗讞专 讘讗 讞爪专讜谉 讗诇 讘转 诪讻讬专 讗讘讬 讙诇注讚讜转诇讚 诇讜 讗转 砖讙讜讘 讜讻转讬讘 诪谞讬 诪讻讬专 讬专讚讜 诪讞讜拽拽讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讜拽拽讬

Rather, the proof is from here: 鈥淎nd afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir, the father of Gilead鈥nd she bore him Segub鈥 (I聽Chronicles 2:21), and it is written: 鈥淥ut of Machir came down governors鈥 (Judges 5:14), and it is written: 鈥淛udah is my governor鈥 (Psalms 60:9). Consequently, the governors, who were from the tribe of Judah, were also called the sons of Machir, who was from the tribe of Manasseh. This must be because they were the children of Machir鈥檚 daughter and Hezron, indicating that grandchildren are considered like children.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗讜 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 谞砖讗 讗讚诐 讗砖讛 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬砖讗 讗砖讛 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 讝专注 讗转 讝专注讱 讜诇注专讘 讗诇 转谞讞 讬讚讱 讻讬 讗讬谞讱 讬讜讚注 讗讬 讝讛 讬讻砖专 讛讝讛 讗讜 讝讛 讜讗诐 砖谞讬讛诐 讻讗讞讚 讟讜讘讬诐

搂 The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: If a man married a woman in his youth, and she passed away, he should marry another woman in his old age. If he had children in his youth, he should have more children in his old age, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the morning sow your seed, and in the evening do not withhold your hand; for you do not know which shall prosper, whether this or that, or whether they both alike shall be good鈥 (Ecclesiastes 11:6). This verse indicates that a man should continue having children even after he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 讛讬讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬讛讬讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 讝专注 讗转 讝专注讱 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讜 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讗诇祝 讝讜讙讬诐 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讙讘转 注讚 讗谞讟讬驻专住 讜讻讜诇谉 诪转讜 讘驻专拽 讗讞讚 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讗 谞讛讙讜 讻讘讜讚 讝讛 诇讝讛

Rabbi Akiva says that the verse should be understood as follows: If one studied Torah in his youth he should study more Torah in his old age; if he had students in his youth he should have additional students in his old age, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the morning sow your seed, etc.鈥 They said by way of example that Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from Gevat to Antipatris in Judea, and they all died in one period of time, because they did not treat each other with respect.

讜讛讬讛 讛注讜诇诐 砖诪诐 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗爪诇 专讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讘讚专讜诐 讜砖谞讗讛 诇讛诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 讜讛诐 讛诐 讛注诪讬讚讜 转讜专讛 讗讜转讛 砖注讛

And the world was desolate of Torah until Rabbi Akiva came to our Rabbis in the South and taught his Torah to them. This second group of disciples consisted of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua. And these are the very ones who upheld the study of Torah at that time. Although Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 earlier students did not survive, his later disciples were able to transmit the Torah to future generations.

转谞讗 讻讜诇诐 诪转讜 诪驻住讞 讜注讚 注爪专转 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讻讜诇诐 诪转讜 诪讬转讛 专注讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗住讻专讛

With regard to the twelve thousand pairs of Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students, the Gemara adds: It is taught that all of them died in the period from Passover until Shavuot. Rav 岣ma bar Abba said, and some say it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin: They all died a bad death. The Gemara inquires: What is it that is called a bad death? Rav Na岣an said: Diphtheria.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

Rav Mattana said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one must attempt to have more children even if he has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬诇讗讬 讻诇 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗砖讛 砖专讜讬 讘诇讗 砖诪讞讛 讘诇讗 讘专讻讛 讘诇讗 讟讜讘讛 讘诇讗 砖诪讞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诪讞转 讗转讛 讜讘讬转讱 讘诇讗 讘专讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讛谞讬讞 讘专讻讛 讗诇 讘讬转讱 讘诇讗 讟讜讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗 讟讜讘 讛讬讜转 讛讗讚诐 诇讘讚讜

搂 Apropos the discussion with regard to the mitzva to have children, the Gemara cites statements about marriage in general. Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi 岣nilai said: Any man who does not have a wife is left without joy, without blessing, without goodness. He proceeds to quote verses to support each part of his statement. He is without joy, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall rejoice, you and your household鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:26), which indicates that the a man is in a joyful state only when he is with his household, i.e., his wife. He is without blessing, as it is written: 鈥淭o cause a blessing to rest in your house鈥 (Ezekiel 44:30), which indicates that blessing comes through one鈥檚 house, i.e., one鈥檚 wife. He is without goodness, as it is written: 鈥淚t is not good that man should be alone鈥 (Genesis 2:18), i.e., without a wife.

讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 讘诇讗 讞讜诪讛 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛讗诐 讗讬谉 注讝专转讬 讘讬 讜转讜砖讬讛 谞讚讞讛 诪诪谞讬 讘诇讗 讞讜诪讛 讚讻转讬讘 谞拽讘讛 转住讜讘讘 讙讘专

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: One who lives without a wife is left without Torah, and without a wall of protection. He is without Torah, as it is written: 鈥淚s it that I have no help in me, and that sound wisdom is driven from me?鈥 (Job 6:13), indicating that one who does not have a wife lacks sound wisdom, i.e., Torah. He is without a wall, as it is written: 鈥淎 woman shall go round a man鈥 (Jeremiah 31:21), similar to a protective wall.

专讘讗 讘专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讘诇讗 砖诇讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜驻拽讚转 谞讜讱 讜诇讗 转讞讟讗

Rava bar Ulla said: One who does not have a wife is left without peace, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation and shall miss nothing鈥 (Job 5:24). This indicates that a man has peace only when he has a tent, i.e., a wife.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛讬讜讚注 讘讗砖转讜 砖讛讬讗 讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 驻讜拽讚讛 谞拽专讗 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜讙讜壮 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇驻拽讜讚 讗转 讗砖转讜 讘砖注讛 砖讛讜讗 讬讜爪讗 诇讚专讱 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜讙讜壮

On the same verse, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whoever knows that his wife fears Heaven and she desires him, and he does not visit her, i.e., have intercourse with her, is called a sinner, as it is stated: And you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A man is obligated to visit his wife for the purpose of having intercourse when he is about to depart on a journey, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall know that your tent is in peace, etc.鈥

讛讗 诪讛讻讗 谞驻拽讗 诪讛转诐 谞驻拽讗 讜讗诇 讗讬砖讱 转砖讜拽转讱 诪诇诪讚 砖讛讗砖讛 诪砖转讜拽拽转 注诇 讘注诇讛 讘砖注讛 砖讛讜讗 讬讜爪讗 诇讚专讱 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 住诪讜讱 诇讜讜住转讛

The Gemara asks: Is this last statement derived from here? It is derived from there: 鈥淎nd your desire shall be to your husband鈥 (Genesis 3:16), which teaches that a wife desires her husband when he is about to depart on a journey. Rav Yosef said: The additional derivation cited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is necessary only near the time of her set pattern, i.e., when she expects to begin experiencing menstrual bleeding. Although the Sages generally prohibited intercourse at this time due to a concern that the couple might have intercourse after she begins bleeding, if he is about to depart on a journey he must have intercourse with her.

讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 注讜谞讛 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诇讚讘专 讛专砖讜转 讗讘诇 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 诪讬讟专讬讚讬

The Gemara asks: And how much before the expected onset of menstrual bleeding is considered near the time of her set pattern? Rava said: An interval of time, i.e., half a daily cycle, either a day or a night. The Gemara comments: And this statement that a man must have intercourse with his wife before he departs on a journey applies only if he is traveling for an optional matter, but if he is traveling in order to attend to a matter pertaining to a mitzva, he is not required to have intercourse with his wife so that he not become preoccupied and neglect the mitzva.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讗讜讛讘 讗转 讗砖转讜 讻讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪讻讘讚讛 讬讜转专 诪讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪讚专讬讱 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 讘讚专讱 讬砖专讛 讜讛诪砖讬讗谉 住诪讜讱 诇驻讬专拽谉 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讛讗讜讛讘 讗转 砖讻讬谞讬讜 讜讛诪拽专讘 讗转 拽专讜讘讬讜 讜讛谞讜砖讗 讗转 讘转 讗讞讜转讜

The Sages taught: One who loves his wife as he loves himself, and who honors her more than himself, and who instructs his sons and daughters in an upright path, and who marries them off near the time when they reach maturity, about him the verse states: And you shall know that your tent is in peace. As a result of his actions, there will be peace in his home, as it will be devoid of quarrel and sin. One who loves his neighbors, and who draws his relatives close, and who marries the daughter of his sister, a woman he knows and is fond of as a family relative and not only as a wife,

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

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Yevamot 62

诪砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 谞诪讬 诇讬诇驻讜 诪诪砖讛 讗诪专讬 诇讱 诪砖讛 诪讚注转讬讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讚转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讛 诪砖讛 诪讚注转讜 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 驻讬专砖 诪谉 讛讗砖讛 讜砖讬讘专 讛诇讜讞讜转 讜讛讜住讬祝 讬讜诐 讗讞讚

from one that is not possible. Mankind was initially created with a male and female because otherwise reproduction would not have been possible. However, this fact cannot serve as a source that the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled only once one has a son and a daughter. The Gemara asks: And Beit Hillel, let them also learn from Moses. Beit Hillel could say to you: Moses acted based on his own perception when he separated from his wife, but this does not mean that a man is permitted to neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply after fathering two males, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent: He separated from his wife, he broke the tablets, and he added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai.

驻讬专砖 诪谉 讛讗砖讛 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讗诪专 讜诪讛 讬砖专讗诇 砖诇讗 讚讘专讛 注诪讛诐 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诇讗 诇驻讬 砖注讛 讜拽讘注 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讗诇 转讙砖讜 讗诇 讗砖讛 讗谞讬 砖诪讬讜讞讚 诇讚讘讜专 讘讻诇 砖注讛 讜砖注讛 讜诇讗 拽讘注 诇讬 讝诪谉 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪讜专 诇讛诐 砖讜讘讜 诇讻诐 诇讗讛诇讬讻诐 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讜讚 注诪讚讬

The Gemara clarifies: When Moses separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He said: If in the case of Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only temporarily and for whom God set a specific time for revelation, the Torah stated: 鈥淒o not approach a woman鈥 (Exodus 19:15), I, Moses, who am set aside for divine speech all the time and for whom God did not set a specific time, all the more so I must separate from my wife. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: 鈥淕o say to them: Return to your tents; and you, stand here with Me鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:26鈥27). This indicates that whereas others could return to their homes and normal married life after the revelation at Sinai, Moses was to stay with God and not return to his wife.

砖讬讘专 讗转 讛诇讜讞讜转 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讗诪专 讜诪讛 驻住讞 砖讛讜讗 讗讞讚 诪砖砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪爪讜转 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讻诇 讘谉 谞讻专 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 讘讜 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讬砖专讗诇 诪砖讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Moses broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: If in the case of the Paschal lamb, which is only one of 613 mitzvot, the Torah states: 鈥淣o alien shall eat of it鈥 (Exodus 12:43), excluding not only gentiles but apostate Jews as well, then here, in the case of the Golden Calf, where the tablets represent the entire Torah and where the Jewish people are apostates, as they are worshipping the calf, all the more so must they be excluded from receiving them.

讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 砖讘专转 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇诪砖讛 讬讬砖专 讻讞讱 砖砖讘专转

And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is written: 鈥淭he first tablets that you broke [asher shibbarta]鈥 (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be true [yishar ko岣kha] that you broke the tablets.

讛讜住讬祝 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 诪讚注转讜 诪讗讬 讚专砖 讚讻转讬讘 讜拽讚砖转诐 讛讬讜诐 讜诪讞专 讛讬讜诐 讻诪讞专 诪讛 诪讞专 诇讬诇讜 注诪讜 讗祝 讛讬讜诐 诇讬诇讜 注诪讜 讜诇讬诇讛 讚讛讗讬讚谞讗 谞驻拽 诇讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转专讬 讬讜诪讬 诇讘专 诪讛讗讬讚谞讗 讜讛住讻讬诪讛 讚注转讜 诇讚注转 讛诪拽讜诐 讚诇讗 砖专讬讗 砖讻讬谞讛 注讚 砖讘转讗

When Moses added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since it is written: 鈥淎nd sanctify them today and tomorrow鈥 (Exodus 19:10), the juxtaposition of the words 鈥渢oday鈥 and 鈥渢omorrow鈥 teaches that today is like tomorrow: Just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses said: Conclude from this that separation must be in effect for two days aside from now, i.e., not including the day of the command. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖谞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讜砖转讬 谞拽讘讜转 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with two males and two females. And Beit Hillel say: A male and a female.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诇讬讘讗 讚讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜转讜住祝 诇诇讚转 讗转 讗讞讬讜 讗转 讛讘诇 讛讘诇 讜讗讞讜转讜 拽讬谉 讜讗讞讜转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 砖转 诇讬 讗诇讛讬诐 讝专注 讗讞专 转讞转 讛讘诇 讻讬 讛专讙讜 拽讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 讗讜讚讜讬讬 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪讜讚讬转

Rav Huna said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan, in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd again she bore his brother [et a岣v] Abel [et Hevel]鈥 (Genesis 4:2). The use of the superfluous word 鈥渆t鈥 indicates that she gave birth to Abel and his sister, in addition to Cain and his sister. And it states: 鈥淔or God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him鈥 (Genesis 4:25). This indicates that one must have at least four children. And the Rabbis, how do they understand this verse? In their opinion, Eve was thanking God for granting her another child, but one is not obligated to have four children.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻专 讜谞拽讘讛 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜 讝讻专 讗讜 谞拽讘讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗诇讬讘讗 讚讘讬转 讛诇诇 砖谞讗诪专 诇讗 转讛讜 讘专讗讛 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讜讛讗 注讘讚 诇讛 砖讘转

It is taught in another baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with a male and a female. And Beit Hillel say: Either a male or a female. Rava said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? It is as it is stated: 鈥淗e did not create it a waste; He formed it to be inhabited鈥 (Isaiah 45:18), and one has made the earth inhabited to a greater degree by adding even one child to the world.

讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讙讜讬讜转讜 讜谞转讙讬讬专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讚讛讗 讛讜讜 诇讬讛 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讻拽讟谉 砖谞讜诇讚 讚诪讬

It was stated that amora鈥檌m disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, and Reish Lakish said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Rabbi Yo岣nan said he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as he already had children. And Reish Lakish said he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born, and it is considered as though he did not have children.

讜讗讝讚讜 诇讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讙讜讬讜转讜 讜谞转讙讬讬专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 诇讜 讘讻讜专 诇谞讞诇讛 讚讛讗 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 专讗砖讬转 讗讜谞讜 讜专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讬砖 诇讜 讘讻讜专 诇谞讞诇讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讻拽讟谉 砖谞讜诇讚 讚诪讬

The Gemara comments: And they follow their regular line of reasoning, as it was stated: If one had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, i.e., the first son born to him after his conversion does not inherit a double portion, as this man already had 鈥渢he first of his strength鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:17), the Torah鈥檚 description of the firstborn in this context, before he converted. And Reish Lakish said: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born.

讜爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 讘讛讛讬讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 讘讛讛讬讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚诪注讬拽专讗 谞诪讬 讘谞讬 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讘诇 诇注谞讬谉 谞讞诇讛 讚诇讗讜 讘谞讬 谞讞诇讛 谞讬谞讛讜 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讬 诇讬讛 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖

The Gemara adds: And it is necessary to state their opinions in both cases. As, had it only been taught to us with regard to that first case of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might have said that it is only in that case that Rabbi Yo岣nan said his opinion, because from the outset, gentiles are also subject to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. However, with regard to inheritance, since they are not subject to the halakhot of inheritance, one might say that Rabbi Yo岣nan concedes to Reish Lakish.

讜讗讬 讗讬转诪专 讘讛讗 讘讛讗 拽讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讘诇 讘讛讛讬讗 讗讬诪讗 诪讜讚讛 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 爪专讬讻讗

And conversely, if their dispute was stated only with regard to this issue of inheritance, I would have said that it is only in this case that Reish Lakish said his opinion, as the halakhot of inheritance do not apply to gentiles. But with regard to that case, the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yo岣nan. Consequently, it is necessary for both disputes to be recorded.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 砖诇讞 讘专讗讚讱 讘诇讗讚谉 讘谉 讘诇讗讚谉 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讙讜讬讜转谉 讗讬转 诇讛讜 讞讬讬住 谞转讙讬讬专讜 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讞讬讬住

Rabbi Yo岣nan raises an objection to Reish Lakish based upon the verse: 鈥淎t that time Berodach-baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent a letter鈥 (II聽Kings 20:12), which indicates that gentiles are considered to be the children of their parents. Therefore, when they convert, they should already have fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: When they are gentiles they do have family lineage, but when they convert they do not have lineage, as they now belong to the family of the Jewish people and their previous lineage is disregarded.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬谉 讘注讘讚 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讞讬讬住 讚讻转讬讘 砖讘讜 诇讻诐 驻讛 注诐 讛讞诪讜专 注诐 讛讚讜诪讛 诇讞诪讜专 诪讬转讬讘讬 讜诇爪讬讘讗 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬诐 讜注砖专讬诐 注讘讚讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讻驻专 讘谉 讘拽专

Rav said: Everyone agrees with regard to a Canaanite slave, that he does not have lineage, as it is written that Abraham said to his slaves: 鈥淩emain here with the donkey鈥 (Genesis 22:5). This verse is interpreted to mean that they are a nation comparable to a donkey, which has no lineage. The Gemara raises an objection based upon a verse pertaining to Jonathan鈥檚 Canaanite slave: 鈥淎nd Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants鈥 (II聽Samuel 9:10), which indicates that a slave鈥檚 sons are in fact considered his sons. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: This is like the expression: A bullock, son of a bull. The word son in this context merely denotes progeny, not lineage.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讬讞住讬谞讛讜 讘砖诪讬讬讛讜 讜讘砖诪讗 讚讗讘讜讛讜谉 讜讛讻讗 诇讗 诪驻专砖 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬讞住讬谞讛讜 讘讚讜讻转讗 讗讞专讬转讬 讘讗讘讜讛讜谉 讜讘讗讘讗 讚讗讘讜讛讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞诐 讛诪诇讱 讗住讗 讗诇 讘谉 讛讚讚 讘谉 讟讘专讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讞讝讬讜谉 诪诇讱 讗专诐 讛讬讜砖讘 讘讚诪砖拽 诇讗诪专

The Gemara asks: If so, here too, with regard to gentiles, there is no proof from the verse about Berodach-baladan that they have family lineage. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the Bible identified him by his name and by his father鈥檚 name, thereby emphasizing the family connection. But here, it does not specify the names of Ziba鈥檚 children. And if you wish, say instead that the Bible identified gentiles elsewhere by their father and their father鈥檚 father, as it is written: 鈥淎nd King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, king of Aram, who dwelled in Damascus, saying鈥 (I聽Kings 15:18). This indicates that there is lineage for gentiles.

讗讬转诪专 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜诪转讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐

It was stated that amora鈥檌m disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children and they died, Rav Huna said: He has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through these children. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 拽讬讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚专讘 讗住讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗讬谉 讘谉 讚讜讚 讘讗 注讚 砖讬讻诇讜 讻诇 谞砖诪讜转 砖讘讙讜祝 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 专讜讞 诪诇驻谞讬 讬注讟讜祝 讜讙讜壮 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讘注讬谞谉 讜讛讗 诇讬讻讗

The Gemara clarifies the reasons for their opinions: Rav Huna said he has fulfilled the mitzva due to a statement of Rav Asi, as Rav Asi said that the reason for this mitzva is that the Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so, as it is stated: 鈥淔or the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made鈥 (Isaiah 57:16). Consequently, once a child has been born and his soul has entered a body the mitzva has been fulfilled, even if the child subsequently dies. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said he has not fulfilled the mitzva, as we require 鈥淗e formed it to be inhabited鈥 (Isaiah 45:18), and this is not fulfilled when the children have passed away and no longer inhabit the earth.

诪讬转讬讘讬

The Gemara raises an objection with regard to the opinion of Rav Huna based upon the following baraita:

讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讘谞讬诐 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇讛砖诇讬诐

Grandchildren are considered like children. This indicates that if one鈥檚 children have passed away, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply only if they had children of their own, as they are considered like his own children. The Gemara responds: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to completing the required number of children, e.g., if he had only a son, but his son had a daughter, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛诐 讻讘谞讬诐 诪转 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讗讜 砖谞诪爪讗 住专讬住 诇讗 拽讬讬诐 驻专讬讛 讜专讘讬讛 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 转讬讜讘转讗

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from another baraita: Grandchildren are considered like children. If one of a man鈥檚 children died or was discovered to be a eunuch, the father has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. This directly contradicts Rav Huna鈥檚 statement that one fulfills the mitzva even if his children die. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna is indeed a conclusive refutation.

讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛诐 讻讘谞讬诐 住讘专 讗讘讬讬 诇诪讬诪专 讘专讗 诇讘专讗 讜讘专转讗 诇讘专转讗 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讘专讗 诇讘专转讗 讗讘诇 讘专转讗 诇讘专讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇砖讘转 讬爪专讛 讘注讬讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗

搂 It was taught in the baraita that grandchildren are considered like children. Abaye thought to say that if one鈥檚 children die, he fulfills the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through grandchildren, provided a son was born to his son and a daughter to his daughter, and all the more so if a son was born to his daughter, as his grandchildren take the place of his children in these cases. However, if a daughter was born to his son, no, she cannot take the place of her father. Rava said to him: We require merely fulfillment of the verse: 鈥淗e formed it to be inhabited,鈥 and there is fulfillment in this case, as the earth is inhabited by his descendants.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛转 转专讬 诪讞讚 诇讗 讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 砖砖转 谞住讬讘 讗讬转转讗 讜讗讜诇讬讚 讘谞讬 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘谞讬 讘专转讬 讘谞讬 谞讬谞讛讜

The Gemara comments: In any event, everyone agrees that if one has two grandchildren from one child, no, he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, even if he has both a grandson and a granddaughter. The Gemara asks: And has he not? Didn鈥檛 the Rabbis say to Rav Sheshet: Marry a woman and have sons, as you have not yet fathered any sons, and Rav Sheshet said to them: The sons of my daughter are my sons? This indicates that one can fulfill the mitzva through grandchildren even if he did not have a son and daughter of his own.

讛转诐 讚讞讜讬讬 拽诪讚讞讬 诇讛讜 讚专讘 砖砖转 讗讬注拽专 诪驻讬专拽讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗

The Gemara answers: There, Rav Sheshet was merely putting them off. The real reason he did not want to get remarried was because Rav Sheshet became impotent from Rav Huna鈥檚 discourse. Rav Huna鈥檚 discourses were so lengthy that Rav Sheshet became impotent after waiting for so long without relieving himself.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讛 诇专讘讗 讘专 诪讗专讬 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讘谞讬诐 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讚讻转讬讘 讛讘谞讜转 讘谞讜转讬 讜讛讘谞讬诐 讘谞讬 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜讛爪讗谉 爪讗谞讬 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诇讗 讚拽谞讬转 诪讬谞讗讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚拽谞讬转 诪讬谞讗讬

Rabba said to Rava bar Mari: From where is this matter that the Sages stated derived, that grandchildren are considered like children? If we say it is derived from the fact that it is written in Laban鈥檚 speech to Jacob: 鈥淭he daughters are my daughters and the children are my children鈥 (Genesis 31:43), which indicates that Jacob鈥檚 children were also considered to be the children of their grandfather Laban, if that is so, does the continuation of Laban鈥檚 statement: 鈥淎nd the flocks are my flocks鈥 (Genesis 31:43), indicate that so too, Jacob鈥檚 flocks were considered as belonging to Laban? Rather, Laban was saying that you, Jacob, acquired them from me. Here too, with regard to the children, Laban was saying: You acquired them from me, i.e., it is only due to me that you have children.

讗诇讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讗讞专 讘讗 讞爪专讜谉 讗诇 讘转 诪讻讬专 讗讘讬 讙诇注讚讜转诇讚 诇讜 讗转 砖讙讜讘 讜讻转讬讘 诪谞讬 诪讻讬专 讬专讚讜 诪讞讜拽拽讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讞讜拽拽讬

Rather, the proof is from here: 鈥淎nd afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir, the father of Gilead鈥nd she bore him Segub鈥 (I聽Chronicles 2:21), and it is written: 鈥淥ut of Machir came down governors鈥 (Judges 5:14), and it is written: 鈥淛udah is my governor鈥 (Psalms 60:9). Consequently, the governors, who were from the tribe of Judah, were also called the sons of Machir, who was from the tribe of Manasseh. This must be because they were the children of Machir鈥檚 daughter and Hezron, indicating that grandchildren are considered like children.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗讜 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 谞砖讗 讗讚诐 讗砖讛 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬砖讗 讗砖讛 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬讛讬讜 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 讝专注 讗转 讝专注讱 讜诇注专讘 讗诇 转谞讞 讬讚讱 讻讬 讗讬谞讱 讬讜讚注 讗讬 讝讛 讬讻砖专 讛讝讛 讗讜 讝讛 讜讗诐 砖谞讬讛诐 讻讗讞讚 讟讜讘讬诐

搂 The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: If a man married a woman in his youth, and she passed away, he should marry another woman in his old age. If he had children in his youth, he should have more children in his old age, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the morning sow your seed, and in the evening do not withhold your hand; for you do not know which shall prosper, whether this or that, or whether they both alike shall be good鈥 (Ecclesiastes 11:6). This verse indicates that a man should continue having children even after he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 讛讬讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讘讬诇讚讜转讜 讬讛讬讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讘讝拽谞讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讘拽专 讝专注 讗转 讝专注讱 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专讜 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讗诇祝 讝讜讙讬诐 转诇诪讬讚讬诐 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讙讘转 注讚 讗谞讟讬驻专住 讜讻讜诇谉 诪转讜 讘驻专拽 讗讞讚 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讗 谞讛讙讜 讻讘讜讚 讝讛 诇讝讛

Rabbi Akiva says that the verse should be understood as follows: If one studied Torah in his youth he should study more Torah in his old age; if he had students in his youth he should have additional students in his old age, as it is stated: 鈥淚n the morning sow your seed, etc.鈥 They said by way of example that Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from Gevat to Antipatris in Judea, and they all died in one period of time, because they did not treat each other with respect.

讜讛讬讛 讛注讜诇诐 砖诪诐 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗爪诇 专讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讘讚专讜诐 讜砖谞讗讛 诇讛诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 讜讛诐 讛诐 讛注诪讬讚讜 转讜专讛 讗讜转讛 砖注讛

And the world was desolate of Torah until Rabbi Akiva came to our Rabbis in the South and taught his Torah to them. This second group of disciples consisted of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua. And these are the very ones who upheld the study of Torah at that time. Although Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 earlier students did not survive, his later disciples were able to transmit the Torah to future generations.

转谞讗 讻讜诇诐 诪转讜 诪驻住讞 讜注讚 注爪专转 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讻讜诇诐 诪转讜 诪讬转讛 专注讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗住讻专讛

With regard to the twelve thousand pairs of Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students, the Gemara adds: It is taught that all of them died in the period from Passover until Shavuot. Rav 岣ma bar Abba said, and some say it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin: They all died a bad death. The Gemara inquires: What is it that is called a bad death? Rav Na岣an said: Diphtheria.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

Rav Mattana said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one must attempt to have more children even if he has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

讗诪专 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬诇讗讬 讻诇 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗砖讛 砖专讜讬 讘诇讗 砖诪讞讛 讘诇讗 讘专讻讛 讘诇讗 讟讜讘讛 讘诇讗 砖诪讞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诪讞转 讗转讛 讜讘讬转讱 讘诇讗 讘专讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讛谞讬讞 讘专讻讛 讗诇 讘讬转讱 讘诇讗 讟讜讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讗 讟讜讘 讛讬讜转 讛讗讚诐 诇讘讚讜

搂 Apropos the discussion with regard to the mitzva to have children, the Gemara cites statements about marriage in general. Rabbi Tan岣m said that Rabbi 岣nilai said: Any man who does not have a wife is left without joy, without blessing, without goodness. He proceeds to quote verses to support each part of his statement. He is without joy, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall rejoice, you and your household鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:26), which indicates that the a man is in a joyful state only when he is with his household, i.e., his wife. He is without blessing, as it is written: 鈥淭o cause a blessing to rest in your house鈥 (Ezekiel 44:30), which indicates that blessing comes through one鈥檚 house, i.e., one鈥檚 wife. He is without goodness, as it is written: 鈥淚t is not good that man should be alone鈥 (Genesis 2:18), i.e., without a wife.

讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专讬 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 讘诇讗 讞讜诪讛 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讛讗诐 讗讬谉 注讝专转讬 讘讬 讜转讜砖讬讛 谞讚讞讛 诪诪谞讬 讘诇讗 讞讜诪讛 讚讻转讬讘 谞拽讘讛 转住讜讘讘 讙讘专

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: One who lives without a wife is left without Torah, and without a wall of protection. He is without Torah, as it is written: 鈥淚s it that I have no help in me, and that sound wisdom is driven from me?鈥 (Job 6:13), indicating that one who does not have a wife lacks sound wisdom, i.e., Torah. He is without a wall, as it is written: 鈥淎 woman shall go round a man鈥 (Jeremiah 31:21), similar to a protective wall.

专讘讗 讘专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讘诇讗 砖诇讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜驻拽讚转 谞讜讱 讜诇讗 转讞讟讗

Rava bar Ulla said: One who does not have a wife is left without peace, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation and shall miss nothing鈥 (Job 5:24). This indicates that a man has peace only when he has a tent, i.e., a wife.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛讬讜讚注 讘讗砖转讜 砖讛讬讗 讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 驻讜拽讚讛 谞拽专讗 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜讙讜壮 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇驻拽讜讚 讗转 讗砖转讜 讘砖注讛 砖讛讜讗 讬讜爪讗 诇讚专讱 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讜讙讜壮

On the same verse, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whoever knows that his wife fears Heaven and she desires him, and he does not visit her, i.e., have intercourse with her, is called a sinner, as it is stated: And you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A man is obligated to visit his wife for the purpose of having intercourse when he is about to depart on a journey, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall know that your tent is in peace, etc.鈥

讛讗 诪讛讻讗 谞驻拽讗 诪讛转诐 谞驻拽讗 讜讗诇 讗讬砖讱 转砖讜拽转讱 诪诇诪讚 砖讛讗砖讛 诪砖转讜拽拽转 注诇 讘注诇讛 讘砖注讛 砖讛讜讗 讬讜爪讗 诇讚专讱 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇讗 谞爪专讻讛 讗诇讗 住诪讜讱 诇讜讜住转讛

The Gemara asks: Is this last statement derived from here? It is derived from there: 鈥淎nd your desire shall be to your husband鈥 (Genesis 3:16), which teaches that a wife desires her husband when he is about to depart on a journey. Rav Yosef said: The additional derivation cited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is necessary only near the time of her set pattern, i.e., when she expects to begin experiencing menstrual bleeding. Although the Sages generally prohibited intercourse at this time due to a concern that the couple might have intercourse after she begins bleeding, if he is about to depart on a journey he must have intercourse with her.

讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 注讜谞讛 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诇讚讘专 讛专砖讜转 讗讘诇 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛 诪讬讟专讬讚讬

The Gemara asks: And how much before the expected onset of menstrual bleeding is considered near the time of her set pattern? Rava said: An interval of time, i.e., half a daily cycle, either a day or a night. The Gemara comments: And this statement that a man must have intercourse with his wife before he departs on a journey applies only if he is traveling for an optional matter, but if he is traveling in order to attend to a matter pertaining to a mitzva, he is not required to have intercourse with his wife so that he not become preoccupied and neglect the mitzva.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讗讜讛讘 讗转 讗砖转讜 讻讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪讻讘讚讛 讬讜转专 诪讙讜驻讜 讜讛诪讚专讬讱 讘谞讬讜 讜讘谞讜转讬讜 讘讚专讱 讬砖专讛 讜讛诪砖讬讗谉 住诪讜讱 诇驻讬专拽谉 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讗讜诪专 讜讬讚注转 讻讬 砖诇讜诐 讗讛诇讱 讛讗讜讛讘 讗转 砖讻讬谞讬讜 讜讛诪拽专讘 讗转 拽专讜讘讬讜 讜讛谞讜砖讗 讗转 讘转 讗讞讜转讜

The Sages taught: One who loves his wife as he loves himself, and who honors her more than himself, and who instructs his sons and daughters in an upright path, and who marries them off near the time when they reach maturity, about him the verse states: And you shall know that your tent is in peace. As a result of his actions, there will be peace in his home, as it will be devoid of quarrel and sin. One who loves his neighbors, and who draws his relatives close, and who marries the daughter of his sister, a woman he knows and is fond of as a family relative and not only as a wife,

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