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Today's Daf Yomi

May 19, 2021 | 讞壮 讘住讬讜谉 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.
  • This month's learning is sponsored by聽the students at the Emerging Scholars of Yeshivat Maharat in聽honor of Rabbanit Michelle and all your work!

Yoma 38

This week’s learning is sponsored by Dodi Lamm and Tina Lamm in memory of their beloved Uncle and Father-in-law, Rabbi Dr. Norman Lamm, Nachum Ben Meir Shmuel v鈥 Perel. “Rabbi Lamm taught us that Torah was a gift given by God equally to men and women. He championed women鈥檚 learning in passionate speeches. He expanded women鈥檚 learning in practice by, for example, instituting the post-graduate Talmud program at Stern. And Rabbi Lamm lived these values at home. He loved to learn with his daughters, nieces, and granddaughters and took great pride in their Torah accomplishments. Rabbi Lamm would look upon our group鈥檚 learning with great joy. He would be delighted to know that more women than ever before in Jewish history are accessing, internalizing, and developing Talmud knowledge. May we continue to enjoy the pleasures of Torah as we complete ALL of Shas – together.”

What miracle happened with the doors to the Temple that Nikanor brought from Alexandria? The mishna lists a number of families of kohanim that were mentioned in a negative light as they were excellent at what they did but didn’t share their secrets with others, like the Avtinas family who knew how to prepare the incense properly and the Garmu family who knew how to prepare the showbread, Hugras ben Levi who knew how to sing in a special way and ben Kamtzer who had a unique way of writing. The sages tried to replace Beit Avtinas and Beit Garmu but couldn’t find others who could do it as they could and when they rehired them, the families only agreed to come back if they would receive double wages. Why was it important to them to not reveal their secrets? The gemara compares different aspects of righteous people as compared to evil people, particularly regarding the mentioning of their names and the blessing associated with the mention of a righteous person and the disparagement associated with the mention of an evil person. Other statements regarding the righteous are brought. One who continually does good, will be protected from sin and one who sins will not.

讘住讬专讜讙讬谉

with alternating complete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.

谞讬拽谞讜专 谞注砖讜 谞住讬诐 诇讚诇转讜转讬讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讛 谞住讬诐 谞注砖讜 诇讚诇转讜转讬讜 讗诪专讜 讻砖讛诇讱 谞讬拽谞讜专 诇讛讘讬讗 讚诇转讜转 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讘讞讝讬专转讜 注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 砖讘讬诐 诇讟讘注讜 谞讟诇讜 讗讞转 诪讛谉 讜讛讟讬诇讜讛 诇讬诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜

搂 The mishna related: For Nicanor, miracles were performed to his doors. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: What miracles occurred for his doors? They said: When Nicanor went to bring copper doors for the eastern gate of the Temple from Alexandria in Egypt, famous for its craftsmanship, on his return voyage by ship, a storm arose in the sea and threatened to drown him. The ship鈥檚 passengers took one of the doors, which were exceedingly heavy, and cast it into the sea, fearing that the weight of the doors would sink the ship. And still the sea did not rest from its rage.

讘拽砖讜 诇讛讟讬诇 讗转 讞讘专转讛 注诪讚 讛讜讗 讜讻专讻讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讟讬诇讜谞讬 注诪讛 诪讬讚 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜 讜讛讬讛 诪爪讟注专 注诇 讞讘专转讛 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇谞诪诇讛 砖诇 注讻讜 讛讬转讛 诪讘爪讘爪转 讜讬讜爪讗讛 诪转讞转 讚讜驻谞讬 讛住驻讬谞讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讬讛 砖讘讬诐 讘诇注转讛 讜讛拽讬讗转讛 诇讬讘砖讛

They sought to cast the other door into the sea, at which point Nicanor stood and embraced it and said to them: Cast me into the sea with it. Immediately, the sea rested from its rage, and it was necessary to cast neither the door nor Nicanor into the sea. The ship continued its journey with one door and for the entire voyage, he regretted the fate of the other door that he allowed them to cast into the sea. When they arrived at the port of Akko and prepared to disembark, despite the fact that it was made of copper, the door that was thrown into the sea was poking out under the sides of the ship. And some say a sea creature swallowed it and spewed it onto the land.

讜注诇讬讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 拽讜专讜转 讘转讬谞讜 讗专讝讬诐 专讛讬讟谞讜 讘专讜转讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讘专讜转讬诐 讗诇讗 讘专讬转 讬诐 诇驻讬讻讱 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘诪拽讚砖 谞砖转谞讜 诇讛讬讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 谞讬拽谞讜专 诪驻谞讬 砖谞注砖讜 讘讜 谞住讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讞讜砖转谉 诪讜爪讛讘转 讛讬转讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 谞讞砖转 拽诇讜谞讬转讗 讛讬转讛 讜讛讬转讛 诪讗讬专讛 讻砖诇 讝讛讘

And with regard to this, Solomon said: 鈥淭he beams of our houses are cedars, and our doors are cypresses [berotim]鈥 (Song of Songs 1:17), and the Sages interpreted it homiletically: Do not read it as berotim but as berit yam, covenant of the sea, meaning that the door forged a covenant with the sea for the sea to deliver it to its place. Therefore, when the nation prospered and the people replaced the doors made of various metals, the doors in all the gates in the Temple were altered to become doors of gold except the doors in the Gates of Nicanor because miracles were performed to them. And some say it was because their copper was brightly-colored and high quality. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says it was refined [kelonita] copper, and it illuminated its surroundings like gold.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 诇讙谞讗讬 砖诇 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转

MISHNA: Apropos the mention in the mishna of people who took action in the Temple and were mentioned favorably, the mishna lists those who took action in the Temple and were mentioned unfavorably. The craftsmen of the House of Garmu did not want to teach the secret of the preparation of the shewbread and sought to keep the secret within their family. The craftsmen of the House of Avtinas did not want to teach the secret of the preparation of the incense.

讛讜讙专住 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讬讛 讬讜讚注 驻专拽 讘砖讬专 讜诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛讻转讘 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 谞讗诪专 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜注诇 讗诇讜 谞讗诪专 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

Also, Hugras ben Levi knew a chapter in the art of music, as will be explained, and he did not want to teach it to others. And the scribe ben Kamtzar did not want to teach a special act of writing. He was expert at writing all four letters of a four-letter name simultaneously. About the first ones, who were mentioned favorably, it is stated: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥 (Proverbs 10:7); and about these who were concerned only for themselves it is stated: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥 (Proverbs 10:7).

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 讛讬讜 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 砖诇讞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜 讗讜诪谞讬谉 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇讗驻讜转 讻诪讜转谉 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇专讚讜转 讻诪讜转谉 砖讛诇诇讜 诪住讬拽讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗讜驻讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛诇诇讜 诪住讬拽讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗讜驻讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 驻讬转谉 诪转注驻砖转 讜讛诇诇讜 讗讬谉 驻讬转谉 诪转注驻砖转

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: The craftsmen of the House of Garmu were expert in the preparation of the shewbread, and they did not want to teach others the secret of its production. The Sages dismissed them and sent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt, a large city with many experts. And those craftsmen knew how to bake like the members of the House of Garmu did, but they did not know how to remove the bread from the oven like they did. The shewbread was baked in a complex shape, and it was difficult to place it in the oven and remove it without breaking it. The difference was that these Alexandrians light the fire outside the oven and bake it outside the oven; and these members of the House of Garmu light the fire inside the oven and bake it inside. In the case of these Alexandrians, their bread becomes moldy over the course of the week, and in the case of these members of the House of Garmu, their bread does not become moldy.

讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讛 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讘专讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 讛谞拽专讗 讘砖诪讬 讜诇讻讘讜讚讬 讘专讗转讬讜 讜讞讝专讜 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 诇诪拽讜诪谉 砖诇讞讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讗讜 讻驻诇讜 诇讛诐 砖讻专谉 讜讘讗讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 谞讜讟诇讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪谞讛 讜讛讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜讛讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

When the Sages heard of the matter that the bread of the imported craftsmen was of lower quality than before, they said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: 鈥淓veryone who is called by My name, I have created for My glory鈥 (Isaiah 43:7). In deference to God, the Sages should diminish their honor for the greater glory of God and let the House of Garmu return to their original station. The Sages sent for them to reassume their previous position, and they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each day until then they would take wages of twelve maneh, and today they take wages of twenty-four maneh. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each day they took twenty-four maneh, and today they take forty-eight.

讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讛 专讗讬转诐 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讬讜讚注讬谉 讛讬讜 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 砖讘讬转 讝讛 注转讬讚 诇讬讞专讘 砖诪讗 讬诇诪讜讚 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讛讜讙谉 讜讬诇讱 讜讬注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讻讱 讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 谞诪爪讗转 驻转 谞拽讬讛 讘讬讚 讘谞讬讛诐 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 讝讛 谞讬讝讜谞讬谉 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讬转诐 谞拽讬讬诐 诪讛壮 讜诪讬砖专讗诇

The Sages said to them: What did you see that led you not to teach others this craft? They said: The members of our father鈥檚 house knew that this house, the Temple, is destined to be destroyed, and they were concerned lest an unworthy man learn our skill of baking and go and engage in idol worship with that skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: And for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never was refined bread of fine flour found in the hands of their descendants, so that people would not say that they are sustained from that technique of preparing the shewbread. They ate only bread made of coarse flour mixed with bran, to fulfill that which is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel鈥 (Numbers 32:22). Not only must one鈥檚 behavior be beyond reproach, he should also make certain to be beyond suspicion.

砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 讛讬讜 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 讜诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 砖诇讞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜 讗讜诪谞讬谉 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇驻讟诐 讻诪讜转诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇讛注诇讜转 注砖谉 讻诪讜转谉 砖诇 讛诇诇讜 诪转诪专 讜注讜诇讛 讻诪拽诇 砖诇 讛诇诇讜 诪驻爪讬注 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉

搂 Similarly, the mishna related: The craftsmen of the House of Avtinas did not want to teach about the secret of the preparation of the incense, at which they were particularly adept. The Sages taught in a baraita: The members of the House of Avtinas were expert in the technique of preparing the incense, and they did not want to teach others. The Sages dismissed them and sent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt. And the Alexandrian craftsmen knew how to blend the spices like they did, but they did not know how to cause the smoke to rise like the House of Avtinas did. The smoke of the incense blended by these members of the House of Avtinas rises in a column like a stick; the smoke of the incense blended by these Alexandrians branched out to here and to there and did not rise in a straight line.

讜讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讛 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讘专讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 驻注诇 讛壮 诇诪注谞讛讜 讜讞讝专讜 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇诪拽讜诪谉 砖诇讞讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讗讜 讻驻诇讜 诇讛诐 砖讻专谉 讜讘讗讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 谞讜讟诇讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪谞讛 讜讛讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜讛讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

When the Sages heard of the matter, they said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: 鈥淕od made everything for His sake鈥 (Proverbs 16:4), and they let the House of Avtinas return to their original station. The Sages sent for the members of the House of Avtinas to reassume their previous position, and they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each day until then they would take wages of twelve maneh, and today they take wages of twenty-four maneh. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each day they took twenty-four maneh, and today they take forty-eight.

讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讛 专讗讬转诐 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讗诪专讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 讛讬讜 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 砖讘讬转 讝讛 注转讬讚 诇讬讞专讘 讗诪专讜 砖诪讗 讬诇诪讜讚 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讛讜讙谉 讜讬诇讱 讜讬注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讻讱 讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 讬爪讗转 讻诇讛 诪讘讜砖诪转 诪讘转讬讛谉 讜讻砖谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪诪拽讜诐 讗讞专 诪转谞讬谉 注诪讛 砖诇讗 转转讘住诐 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 诪转讘住诪讬谉 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讬转诐 谞拽讬讬诐 诪讛壮 讜诪讬砖专讗诇

The Sages said to them: What did you see that led you not to teach others this craft? They said: The members of our father鈥檚 house knew that this house, the Temple, is destined to be destroyed, and they were concerned lest an unworthy man learn our skill of preparing incense and go and engage in idol worship with that skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: And for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never did a perfumed bride emerge from their homes. And when they marry a woman from a different place, they stipulate with her that she will not perfume herself, so that cynics would not say that it is with the work of the incense that they perfume themselves, to fulfill that which is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel鈥 (Numbers 32:22).

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜诪爪讗转讬 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讗讘讜转讬讱 讘拽砖讜 诇讛专讘讜转 讻讘讜讚谉 讜专爪讜 诇诪注讟 讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐 注讻砖讬讜 讻讘讜讚 诪拽讜诐 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讜诪讬注讟 讻讘讜讚诐

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael said: One time I was walking along the road and I found one of the descendants of the House of Avtinas. I said to him: Your fathers sought to enhance their honor and sought to diminish God鈥檚 honor by not revealing their secret to others. Now, although the Temple was destroyed, the honor of God remains as it was, and He diminished their honor, as their significance stemmed from their Temple service.

讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 (驻注诐 讗讞转) 住讞 诇讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 诇讜讙讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 讬爪讗转讬 讗谞讬 讜讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 诇砖讚讛 诇诇拽讟 注砖讘讬诐 讜专讗讬转讬 (砖砖讞拽 讜讘讻讛) 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讘讻讬转 讗诪专 诇讬 讻讘讜讚 讗讘讜转讬 谞讝讻专转讬 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 砖讞拽转 讗诪专 诇讬 砖注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专讛 诇谞讜 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞讝讻专转 讗诪专 诇讬 诪注诇讛 注砖谉 讻谞讙讚讬 讛专讗讛讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬 砖讘讜注讛 讛讬讗 讘讬讚讬谞讜 砖讗讬谉 诪专讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Akiva said: One time Rabbi Yishmael ben Loga related to me: One time I and one of the descendants of the House of Avtinas went out to the field to collect herbs, and I saw that he laughed and he cried. I said to him: Why did you cry? He said to me: I was reminded of the honor of my forefathers, how important they were in the Temple. I said to him: And why did you laugh? He said to me: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is going to restore it to us in the future and we will be honored again. I said to him: And why are you reminded of this now? He said to me: The smoke-raising herb is before me, here in the field, reminding me of the past. I said to him: Show it to me; which one is it? He said to me: We are bound by oath not to show it to any person other than the members of our family.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 驻注诐 讗讞转 诪爪讗转讬 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 讜诪讙讬诇转 住诪诪谞讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪讗讬谉 讗转讛 讗诪专 诇讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 讗谞讬 讜诪讛 讘讬讚讱 讗诪专 诇讬 诪讙讬诇转 住诪诪谞讬谉 讛专讗讛讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讗讘讗 讛讬讜 拽讬讬诪讬谉 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪讜住专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讜注讻砖讬讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 诇讱 讜讛讝讛专 讘讛 讜讻砖讘讗转讬 讜住讞转讬 讚讘专讬 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬 诪注转讛 讗住讜专 诇住驻专 讘讙谞讜转谉 砖诇 讗诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: One time I found an old man who had in his hand a scroll with the location and formula for blending of spices. I said to him: Where are you from? What is your ancestry? He said to me: I am from the House of Avtinas. I asked him: And what is in your hand? He said to me: A scroll of spices. I said to him: Show it to me. He said to me: As long as the House of Avtinas, my forefathers, was extant, they would not pass it on to anyone. And now, here it is; and be careful with it not to give it to anyone. And when I came and related my statement before Rabbi Akiva, he said to me: And now that they have surrendered the scroll to worthy recipients since they are unable to maintain its sanctity, it is prohibited to mention them unfavorably, as even their earlier reticence was apparently for the glory of God.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘砖诪讱 讬拽专讗讜讱 讜讘诪拽讜诪讱 讬讜砖讬讘讜讱

From here, with regard to the cases of the Temple鈥檚 craftsmen whom the Sages restored to their posts, ben Azzai said: One should not be concerned that others might usurp his livelihood and success, since at the appropriate moment, by your name they shall call you to return to your previous position, and in your place, they shall seat you,

讜诪砖诇讱 讬转谞讜 诇讱 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 谞讜讙注 讘诪讜讻谉 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

and from your own they shall give you. Everyone has a portion designated for him by God, and the individual is privileged to receive what is coming to him, as was the case with the House of Avtinas. The principle is: No person may touch that which is prepared for another by God; everyone receives what is designated for him. And one reign does not overlap with another and deduct from the time allotted it even a hairbreadth. When the time comes for one kingdom to fall, its successor takes over immediately, as no king rules during the time designated for another.

讛讜讙专住 讘谉 诇讜讬 讜讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讻砖讛讜讗 谞讜转谉 拽讜诇讜 讘谞注讬诪讛 诪讻谞讬住 讙讜讚诇讜 诇转讜讱 驻讬讜 讜诪谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜 讘讬谉 讛谞讬诪讬谉 注讚 砖讛讬讜 讗讞讬讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讝拽专讬诐 讘讘转 专讗砖 诇讗讞讜专讬讛诐

搂 The mishna related that Hugras ben Levi knew a lesson in the art of music and he did not want to teach it to others. It was taught in a baraita: When Hugras ben Levi projects his voice in a sweet melody, he places his thumb into his mouth and places his finger between the strings of a lyre and sings. This produced a sound so sweet that his brethren the priests were abruptly taken aback.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛讻转讘 讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 砖讛讬讛 谞讜讟诇 讗专讘注讛 拽讜诇诪讜住讬谉 讘讬谉 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 转讬讘讛 砖诇 讗专讘注 讗讜转讬讜转 讛讬讛 讻讜转讘讛 讘讘转 讗讞转 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讻讜诇谉 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诇讚讘专讬讛诐 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 诪爪讗 转砖讜讘讛 诇讚讘专讬讜 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 谞讗诪专 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜注诇 讘谉 拽诪爪专 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 谞讗诪专 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

The Sages taught: Ben Kamtzar did not want to teach others a special technique of writing. What was that technique? They said about him that he would take four quills between his fingers, and if there was a word consisting of four letters that he wanted to write, he could write it simultaneously. They said to him: What did you see that led you not to teach that technique? All the others with unique skills came up with a response to questions about the matter of their conduct, claiming that they sought to prevent their technique from being used in idol worship. However, ben Kamtzar did not come up with a response to questions about the matter of his conduct, and it was clear that his only motivation in preventing his skill from being disseminated was his own personal honor. With regard to the first people listed, it is stated: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥 (Proverbs 10:7); and about ben Kamtzar and his counterparts it is stated: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥 (Proverbs 10:7).

诪讗讬 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专拽讘讬讘讜转 转注诇讛 讘砖诪讜转谉 讚诇讗 诪住拽讬谞谉 讘砖诪讬讬讛讜 诪转讬讘 专讘讬谞讗 诪注砖讛 讘讚讜讗讙 讘谉 讬讜住祝 砖讛谞讬讞讜 [讗讘讬讜] 讘谉 拽讟谉 诇讗诪讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬转讛 讗诪讜 诪讜讚讚转讜 讘讟驻讞讬诐 讜谞讜转谞转 诪砖拽诇讜 砖诇 讝讛讘 诇讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜讻砖讙讘专 讗讜讬讘 讟讘讞转讜 讜讗讻诇转讜

搂 Apropos the verse cited, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: But the name of the wicked shall rot? How does a name rot? Rabbi Elazar said: It means that decay will spread on their names, meaning that we do not call others by their names, and the name will sink into oblivion. Ravina raised an objection from an incident that transpired during the Second Temple era. There was an incident involving Doeg ben Yosef, whose father died and left him as a young child to his mother, who loved him. Each day his mother measured his height in handbreadths and donated a measure of gold equivalent to the weight that he gained to the Temple. Later, when the enemy prevailed and there was a terrible famine in the city, she slaughtered and ate him.

讜注诇讬讛 拽讜谞谉 讬专诪讬讛 讗诐 转讗讻诇谞讛 谞砖讬诐 驻专讬诐 注讜诇诇讬 讟驻讜讞讬诐 诪砖讬讘讛 专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 讜讗讜诪专转 讗诐 讬讛专讙 讘诪拽讚砖 讛壮 讻讛谉 讜谞讘讬讗 讞讝讬 诪讗讬 住诇讬拽 讘讬讛

And with regard to her and others like her Jeremiah lamented: 鈥淪hall the women eat their fruit, their children in their care [tipu岣m]?鈥 (Lamentations 2:20). The Gemara interprets the term tipu岣m homiletically as referring to this baby, who was measured in handbreadths [tefa岣m]. Even he was eaten by his mother. And the Divine Spirit responds and says: Why did this happen? 鈥淪hall the priest and the prophet be slain in the Temple of the Lord?鈥 (Lamentations 2:20). It is punishment for the murder of the priest Zechariah ben Jehoiada. This incident involves aboy named Doeg; even though the person with that name was wicked (see I Samuel, chapter 22), the boy was named for him. The Gemara responds: See what befell him. Clearly, his name was a bad omen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 爪讚讬拽 诪注爪诪讜 讜专砖注 诪讞讘讬专讜 爪讚讬拽 诪注爪诪讜 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜专砖注 诪讞讘讬专讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

Rabbi Elazar said: A righteous person is praised for his own actions, and a wicked person is cursed not only for his own actions but also for the actions of his wicked counterpart. A righteous person is praised for his actions, as it is written: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥; righteous is written in the singular. A wicked person is also cursed for the actions of his wicked counterpart, as it is written: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥; wicked is written in the plural. Once one wicked person is mentioned, his wicked counterparts are cursed as well.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚讛讜讛 诪住讚专 讗讙讚转讗 拽诪讬讛 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讗 讻转讬讘 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛壮 讗诪专 讛诪讻住讛 讗谞讬 诪讗讘专讛诐 讗砖专 讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗讘专讛诐 讛讬讜 讬讛讬讛 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讜注爪讜诐

Ravina said to one of the Sages who would organize aggadic statements before him: From where is this matter that the Sages stated: The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing, derived?He said to him: As it is written explicitly in the book of Proverbs: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing.鈥 He then asked him: From where in the Torah do we derive this? He said to him: As it is written: 鈥淎nd God said: Shall I hide from Abraham that which I am doing?鈥 (Genesis 18:17). And as soon as Abraham鈥檚 name is mentioned, it is written: 鈥淎nd Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation鈥 (Genesis 18:18), although there is no clear connection to the previous verse. Apparently, once the name of a righteous person is mentioned, it is followed directly by praise of the individual. That is the Torah source for the statement that the mention of the righteous is for blessing.

诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗讛诇 注讚 住讚讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗谞砖讬 住讚讜诐 专注讬诐 讜讞讟讗讬诐 诇讛壮 诪讗讚

Then he asked: From where is this matter that the Sages said: But the name of the wicked shall rot, derived? He said to him: As it is written explicitly in the book of Proverbs: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot.鈥 He then asked him: From where in the Torah do we derive this? He said to him: As it is written with regard to Lot: 鈥淎nd he moved his tent as far as Sodom鈥 (Genesis 13:12). And as soon as Sodom is mentioned, it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinful to God鈥 (Genesis 13:13).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 爪讚讬拽 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 专砖注讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 专砖注 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 爪讚讬拽 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 专砖注讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 注讜讘讚讬讛 专砖注 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 讝讛 注砖讜

Apropos these statements, the Gemara cites another statement that Rabbi Elazar said: There was a righteous person who lived between two wicked people and did not learn from their actions; there was a wicked person who lived between two righteous people and did not learn from their actions. How so? A righteous person lived between two wicked people and did not learn from their actions is Obadiah, who was a minister for Ahab and Jezebel and nevertheless remained God-fearing (see I Kings, chapter 18). A wicked person who lived between two righteous people and did not learn from their actions is Esau, who was born and raised in the house of Isaac and Rebecca and nevertheless remained wicked.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讘专讻转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 拽诇诇讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讜诪拽诇诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 讘专讻讛 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讘专讻转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 拽诇诇讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬讚注转讬讜 诇诪注谉 讗砖专 讬爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讝注拽转 住讚讜诐 讜注诪讜专讛 讻讬 专讘讛

Rabbi Elazar said: From the blessing of the righteous you infer a curse for the wicked; and conversely, from the curse of the wicked you infer a blessing for the righteous. How so? From the blessing of the righteous you infer a curse for the wicked, as it is written with regard to Abraham: 鈥淔or I have known him to the end that he will command his children and his household after him鈥 (Genesis 18:19), and it is written thereafter: 鈥淭he cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is very great鈥 (Genesis 18:20). The righteousness of Abraham underscores the relative wickedness of Sodom and Gomorrah, exacerbating their punishment.

讜诪拽诇诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 讘专讻讛 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗谞砖讬 住讚讜诐 专注讬诐 讜讞讟讗讬诐 诇讛壮 讜讛壮 讗诪专 讗诇 讗讘专诐 讗讞专讬 讛驻专讚 诇讜讟 诪注诪讜 (讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬诇 爪讚讬拽 讗讞讚 注讜诇诐 谞讘专讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛讗讜专 讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讗讬谉 讟讜讘 讗诇讗 爪讚讬拽 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘

Conversely, from the curse of the wicked you infer a blessing for the righteous, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinful to God鈥 (Genesis 13:13), after which it is written: 鈥淎nd God said to Abram, after that Lot had separated from him鈥 (Genesis 13:14); God proceeds to bless him. And Rabbi Elazar said: Even for one righteous person an entire world is created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God saw the light, that it was good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), and good means nothing other than righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淪ay of the righteous that he is good鈥 (Isaiah 3:10).

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻诇 讛诪砖讻讞 讚讘专 诪转诇诪讜讚讜 讙讜专诐 讙诇讜转 诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转砖讻讞 转讜专转 讗诇讛讬讱 讗砖讻讞 讘谞讬讱 讙诐 讗谞讬 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讙讚讜诇转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讗转讛 讛讚注转 诪讗住转 讜讗诪讗住讱 诪讻讛谉 诇讬

Rabbi Elazar further said: One who causes himself to forget a matter of his studies ultimately causes exile for his children, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause you have forgotten the Torah of your God, I will also forget your children鈥 (Hosea 4:6). Rabbi Abbahu said: With regard to he who causes his studies to be forgotten, one reduces him from his prominence, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause you have rejected knowledge, I will also reject you; you shall not serve Me鈥 (Hosea 4:6).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 爪讚讬拽 谞驻讟专 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注讚 砖谞讘专讗 爪讚讬拽 讻诪讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讝专讞 讛砖诪砖 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 注讚 砖诇讗 讻讘转讛 砖诪砖讜 砖诇 注诇讬 讝专讞讛 砖诪砖讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬 (讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讗讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 注诪讚 讜砖转诇谉 讘讻诇 讚讜专 讜讚讜专 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诇讛壮 诪爪讜拽讬 讗专抓 讜讬砖转 注诇讬讛诐 转讘诇

Apropos the righteous, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: No righteous person departs from this world until another comparable righteous person is created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sun rises and the sun sets鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:5); before the sun sets the new sun has already risen. Before the sun of Eli was extinguished, the sun of Samuel of Ramah had already shone (see I Samuel, chapter 3), and so on throughout the generations. And Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, saw that righteous people were few, so He arose and planted some of them in each and every generation to ensure the presence of at least one righteous person in each generation. As it is stated: 鈥淔or the pillars of the earth are the Lord鈥檚, and He has set the world upon them鈥 (I Samuel 2:8). Since the world rests upon the righteous, each generation requires the presence of a righteous person to provide that support.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬诇 爪讚讬拽 讗讞讚 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讚讬拽 讬住讜讚 注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专 讞住讬讚讬讜 讟讜讘讗 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讞住讬讚讜 讻转讬讘

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even for one righteous person the world exists, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut the righteous is the foundation of the world鈥 (Proverbs 10:25). Rabbi 岣yya himself said: The proof is from here, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9), meaning that God maintains the world due to the pious people. The Gemara questions this proof; 鈥減ious ones鈥 indicates many rather than a single righteous person. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Although the text is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular: 鈥His pious one鈥; God maintains the world even for a single pious individual.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 专讜讘 砖谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讞讟讗 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专 讚讘讬 专讘讬 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗讛 诇讬讚讜 讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Once most of a person鈥檚 years have passed and he did not sin, he will never sin, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9). Once a person has established himself as righteous, God will keep him from failing thereafter. In the school of Rabbi Sheila they say: Once the opportunity to perform a sinful act presents itself to a person a first time and a second, and he does not sin, he will never sin, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9). Once he has refrained from sin several times, he has established himself as pious and God will protect him thereafter.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 诇诇爪讬诐 讛讜讗 讬诇讬抓 讜诇注谞讜讬诐 讬转谉 讞谉 讘讗 诇讟诪讗 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 讘讗 诇讟讛专 诪住讬讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讜讻专 谞驻讟 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉

Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚f it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives grace鈥 (Proverbs 3:34)? If one comes to impurify, they open before him the opportunity to exercise his free will and do as he pleases. If one comes to purify, they assist him. In the school of Rabbi Yishmael it was taught with regard to this verse: This is comparable to the case of a man who was selling both crude naphtha [neft], whose odor is vile, and balsam, whose fragrance is pleasant.

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.
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Yoma 38: Nikanor’s Doors

The mishnah describes the procedure of the kohen gadol choosing the lots to determine which goat is to go God...

Yoma 38

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Yoma 38

讘住讬专讜讙讬谉

with alternating complete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.

谞讬拽谞讜专 谞注砖讜 谞住讬诐 诇讚诇转讜转讬讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讛 谞住讬诐 谞注砖讜 诇讚诇转讜转讬讜 讗诪专讜 讻砖讛诇讱 谞讬拽谞讜专 诇讛讘讬讗 讚诇转讜转 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讘讞讝讬专转讜 注诪讚 注诇讬讜 谞讞砖讜诇 砖讘讬诐 诇讟讘注讜 谞讟诇讜 讗讞转 诪讛谉 讜讛讟讬诇讜讛 诇讬诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜

搂 The mishna related: For Nicanor, miracles were performed to his doors. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: What miracles occurred for his doors? They said: When Nicanor went to bring copper doors for the eastern gate of the Temple from Alexandria in Egypt, famous for its craftsmanship, on his return voyage by ship, a storm arose in the sea and threatened to drown him. The ship鈥檚 passengers took one of the doors, which were exceedingly heavy, and cast it into the sea, fearing that the weight of the doors would sink the ship. And still the sea did not rest from its rage.

讘拽砖讜 诇讛讟讬诇 讗转 讞讘专转讛 注诪讚 讛讜讗 讜讻专讻讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讟讬诇讜谞讬 注诪讛 诪讬讚 谞讞 讛讬诐 诪讝注驻讜 讜讛讬讛 诪爪讟注专 注诇 讞讘专转讛 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇谞诪诇讛 砖诇 注讻讜 讛讬转讛 诪讘爪讘爪转 讜讬讜爪讗讛 诪转讞转 讚讜驻谞讬 讛住驻讬谞讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讬讛 砖讘讬诐 讘诇注转讛 讜讛拽讬讗转讛 诇讬讘砖讛

They sought to cast the other door into the sea, at which point Nicanor stood and embraced it and said to them: Cast me into the sea with it. Immediately, the sea rested from its rage, and it was necessary to cast neither the door nor Nicanor into the sea. The ship continued its journey with one door and for the entire voyage, he regretted the fate of the other door that he allowed them to cast into the sea. When they arrived at the port of Akko and prepared to disembark, despite the fact that it was made of copper, the door that was thrown into the sea was poking out under the sides of the ship. And some say a sea creature swallowed it and spewed it onto the land.

讜注诇讬讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 拽讜专讜转 讘转讬谞讜 讗专讝讬诐 专讛讬讟谞讜 讘专讜转讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 讘专讜转讬诐 讗诇讗 讘专讬转 讬诐 诇驻讬讻讱 讻诇 讛砖注专讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讘诪拽讚砖 谞砖转谞讜 诇讛讬讜转 砖诇 讝讛讘 讞讜抓 诪砖注专讬 谞讬拽谞讜专 诪驻谞讬 砖谞注砖讜 讘讜 谞住讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪驻谞讬 砖谞讞讜砖转谉 诪讜爪讛讘转 讛讬转讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 谞讞砖转 拽诇讜谞讬转讗 讛讬转讛 讜讛讬转讛 诪讗讬专讛 讻砖诇 讝讛讘

And with regard to this, Solomon said: 鈥淭he beams of our houses are cedars, and our doors are cypresses [berotim]鈥 (Song of Songs 1:17), and the Sages interpreted it homiletically: Do not read it as berotim but as berit yam, covenant of the sea, meaning that the door forged a covenant with the sea for the sea to deliver it to its place. Therefore, when the nation prospered and the people replaced the doors made of various metals, the doors in all the gates in the Temple were altered to become doors of gold except the doors in the Gates of Nicanor because miracles were performed to them. And some say it was because their copper was brightly-colored and high quality. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says it was refined [kelonita] copper, and it illuminated its surroundings like gold.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 诇讙谞讗讬 砖诇 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转

MISHNA: Apropos the mention in the mishna of people who took action in the Temple and were mentioned favorably, the mishna lists those who took action in the Temple and were mentioned unfavorably. The craftsmen of the House of Garmu did not want to teach the secret of the preparation of the shewbread and sought to keep the secret within their family. The craftsmen of the House of Avtinas did not want to teach the secret of the preparation of the incense.

讛讜讙专住 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讬讛 讬讜讚注 驻专拽 讘砖讬专 讜诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛讻转讘 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 谞讗诪专 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜注诇 讗诇讜 谞讗诪专 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

Also, Hugras ben Levi knew a chapter in the art of music, as will be explained, and he did not want to teach it to others. And the scribe ben Kamtzar did not want to teach a special act of writing. He was expert at writing all four letters of a four-letter name simultaneously. About the first ones, who were mentioned favorably, it is stated: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥 (Proverbs 10:7); and about these who were concerned only for themselves it is stated: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥 (Proverbs 10:7).

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 讛讬讜 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 砖诇讞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜 讗讜诪谞讬谉 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇讗驻讜转 讻诪讜转谉 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇专讚讜转 讻诪讜转谉 砖讛诇诇讜 诪住讬拽讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讗讜驻讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讛诇诇讜 诪住讬拽讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗讜驻讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 驻讬转谉 诪转注驻砖转 讜讛诇诇讜 讗讬谉 驻讬转谉 诪转注驻砖转

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: The craftsmen of the House of Garmu were expert in the preparation of the shewbread, and they did not want to teach others the secret of its production. The Sages dismissed them and sent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt, a large city with many experts. And those craftsmen knew how to bake like the members of the House of Garmu did, but they did not know how to remove the bread from the oven like they did. The shewbread was baked in a complex shape, and it was difficult to place it in the oven and remove it without breaking it. The difference was that these Alexandrians light the fire outside the oven and bake it outside the oven; and these members of the House of Garmu light the fire inside the oven and bake it inside. In the case of these Alexandrians, their bread becomes moldy over the course of the week, and in the case of these members of the House of Garmu, their bread does not become moldy.

讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讛 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讘专讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 讛谞拽专讗 讘砖诪讬 讜诇讻讘讜讚讬 讘专讗转讬讜 讜讞讝专讜 讘讬转 讙专诪讜 诇诪拽讜诪谉 砖诇讞讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讗讜 讻驻诇讜 诇讛诐 砖讻专谉 讜讘讗讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 谞讜讟诇讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪谞讛 讜讛讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜讛讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

When the Sages heard of the matter that the bread of the imported craftsmen was of lower quality than before, they said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: 鈥淓veryone who is called by My name, I have created for My glory鈥 (Isaiah 43:7). In deference to God, the Sages should diminish their honor for the greater glory of God and let the House of Garmu return to their original station. The Sages sent for them to reassume their previous position, and they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each day until then they would take wages of twelve maneh, and today they take wages of twenty-four maneh. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each day they took twenty-four maneh, and today they take forty-eight.

讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讛 专讗讬转诐 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讬讜讚注讬谉 讛讬讜 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 砖讘讬转 讝讛 注转讬讚 诇讬讞专讘 砖诪讗 讬诇诪讜讚 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讛讜讙谉 讜讬诇讱 讜讬注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讻讱 讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 谞诪爪讗转 驻转 谞拽讬讛 讘讬讚 讘谞讬讛诐 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪诪注砖讛 诇讞诐 讛驻谞讬诐 讝讛 谞讬讝讜谞讬谉 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讬转诐 谞拽讬讬诐 诪讛壮 讜诪讬砖专讗诇

The Sages said to them: What did you see that led you not to teach others this craft? They said: The members of our father鈥檚 house knew that this house, the Temple, is destined to be destroyed, and they were concerned lest an unworthy man learn our skill of baking and go and engage in idol worship with that skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: And for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never was refined bread of fine flour found in the hands of their descendants, so that people would not say that they are sustained from that technique of preparing the shewbread. They ate only bread made of coarse flour mixed with bran, to fulfill that which is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel鈥 (Numbers 32:22). Not only must one鈥檚 behavior be beyond reproach, he should also make certain to be beyond suspicion.

砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 讛讬讜 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 讜诇讗 专爪讜 诇诇诪讚 砖诇讞讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛讘讬讗讜 讗讜诪谞讬谉 诪讗诇讻住谞讚专讬讗 砖诇 诪爪专讬诐 讜讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇驻讟诐 讻诪讜转诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 诇讛注诇讜转 注砖谉 讻诪讜转谉 砖诇 讛诇诇讜 诪转诪专 讜注讜诇讛 讻诪拽诇 砖诇 讛诇诇讜 诪驻爪讬注 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉

搂 Similarly, the mishna related: The craftsmen of the House of Avtinas did not want to teach about the secret of the preparation of the incense, at which they were particularly adept. The Sages taught in a baraita: The members of the House of Avtinas were expert in the technique of preparing the incense, and they did not want to teach others. The Sages dismissed them and sent for and brought craftsmen from Alexandria in Egypt. And the Alexandrian craftsmen knew how to blend the spices like they did, but they did not know how to cause the smoke to rise like the House of Avtinas did. The smoke of the incense blended by these members of the House of Avtinas rises in a column like a stick; the smoke of the incense blended by these Alexandrians branched out to here and to there and did not rise in a straight line.

讜讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 讻诇 诪讛 砖讘专讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讘专讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 驻注诇 讛壮 诇诪注谞讛讜 讜讞讝专讜 讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 诇诪拽讜诪谉 砖诇讞讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讗讜 讻驻诇讜 诇讛诐 砖讻专谉 讜讘讗讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 谞讜讟诇讬谉 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 诪谞讛 讜讛讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜讛讬讜诐 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛

When the Sages heard of the matter, they said: Whatever the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created in His honor, as it is stated: 鈥淕od made everything for His sake鈥 (Proverbs 16:4), and they let the House of Avtinas return to their original station. The Sages sent for the members of the House of Avtinas to reassume their previous position, and they did not come. They doubled their wages and they came. Each day until then they would take wages of twelve maneh, and today they take wages of twenty-four maneh. Rabbi Yehuda says: Each day they took twenty-four maneh, and today they take forty-eight.

讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 讞讻诪讬诐 诪讛 专讗讬转诐 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讗诪专讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 讛讬讜 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 砖讘讬转 讝讛 注转讬讚 诇讬讞专讘 讗诪专讜 砖诪讗 讬诇诪讜讚 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讛讜讙谉 讜讬诇讱 讜讬注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讻讱 讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 诪注讜诇诐 诇讗 讬爪讗转 讻诇讛 诪讘讜砖诪转 诪讘转讬讛谉 讜讻砖谞讜砖讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪诪拽讜诐 讗讞专 诪转谞讬谉 注诪讛 砖诇讗 转转讘住诐 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 诪诪注砖讛 讛拽讟讜专转 诪转讘住诪讬谉 诇拽讬讬诐 诪讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讬转诐 谞拽讬讬诐 诪讛壮 讜诪讬砖专讗诇

The Sages said to them: What did you see that led you not to teach others this craft? They said: The members of our father鈥檚 house knew that this house, the Temple, is destined to be destroyed, and they were concerned lest an unworthy man learn our skill of preparing incense and go and engage in idol worship with that skill. Therefore, they attempted to prevent this skill from spreading beyond their family. The Gemara comments: And for this matter they are mentioned favorably: Never did a perfumed bride emerge from their homes. And when they marry a woman from a different place, they stipulate with her that she will not perfume herself, so that cynics would not say that it is with the work of the incense that they perfume themselves, to fulfill that which is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall be clear before the Lord and before Israel鈥 (Numbers 32:22).

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜诪爪讗转讬 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讗讘讜转讬讱 讘拽砖讜 诇讛专讘讜转 讻讘讜讚谉 讜专爪讜 诇诪注讟 讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐 注讻砖讬讜 讻讘讜讚 诪拽讜诐 讘诪拽讜诪讜 讜诪讬注讟 讻讘讜讚诐

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael said: One time I was walking along the road and I found one of the descendants of the House of Avtinas. I said to him: Your fathers sought to enhance their honor and sought to diminish God鈥檚 honor by not revealing their secret to others. Now, although the Temple was destroyed, the honor of God remains as it was, and He diminished their honor, as their significance stemmed from their Temple service.

讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 (驻注诐 讗讞转) 住讞 诇讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 诇讜讙讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 讬爪讗转讬 讗谞讬 讜讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 诇砖讚讛 诇诇拽讟 注砖讘讬诐 讜专讗讬转讬 (砖砖讞拽 讜讘讻讛) 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讘讻讬转 讗诪专 诇讬 讻讘讜讚 讗讘讜转讬 谞讝讻专转讬 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 砖讞拽转 讗诪专 诇讬 砖注转讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讛讞讝讬专讛 诇谞讜 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞讝讻专转 讗诪专 诇讬 诪注诇讛 注砖谉 讻谞讙讚讬 讛专讗讛讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬 砖讘讜注讛 讛讬讗 讘讬讚讬谞讜 砖讗讬谉 诪专讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Akiva said: One time Rabbi Yishmael ben Loga related to me: One time I and one of the descendants of the House of Avtinas went out to the field to collect herbs, and I saw that he laughed and he cried. I said to him: Why did you cry? He said to me: I was reminded of the honor of my forefathers, how important they were in the Temple. I said to him: And why did you laugh? He said to me: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is going to restore it to us in the future and we will be honored again. I said to him: And why are you reminded of this now? He said to me: The smoke-raising herb is before me, here in the field, reminding me of the past. I said to him: Show it to me; which one is it? He said to me: We are bound by oath not to show it to any person other than the members of our family.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 驻注诐 讗讞转 诪爪讗转讬 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 讜诪讙讬诇转 住诪诪谞讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 诪讗讬谉 讗转讛 讗诪专 诇讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讟讬谞住 讗谞讬 讜诪讛 讘讬讚讱 讗诪专 诇讬 诪讙讬诇转 住诪诪谞讬谉 讛专讗讛讜 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讗讘讗 讛讬讜 拽讬讬诪讬谉 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪讜住专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讜注讻砖讬讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 诇讱 讜讛讝讛专 讘讛 讜讻砖讘讗转讬 讜住讞转讬 讚讘专讬 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬 诪注转讛 讗住讜专 诇住驻专 讘讙谞讜转谉 砖诇 讗诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: One time I found an old man who had in his hand a scroll with the location and formula for blending of spices. I said to him: Where are you from? What is your ancestry? He said to me: I am from the House of Avtinas. I asked him: And what is in your hand? He said to me: A scroll of spices. I said to him: Show it to me. He said to me: As long as the House of Avtinas, my forefathers, was extant, they would not pass it on to anyone. And now, here it is; and be careful with it not to give it to anyone. And when I came and related my statement before Rabbi Akiva, he said to me: And now that they have surrendered the scroll to worthy recipients since they are unable to maintain its sanctity, it is prohibited to mention them unfavorably, as even their earlier reticence was apparently for the glory of God.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讘砖诪讱 讬拽专讗讜讱 讜讘诪拽讜诪讱 讬讜砖讬讘讜讱

From here, with regard to the cases of the Temple鈥檚 craftsmen whom the Sages restored to their posts, ben Azzai said: One should not be concerned that others might usurp his livelihood and success, since at the appropriate moment, by your name they shall call you to return to your previous position, and in your place, they shall seat you,

讜诪砖诇讱 讬转谞讜 诇讱 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 谞讜讙注 讘诪讜讻谉 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

and from your own they shall give you. Everyone has a portion designated for him by God, and the individual is privileged to receive what is coming to him, as was the case with the House of Avtinas. The principle is: No person may touch that which is prepared for another by God; everyone receives what is designated for him. And one reign does not overlap with another and deduct from the time allotted it even a hairbreadth. When the time comes for one kingdom to fall, its successor takes over immediately, as no king rules during the time designated for another.

讛讜讙专住 讘谉 诇讜讬 讜讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讻砖讛讜讗 谞讜转谉 拽讜诇讜 讘谞注讬诪讛 诪讻谞讬住 讙讜讚诇讜 诇转讜讱 驻讬讜 讜诪谞讬讞 讗爪讘注讜 讘讬谉 讛谞讬诪讬谉 注讚 砖讛讬讜 讗讞讬讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 谞讝拽专讬诐 讘讘转 专讗砖 诇讗讞讜专讬讛诐

搂 The mishna related that Hugras ben Levi knew a lesson in the art of music and he did not want to teach it to others. It was taught in a baraita: When Hugras ben Levi projects his voice in a sweet melody, he places his thumb into his mouth and places his finger between the strings of a lyre and sings. This produced a sound so sweet that his brethren the priests were abruptly taken aback.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 专爪讛 诇诇诪讚 注诇 诪注砖讛 讛讻转讘 讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 砖讛讬讛 谞讜讟诇 讗专讘注讛 拽讜诇诪讜住讬谉 讘讬谉 讗爪讘注讜转讬讜 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 转讬讘讛 砖诇 讗专讘注 讗讜转讬讜转 讛讬讛 讻讜转讘讛 讘讘转 讗讞转 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖诇讗 诇诇诪讚 讻讜诇谉 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诇讚讘专讬讛诐 讘谉 拽诪爪专 诇讗 诪爪讗 转砖讜讘讛 诇讚讘专讬讜 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 谞讗诪专 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜注诇 讘谉 拽诪爪专 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 谞讗诪专 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

The Sages taught: Ben Kamtzar did not want to teach others a special technique of writing. What was that technique? They said about him that he would take four quills between his fingers, and if there was a word consisting of four letters that he wanted to write, he could write it simultaneously. They said to him: What did you see that led you not to teach that technique? All the others with unique skills came up with a response to questions about the matter of their conduct, claiming that they sought to prevent their technique from being used in idol worship. However, ben Kamtzar did not come up with a response to questions about the matter of his conduct, and it was clear that his only motivation in preventing his skill from being disseminated was his own personal honor. With regard to the first people listed, it is stated: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥 (Proverbs 10:7); and about ben Kamtzar and his counterparts it is stated: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥 (Proverbs 10:7).

诪讗讬 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专拽讘讬讘讜转 转注诇讛 讘砖诪讜转谉 讚诇讗 诪住拽讬谞谉 讘砖诪讬讬讛讜 诪转讬讘 专讘讬谞讗 诪注砖讛 讘讚讜讗讙 讘谉 讬讜住祝 砖讛谞讬讞讜 [讗讘讬讜] 讘谉 拽讟谉 诇讗诪讜 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬转讛 讗诪讜 诪讜讚讚转讜 讘讟驻讞讬诐 讜谞讜转谞转 诪砖拽诇讜 砖诇 讝讛讘 诇讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜讻砖讙讘专 讗讜讬讘 讟讘讞转讜 讜讗讻诇转讜

搂 Apropos the verse cited, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: But the name of the wicked shall rot? How does a name rot? Rabbi Elazar said: It means that decay will spread on their names, meaning that we do not call others by their names, and the name will sink into oblivion. Ravina raised an objection from an incident that transpired during the Second Temple era. There was an incident involving Doeg ben Yosef, whose father died and left him as a young child to his mother, who loved him. Each day his mother measured his height in handbreadths and donated a measure of gold equivalent to the weight that he gained to the Temple. Later, when the enemy prevailed and there was a terrible famine in the city, she slaughtered and ate him.

讜注诇讬讛 拽讜谞谉 讬专诪讬讛 讗诐 转讗讻诇谞讛 谞砖讬诐 驻专讬诐 注讜诇诇讬 讟驻讜讞讬诐 诪砖讬讘讛 专讜讞 讛拽讚砖 讜讗讜诪专转 讗诐 讬讛专讙 讘诪拽讚砖 讛壮 讻讛谉 讜谞讘讬讗 讞讝讬 诪讗讬 住诇讬拽 讘讬讛

And with regard to her and others like her Jeremiah lamented: 鈥淪hall the women eat their fruit, their children in their care [tipu岣m]?鈥 (Lamentations 2:20). The Gemara interprets the term tipu岣m homiletically as referring to this baby, who was measured in handbreadths [tefa岣m]. Even he was eaten by his mother. And the Divine Spirit responds and says: Why did this happen? 鈥淪hall the priest and the prophet be slain in the Temple of the Lord?鈥 (Lamentations 2:20). It is punishment for the murder of the priest Zechariah ben Jehoiada. This incident involves aboy named Doeg; even though the person with that name was wicked (see I Samuel, chapter 22), the boy was named for him. The Gemara responds: See what befell him. Clearly, his name was a bad omen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 爪讚讬拽 诪注爪诪讜 讜专砖注 诪讞讘讬专讜 爪讚讬拽 诪注爪诪讜 讚讻转讬讘 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讜专砖注 诪讞讘讬专讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘

Rabbi Elazar said: A righteous person is praised for his own actions, and a wicked person is cursed not only for his own actions but also for the actions of his wicked counterpart. A righteous person is praised for his actions, as it is written: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing鈥; righteous is written in the singular. A wicked person is also cursed for the actions of his wicked counterpart, as it is written: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot鈥; wicked is written in the plural. Once one wicked person is mentioned, his wicked counterparts are cursed as well.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚讛讜讛 诪住讚专 讗讙讚转讗 拽诪讬讛 诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讗 讻转讬讘 讝讻专 爪讚讬拽 诇讘专讻讛 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛壮 讗诪专 讛诪讻住讛 讗谞讬 诪讗讘专讛诐 讗砖专 讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗讘专讛诐 讛讬讜 讬讛讬讛 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讜注爪讜诐

Ravina said to one of the Sages who would organize aggadic statements before him: From where is this matter that the Sages stated: The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing, derived?He said to him: As it is written explicitly in the book of Proverbs: 鈥淭he memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing.鈥 He then asked him: From where in the Torah do we derive this? He said to him: As it is written: 鈥淎nd God said: Shall I hide from Abraham that which I am doing?鈥 (Genesis 18:17). And as soon as Abraham鈥檚 name is mentioned, it is written: 鈥淎nd Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation鈥 (Genesis 18:18), although there is no clear connection to the previous verse. Apparently, once the name of a righteous person is mentioned, it is followed directly by praise of the individual. That is the Torah source for the statement that the mention of the righteous is for blessing.

诪谞讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 专砖注讬诐 讬专拽讘 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗讛诇 注讚 住讚讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗谞砖讬 住讚讜诐 专注讬诐 讜讞讟讗讬诐 诇讛壮 诪讗讚

Then he asked: From where is this matter that the Sages said: But the name of the wicked shall rot, derived? He said to him: As it is written explicitly in the book of Proverbs: 鈥淏ut the name of the wicked shall rot.鈥 He then asked him: From where in the Torah do we derive this? He said to him: As it is written with regard to Lot: 鈥淎nd he moved his tent as far as Sodom鈥 (Genesis 13:12). And as soon as Sodom is mentioned, it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinful to God鈥 (Genesis 13:13).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 爪讚讬拽 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 专砖注讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 专砖注 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 爪讚讬拽 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 专砖注讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 注讜讘讚讬讛 专砖注 讚专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讚 诪诪注砖讬讛诐 讝讛 注砖讜

Apropos these statements, the Gemara cites another statement that Rabbi Elazar said: There was a righteous person who lived between two wicked people and did not learn from their actions; there was a wicked person who lived between two righteous people and did not learn from their actions. How so? A righteous person lived between two wicked people and did not learn from their actions is Obadiah, who was a minister for Ahab and Jezebel and nevertheless remained God-fearing (see I Kings, chapter 18). A wicked person who lived between two righteous people and did not learn from their actions is Esau, who was born and raised in the house of Isaac and Rebecca and nevertheless remained wicked.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讘专讻转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 拽诇诇讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讜诪拽诇诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 讘专讻讛 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讘专讻转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 拽诇诇讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬讚注转讬讜 诇诪注谉 讗砖专 讬爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讝注拽转 住讚讜诐 讜注诪讜专讛 讻讬 专讘讛

Rabbi Elazar said: From the blessing of the righteous you infer a curse for the wicked; and conversely, from the curse of the wicked you infer a blessing for the righteous. How so? From the blessing of the righteous you infer a curse for the wicked, as it is written with regard to Abraham: 鈥淔or I have known him to the end that he will command his children and his household after him鈥 (Genesis 18:19), and it is written thereafter: 鈥淭he cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is very great鈥 (Genesis 18:20). The righteousness of Abraham underscores the relative wickedness of Sodom and Gomorrah, exacerbating their punishment.

讜诪拽诇诇转谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讗转讛 诇诪讚 讘专讻讛 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗谞砖讬 住讚讜诐 专注讬诐 讜讞讟讗讬诐 诇讛壮 讜讛壮 讗诪专 讗诇 讗讘专诐 讗讞专讬 讛驻专讚 诇讜讟 诪注诪讜 (讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬诇 爪讚讬拽 讗讞讚 注讜诇诐 谞讘专讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 讛讗讜专 讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讗讬谉 讟讜讘 讗诇讗 爪讚讬拽 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘

Conversely, from the curse of the wicked you infer a blessing for the righteous, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinful to God鈥 (Genesis 13:13), after which it is written: 鈥淎nd God said to Abram, after that Lot had separated from him鈥 (Genesis 13:14); God proceeds to bless him. And Rabbi Elazar said: Even for one righteous person an entire world is created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd God saw the light, that it was good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), and good means nothing other than righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淪ay of the righteous that he is good鈥 (Isaiah 3:10).

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻诇 讛诪砖讻讞 讚讘专 诪转诇诪讜讚讜 讙讜专诐 讙诇讜转 诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转砖讻讞 转讜专转 讗诇讛讬讱 讗砖讻讞 讘谞讬讱 讙诐 讗谞讬 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讙讚讜诇转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讗转讛 讛讚注转 诪讗住转 讜讗诪讗住讱 诪讻讛谉 诇讬

Rabbi Elazar further said: One who causes himself to forget a matter of his studies ultimately causes exile for his children, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause you have forgotten the Torah of your God, I will also forget your children鈥 (Hosea 4:6). Rabbi Abbahu said: With regard to he who causes his studies to be forgotten, one reduces him from his prominence, as it is stated: 鈥淏ecause you have rejected knowledge, I will also reject you; you shall not serve Me鈥 (Hosea 4:6).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 爪讚讬拽 谞驻讟专 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注讚 砖谞讘专讗 爪讚讬拽 讻诪讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讝专讞 讛砖诪砖 讜讘讗 讛砖诪砖 注讚 砖诇讗 讻讘转讛 砖诪砖讜 砖诇 注诇讬 讝专讞讛 砖诪砖讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬 (讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讗讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讜注讟讬谉 注诪讚 讜砖转诇谉 讘讻诇 讚讜专 讜讚讜专 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 诇讛壮 诪爪讜拽讬 讗专抓 讜讬砖转 注诇讬讛诐 转讘诇

Apropos the righteous, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: No righteous person departs from this world until another comparable righteous person is created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sun rises and the sun sets鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:5); before the sun sets the new sun has already risen. Before the sun of Eli was extinguished, the sun of Samuel of Ramah had already shone (see I Samuel, chapter 3), and so on throughout the generations. And Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, saw that righteous people were few, so He arose and planted some of them in each and every generation to ensure the presence of at least one righteous person in each generation. As it is stated: 鈥淔or the pillars of the earth are the Lord鈥檚, and He has set the world upon them鈥 (I Samuel 2:8). Since the world rests upon the righteous, each generation requires the presence of a righteous person to provide that support.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘讬诇 爪讚讬拽 讗讞讚 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讚讬拽 讬住讜讚 注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专 讞住讬讚讬讜 讟讜讘讗 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讞住讬讚讜 讻转讬讘

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even for one righteous person the world exists, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut the righteous is the foundation of the world鈥 (Proverbs 10:25). Rabbi 岣yya himself said: The proof is from here, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9), meaning that God maintains the world due to the pious people. The Gemara questions this proof; 鈥減ious ones鈥 indicates many rather than a single righteous person. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Although the text is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular: 鈥His pious one鈥; God maintains the world even for a single pious individual.

(讗诪专) 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 专讜讘 砖谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讞讟讗 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专 讚讘讬 专讘讬 砖讬诇讗 讗诪专讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗讛 诇讬讚讜 讚讘专 注讘讬专讛 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 专讙诇讬 讞住讬讚讬讜 讬砖诪讜专

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Once most of a person鈥檚 years have passed and he did not sin, he will never sin, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9). Once a person has established himself as righteous, God will keep him from failing thereafter. In the school of Rabbi Sheila they say: Once the opportunity to perform a sinful act presents itself to a person a first time and a second, and he does not sin, he will never sin, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will keep the feet of His pious ones鈥 (I Samuel 2:9). Once he has refrained from sin several times, he has established himself as pious and God will protect him thereafter.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 诇诇爪讬诐 讛讜讗 讬诇讬抓 讜诇注谞讜讬诐 讬转谉 讞谉 讘讗 诇讟诪讗 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 讘讗 诇讟讛专 诪住讬讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讜讻专 谞驻讟 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉

Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚f it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives grace鈥 (Proverbs 3:34)? If one comes to impurify, they open before him the opportunity to exercise his free will and do as he pleases. If one comes to purify, they assist him. In the school of Rabbi Yishmael it was taught with regard to this verse: This is comparable to the case of a man who was selling both crude naphtha [neft], whose odor is vile, and balsam, whose fragrance is pleasant.

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