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Today's Daf Yomi

June 27, 2021 | ื™ืดื– ื‘ืชืžื•ื– ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Yoma 77

Today’s daf is sponsored by Elisheva Gray in loving memory of her dear husband Ron, z”l, on his tenth yahrzeit. “Grateful for the 25 years we had together. We never took one moment of it for granted and created so many wonderful memories together. Ron was truly a mensch, a gentleman, a wonderful cook and a sage in his own right. I miss him every day, and I know he would be studying the daf right along with me.” And by Shelley and Jerry Gornish “in memory of our ืขื– – our beloved and greatly missed grandson, ืขื– ื•ื™ืœืฆืณื™ืง, whose fifth Yahrzeit was recently commemorated.”

The gemara explains the verse in Daniel ” and I came on account of your words. ” And brings a story about the angels Gabriel and Michael and the sequence of events between them and the prophet Daniel based on verses from Ezekiel. The gemara goes back to bringing a third proof that washing is considered affliction from aย  verse, “The people are weary and hungry and thirsty in the wilderness” – tired and bathing. How do you prove that it is not a different kind of fatigue? From where do we know that not wearing shows and refraining from sexual relations is affliction? In what circumstances is washing allowed? If one’s hands are full of dirt, one can wash them. Washing hands in the morning is allowed because of an evil spirit. It is permissible to go through the water to go to his rabbi or father or to go to a sermon, but is it permissible to return home? Rabbi Yosef questions: How is it permissible to go through the water on a weekday, since there is danger, as seen from verses in Ezekiel describing a river that will come out of the Holy of Holies in the future.

ืฉื ืžื•ืฉื‘ ืกืžืœ ื”ืงื ืื” ื”ืžืงื ื” ื•ื™ื‘ื ืื•ืชื™ ืืœ ื—ืฆืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืณ ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช ื•ื”ื ื” ืคืชื— ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื•ืœื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื›ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ืงื“ืžื” ื•ื”ืžื” ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื ืงื“ืžื” ืœืฉืžืฉ ืžืžืฉืžืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ืงื“ืžื” ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืคื•ืจืขื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžืชืจื™ื–ื™ืŸ ื›ืœืคื™ ืžื˜ื”

there was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provokes jealousyโ€ (Ezekiel 8:3). โ€œAnd he brought me into the inner court of the Lordโ€™s House, and behold at the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary of God, between the porch and the altar were about twenty-five men with their backs toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the eastโ€ (Ezekiel 8:16). The Gemara explains: From the fact that it is stated โ€œand their faces toward the east,โ€ is it not clear that their backs were to the Sanctuary, which is in the west? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states โ€œtheir backs toward the Temple of the Lordโ€? This teaches that they would uncover themselves and defecate downward, toward the Divine Presence. The verse used a euphemism to refrain from vulgar language.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืžื™ื›ืืœ ืžื™ื›ืืœ ืกืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืชืš ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื“ื™ื• ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื™ ืฉื•ืจืฃ ืื•ืชื ื•ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืืžืจ (ืœืื™ืฉ) ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ื ืืœ ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื’ืœื’ืœ ืืœ ืชื—ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ ื•ืžืœื ื—ืคื ื™ืš ื’ื—ืœื™ ืืฉ ืžื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื–ืจื•ืง ืขืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ื™ื‘ื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืฉืœื— ื”ื›ืจื•ื‘ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืžื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืืœ ื”ืืฉ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชืŸ ืืœ ื—ืคื ื™ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืงื— ื•ื™ืฆื

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, the ministering angel of the Jewish people: Michael, your nation has sinned (see Daniel 10:21). He replied: Master of the Universe, may it be enough for the good people among them to save them from destruction. He said to him: I will burn them and the good among them because the good do not rebuke the wicked. Immediately, God spoke to Gabriel: โ€œHe spoke to the man clothed in linen and said: Go in between the wheelwork and beneath the cherub, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubs, and scatter them over the city; and he came before my eyesโ€ (Ezekiel 10:2). Immediately: โ€œAnd the cherub stretched out his hand from between the cherubs into the fire that was between the cherubs, and took and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went outโ€ (Ezekiel 10:7).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืื™ืœืžืœื ืœื ื ืฆื˜ื ื ื• ื’ื—ืœื™ื ืžื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื›ืจื•ื‘ ืœื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืœื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจื• ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ ื•ืคืœื™ื˜

Rav แธคana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said: If it were not for the fact that the embers cooled as they were passed from the hand of the cherub to the hand of Gabriel, instead of Gabriel taking the embers directly himself as he had been told, not a remnant or a refugee of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have survived. The cooling of the embers limited the punishment.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื ื” ื”ืื™ืฉ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ืงืกืช ื‘ืžืชื ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ื‘ ื“ื‘ืจ ืœืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื™ืชื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื• ืœื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ืคืจื’ื•ื“ ื•ืžื—ื™ื•ื”ื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืคื•ืœืกื™ ื“ื ื•ืจื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ืื™ ืขื‘ื“ืช ืืžืื™ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ื›ื“ืคืงื“ื•ืš ื•ืขื•ื“ ื“ืขื‘ื“ืช ืœื™ืช ืœืš ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืงืœืงืœื”

The Gemara continues. And it is written: โ€œAnd behold, the man clothed in linen with the slate by his side, reported the matter saying: I have done as You have commanded meโ€ (Ezekiel 9:11). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: At that moment, they cast out Gabriel from behind the curtain [pargod], where the inner angels reside, and they struck him with sixty blows [pulsei] of fire. They said to him: If you did not do it, you did not do it; if you did do it, why did you not do it according to what you were commanded but deviated from what you were instructed to do? Moreover, after you already did it, do you not have knowledge of the principle: One should not deliver a report about destruction? If one is sent on a mission of destruction, he should not deliver a detailed report of its success but should only hint at it.

ืื™ื™ืชื•ื” ืœื“ื•ื‘ื™ืืœ ืฉืจื ื“ืคืจืกืื™ ื•ืื•ืงืžื™ื” ื‘ื—ืจื™ืงื™ื” ื•ืฉืžืฉ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืขื•ืžื“ ืœื ื’ื“ื™ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ื ื” ืžื™ื›ืืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ืฉืจื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื ืœืขื–ืจื ื™ ื•ืื ื™ ื ื•ืชืจืชื™ ืฉื ืืฆืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ืคืจืก ื™ื”ื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืžืœื›ื™ ื•ืคืจื•ื•ืชื ื“ืžืฉื”ื™ื’

They then brought Dubiel, the ministering angel of the Persians and put him in the place of [baแธฅarikei] Gabriel and he served for twenty-one days. As it is written: โ€œBut the prince of the kingdom of Persia stood opposed to me for twenty-one days, but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me and I remained there beside the kings of Persiaโ€ (Daniel 10:13). Corresponding to those twenty-one days, they gave him, the ministering angel of Persia, twenty-one kings who ruled and the seaport of Mashhig.

ืืžืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื• ืœื™ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืื›ืจื’ื ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ื• ืœื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืื›ืจื’ื ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ื‘ืขื• ืœืžื™ื—ืชื ืขืžื“ ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ืคืจื’ื•ื“ ื•ืืžืจ ืฉื•ื ืœื›ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ ืงื•ื ืžืื—ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื—ื ื”ืขืฆื‘ื™ื ื›ืŸ ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ื“ื• ืฉื ื ืžืื™ ื›ืŸ ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ื“ื• ืฉื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืœื• ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžื ื“ื“ื•ืช ืฉื™ื ื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื–ื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื”ืฉื’ื™ื—ื• ืขืœื™ื•

The ministering angel of the Persians said: Write for me that the Jews must pay taxes [akarga] to the Persians. They wrote it for him as he asked. He said: Write for me that the Sages must pay taxes. They wrote this for him. When they wanted to sign the documents, Gabriel stood from behind the curtain and said: โ€œIt is vain for you who rise early who sit up late to eat the bread of sorrow, for He gives His beloved sleepโ€ (Psalms 127:2). What does โ€œfor He gives His beloved sleepโ€ mean? Rav Yitzแธฅak said: These are the wives of Torah scholars who disturb their sleep in this world by staying up waiting for their husbands, who rise early and return late from learning Torah, and they thereby merit the World-to-Come. Gabriel asked: Is this the reward they deserve, to pay more taxes? They did not listen to Gabriel.

ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื›ืฃ ืžืื–ื ื™ื ื•ื“ื ื™ืืœ ืื™ืฉ ื—ืžื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื›ืฃ ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื ื ืžืฆื ืžื›ืจื™ืข ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื–ื” ืฉืžืœืžื“ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืื ื™ ื‘ืืชื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื™ืขื•ืœ ืืขื™ื™ืœื•ื”ื•

He said before Him: Master of the Universe, if all the wise men of other nations were placed on one side of the scale, and Daniel the beloved man were on the other side, would he not outweigh them? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Who is the one who teaches the virtue of My children? They said to Him: Master of the Universe, it is Gabriel. He said to them: Let him come from behind the partition, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I have come due to your wordsโ€ (Daniel 10:12), meaning that Gabriel was permitted to enter from behind the partition because he mentioned Danielโ€™s name. God then said to the other angels: Let him ascend. They brought him up.

ืืชื ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ื‘ื™ืืœ ื“ื ืงื˜ ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื’ืจืชื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืœืžืจืžื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืœืขื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžื™ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื•ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ื ืžื™ื—ืชื ืœื ื”ื•ื™ ื—ืชืžื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืฃ ืžื™ื—ืชื ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ืชืžื ื›ื“ื‘ืœืขื™ื” ืžื—ื™ืง ืœื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ื“ืคืจืก ืื™ื›ื ื“ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื›ืจื’ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื›ืจื’ื ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ื•ื”ื ื” ืฉืจ ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื ืขื•ื™ ืขื•ื™ ื•ืœื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื’ื— ื‘ื™ื”

He came and found Dubiel the ministering angel of the Persians holding the letter in his hand. Gabriel wanted to take the letter from him, but Dubiel swallowed it. Some say the letter was written, but it was not signed. Some say it was also signed, but when he swallowed it, the signature was erased. The Gemara comments: This is why, in the kingdom of Persia, there are those who pay taxes and there are those who do not pay taxes, as the decree was not finalized. It also states there: โ€œAnd when I depart from him, the prince of Greece comesโ€ (Daniel 10:20). Gabriel screamed and screamed that the kings of Greece should not rule over the Jews, but no one listened to him.

ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืจื—ื™ืฆื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืžื”ื›ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืื‘ื™ืชืจ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืžืœืš ืขื ืชื•ืช ืœืš ืขืœ ืฉื“ืš ื›ื™ ืื™ืฉ ืžื•ืช ืืชื” ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืœื ืืžื™ืชืš ื›ื™ ื ืฉืืช [ืืช] ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ืœืคื ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืืฉืจ ื”ืชืขื ื” ืื‘ื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืืžืจื• ื”ืขื ืจืขื‘ ื•ืขื™ืฃ ื•ืฆืžื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืจืขื‘ ืžืœื—ื ื•ืฆืžื ืžืžื™ื ืขื™ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžืจื—ื™ืฆื” ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ

ยง The Gemara returns to the issue of whether refraining from bathing is considered affliction. If you wish, say instead: The fact that bathing is considered affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd to Ebiathar the priest the king said: Get to Anatoth to your fields, for you are deserving of death. But I will not put you to death today, because you carried the Ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because you have been afflicted in all that my father was afflictedโ€ (I Kings 2:26). And it is written with regard to David: โ€œFor they said the people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty in the wildernessโ€ (II Samuel 17:29). Hunger means from lack of bread to eat, and thirst means from lack of water to drink. The word weary means lack from what? Is it not from bathing? The comparison of the verses suggests that that too is affliction. The Gemara challenges: And perhaps โ€œwearyโ€ means from lack of wearing shoes? Therefore, this does not teach us that refraining from bathing is considered an affliction.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืžื™ื ืงืจื™ื ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉืชื™ื” ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ื›ืชื™ื‘

Rather, another source needs to be found. Rav Yitzแธฅak said: It can be derived from here: โ€œAs cold water on a weary soul, so is good news from a far countryโ€ (Proverbs 25:25). This implies that the word weary is used to describe someone who has not bathed. The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse is referring to weariness from not drinking? The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: As cold water in a weary soul? That would mean that it entered one like a drink. Rather, โ€œon a weary soulโ€ is written, which implies bathing.

ื•ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื“ื•ื“ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ืœื• ื—ืคื•ื™ (ื•ื”ื•ืœืš) ื™ื—ืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืกื•ืกื™ื ื•ืžืจื˜ืงื

ยง The Gemara clarifies the next point in the mishna: The fact that not wearing shoes is considered an affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd David went up by the ascent of the Mount of Olives, and wept as he went up, and he had his head covered, and was walking barefootโ€ (II Samuel 15:30). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? All these deprivations are described as affliction. The Gemara rejects this: No, perhaps he was barefoot from a horse and whip. Even if he was wearing shoes, a king without a horse and whip was considered as if he were going barefoot.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืœืš ื•ืคืชื—ืช ื”ืฉืง ืžืขืœ ืžืชื ื™ืš ื•ื ืขืœืš ืชื—ืœื•ืฅ ืžืขืœ ืจื’ืœืš ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืขืฉ ื›ืŸ ื”ืœื•ืš ืขืจื•ื ื•ื™ื—ืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื•ืื™ืžื ื‘ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื”ืžื˜ื•ืœืื™ื ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ืขืจื•ื ืขืจื•ื ืžืžืฉ ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื‘ืœื•ื™ื™ื ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื”ืžื˜ื•ืœืื™ื

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: We learn it from here, as it states: โ€œGo and loose the sackcloth from your loins, and remove your shoe from your footโ€ (Isaiah 20:2). And it is written: โ€œAnd he did so, walking naked and barefootโ€ (Isaiah 20:2). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? The Gemara challenges: And say that perhaps the meaning of barefoot is that Isaiah walked with patched shoes. Because if you do not say this, but you claim that the verse is to be understood literally, does โ€œnakedโ€ mean actually naked? Rather, the meaning is that Isaiah walked in ragged garments. Here too, the meaning is that he walked in patched shoes.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืžื ืขื™ ืจื’ืœืš ืžื™ื—ืฃ ื•ื’ืจื•ื ืš ืžืฆืžืื” ืžื ืขื™ ืขืฆืžืš ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื˜ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื ืจื’ืœืš ืœื™ื“ื™ ื™ื—ื•ืฃ ืžื ืขื™ ืœืฉื•ื ืš ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื ื’ืจื•ื ืš ืœื™ื“ื™ ืฆืžืื”

Rather, a different source must be found. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said that we derive it from here: It states: โ€œWithhold your foot from being barefoot, and your throat from thirstโ€ (Jeremiah 2:25), meaning: Keep yourself from sin, so that your feet will not come to be barefoot; keep your tongue from idle talk, so that your throat will not come to be thirsty. Consequently, we learn that being barefoot is considered an affliction.

ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื”ืžื˜ื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืขื ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื ืฉื™ื

ยง The Gemara continues to clarify another of the afflictions of Yom Kippur: From where do we derive the halakha that refraining from conjugal relations is called affliction? As it is written, Laban said to Jacob: โ€œIf you shall afflict my daughters, and if you shall take other wives beside my daughtersโ€ (Genesis 31:50).

ืื ืชืขื ื” ืžืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื•ืื ืชืงื— ืžืฆืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืžื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืžืฆืจื•ืช ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืงื— ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื›ืชื™ื‘

This can be explained as: โ€œIf you shall afflict my daughtersโ€ by refraining from conjugal relations, โ€œand if you shall take other wivesโ€ causing them to suffer from additional rival wives. The Gemara objects: And say that this phrase and that phrase are both referring to taking rival wives. The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: If you take? โ€œAnd if you shall takeโ€ is written. Therefore, the clauses must be referring to two different kinds of affliction.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืžืฆืจื•ืช ื—ื“ ืœืฆืจื•ืช ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ื—ื“ ืœืฆืจื•ืช ื“ืืชื™ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžืขืœืžื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืื ืชืงื— ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืงื— ื•ืื ืชืขื ื” ืื ืชืขื ื” ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื›ืชื™ื‘

The Gemara challenges further: And say that this phrase and that phrase are referring to taking rival wives. One phrase is referring to his wivesโ€™ current rivals. โ€œIf you shall afflictโ€ means that Jacob should not elevate the position of the two maidservants, Bilhah and Zilpah, to the status of wife, which would make them co-wives with Labanโ€™s daughters. And one phrase is referring to rivals who might come to him from the world at large, which would be similar in meaning to โ€œif you shall take.โ€ The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: If you take and if you afflict? It is logical to first state the more severe warning and then the less severe one. But according to this proposed reading that โ€œtakeโ€ refers to rivals from the world at large and โ€œafflictโ€ refers to elevating the status of maidservants, the text would have first mentioned the less painful affliction of elevating the maidservants and then followed it with a warning about taking new rival wives, as โ€œif you shall afflict and if you shall takeโ€ is written.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื’ื•ืคื” ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉื›ื‘ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื™ืขื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืชื ืฉืขื™ื ื” ืžื‘ื™ืื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But conjugal relations themselves are called affliction, as it is written: โ€œAnd Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her; and he took her, and he lay with her and afflicted herโ€ (Genesis 34:2). If so, how can it be said that the affliction is in withholding conjugal relations? He said to him: There, Shechem afflicted her from different relations, meaning he slept with her in an unnatural way. That type of relations is clearly an affliction.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืจื—ื•ืฅ ืžืงืฆืช ื’ื•ืคื• ื›ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืžืœื•ื›ืœืš ื‘ื˜ื™ื˜ ื•ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ื—ืฅ ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกื•ืš ืžืงืฆืช ื’ื•ืคื• ื›ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœื” ืื• ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื—ื˜ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืกืš ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ

ยง The Gemara clarifies some of the prohibitions relating to Yom Kippur. The Sages taught: It is prohibited to bathe part of the body just as it is prohibited to bathe the whole body. But if one is dirty from mud or excrement, he may bathe in his usual manner, and he need not be concerned about transgressing, since his goal is not pleasure. Similarly, it is prohibited to smear oil on part of the body just as it is prohibited to smear oil on the whole body. But if one was sick and needed to smear oil on his body for medicinal purposes, or if one had scabs on his head that would hurt if he did not smear oil on himself, he may smear oil in his usual manner, and he need not be concerned about transgressing.

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืžื ืฉื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื“ื™ื—ื” ืืฉื” ื™ื“ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื ื•ืชื ืช ืคืช ืœืชื™ื ื•ืง ื•ืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ืฉืฉืช

The school of Menashe taught that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A woman may rinse one hand in water, so that she does not touch food before she has washed her hands in the morning, and give bread to her child, and she need not be concerned about violating the prohibition of bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืืžืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœ ืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ืจืฆื” ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืื—ืช ื•ื’ื–ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื™ื‘ืชื

They said about Shammai the Elder that he did not want to feed his children with one hand, to avoid having to wash it. This prevented the children from eating during all of Yom Kippur. Due to concerns about the health and the suffering of his children, they decreed that he must feed them with two hands, forcing him to wash both hands. What is the reason that they also said in general that one must wash his hands before touching food? Abaye said: Due to an evil spirit named Shivta, who resides on hands that have not been washed in the morning.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ืœืš ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื“ ืฆื•ืืจื• ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ

ยง The Sages taught: One who goes to greet his father or his teacher, or to greet one who is greater than him in wisdom, and has to cross a river on the way, may cross the water until his neck is in the water, and he need not be concerned that he is violating the prohibition against bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ืจื‘ ืืฆืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืžืื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืื ื ื—ื–ื™ืชื™ื” ืœื–ืขื™ืจื™ ื“ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื“ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ื”

A dilemma was raised before them, i.e., the students discussing this question: What is the law concerning a teacher going to visit his student? May he enter the water in order to teach his student? The Gemara tries to bring a proof: Come and hear from what Rav Yitzแธฅak bar bar แธคana said: I saw Zeโ€™iri, who went through a river on his way to Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi, his student. Rav Ashi said: This was not the case. Rather, in that case, it was the student Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi who went to Zeโ€™iri, his teacher. Therefore, this incident does not answer the question.

ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืขื‘ืจ ื™ืžื™ื ื ืœืžืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื ืœื ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืคื™ืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ื ืชื ื™ื ื“ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœืš ืฉื•ืžืจื™ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฆื•ืืจืŸ ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืฉืฉื™ืŸ

Rava permitted those who lived on the right side of the Euphrates to pass through the water to guard the fruit in their fields on Yom Kippur. Abaye said to Rava: A baraita was taught that supports your opinion. We learned: Guards of fruit may cross the river until their necks are in the water, and they need not be concerned that they are violating the prohibition against bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื™ ืชืจื‘ื• ืœืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœืคื™ืจืงื ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืœื ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืžื™ืชื™ ื•ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœื—ื™ื™ ืืœื ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ืชื”ื ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื

Rav Yosef permitted the people of the village of Bei Tarbu to cross in the water to come to the lecture he delivered on Yom Kippur. He did not, however, permit them to go back home through the water. Abaye said to him: If so, you are obstructing them from coming in the future. They will not come to the lecture knowing they will be prohibited from returning home. Some say the incident happened differently: Rav Yosef permitted them to come and permitted them to go back through the water. Abaye said to him: Granted, you allow them to come, that is well. But what is the reason you allow them to go back? He said to him: So as not to obstruct them from coming in the future.

ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืื’ื•ื“ื ื“ื ื”ืจ (ืคืคื) ืืžื‘ืจื ื“ื—ืฆื“ื“ ื•ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ืจืžื ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ืžื”ื• ืœืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ืœืžืฉืืœ ืฉืžืขืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ื“ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื—ืคืช ื—ืœื•ืงื• ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ื“ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื—ืคืช ื—ืœื•ืงื•

It is told: Rav Yehuda and Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda were standing on the bank of the Pappa River next to the แธคatzdad crossing, and Rami bar Pappa was standing on the other side of the river. He raised his voice to them and asked: What is the ruling with regard to crossing over to come to you to ask a halakha? Rav Yehuda said to him: It is Rav and Shmuel who both say: One may cross in the water, provided that he does not remove his hand from under the hem of his cloak. One may not raise the hems of his cloak to his shoulders to keep them dry, since this form of carrying renders one liable to bring a sin-offering. Rather, one should walk normally and get his clothes wet in the water. Some say this is not how the incident happened. Rather, Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda said to him: We learned in a baraita: One may cross over, provided that he does not remove his hand from the hem of his cloak.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื‘ืืžื” ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ ืืคืกื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืืคืกื™ื™ื

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this: And on a weekday is it permitted to walk in such deep water that it presents a danger of drowning? But isnโ€™t it written with regard to the river that, in the future, will issue forth from the Holy of Holies: โ€œHe measured a thousand cubits, and he led me through the water; the water was ankle deepโ€ (Ezekiel 47:3); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the ankles.

ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ื‘ืจื›ื™ื ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ืžื™ ืžืชื ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืžืชื ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื ื—ืœ ืืฉืจ ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rav Yosef continues explaining the verse: โ€œAgain he measured a thousand and he led me through the water, the water was knee deepโ€ (Ezekiel 47:4); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the knees. โ€œHe measured a thousand and led me through the water up to the waistโ€ (Ezekiel 47:4); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the waist. From this point forward: โ€œAnd he measured a thousand, a river that I could not pass throughโ€ (Ezekiel 47:5). This implies that one is never permitted to pass through water that is more than waist high, because it is dangerous.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื ื—ืœ ื“ืจื“ื™ืคื™ ืžื™ื

Abaye said: That is not a proof, because a river with fast flowing water is different. If it is higher than oneโ€™s waist, he could drown. However, one is permitted to cross still water even if it is deeper than that.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ืกื™ื—ื•ื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื’ืื• ื”ืžื™ื ืžื™ ืฉื—ื• ืžืื™ ืžื™ ืฉื—ื• ืฉื™ื•ื˜ื ืฉื›ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืฉื™ื™ื˜ื ืกื™ื™ื—ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืœ ืชืœืš ื‘ื• ืื ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืฆื™ ืื“ื™ืจ ืœื ื™ืขื‘ืจื ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื›ื“ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืชื–ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืกืคื™ื ืช ืฆื™ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ืจื‘ืชื™ ืœื ืชื’ื•ื–ื™ื ื”

ยง Apropos the river that will flow in the future, the Gemara explains additional verses in Ezekiel. One might think that Ezekiel could cross the river by swimming. The verse states: โ€œFor the water had swollen into saแธฅu watersโ€ (Ezekiel 47:5). What does โ€œsaแธฅu watersโ€ mean? Water that can be traversed only with a boat [shiyuta], as sailing [shayta] is sometimes called swimming [sayแธฅa]. I might have thought Ezekiel could pass across in a small boat [burni]. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNo galley with oars shall goโ€ (Isaiah 33:21). I might have thought he could pass through in a large boat. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNeither shall a fishing boat [tzi adir] be able to cross itโ€ (Isaiah 33:21). The Gemara asks: From where can it be inferred that the words tzi adir mean fishing boat? The Gemara explains: This is how Rav Yosef translated this verse: A fishing boat [sfinat tzayyadin] will not travel on it and a large ship will not cross it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืืฃ ืžืœืืš ื”ืžื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœืš ื‘ื• ืื ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ืžืฉื•ื˜ ื‘ืืจืฅ

The Gemara continues its discussion of the river that will in the future come out of the Holy of Holies. Rabbi Yehuda ben Pazi said: Even the Angel of Death does not have permission to pass through it to the other side of this river, and proof of this is in the verse, as it is written here: โ€œNo galley with oars [ani shayt] can travelโ€ and as it was written there: โ€œThen Satan answered the Lord and said: From going to and fro [mishut] the earth and from walking up and down in itโ€ (Job 1:7). Even Satan, who is also the Angel of Death, cannot cross through this river.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืคื ื—ืก ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืฆืคื•ืจืื” ืžืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืงืจื ื™ ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืคืชื— ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื ืขืฉื” ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ืฉืชื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืื•ืœื ื ืขืฉื” ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืืœ ืคืชื— ืขื–ืจื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืคื™ ืคืš ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื™ื

The Gemara cites more midrashim about the river that will flow from the Holy of Holies. Rabbi Pineแธฅas said in the name of Rav Huna of Tzippori: The spring that comes forth from inside the Holy of Holies is at first very narrow and resembles grasshoppersโ€™ antennae in width. Once it reaches the opening of the Sanctuary it becomes as thick as the thread of the warp; once it reaches the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, it becomes as thick as the thread of the woof, which is wider than the warp thread. Once it reaches the opening of the Temple courtyard it becomes like the mouth of a small jug. This is as we learned in a mishna: Rav Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov says: Water,

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Fredda Cohen and Eric Nussbaum in memory of her beloved father, Mitchell Cohen, Michael ben Shraga Faivel haLevi, whose 27th yahrzeit falls on 16 Tammuz. He was kind, sweet and funny, and had a big open heart for klal Yisrael v'chol yoshvei tevel.

And for a refuah shleima for Pesha Etel bat Sarah.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Even Angels Do Tshuva

Yoma Daf 77 Todayโ€™s daf brings us an Aggadata inserted between the proof texts of theย  ืขื™ื ื•ื™ื of refraining from...

Yoma 77

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Yoma 77

ืฉื ืžื•ืฉื‘ ืกืžืœ ื”ืงื ืื” ื”ืžืงื ื” ื•ื™ื‘ื ืื•ืชื™ ืืœ ื—ืฆืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืณ ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช ื•ื”ื ื” ืคืชื— ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืื•ืœื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื›ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ืงื“ืžื” ื•ื”ืžื” ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ื ืงื“ืžื” ืœืฉืžืฉ ืžืžืฉืžืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ืงื“ืžื” ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ืืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื”ืณ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืคื•ืจืขื™ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžืชืจื™ื–ื™ืŸ ื›ืœืคื™ ืžื˜ื”

there was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provokes jealousyโ€ (Ezekiel 8:3). โ€œAnd he brought me into the inner court of the Lordโ€™s House, and behold at the opening of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary of God, between the porch and the altar were about twenty-five men with their backs toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the eastโ€ (Ezekiel 8:16). The Gemara explains: From the fact that it is stated โ€œand their faces toward the east,โ€ is it not clear that their backs were to the Sanctuary, which is in the west? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states โ€œtheir backs toward the Temple of the Lordโ€? This teaches that they would uncover themselves and defecate downward, toward the Divine Presence. The verse used a euphemism to refrain from vulgar language.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืžื™ื›ืืœ ืžื™ื›ืืœ ืกืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืชืš ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื“ื™ื• ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื™ ืฉื•ืจืฃ ืื•ืชื ื•ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืืžืจ (ืœืื™ืฉ) ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ื ืืœ ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื’ืœื’ืœ ืืœ ืชื—ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ ื•ืžืœื ื—ืคื ื™ืš ื’ื—ืœื™ ืืฉ ืžื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื–ืจื•ืง ืขืœ ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ื™ื‘ื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืฉืœื— ื”ื›ืจื•ื‘ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืžื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ืœื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ืืœ ื”ืืฉ ืืฉืจ ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื›ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชืŸ ืืœ ื—ืคื ื™ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ื™ืงื— ื•ื™ืฆื

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, the ministering angel of the Jewish people: Michael, your nation has sinned (see Daniel 10:21). He replied: Master of the Universe, may it be enough for the good people among them to save them from destruction. He said to him: I will burn them and the good among them because the good do not rebuke the wicked. Immediately, God spoke to Gabriel: โ€œHe spoke to the man clothed in linen and said: Go in between the wheelwork and beneath the cherub, and fill your hands with coals of fire from between the cherubs, and scatter them over the city; and he came before my eyesโ€ (Ezekiel 10:2). Immediately: โ€œAnd the cherub stretched out his hand from between the cherubs into the fire that was between the cherubs, and took and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went outโ€ (Ezekiel 10:7).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืื™ืœืžืœื ืœื ื ืฆื˜ื ื ื• ื’ื—ืœื™ื ืžื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื›ืจื•ื‘ ืœื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืœื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจื• ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ ื•ืคืœื™ื˜

Rav แธคana bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said: If it were not for the fact that the embers cooled as they were passed from the hand of the cherub to the hand of Gabriel, instead of Gabriel taking the embers directly himself as he had been told, not a remnant or a refugee of the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, would have survived. The cooling of the embers limited the punishment.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื ื” ื”ืื™ืฉ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ื‘ื“ื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ืงืกืช ื‘ืžืชื ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ื‘ ื“ื‘ืจ ืœืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื™ืชื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื• ืœื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ืคืจื’ื•ื“ ื•ืžื—ื™ื•ื”ื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืคื•ืœืกื™ ื“ื ื•ืจื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ืื™ ืขื‘ื“ืช ืืžืื™ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ืช ื›ื“ืคืงื“ื•ืš ื•ืขื•ื“ ื“ืขื‘ื“ืช ืœื™ืช ืœืš ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืงืœืงืœื”

The Gemara continues. And it is written: โ€œAnd behold, the man clothed in linen with the slate by his side, reported the matter saying: I have done as You have commanded meโ€ (Ezekiel 9:11). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: At that moment, they cast out Gabriel from behind the curtain [pargod], where the inner angels reside, and they struck him with sixty blows [pulsei] of fire. They said to him: If you did not do it, you did not do it; if you did do it, why did you not do it according to what you were commanded but deviated from what you were instructed to do? Moreover, after you already did it, do you not have knowledge of the principle: One should not deliver a report about destruction? If one is sent on a mission of destruction, he should not deliver a detailed report of its success but should only hint at it.

ืื™ื™ืชื•ื” ืœื“ื•ื‘ื™ืืœ ืฉืจื ื“ืคืจืกืื™ ื•ืื•ืงืžื™ื” ื‘ื—ืจื™ืงื™ื” ื•ืฉืžืฉ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืจ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืขื•ืžื“ ืœื ื’ื“ื™ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ื ื” ืžื™ื›ืืœ ืื—ื“ ื”ืฉืจื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื ืœืขื–ืจื ื™ ื•ืื ื™ ื ื•ืชืจืชื™ ืฉื ืืฆืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ืคืจืก ื™ื”ื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืžืœื›ื™ ื•ืคืจื•ื•ืชื ื“ืžืฉื”ื™ื’

They then brought Dubiel, the ministering angel of the Persians and put him in the place of [baแธฅarikei] Gabriel and he served for twenty-one days. As it is written: โ€œBut the prince of the kingdom of Persia stood opposed to me for twenty-one days, but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me and I remained there beside the kings of Persiaโ€ (Daniel 10:13). Corresponding to those twenty-one days, they gave him, the ministering angel of Persia, twenty-one kings who ruled and the seaport of Mashhig.

ืืžืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื• ืœื™ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืื›ืจื’ื ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ื• ืœื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืื›ืจื’ื ื›ืชื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ื‘ืขื• ืœืžื™ื—ืชื ืขืžื“ ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืžืื—ื•ืจื™ ื”ืคืจื’ื•ื“ ื•ืืžืจ ืฉื•ื ืœื›ื ืžืฉื›ื™ืžื™ ืงื•ื ืžืื—ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ ืœื—ื ื”ืขืฆื‘ื™ื ื›ืŸ ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ื“ื• ืฉื ื ืžืื™ ื›ืŸ ื™ืชืŸ ืœื™ื“ื™ื“ื• ืฉื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืœื• ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉืžื ื“ื“ื•ืช ืฉื™ื ื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื–ื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื”ืฉื’ื™ื—ื• ืขืœื™ื•

The ministering angel of the Persians said: Write for me that the Jews must pay taxes [akarga] to the Persians. They wrote it for him as he asked. He said: Write for me that the Sages must pay taxes. They wrote this for him. When they wanted to sign the documents, Gabriel stood from behind the curtain and said: โ€œIt is vain for you who rise early who sit up late to eat the bread of sorrow, for He gives His beloved sleepโ€ (Psalms 127:2). What does โ€œfor He gives His beloved sleepโ€ mean? Rav Yitzแธฅak said: These are the wives of Torah scholars who disturb their sleep in this world by staying up waiting for their husbands, who rise early and return late from learning Torah, and they thereby merit the World-to-Come. Gabriel asked: Is this the reward they deserve, to pay more taxes? They did not listen to Gabriel.

ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื ื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื›ืฃ ืžืื–ื ื™ื ื•ื“ื ื™ืืœ ืื™ืฉ ื—ืžื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื›ืฃ ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื ื ืžืฆื ืžื›ืจื™ืข ืืช ื›ื•ืœื ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื–ื” ืฉืžืœืžื“ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื’ื‘ืจื™ืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืื ื™ ื‘ืืชื™ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื™ืขื•ืœ ืืขื™ื™ืœื•ื”ื•

He said before Him: Master of the Universe, if all the wise men of other nations were placed on one side of the scale, and Daniel the beloved man were on the other side, would he not outweigh them? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Who is the one who teaches the virtue of My children? They said to Him: Master of the Universe, it is Gabriel. He said to them: Let him come from behind the partition, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I have come due to your wordsโ€ (Daniel 10:12), meaning that Gabriel was permitted to enter from behind the partition because he mentioned Danielโ€™s name. God then said to the other angels: Let him ascend. They brought him up.

ืืชื ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ื‘ื™ืืœ ื“ื ืงื˜ ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื’ืจืชื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืœืžืจืžื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืœืขื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžื™ื›ืชื‘ ื”ื•ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ื ืžื™ื—ืชื ืœื ื”ื•ื™ ื—ืชืžื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืฃ ืžื™ื—ืชื ื ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ื—ืชืžื ื›ื“ื‘ืœืขื™ื” ืžื—ื™ืง ืœื” ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ื“ืคืจืก ืื™ื›ื ื“ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื›ืจื’ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ื›ืจื’ื ื•ืื ื™ ื™ื•ืฆื ื•ื”ื ื” ืฉืจ ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื ืขื•ื™ ืขื•ื™ ื•ืœื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื’ื— ื‘ื™ื”

He came and found Dubiel the ministering angel of the Persians holding the letter in his hand. Gabriel wanted to take the letter from him, but Dubiel swallowed it. Some say the letter was written, but it was not signed. Some say it was also signed, but when he swallowed it, the signature was erased. The Gemara comments: This is why, in the kingdom of Persia, there are those who pay taxes and there are those who do not pay taxes, as the decree was not finalized. It also states there: โ€œAnd when I depart from him, the prince of Greece comesโ€ (Daniel 10:20). Gabriel screamed and screamed that the kings of Greece should not rule over the Jews, but no one listened to him.

ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืจื—ื™ืฆื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืžื”ื›ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืื‘ื™ืชืจ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืžืœืš ืขื ืชื•ืช ืœืš ืขืœ ืฉื“ืš ื›ื™ ืื™ืฉ ืžื•ืช ืืชื” ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ืœื ืืžื™ืชืš ื›ื™ ื ืฉืืช [ืืช] ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืณ ืœืคื ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืืฉืจ ื”ืชืขื ื” ืื‘ื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื™ ืืžืจื• ื”ืขื ืจืขื‘ ื•ืขื™ืฃ ื•ืฆืžื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืจืขื‘ ืžืœื—ื ื•ืฆืžื ืžืžื™ื ืขื™ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžืจื—ื™ืฆื” ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ

ยง The Gemara returns to the issue of whether refraining from bathing is considered affliction. If you wish, say instead: The fact that bathing is considered affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd to Ebiathar the priest the king said: Get to Anatoth to your fields, for you are deserving of death. But I will not put you to death today, because you carried the Ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because you have been afflicted in all that my father was afflictedโ€ (I Kings 2:26). And it is written with regard to David: โ€œFor they said the people is hungry, and weary, and thirsty in the wildernessโ€ (II Samuel 17:29). Hunger means from lack of bread to eat, and thirst means from lack of water to drink. The word weary means lack from what? Is it not from bathing? The comparison of the verses suggests that that too is affliction. The Gemara challenges: And perhaps โ€œwearyโ€ means from lack of wearing shoes? Therefore, this does not teach us that refraining from bathing is considered an affliction.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืžื™ื ืงืจื™ื ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉืชื™ื” ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ืขืœ ื ืคืฉ ืขื™ืคื” ื›ืชื™ื‘

Rather, another source needs to be found. Rav Yitzแธฅak said: It can be derived from here: โ€œAs cold water on a weary soul, so is good news from a far countryโ€ (Proverbs 25:25). This implies that the word weary is used to describe someone who has not bathed. The Gemara asks: But perhaps the verse is referring to weariness from not drinking? The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: As cold water in a weary soul? That would mean that it entered one like a drink. Rather, โ€œon a weary soulโ€ is written, which implies bathing.

ื•ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื“ื•ื“ ืขื•ืœื” ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ืขื•ืœื” ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ืœื• ื—ืคื•ื™ (ื•ื”ื•ืœืš) ื™ื—ืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืกื•ืกื™ื ื•ืžืจื˜ืงื

ยง The Gemara clarifies the next point in the mishna: The fact that not wearing shoes is considered an affliction, from where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd David went up by the ascent of the Mount of Olives, and wept as he went up, and he had his head covered, and was walking barefootโ€ (II Samuel 15:30). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? All these deprivations are described as affliction. The Gemara rejects this: No, perhaps he was barefoot from a horse and whip. Even if he was wearing shoes, a king without a horse and whip was considered as if he were going barefoot.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืœืš ื•ืคืชื—ืช ื”ืฉืง ืžืขืœ ืžืชื ื™ืš ื•ื ืขืœืš ืชื—ืœื•ืฅ ืžืขืœ ืจื’ืœืš ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืขืฉ ื›ืŸ ื”ืœื•ืš ืขืจื•ื ื•ื™ื—ืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืžืžืื™ ืœืื• ืžื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื•ืื™ืžื ื‘ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื”ืžื˜ื•ืœืื™ื ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ืขืจื•ื ืขืจื•ื ืžืžืฉ ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื‘ืœื•ื™ื™ื ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื”ืžื˜ื•ืœืื™ื

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: We learn it from here, as it states: โ€œGo and loose the sackcloth from your loins, and remove your shoe from your footโ€ (Isaiah 20:2). And it is written: โ€œAnd he did so, walking naked and barefootโ€ (Isaiah 20:2). Barefoot implies a lack of what? Is it not a lack of wearing shoes? The Gemara challenges: And say that perhaps the meaning of barefoot is that Isaiah walked with patched shoes. Because if you do not say this, but you claim that the verse is to be understood literally, does โ€œnakedโ€ mean actually naked? Rather, the meaning is that Isaiah walked in ragged garments. Here too, the meaning is that he walked in patched shoes.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื›ื ืžื ืขื™ ืจื’ืœืš ืžื™ื—ืฃ ื•ื’ืจื•ื ืš ืžืฆืžืื” ืžื ืขื™ ืขืฆืžืš ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื˜ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื ืจื’ืœืš ืœื™ื“ื™ ื™ื—ื•ืฃ ืžื ืขื™ ืœืฉื•ื ืš ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื˜ืœื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ื‘ื ื’ืจื•ื ืš ืœื™ื“ื™ ืฆืžืื”

Rather, a different source must be found. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said that we derive it from here: It states: โ€œWithhold your foot from being barefoot, and your throat from thirstโ€ (Jeremiah 2:25), meaning: Keep yourself from sin, so that your feet will not come to be barefoot; keep your tongue from idle talk, so that your throat will not come to be thirsty. Consequently, we learn that being barefoot is considered an affliction.

ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื”ืžื˜ื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืขื ื” ืืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื ืฉื™ื

ยง The Gemara continues to clarify another of the afflictions of Yom Kippur: From where do we derive the halakha that refraining from conjugal relations is called affliction? As it is written, Laban said to Jacob: โ€œIf you shall afflict my daughters, and if you shall take other wives beside my daughtersโ€ (Genesis 31:50).

ืื ืชืขื ื” ืžืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื•ืื ืชืงื— ืžืฆืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืžื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืžืฆืจื•ืช ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืงื— ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื›ืชื™ื‘

This can be explained as: โ€œIf you shall afflict my daughtersโ€ by refraining from conjugal relations, โ€œand if you shall take other wivesโ€ causing them to suffer from additional rival wives. The Gemara objects: And say that this phrase and that phrase are both referring to taking rival wives. The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: If you take? โ€œAnd if you shall takeโ€ is written. Therefore, the clauses must be referring to two different kinds of affliction.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืžืฆืจื•ืช ื—ื“ ืœืฆืจื•ืช ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื•ื—ื“ ืœืฆืจื•ืช ื“ืืชื™ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžืขืœืžื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืื ืชืงื— ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืชืงื— ื•ืื ืชืขื ื” ืื ืชืขื ื” ื•ืื ืชืงื— ื›ืชื™ื‘

The Gemara challenges further: And say that this phrase and that phrase are referring to taking rival wives. One phrase is referring to his wivesโ€™ current rivals. โ€œIf you shall afflictโ€ means that Jacob should not elevate the position of the two maidservants, Bilhah and Zilpah, to the status of wife, which would make them co-wives with Labanโ€™s daughters. And one phrase is referring to rivals who might come to him from the world at large, which would be similar in meaning to โ€œif you shall take.โ€ The Gemara rejects this: Is it written: If you take and if you afflict? It is logical to first state the more severe warning and then the less severe one. But according to this proposed reading that โ€œtakeโ€ refers to rivals from the world at large and โ€œafflictโ€ refers to elevating the status of maidservants, the text would have first mentioned the less painful affliction of elevating the maidservants and then followed it with a warning about taking new rival wives, as โ€œif you shall afflict and if you shall takeโ€ is written.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื’ื•ืคื” ืื™ืงืจื™ ืขื ื•ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉื›ื‘ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื™ืขื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืชื ืฉืขื™ื ื” ืžื‘ื™ืื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But conjugal relations themselves are called affliction, as it is written: โ€œAnd Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her; and he took her, and he lay with her and afflicted herโ€ (Genesis 34:2). If so, how can it be said that the affliction is in withholding conjugal relations? He said to him: There, Shechem afflicted her from different relations, meaning he slept with her in an unnatural way. That type of relations is clearly an affliction.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืจื—ื•ืฅ ืžืงืฆืช ื’ื•ืคื• ื›ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืžืœื•ื›ืœืš ื‘ื˜ื™ื˜ ื•ื‘ืฆื•ืื” ืจื•ื—ืฅ ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกื•ืš ืžืงืฆืช ื’ื•ืคื• ื›ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื—ื•ืœื” ืื• ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื—ื˜ื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืกืš ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ

ยง The Gemara clarifies some of the prohibitions relating to Yom Kippur. The Sages taught: It is prohibited to bathe part of the body just as it is prohibited to bathe the whole body. But if one is dirty from mud or excrement, he may bathe in his usual manner, and he need not be concerned about transgressing, since his goal is not pleasure. Similarly, it is prohibited to smear oil on part of the body just as it is prohibited to smear oil on the whole body. But if one was sick and needed to smear oil on his body for medicinal purposes, or if one had scabs on his head that would hurt if he did not smear oil on himself, he may smear oil in his usual manner, and he need not be concerned about transgressing.

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืžื ืฉื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื“ื™ื—ื” ืืฉื” ื™ื“ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ื ื•ืชื ืช ืคืช ืœืชื™ื ื•ืง ื•ืื™ื ื” ื—ื•ืฉืฉืช

The school of Menashe taught that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A woman may rinse one hand in water, so that she does not touch food before she has washed her hands in the morning, and give bread to her child, and she need not be concerned about violating the prohibition of bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืืžืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœ ืฉืžืื™ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœื ืจืฆื” ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืื—ืช ื•ื’ื–ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืœื”ืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื™ื‘ืชื

They said about Shammai the Elder that he did not want to feed his children with one hand, to avoid having to wash it. This prevented the children from eating during all of Yom Kippur. Due to concerns about the health and the suffering of his children, they decreed that he must feed them with two hands, forcing him to wash both hands. What is the reason that they also said in general that one must wash his hands before touching food? Abaye said: Due to an evil spirit named Shivta, who resides on hands that have not been washed in the morning.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ืœืš ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื• ืื• ืคื ื™ ืžื™ ืฉื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขื“ ืฆื•ืืจื• ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืฉืฉ

ยง The Sages taught: One who goes to greet his father or his teacher, or to greet one who is greater than him in wisdom, and has to cross a river on the way, may cross the water until his neck is in the water, and he need not be concerned that he is violating the prohibition against bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื”ืจื‘ ืืฆืœ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ืžืื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืื ื ื—ื–ื™ืชื™ื” ืœื–ืขื™ืจื™ ื“ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื”ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื“ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ื”

A dilemma was raised before them, i.e., the students discussing this question: What is the law concerning a teacher going to visit his student? May he enter the water in order to teach his student? The Gemara tries to bring a proof: Come and hear from what Rav Yitzแธฅak bar bar แธคana said: I saw Zeโ€™iri, who went through a river on his way to Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi, his student. Rav Ashi said: This was not the case. Rather, in that case, it was the student Rav แธคiyya bar Ashi who went to Zeโ€™iri, his teacher. Therefore, this incident does not answer the question.

ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืขื‘ืจ ื™ืžื™ื ื ืœืžืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื ืœื ื˜ื•ืจื™ ืคื™ืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ื ืชื ื™ื ื“ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœืš ืฉื•ืžืจื™ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฆื•ืืจืŸ ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืฉืฉื™ืŸ

Rava permitted those who lived on the right side of the Euphrates to pass through the water to guard the fruit in their fields on Yom Kippur. Abaye said to Rava: A baraita was taught that supports your opinion. We learned: Guards of fruit may cross the river until their necks are in the water, and they need not be concerned that they are violating the prohibition against bathing on Yom Kippur.

ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื™ ืชืจื‘ื• ืœืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื™ื ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœืคื™ืจืงื ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืœื ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืžื™ืชื™ ื•ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœื—ื™ื™ ืืœื ืœืžื™ื–ืœ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ืชื”ื ืžื›ืฉื™ืœืŸ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื

Rav Yosef permitted the people of the village of Bei Tarbu to cross in the water to come to the lecture he delivered on Yom Kippur. He did not, however, permit them to go back home through the water. Abaye said to him: If so, you are obstructing them from coming in the future. They will not come to the lecture knowing they will be prohibited from returning home. Some say the incident happened differently: Rav Yosef permitted them to come and permitted them to go back through the water. Abaye said to him: Granted, you allow them to come, that is well. But what is the reason you allow them to go back? He said to him: So as not to obstruct them from coming in the future.

ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืื’ื•ื“ื ื“ื ื”ืจ (ืคืคื) ืืžื‘ืจื ื“ื—ืฆื“ื“ ื•ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžื”ืš ื’ื™ืกื ืจืžื ืœื”ื• ืงืœื ืžื”ื• ืœืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ืชื™ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ืœืžืฉืืœ ืฉืžืขืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ื“ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื—ืคืช ื—ืœื•ืงื• ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฆื™ื ื™ื“ื• ืžืชื—ืช ื—ืคืช ื—ืœื•ืงื•

It is told: Rav Yehuda and Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda were standing on the bank of the Pappa River next to the แธคatzdad crossing, and Rami bar Pappa was standing on the other side of the river. He raised his voice to them and asked: What is the ruling with regard to crossing over to come to you to ask a halakha? Rav Yehuda said to him: It is Rav and Shmuel who both say: One may cross in the water, provided that he does not remove his hand from under the hem of his cloak. One may not raise the hems of his cloak to his shoulders to keep them dry, since this form of carrying renders one liable to bring a sin-offering. Rather, one should walk normally and get his clothes wet in the water. Some say this is not how the incident happened. Rather, Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda said to him: We learned in a baraita: One may cross over, provided that he does not remove his hand from the hem of his cloak.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื‘ืืžื” ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ ืืคืกื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืืคืกื™ื™ื

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this: And on a weekday is it permitted to walk in such deep water that it presents a danger of drowning? But isnโ€™t it written with regard to the river that, in the future, will issue forth from the Holy of Holies: โ€œHe measured a thousand cubits, and he led me through the water; the water was ankle deepโ€ (Ezekiel 47:3); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the ankles.

ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ื‘ืจื›ื™ื ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื™ ืžื™ ืžืชื ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืขื“ ืžืชื ื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ื•ื™ืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื ื—ืœ ืืฉืจ ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ

Rav Yosef continues explaining the verse: โ€œAgain he measured a thousand and he led me through the water, the water was knee deepโ€ (Ezekiel 47:4); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the knees. โ€œHe measured a thousand and led me through the water up to the waistโ€ (Ezekiel 47:4); from here it is derived that one is permitted to pass through water that reaches up to the waist. From this point forward: โ€œAnd he measured a thousand, a river that I could not pass throughโ€ (Ezekiel 47:5). This implies that one is never permitted to pass through water that is more than waist high, because it is dangerous.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื ื—ืœ ื“ืจื“ื™ืคื™ ืžื™ื

Abaye said: That is not a proof, because a river with fast flowing water is different. If it is higher than oneโ€™s waist, he could drown. However, one is permitted to cross still water even if it is deeper than that.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ืกื™ื—ื•ื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื’ืื• ื”ืžื™ื ืžื™ ืฉื—ื• ืžืื™ ืžื™ ืฉื—ื• ืฉื™ื•ื˜ื ืฉื›ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืฉื™ื™ื˜ื ืกื™ื™ื—ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ืงื˜ื ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืœ ืชืœืš ื‘ื• ืื ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื• ื‘ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืฆื™ ืื“ื™ืจ ืœื ื™ืขื‘ืจื ื• ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื›ื“ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืชื–ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืกืคื™ื ืช ืฆื™ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ ืจื‘ืชื™ ืœื ืชื’ื•ื–ื™ื ื”

ยง Apropos the river that will flow in the future, the Gemara explains additional verses in Ezekiel. One might think that Ezekiel could cross the river by swimming. The verse states: โ€œFor the water had swollen into saแธฅu watersโ€ (Ezekiel 47:5). What does โ€œsaแธฅu watersโ€ mean? Water that can be traversed only with a boat [shiyuta], as sailing [shayta] is sometimes called swimming [sayแธฅa]. I might have thought Ezekiel could pass across in a small boat [burni]. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNo galley with oars shall goโ€ (Isaiah 33:21). I might have thought he could pass through in a large boat. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNeither shall a fishing boat [tzi adir] be able to cross itโ€ (Isaiah 33:21). The Gemara asks: From where can it be inferred that the words tzi adir mean fishing boat? The Gemara explains: This is how Rav Yosef translated this verse: A fishing boat [sfinat tzayyadin] will not travel on it and a large ship will not cross it.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืืฃ ืžืœืืš ื”ืžื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื‘ืœ ืชืœืš ื‘ื• ืื ื™ ืฉื™ื˜ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ืžืฉื•ื˜ ื‘ืืจืฅ

The Gemara continues its discussion of the river that will in the future come out of the Holy of Holies. Rabbi Yehuda ben Pazi said: Even the Angel of Death does not have permission to pass through it to the other side of this river, and proof of this is in the verse, as it is written here: โ€œNo galley with oars [ani shayt] can travelโ€ and as it was written there: โ€œThen Satan answered the Lord and said: From going to and fro [mishut] the earth and from walking up and down in itโ€ (Job 1:7). Even Satan, who is also the Angel of Death, cannot cross through this river.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืคื ื—ืก ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืฆืคื•ืจืื” ืžืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ืžื‘ื™ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืงืจื ื™ ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืคืชื— ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื ืขืฉื” ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ืฉืชื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœืื•ืœื ื ืขืฉื” ื›ื—ื•ื˜ ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืืœ ืคืชื— ืขื–ืจื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืคื™ ืคืš ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื™ื

The Gemara cites more midrashim about the river that will flow from the Holy of Holies. Rabbi Pineแธฅas said in the name of Rav Huna of Tzippori: The spring that comes forth from inside the Holy of Holies is at first very narrow and resembles grasshoppersโ€™ antennae in width. Once it reaches the opening of the Sanctuary it becomes as thick as the thread of the warp; once it reaches the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, it becomes as thick as the thread of the woof, which is wider than the warp thread. Once it reaches the opening of the Temple courtyard it becomes like the mouth of a small jug. This is as we learned in a mishna: Rav Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov says: Water,

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