Beitzah, Daf 19
Korbanot We bring on Yom Tov
By Susan Suna
As we enter the Sukkot holiday, we are fortuitously engaged with the perfect daf to show us which Korbanot we can bring on Yom Tov.
The Mishna on our daf presents a dispute between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel regarding this issue. Beit Shamai states that only a Shlamim can be brought and one cannot do Smicha on it, while Beit Hillel allows for Shlamim, Olot and Smicha.
Ulla points out that the dispute only relates to Shalmei Chagigah and Olot Re’eyah. Both agree that Nedarim and Nedavot cannot be brought on Yom Tov. The dispute between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel is based on how to understand the verse in Vayikrah 23,41: וחגתם אותו חג לה’ ס
Beit Shamai understands the verse to be exclusive to bringing a Korban Chagigah as it is eaten but not an Olat Re’eyah which isn’t for human consumption at all. While Beit Hillel understands the verse to be inclusive of both Chagigah which is for human consumption and Olat Re’eyah which is for Hashem.
A Baraita is then brought that disagrees with Ulla’s understanding of the dispute between Beit Hillel and Beit Shamai. In Rebbi Shimon Ben Elazar’s opinion, Beit Shamai claims that one cannot bring an Olat Re’eyah nor a Shlamim that is not obligated on Yom Tov, while Beit Hillel’s opinion is that one can bring both of those types of Korbanot. In order to bring a sacrifice on Yom Tov, it needs to fulfill two criteria according to Beit Shamai: Obligated on the Chag and eaten. For Beit Hillel, only one of those obligations needs to be fulfilled; either for the Chag or eaten.
Rav Yosef then quotes a Baraita as a Tanaitic source in support of Ulla’s understanding of the dispute. The Rambam follows Ulla’s understanding and states that when Yom Tov comes out on a weekday – one brings Shlamei Chagigah and Simcha as well as Olot Re’eyah. One does Smicha with all one’s strength as it’s usually done. However, one does not bring Nedarim and Nedavot on Yom Tov itself. Those are not obligatory for the Holiday and can be brought on Chol Hamoed. The Korban Todah, which contains Chametz, can only be brought on Sukkot and not on Chol Hamoed Pesach or Erev Pesach.
Am Yisrael came to the Mikdash three times a year and travel was not easy in those times. In addition to the Korbanot, a person brought their Nedarim and Nedavot as well so that one would not transgress the violation of בל תאחר – not to delay in bringing one’s Korbanot to the Mikdash. The Tana Kama stated that one has up to three Regalim to bring those personal Korbanot while Rebbi Shimon said that one had up until the three Regalim have passed, in the order written in the verse – Pesach, Shavuot, Sukkot.
הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יַחֲזִיר לָנוּ עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לִמְקוֹמָהּ, בִּמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵינוּ, אָמֵן סֶלָה
Teachers: Yehudit Epstein & Dena Rock
Yom Tov – what Korbanot can be brought on Chag