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Daf Yomi

February 2, 2024 | ื›ืดื’ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื“

  • Masechet Bava Kamma is sponsored by the Futornick Family in loving memory of their fathers and grandfathers, Phillip Kaufman and David Futornick.

Bava Kamma 92

This weekโ€™s learning is sponsored by Glenn Miller and Ruth Rotenberg in memory of their daughter Tanielle Miller’s 19th yahrzeit. โ€œThis year embodying Tanielleโ€™s passions, the Tanielle Miller Foundation has blossomed into a hub for over six initiatives in Israel from civilian first responders to organizing ER doctors from around the world, all to support our victory in Israel. ื™ื—ื“ ื ื ืฆื— May the learning through Hadran be a zechut for a swift and safe victory and healing forย amย Yisrael.โ€

Today’s daf is sponsored by Deborah & Michael Dickson on the occasion of their daughter, Ella’s bat mitzvah this Shabbat.

Even though one pays the five damages payments, one is still required to ask for forgiveness from the injured person to fully atone. If one asks another to injure him/her or to damage their clothes, the person is still liable if they do it. However, if the person says “I will exempt you” the one who damaged the clothes is exempt but not if they inflicted bodily damage. But if that same statement was said about damaging someone else’s property, there is no exemption. The importance of asking for forgiveness is learned from the exchange between Avimelech and Avraham in Breishit 20:7. The rest of that verse is explained as well. Rava quotes several different statements made by the rabbis or sentences that people generally say and asks Raba bar Meri for the source in the Torah. The first derivation is learned from Avraham and Avimelech that one who prays for another regarding an issue that the person needs as well, will be answered first. Raba bar Meri suggests a different verse, but Rava learns it from Avraham who prayed for Avimelech to have children and then Sarah became pregnant. Fifteen other similar questions are asked by Rava to Raba bar Meri.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืจืง


One might have thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree even if the barren tree is greater in monetary value than the fruit-bearing tree. The verse states: โ€œOnly,โ€ which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.


ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื™ืกื™ื” ืชืžืจื™ ืื›ื™ืœ ื˜ืขื™ื ื‘ื”ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื—ืžืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื”ืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžื›ื—ืฉื™ ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื”ื•


The Gemara relates: The sharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates. Shmuel ate them, and tasted the taste of wine in them. He said to his sharecropper: What is this? The sharecropper said to him: The date palms stand among the grapevines and therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel said: Do they weaken the wine, i.e., the grapevines, so much that it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? Tomorrow, cut down the date palms and bring me from their marrow to eat.


ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื–ื ืชืืœื™ ื‘ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืจื™ืกื™ื” ืขืงืจื™ื ื”ื• ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืงื ื™ ื“ืงืœื™ ื“ืงืœื™ ืœื ืงื ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™


The Gemara relates a similar incident: Rav แธคisda saw date palms growing among grapevines on his estate. He said to his sharecropper: Uproot the date palms, since one can purchase date palms with grapevines, as grapevines are more valuable, while one cannot purchase grapevines with date palms.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืชื” ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืœื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืฉื”ื•ื ืื›ื–ืจื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื•ื™ืจืคื ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ


MISHNA: Despite the fact that the assailant who caused damage gives to the victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is not forgiven for him in the heavenly court until he requests forgiveness from the victim, as it is stated that God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: โ€œNow therefore restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall liveโ€ (Genesis 20:7). And from where is it derived that if the victim does not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: โ€œAnd Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore childrenโ€ (Genesis 20:17).


ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืกืžื ืืช ืขื™ื ื™ ืงื˜ืข ืืช ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ืจ ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘


The mishna continues: With regard to one who says to another: Blind my eye, or: cut off my hand, or: break my leg, and he does so, the one who performed these actions is liable to pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, he is nevertheless liable.


ืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื™ ืฉื‘ืจ ืืช ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืฉื” ื›ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื•ืคื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื•


With regard to one who says to another: Tear my garment, or: break my jug, and he does so, he is liable to pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, he is exempt from payment. If one says to another: Do so, i.e., cause damage, to so-and-so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, and he did so, he is liable, whether the instructions were with regard to the victim himself, or whether the instructions were with regard to his property.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืืœื• ืฉืืžืจื• ื“ืžื™ ื‘ื•ืฉืชื• ืื‘ืœ ืฆืขืจื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื™ ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื›ื™ ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ื‘ืขื“ืš


GEMARA: The Sages taught: All these sums that in the previous mishna they said one is liable to pay for humiliating another are the compensation for his humiliation, for which there is a set amount. But for the victimโ€™s pain caused by the assailant, even if the assailant brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth (see Isaiah 60:7) that are in the world, which are of the best quality, his transgression is not forgiven for him in the heavenly court until he requests forgiveness from the victim, as it is stated: โ€œRestore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for youโ€ (Genesis 20:7).


ื“ืืฉืช ื ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืขื™ ืื”ื“ื•ืจื™ ืืฉืช ืื—ืจ ืœื ื‘ืขื™ ืื”ื“ื•ืจื™


Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here that the wife of a prophet needs to be returned, but the wife of another individual need not be returned?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื•ื“ืงื ืืžืจืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื’ื ืฆื“ื™ืง ืชื”ืจื’ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื—ืชื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืื—ื™ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื™ืžื“ ืื›ืกื ืื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืื›ื™ืœื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื” ืฉื•ืืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืื• ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืืฉืชื• ืฉื•ืืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืืฉืชืš ื”ื™ื ืื—ื•ืชืš ื”ื™ื


The Gemara answers. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: This is how the verse should be understood: โ€œRestore the wife of the manโ€ in any case, since she is his wife. And with regard to that which you, Abimelech, said: โ€œWill you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?โ€ (Genesis 20:4โ€“5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that he is a prophet, and he already learned how to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to a guest [akhsenai] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife? Does one ask a guest: Is she your wife? Is she your sister? Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.


ืžื›ืืŸ ืœื‘ืŸ ื ื— ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืœื ืœืžื“


The Gemara remarks: From here it can be derived that a gentile is executed for having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, since he should have learned and he did not learn.


ื›ื™ ืขืฆืจ ืขืฆืจ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืฉืชื™ ืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืœืžื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืœื™ื“ื”


Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. โ€œFor the Lord had obstructed [atzor atzar] all the wombs of the house of Abimelechโ€ (Genesis 20:18). Rabbi Elazar says: Why are these two obstructions [atzor atzar] both stated? One is stated with regard to a man, that semen will not be discharged, and two are stated with regard to a woman, that semen will not be discharged from her, and that she will not give birth.


ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืœื™ื“ื”


It was taught in a baraita: Two are stated with regard to a man: Semen and urine, i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; three are stated with regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth.


ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขืช ืืจื‘ืขื” ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืœื™ื“ื” ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขืช


Ravina says: Three are stated with regard to a man: Semen, and urine, and the anal sphincter, i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. Four are stated with regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, and the anal sphincter.


ื‘ืขื“ ื›ืœ ืจื—ื ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ืœื ื”ื˜ื™ืœื” ื‘ื™ืฆืชื”


The verse states: โ€œFor the Lord had obstructed all the wombs of the house of Abimelech.โ€ The Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her egg during that time.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืจื—ืžื™ื ืขืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ืขื ื” ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ืฉื‘ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืื™ื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ืชืคืœืœื• ื‘ืขื“ ืจืขื”ื•


ยง The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asks for compassion from Heaven on behalf of another, and he requires compassion from Heaven concerning that same matter, he is answered first? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source for this is as it is written: โ€œAnd the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friendsโ€ (Job 42:10).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื•ื™ืจืคื ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ื•ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื•ืืžื”ื•ืชื™ื• [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ืคืงื“ ืืช ืฉืจื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Writings, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants, and they bore childrenโ€ (Genesis 20:17), and it is written immediately following that: โ€œAnd the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had saidโ€ (Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: As Abraham said with regard to Abimelech. Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื•ืฆื ืœืงื™ ื›ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืžื” ืชืจื™ื‘ื• ืืœื™ ื›ืœื›ื ืคืฉืขืชื ื‘ื™ ื ืื ื”ืณ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn, since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œWhy will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 2:29). The term โ€œyou allโ€ includes even those who have not sinned.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ืขื“ ืื ื” ืžืื ืชื ืœืฉืžืจ ืžืฆื•ืชื™ ื•ืชื•ืจืชื™


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: โ€œHow long do you refuse [meโ€™antem] to keep My commandments and My laws?โ€ (Exodus 16:28). The term โ€œyou refuse [meโ€™antem]โ€ is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืงืฆื” ืื—ื™ื• ืœืงื— ื—ืžืฉื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื—ืžืฉื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื›ืคืœื• ื‘ืฉืžื•ืช


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Joseph: โ€œAnd from among his brothers he took five men, and presented them to Pharaohโ€ (Genesis 47:2). Who are these five men? Rabba bar Mari said to him: This is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Those whose names were repeated in the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.


ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืžื™ ืื™ื›ืคื•ืœื™ ืžื™ื›ืคืœ


Rava said: Judah also had his name repeated in the blessings, and he was strong.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ืคืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื—ื™ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ืืœ ื™ืžืช ื•ื™ื”ื™ ืžืชื™ื• ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื–ืืช ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


Rabba bar Mari said to him: His name was repeated for his own matter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani says that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written concerning Reuben and Judah in Mosesโ€™ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: โ€œLet Reuben live and not die in that his men become fewโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: โ€œAnd this for Judah, and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversariesโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction โ€œandโ€?


ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื• ืขืฆืžื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื’ื•ืœื’ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืžืฉื” ื•ื‘ืงืฉ ืจื—ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉื™ื•ื“ื” ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: All those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah, which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, were rolling around in the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercy on Judahโ€™s behalf. Moses said before God: Master of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he should confess his sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was Judah, as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same.


ืžื™ื“ ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืงื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœ ืื™ื‘ืจื™ื” ืœืฉืคื ืœื ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืžืกืงื™ ืœืžืชื™ื‘ืชื ื“ืจืงื™ืขื ื•ืืœ ืขืžื• ืชื‘ื™ืื ื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืœืžืฉืงืœ ื•ืžื™ื˜ืจื— ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืจื‘ ืœื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœื™ื” ืฉืžืขืชืชื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืขื–ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื• ืชื”ื™ื”


Immediately after Moses prayed, the verse states: โ€œHear, Lord, the voice of Judahโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7). His bones then entered their sockets [leshafa], and his skeleton became attached. The angels still did not elevate him into the heavenly study hall. Moses then prayed: โ€œAnd bring him in unto his peopleโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but he still did not know what the sages were saying, and he was unable to deliberate in Torah matters with the sages. Moses then prayed: โ€œMay his hands fight on his behalfโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still he was unable to draw conclusions from his discussion in accordance with the halakha. Moses then prayed: โ€œAnd You shall be a help against his adversariesโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ืชืจ ืขื ื™ื ืื–ืœื ืขื ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืงืœืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืกืœื™ ื ืฆืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ื” ืงืœื•ืคื” ื”ืกืœื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: Poverty follows the poor? Rabba bar Mari said to him: As we learned in a mishna (Bikkurim 3:8): Rich people would bring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poor people would bring first fruits in wicker baskets made of peeled willow, and they would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests. The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a mishna, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah:


ื•ื˜ืžื ื˜ืžื ื™ืงืจื


The verse states with regard to one diagnosed with leprosy: โ€œAnd the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and he shall cry: Unclean, uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 13:45). Not only must the leper suffer from the leprosy itself; he must undergo further embarrassment by publicizing his condition. This is akin to the aphorism that poverty follows the poor.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ื ื•ืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื™ื ื” ื•ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื”ื•ื˜ื™ ืจื”ื•ื˜ ื•ืœื ืžื˜ื• ืœื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืžืฆืคืจื ื›ืจืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ื™ืจืขื‘ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืฆืžืื• ื•ืœื ื™ื›ื ืฉืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžืฉ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: Awaken early and eat, in the summer due to the heat and in the winter due to the cold. And similarly, people say: Sixty runners run and do not reach the man who ate in the morning. Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œThey shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor the sun smite themโ€ (Isaiah 49:10), indicating that one who is not hungry or thirsty will not be affected by the weather.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ืชื ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื–ื• ืงืจื™ืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืชืคืœื” ื•ื‘ืจืš [ืืช] ืœื—ืžืš ื•ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ืš ื–ื• ืคืช ื‘ืžืœื— ื•ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ื•ื”ืกื™ืจืชื™ ืžื—ืœื” ืžืงืจื‘ืš


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall serve the Lord your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of youโ€ (Exodus 23:25). Rava explicates: โ€œAnd you shall serve the Lord your Godโ€; this is referring to the recitation of Shema and prayer. โ€œAnd He will bless your bread and your waterโ€; this is referring to bread dipped in salt, and a flask of water drunk after the bread, in the mornings. From this point forward the remainder of the verse applies: โ€œAnd I will take sickness away from the midst of you.โ€


ื•ืชื ื™ื ืžื—ืœื” ื–ื• ืžืจื” ื•ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžื” ืžื—ืœื” ืฉืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื—ืœืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืžื—ืœื” ื‘ื’ื™ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคืช ื‘ืžืœื— ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื˜ืœืŸ


And it is taught in a baraita: โ€œSicknessโ€; this is referring to bile. And why is its name called sickness [maแธฅala]? It is called this since there are eighty-three sicknesses in bile. The letters spelling the word maแธฅala, i.e., mem, แธฅet, lamed, heh, have that numerical value of eighty-three. And with regard to all of those sicknesses, eating bread dipped in salt in the morning and drinking a flask of water afterward negates them.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจืš ืงืจื™ื™ืš ื—ืžืจื ืื•ื›ืคื ืœื’ื‘ื™ืš ืžื•ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ื’ืจ ืฉืคื—ืช ืฉืจื™ ืื™ ืžื–ื” ื‘ืืช ื•ืื ื” ืชืœื›ื™ ื•ืชืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื™ ื’ื‘ืจืชื™ ืื ื›ื™ ื‘ื•ืจื—ืช


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: If your friend calls you a donkey, prepare a saddle for your back, i.e., do not contest his statement? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written in the conversation between the angel and Hagar: โ€œAnd he said: Hagar, maidservant of Sarai, from where did you come and to where are you going? And she said: I am fleeing from the face of my mistress Saraiโ€ (Genesis 16:8). Though Hagar was no longer the maidservant of Sarai, since the angel referred to her as such, she responded in kind.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืžื™ืœืชื ื’ื ืื” ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ืš ืงื“ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืขื‘ื“ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื ื›ื™


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you are aware of a derogatory matter that is found in you, say it first before others say it about you? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Eliezer: โ€œAnd he said: I am Abrahamโ€™s servantโ€ (Genesis 24:34), immediately proclaiming that he is a servant.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉืคื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื•ืขื™ื ื™ื” ืžื˜ื™ื™ืคื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ ื”ืณ ืœืื“ื ื™ ื•ื–ื›ืจืช [ืืช] ืืžืชืš


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: The goose stoops its head as it goes along, but its eyes look afar to find food for itself? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Abigailโ€™s statement to David: โ€œAnd when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember your maidservantโ€ (Iย Samuel 25:31). Although Abigail spoke with humility in her request that David spare her husbandโ€™s life, she made reference to deriving future benefit from David.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืชื›ืœื™ ืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ืœื›ื›ื ื“ืงืœ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื” ืฉืžืข ื•ืœื ืื›ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ ืื ื™ ืขื‘ื“ืš ื•ืœืฆื“ืง ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ื”ื• ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื™ื“ืข ื•ืœืฉืœืžื” ืขื‘ื“ืš ืœื ืงืจื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: Sixty discomforts come to the teeth [lekhakha] of one who hears the sound of another eating and does not eat? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to what Nathan the prophet said concerning the coronation banquet of Adonijah, to which he was not invited: โ€œFor he is gone down this day, and has slain oxen and fatlings and sheep in abundance, and has called all the kingโ€™s sonsโ€ฆBut me, even me your servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and your servant Solomon he has not calledโ€ (Iย Kings 1:25โ€“26).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ื‘ืื” ื™ืฆื—ืง ื”ืื”ืœื” ืฉืจื” ืืžื• ื•ื™ืงื— ืืช ืจื‘ืงื” ื•ืชื”ื™ ืœื• ืœืืฉื” ื•ื™ืื”ื‘ื” ื•ื™ื ื—ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื—ืจื™ ืืžื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื•ื™ืกืฃ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ื™ืงื— ืืฉื” ื•ืฉืžื” ืงื˜ื•ืจื”


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: โ€œAnd Isaac brought her into his mother Sarahโ€™s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her, and Isaac was comforted for his motherโ€ (Genesis 24:67). And it is written immediately afterward: โ€œAnd Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturahโ€ (Genesis 25:1). After seeing his son marry, Abraham was disquieted by the fact he was not married. This is akin to one who sees another eating and does not eat.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื—ืžืจื ืœืžืจื™ื” ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืชื ืœืฉืงื™ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืกืžื›ืช ืืช ื™ื“ืš ืขืœื™ื• ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืจืื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ืขื“ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืŸ ืžืœื ืจื•ื— ื—ื›ืžื” ื›ื™ ืกืžืš ืžืฉื” ืืช ื™ื“ื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉืžืขื• ืืœื™ื• ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: While the wine belongs to its owner, the gratitude is given to the one who pours it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to God commanding Moses to transfer his authority to Joshua: โ€œAnd the Lord said unto Moses: Take you Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay your hand upon himโ€ฆthat all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearkenโ€ (Numbers 27:18โ€“20). And it is written: โ€œAnd Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the Lord commanded Mosesโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:9). Although the spirit of God was not given to Joshua by Moses, as Moses was only a conduit, he was given credit for it.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื›ืœื‘ื ื‘ื›ืคื ื™ื” ื’ืœืœื™ ืžื‘ืœืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืคืฉ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืชื‘ื•ืก ื ืคืช ื•ื ืคืฉ ืจืขื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืžืจ ืžืชื•ืง


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: A dog, in its hunger, swallows even dung? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œThe full soul loathes a honeycomb; but to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweetโ€ (Proverbs 27:7).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื“ื™ืงืœื ื‘ื™ืฉื ื’ื‘ื™ ืงื™ื ื ื“ืฉืจื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ื•ื™ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื•ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืชื ื™ื ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: A bad palm tree strolls and goes to be among a grove of barren trees, i.e., bad people seek out other bad people? Rabba bar Mari said to him: This matter is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and triplicated in the Writings, and we learned it in a mishna, and we learned it in a baraita.


ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืœืš ืขืฉื• ืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉื ื•ื™ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืชืœืงื˜ื• ืืœ ื™ืคืชื— ืื ืฉื™ื ืจืงื™ื ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืขืžื• ื•ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ืœืžื™ื ื• ื™ืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœื“ื•ืžื” ืœื• ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ืžื ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืชื ื™ื ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืœื—ื ื ื”ืœืš ื–ืจื–ื™ืจ ืืฆืœ ืขื•ืจื‘ ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื•


Rabba bar Mari explains each of the sources. It is written in the Torah, as it is written: โ€œAnd so Esau went to Ishmaelโ€ (Genesis 28:9). It is repeated in the Prophets, as it is written: โ€œAnd there were gathered vain fellows to Yiftah, and they went out with himโ€ (Judges 11:3). And it is triplicated in the Writings, as it is written: All fowl will live with its kind, and men with those like him (Book of Ben Sira 13:17). We learned it in a mishna (Kelim 12:2): All that is attached to that which is ritually impure is ritually impure; all that is attached to that which is ritually pure is ritually pure. And we learned it in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: Not for naught did the starling go to the raven but because it is its kind, as it too is a non-kosher bird.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืงืจื™ืช ื—ื‘ืจืš ื•ืœื ืขื ืš ืจืžื™ ื’ื•ื“ื ืจื‘ื” ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืขืŸ ื˜ื”ืจืชื™ืš ื•ืœื ื˜ื”ืจืช ืžื˜ืžืืชืš ืœื ืชื˜ื”ืจื™ ืขื•ื“


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you called to your friend and he did not answer you, throw a large wall and cast it at him, i.e., do not attempt to help him anymore? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œBecause I have purged you and you were not purged, you shall not be purged from your impurity anymore, until I have satisfied My fury upon youโ€ (Ezekiel 24:13).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืจื ื“ืฉืชื™ืช ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœื ืชืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ืชืชืขื‘ ืื“ืžื™ ื›ื™ ืื—ื™ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืœื ืชืชืขื‘ ืžืฆืจื™ ื›ื™ ื’ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืช ื‘ืืจืฆื•


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If there is a well that you drank from, do not throw a stone into it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œYou shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you were a stranger in his landโ€ (Deuteronomy 23:8). Since you dwelled in their lands, you may not cause them harm.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืื™ ื“ืœื™ืช ื“ื•ืจื ื“ืœื™ื ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื“ืœื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ื” ื‘ืจืง ืื ืชืœื›ื™ ืขืžื™ ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ื•ืื ืœื ืชืœื›ื™ ืขืžื™ ืœื ืืœืš


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you lift the load with me I will lift it, and if you will not lift it with me I wonโ€™t lift it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Barak and Deborah concerning the war of Sisera: โ€œAnd Barak said to her: If you will go with me, then I will go; but if you will not go with me, I will not goโ€ (Judges 4:8).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื›ื“ ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื™ ืœื’ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืงืฉื™ืฉื ื ืœื“ืจื“ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืขืžื•ื“ ืขื ืŸ ืœื ื—ืชื ื”ื“ืจืš ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื‘ืขืžื•ื“ ืืฉ ืœื”ืื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื›ืชื™ื‘


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: When we were small, we were considered to be men; now that we are old, we are considered to be children [ledardekei]? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is that initially, it is written with regard to the Jewish people traveling in the wilderness: โ€œAnd the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them lightโ€ (Exodus 13:21). God Himself guarded over the Jewish people. But at the end, after some time passed and it would be expected that the Jewish people were considered more important, it is written:


  • Masechet Bava Kamma is sponsored by the Futornick Family in loving memory of their fathers and grandfathers, Phillip Kaufman and David Futornick.

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Bava Kamma 92

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืขื•ืœื” ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืจืง


One might have thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree even if the barren tree is greater in monetary value than the fruit-bearing tree. The verse states: โ€œOnly,โ€ which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.


ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื™ืกื™ื” ืชืžืจื™ ืื›ื™ืœ ื˜ืขื™ื ื‘ื”ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื—ืžืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื”ืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžื›ื—ืฉื™ ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ืžืงื•ืจื™ื™ื”ื•


The Gemara relates: The sharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates. Shmuel ate them, and tasted the taste of wine in them. He said to his sharecropper: What is this? The sharecropper said to him: The date palms stand among the grapevines and therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel said: Do they weaken the wine, i.e., the grapevines, so much that it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? Tomorrow, cut down the date palms and bring me from their marrow to eat.


ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื–ื ืชืืœื™ ื‘ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืจื™ืกื™ื” ืขืงืจื™ื ื”ื• ื’ื•ืคื ื™ ืงื ื™ ื“ืงืœื™ ื“ืงืœื™ ืœื ืงื ื™ ื’ื•ืคื ื™


The Gemara relates a similar incident: Rav แธคisda saw date palms growing among grapevines on his estate. He said to his sharecropper: Uproot the date palms, since one can purchase date palms with grapevines, as grapevines are more valuable, while one cannot purchase grapevines with date palms.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืชื” ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืœื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืฉื”ื•ื ืื›ื–ืจื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื•ื™ืจืคื ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ


MISHNA: Despite the fact that the assailant who caused damage gives to the victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is not forgiven for him in the heavenly court until he requests forgiveness from the victim, as it is stated that God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: โ€œNow therefore restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall liveโ€ (Genesis 20:7). And from where is it derived that if the victim does not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: โ€œAnd Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore childrenโ€ (Genesis 20:17).


ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืกืžื ืืช ืขื™ื ื™ ืงื˜ืข ืืช ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื‘ืจ ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘


The mishna continues: With regard to one who says to another: Blind my eye, or: cut off my hand, or: break my leg, and he does so, the one who performed these actions is liable to pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, he is nevertheless liable.


ืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื™ ืฉื‘ืจ ืืช ื›ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืฉื” ื›ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื•ืคื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื•


With regard to one who says to another: Tear my garment, or: break my jug, and he does so, he is liable to pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, he is exempt from payment. If one says to another: Do so, i.e., cause damage, to so-and-so on the condition that you will be exempt from payment, and he did so, he is liable, whether the instructions were with regard to the victim himself, or whether the instructions were with regard to his property.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืืœื• ืฉืืžืจื• ื“ืžื™ ื‘ื•ืฉืชื• ืื‘ืœ ืฆืขืจื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื™ ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ื ืžื—ืœ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื›ื™ ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ื‘ืขื“ืš


GEMARA: The Sages taught: All these sums that in the previous mishna they said one is liable to pay for humiliating another are the compensation for his humiliation, for which there is a set amount. But for the victimโ€™s pain caused by the assailant, even if the assailant brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth (see Isaiah 60:7) that are in the world, which are of the best quality, his transgression is not forgiven for him in the heavenly court until he requests forgiveness from the victim, as it is stated: โ€œRestore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for youโ€ (Genesis 20:7).


ื“ืืฉืช ื ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืขื™ ืื”ื“ื•ืจื™ ืืฉืช ืื—ืจ ืœื ื‘ืขื™ ืื”ื“ื•ืจื™


Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here that the wife of a prophet needs to be returned, but the wife of another individual need not be returned?


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ื”ืฉื‘ ืืฉืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื•ื“ืงื ืืžืจืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื’ื ืฆื“ื™ืง ืชื”ืจื’ ื”ืœื ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื—ืชื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืื—ื™ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ื‘ืจ ืœื™ืžื“ ืื›ืกื ืื™ ืฉื‘ื ืœืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืื›ื™ืœื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื” ืฉื•ืืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืื• ืขืœ ืขืกืงื™ ืืฉืชื• ืฉื•ืืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืืฉืชืš ื”ื™ื ืื—ื•ืชืš ื”ื™ื


The Gemara answers. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: This is how the verse should be understood: โ€œRestore the wife of the manโ€ in any case, since she is his wife. And with regard to that which you, Abimelech, said: โ€œWill you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?โ€ (Genesis 20:4โ€“5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that he is a prophet, and he already learned how to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to a guest [akhsenai] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife? Does one ask a guest: Is she your wife? Is she your sister? Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.


ืžื›ืืŸ ืœื‘ืŸ ื ื— ืฉื ื”ืจื’ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืœื• ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืœื ืœืžื“


The Gemara remarks: From here it can be derived that a gentile is executed for having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, since he should have learned and he did not learn.


ื›ื™ ืขืฆืจ ืขืฆืจ ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืฉืชื™ ืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืœืžื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืœื™ื“ื”


Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. โ€œFor the Lord had obstructed [atzor atzar] all the wombs of the house of Abimelechโ€ (Genesis 20:18). Rabbi Elazar says: Why are these two obstructions [atzor atzar] both stated? One is stated with regard to a man, that semen will not be discharged, and two are stated with regard to a woman, that semen will not be discharged from her, and that she will not give birth.


ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืชื ื ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืœื™ื“ื”


It was taught in a baraita: Two are stated with regard to a man: Semen and urine, i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; three are stated with regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth.


ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขืช ืืจื‘ืขื” ื‘ืืฉื” ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ื•ืœื™ื“ื” ื•ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืคื™ ื˜ื‘ืขืช


Ravina says: Three are stated with regard to a man: Semen, and urine, and the anal sphincter, i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. Four are stated with regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, and the anal sphincter.


ื‘ืขื“ ื›ืœ ืจื—ื ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ืœื ื”ื˜ื™ืœื” ื‘ื™ืฆืชื”


The verse states: โ€œFor the Lord had obstructed all the wombs of the house of Abimelech.โ€ The Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her egg during that time.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืจื—ืžื™ื ืขืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืื•ืชื• ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ื ืขื ื” ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ืฉื‘ ืืช ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืื™ื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ืชืคืœืœื• ื‘ืขื“ ืจืขื”ื•


ยง The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asks for compassion from Heaven on behalf of another, and he requires compassion from Heaven concerning that same matter, he is answered first? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source for this is as it is written: โ€œAnd the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friendsโ€ (Job 42:10).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ืชืคืœืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื•ื™ืจืคื ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš ื•ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื•ืืžื”ื•ืชื™ื• [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ืคืงื“ ืืช ืฉืจื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœ ืื‘ื™ืžืœืš


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Writings, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: โ€œAnd Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants, and they bore childrenโ€ (Genesis 20:17), and it is written immediately following that: โ€œAnd the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had saidโ€ (Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: As Abraham said with regard to Abimelech. Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื•ืฆื ืœืงื™ ื›ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืžื” ืชืจื™ื‘ื• ืืœื™ ื›ืœื›ื ืคืฉืขืชื ื‘ื™ ื ืื ื”ืณ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn, since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œWhy will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 2:29). The term โ€œyou allโ€ includes even those who have not sinned.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ืขื“ ืื ื” ืžืื ืชื ืœืฉืžืจ ืžืฆื•ืชื™ ื•ืชื•ืจืชื™


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: โ€œHow long do you refuse [meโ€™antem] to keep My commandments and My laws?โ€ (Exodus 16:28). The term โ€œyou refuse [meโ€™antem]โ€ is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืงืฆื” ืื—ื™ื• ืœืงื— ื—ืžืฉื” ืื ืฉื™ื ืžืืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื—ืžืฉื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื›ืคืœื• ื‘ืฉืžื•ืช


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Joseph: โ€œAnd from among his brothers he took five men, and presented them to Pharaohโ€ (Genesis 47:2). Who are these five men? Rabba bar Mari said to him: This is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: Those whose names were repeated in the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.


ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืžื™ ืื™ื›ืคื•ืœื™ ืžื™ื›ืคืœ


Rava said: Judah also had his name repeated in the blessings, and he was strong.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ืคืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื—ื™ ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื•ืืœ ื™ืžืช ื•ื™ื”ื™ ืžืชื™ื• ืžืกืคืจ ื•ื–ืืช ืœื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


Rabba bar Mari said to him: His name was repeated for his own matter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani says that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written concerning Reuben and Judah in Mosesโ€™ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: โ€œLet Reuben live and not die in that his men become fewโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: โ€œAnd this for Judah, and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversariesโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction โ€œandโ€?


ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื• ืขืฆืžื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื’ื•ืœื’ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืืจื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืžืฉื” ื•ื‘ืงืฉ ืจื—ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ืฉื™ื•ื“ื” ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: All those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah, which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, were rolling around in the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercy on Judahโ€™s behalf. Moses said before God: Master of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he should confess his sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was Judah, as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same.


ืžื™ื“ ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืงื•ืœ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืขืœ ืื™ื‘ืจื™ื” ืœืฉืคื ืœื ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืžืกืงื™ ืœืžืชื™ื‘ืชื ื“ืจืงื™ืขื ื•ืืœ ืขืžื• ืชื‘ื™ืื ื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืœืžืฉืงืœ ื•ืžื™ื˜ืจื— ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืจื‘ ืœื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœื™ื” ืฉืžืขืชืชื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืขื–ืจ ืžืฆืจื™ื• ืชื”ื™ื”


Immediately after Moses prayed, the verse states: โ€œHear, Lord, the voice of Judahโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7). His bones then entered their sockets [leshafa], and his skeleton became attached. The angels still did not elevate him into the heavenly study hall. Moses then prayed: โ€œAnd bring him in unto his peopleโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but he still did not know what the sages were saying, and he was unable to deliberate in Torah matters with the sages. Moses then prayed: โ€œMay his hands fight on his behalfโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still he was unable to draw conclusions from his discussion in accordance with the halakha. Moses then prayed: โ€œAnd You shall be a help against his adversariesโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:7).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ืชืจ ืขื ื™ื ืื–ืœื ืขื ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืงืœืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืกืœื™ ื ืฆืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ื” ืงืœื•ืคื” ื”ืกืœื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: Poverty follows the poor? Rabba bar Mari said to him: As we learned in a mishna (Bikkurim 3:8): Rich people would bring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poor people would bring first fruits in wicker baskets made of peeled willow, and they would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests. The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a mishna, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah:


ื•ื˜ืžื ื˜ืžื ื™ืงืจื


The verse states with regard to one diagnosed with leprosy: โ€œAnd the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip, and he shall cry: Unclean, uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 13:45). Not only must the leper suffer from the leprosy itself; he must undergo further embarrassment by publicizing his condition. This is akin to the aphorism that poverty follows the poor.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืฉื›ื ื•ืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื™ื ื” ื•ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื”ื•ื˜ื™ ืจื”ื•ื˜ ื•ืœื ืžื˜ื• ืœื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืžืฆืคืจื ื›ืจืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ื™ืจืขื‘ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืฆืžืื• ื•ืœื ื™ื›ื ืฉืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžืฉ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: Awaken early and eat, in the summer due to the heat and in the winter due to the cold. And similarly, people say: Sixty runners run and do not reach the man who ate in the morning. Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œThey shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor the sun smite themโ€ (Isaiah 49:10), indicating that one who is not hungry or thirsty will not be affected by the weather.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ืชื ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื–ื• ืงืจื™ืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืชืคืœื” ื•ื‘ืจืš [ืืช] ืœื—ืžืš ื•ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ืš ื–ื• ืคืช ื‘ืžืœื— ื•ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ื•ื”ืกื™ืจืชื™ ืžื—ืœื” ืžืงืจื‘ืš


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall serve the Lord your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of youโ€ (Exodus 23:25). Rava explicates: โ€œAnd you shall serve the Lord your Godโ€; this is referring to the recitation of Shema and prayer. โ€œAnd He will bless your bread and your waterโ€; this is referring to bread dipped in salt, and a flask of water drunk after the bread, in the mornings. From this point forward the remainder of the verse applies: โ€œAnd I will take sickness away from the midst of you.โ€


ื•ืชื ื™ื ืžื—ืœื” ื–ื• ืžืจื” ื•ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžื” ืžื—ืœื” ืฉืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื—ืœืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืžื—ืœื” ื‘ื’ื™ืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคืช ื‘ืžืœื— ืฉื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื˜ืœืŸ


And it is taught in a baraita: โ€œSicknessโ€; this is referring to bile. And why is its name called sickness [maแธฅala]? It is called this since there are eighty-three sicknesses in bile. The letters spelling the word maแธฅala, i.e., mem, แธฅet, lamed, heh, have that numerical value of eighty-three. And with regard to all of those sicknesses, eating bread dipped in salt in the morning and drinking a flask of water afterward negates them.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื‘ืจืš ืงืจื™ื™ืš ื—ืžืจื ืื•ื›ืคื ืœื’ื‘ื™ืš ืžื•ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ื’ืจ ืฉืคื—ืช ืฉืจื™ ืื™ ืžื–ื” ื‘ืืช ื•ืื ื” ืชืœื›ื™ ื•ืชืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื™ ื’ื‘ืจืชื™ ืื ื›ื™ ื‘ื•ืจื—ืช


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby the Sages stated: If your friend calls you a donkey, prepare a saddle for your back, i.e., do not contest his statement? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written in the conversation between the angel and Hagar: โ€œAnd he said: Hagar, maidservant of Sarai, from where did you come and to where are you going? And she said: I am fleeing from the face of my mistress Saraiโ€ (Genesis 16:8). Though Hagar was no longer the maidservant of Sarai, since the angel referred to her as such, she responded in kind.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืžื™ืœืชื ื’ื ืื” ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ืš ืงื“ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืขื‘ื“ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื ื›ื™


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you are aware of a derogatory matter that is found in you, say it first before others say it about you? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Eliezer: โ€œAnd he said: I am Abrahamโ€™s servantโ€ (Genesis 24:34), immediately proclaiming that he is a servant.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉืคื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื•ื–ื ื•ืขื™ื ื™ื” ืžื˜ื™ื™ืคื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื˜ื™ื‘ ื”ืณ ืœืื“ื ื™ ื•ื–ื›ืจืช [ืืช] ืืžืชืš


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: The goose stoops its head as it goes along, but its eyes look afar to find food for itself? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Abigailโ€™s statement to David: โ€œAnd when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, then remember your maidservantโ€ (Iย Samuel 25:31). Although Abigail spoke with humility in her request that David spare her husbandโ€™s life, she made reference to deriving future benefit from David.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ืชื›ืœื™ ืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ืœื›ื›ื ื“ืงืœ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื” ืฉืžืข ื•ืœื ืื›ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื™ ืื ื™ ืขื‘ื“ืš ื•ืœืฆื“ืง ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ื”ื• ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื™ื“ืข ื•ืœืฉืœืžื” ืขื‘ื“ืš ืœื ืงืจื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: Sixty discomforts come to the teeth [lekhakha] of one who hears the sound of another eating and does not eat? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to what Nathan the prophet said concerning the coronation banquet of Adonijah, to which he was not invited: โ€œFor he is gone down this day, and has slain oxen and fatlings and sheep in abundance, and has called all the kingโ€™s sonsโ€ฆBut me, even me your servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and your servant Solomon he has not calledโ€ (Iย Kings 1:25โ€“26).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืช ืืžืจืช ืžื”ืชื ื•ืื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ื™ื‘ืื” ื™ืฆื—ืง ื”ืื”ืœื” ืฉืจื” ืืžื• ื•ื™ืงื— ืืช ืจื‘ืงื” ื•ืชื”ื™ ืœื• ืœืืฉื” ื•ื™ืื”ื‘ื” ื•ื™ื ื—ื ื™ืฆื—ืง ืื—ืจื™ ืืžื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื•ื™ืกืฃ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ื™ืงื— ืืฉื” ื•ืฉืžื” ืงื˜ื•ืจื”


Rava said to him: You said the proof from there, from a verse in the Prophets, and I say the proof from here, from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: โ€œAnd Isaac brought her into his mother Sarahโ€™s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her, and Isaac was comforted for his motherโ€ (Genesis 24:67). And it is written immediately afterward: โ€œAnd Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturahโ€ (Genesis 25:1). After seeing his son marry, Abraham was disquieted by the fact he was not married. This is akin to one who sees another eating and does not eat.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื—ืžืจื ืœืžืจื™ื” ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืชื ืœืฉืงื™ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืกืžื›ืช ืืช ื™ื“ืš ืขืœื™ื• ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ื™ืจืื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ืขื“ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืŸ ืžืœื ืจื•ื— ื—ื›ืžื” ื›ื™ ืกืžืš ืžืฉื” ืืช ื™ื“ื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉืžืขื• ืืœื™ื• ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: While the wine belongs to its owner, the gratitude is given to the one who pours it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to God commanding Moses to transfer his authority to Joshua: โ€œAnd the Lord said unto Moses: Take you Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay your hand upon himโ€ฆthat all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearkenโ€ (Numbers 27:18โ€“20). And it is written: โ€œAnd Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the Lord commanded Mosesโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:9). Although the spirit of God was not given to Joshua by Moses, as Moses was only a conduit, he was given credit for it.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื›ืœื‘ื ื‘ื›ืคื ื™ื” ื’ืœืœื™ ืžื‘ืœืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืคืฉ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืชื‘ื•ืก ื ืคืช ื•ื ืคืฉ ืจืขื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืžืจ ืžืชื•ืง


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: A dog, in its hunger, swallows even dung? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œThe full soul loathes a honeycomb; but to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweetโ€ (Proverbs 27:7).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื“ื™ืงืœื ื‘ื™ืฉื ื’ื‘ื™ ืงื™ื ื ื“ืฉืจื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ื•ื™ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื•ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืชื ื™ื ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: A bad palm tree strolls and goes to be among a grove of barren trees, i.e., bad people seek out other bad people? Rabba bar Mari said to him: This matter is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and triplicated in the Writings, and we learned it in a mishna, and we learned it in a baraita.


ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืœืš ืขืฉื• ืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉื ื•ื™ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืชืœืงื˜ื• ืืœ ื™ืคืชื— ืื ืฉื™ื ืจืงื™ื ื•ื™ื”ื™ื• ืขืžื• ื•ืžืฉื•ืœืฉ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ืœืžื™ื ื• ื™ืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœื“ื•ืžื” ืœื• ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ืžื ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืชื ื™ื ื ื‘ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืœื—ื ื ื”ืœืš ื–ืจื–ื™ืจ ืืฆืœ ืขื•ืจื‘ ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื•


Rabba bar Mari explains each of the sources. It is written in the Torah, as it is written: โ€œAnd so Esau went to Ishmaelโ€ (Genesis 28:9). It is repeated in the Prophets, as it is written: โ€œAnd there were gathered vain fellows to Yiftah, and they went out with himโ€ (Judges 11:3). And it is triplicated in the Writings, as it is written: All fowl will live with its kind, and men with those like him (Book of Ben Sira 13:17). We learned it in a mishna (Kelim 12:2): All that is attached to that which is ritually impure is ritually impure; all that is attached to that which is ritually pure is ritually pure. And we learned it in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: Not for naught did the starling go to the raven but because it is its kind, as it too is a non-kosher bird.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืงืจื™ืช ื—ื‘ืจืš ื•ืœื ืขื ืš ืจืžื™ ื’ื•ื“ื ืจื‘ื” ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืขืŸ ื˜ื”ืจืชื™ืš ื•ืœื ื˜ื”ืจืช ืžื˜ืžืืชืš ืœื ืชื˜ื”ืจื™ ืขื•ื“


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you called to your friend and he did not answer you, throw a large wall and cast it at him, i.e., do not attempt to help him anymore? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œBecause I have purged you and you were not purged, you shall not be purged from your impurity anymore, until I have satisfied My fury upon youโ€ (Ezekiel 24:13).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืจื ื“ืฉืชื™ืช ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœื ืชืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ืชืชืขื‘ ืื“ืžื™ ื›ื™ ืื—ื™ืš ื”ื•ื ื•ืœื ืชืชืขื‘ ืžืฆืจื™ ื›ื™ ื’ืจ ื”ื™ื™ืช ื‘ืืจืฆื•


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If there is a well that you drank from, do not throw a stone into it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written: โ€œYou shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you were a stranger in his landโ€ (Deuteronomy 23:8). Since you dwelled in their lands, you may not cause them harm.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืื™ ื“ืœื™ืช ื“ื•ืจื ื“ืœื™ื ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืœื ื“ืœื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืืœื™ื” ื‘ืจืง ืื ืชืœื›ื™ ืขืžื™ ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ื•ืื ืœื ืชืœื›ื™ ืขืžื™ ืœื ืืœืš


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: If you lift the load with me I will lift it, and if you will not lift it with me I wonโ€™t lift it? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is as it is written with regard to Barak and Deborah concerning the war of Sisera: โ€œAnd Barak said to her: If you will go with me, then I will go; but if you will not go with me, I will not goโ€ (Judges 4:8).


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืžืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื›ื“ ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื™ ืœื’ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืงืฉื™ืฉื ื ืœื“ืจื“ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืณ ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ืขืžื•ื“ ืขื ืŸ ืœื ื—ืชื ื”ื“ืจืš ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื‘ืขืžื•ื“ ืืฉ ืœื”ืื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื›ืชื™ื‘


Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matter derived whereby people say: When we were small, we were considered to be men; now that we are old, we are considered to be children [ledardekei]? Rabba bar Mari said to him that the source is that initially, it is written with regard to the Jewish people traveling in the wilderness: โ€œAnd the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them lightโ€ (Exodus 13:21). God Himself guarded over the Jewish people. But at the end, after some time passed and it would be expected that the Jewish people were considered more important, it is written:


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