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Today's Daf Yomi

November 25, 2016 | 讻状讚 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Bava Metzia 60

What is allowed and not allowed in a competitive business environment? 聽The fifth chapter analyzes the laws of interest. 聽It begins with a description of interest forbidden by the Torah and interest forbidden by rabbinic law. 聽Then the gemara translates the terms neshech聽(loss for the borrower) and marbit (gain for the lender) and explains that both terms of used to teach that there are two negative commandments associated with interest but there are no cases where one would apply without the other.


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讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讬砖谞讬诐

And needless to say, one may not intermingle new produce with old produce, in the event that the old produce is superior, as with grains, since intermingling lowers its value.

讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讘讬讬谉 讛转讬专讜 诇注专讘 拽砖讛 讘专讱 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讘讬讞讜 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬 讬讬谉 讘讬讬谉 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜

Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine, because one thereby enhances it. One may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment; the seller is not required to filter the wine.

诪讬 砖谞转注专讘 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谞讜 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讜讚讬注讜 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 砖讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诇专诪讜转 讘讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讛讟讬诇 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谉 讬讟讬诇讜

One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him of the mixture, as, although he is aware that there is water mixed with the wine, it will be used for nothing other than deceit because the merchant will likely not inform the buyer that it is diluted. In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine.

讛转讙专 谞讜讟诇 诪讞诪砖 讙专谞讜转 讜谞讜转谉 诇转讜讱 诪讙讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讞诪砖 讙转讜转 讜谞讜转谉 诇转讜讱 驻讬讟讜诐 讗讞讚 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 诪转讻讜讬谉 诇注专讘

The prohibition against mixing different types of produce applies only to an individual selling the produce of his field. By contrast, a merchant may take grain from five threshing floors belonging to different people, and place the produce in one warehouse. He may also take wine from five winepresses and place the wine in one large cask [pitom], provided that he does not intend to mix low-quality merchandise with high-quality merchandise.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞讚砖讜转 诪讗专讘注 讜讬砖谞讜转 诪砖诇砖 讚讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讚砖讜转 诪砖诇砖 讜讬砖谞讜转 诪讗专讘注 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讚诐 专讜爪讛 诇讬砖谞谉

GEMARA: The Sages taught: Needless to say, if the price of the new produce is four se鈥檃 for a sela and the price of the old produce is three se鈥檃 for a sela, one may not intermingle them together. That is full-fledged deceit, as one is selling inexpensive produce at the price of expensive produce. Rather, even if the price of the new produce is three se鈥檃 for a sela and the price of the old produce is four se鈥檃 for a sela, one may not intermingle them. This is because in this case the price of the new produce is higher, as people want to age the produce, i.e., new produce is more valuable to those who seek to place it in storage for a lengthy period, although it may be of inferior quality compared to old produce.

讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讘讬讬谉 讛转讬专讜 诇注专讘 拽砖讛 讘专讱 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讘讬讞讜 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注讚讗 讗诪专讛 讻诇 讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讛诇讻讛 讛讬讗

The mishna teaches: Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine because mixing the wine enhances it. Rabbi Elazar said: That is to say, every time a halakha is introduced with the phrase: Actually they said, it is an established halakha with regard to which there is no uncertainty.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讜

Rav Na岣an says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, i.e., before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. When the wine is still in the process of fermentation, if different wines are mixed and ferment together, this enhances their flavor. By contrast, if they are mixed at a later stage, this will harm their flavor.

讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚拽讗 诪注专讘讬 砖诇讗 讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讚讬讚注讬 讜拽讗 诪讞诇讬 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪转讬专 讘讚讘专 讛谞讟注诐

The Gemara asks: And today, when people mix old and new wine even when the wine is not among the winepresses, on what basis is mixing permitted? Rav Pappa said: It is because buyers are aware of the potential loss and waive it. Rav A岣, son of Rav Ika, said: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi A岣, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi A岣 permits mixing in a case where the product will be tasted before its purchase. Then there is no deceit, as when the buyer tastes it, he is immediately aware that it is a mixture, and the choice of whether or not to purchase the product is his.

讜讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬 讬讬谉 讘讬讬谉 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 讜讻讜壮 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 专讬砖讗 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讻诇诇 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪讗讬 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 讚拽讗 诪讜讚注 诇讬讛 讛讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讚讬注讜 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪讜讚讬注讜 诪讻诇诇 讚专讬砖讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 诪讜讚注 诇讬讛

The mishna teaches: And one may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you say in the former clause of the mishna that one may not mix sediment at all? And lest you say: What is the meaning of: He may give the buyer wine with its sediment; it means that he informs the buyer that the wine contains sediment, this suggestion is not tenable. From the fact that the latter clause teaches: One may not sell it in the store unless he informs the buyer and he may not sell it to a merchant even if he informs him, it may be inferred that the former clause is speaking of a situation where one may sell it in the store even if he does not inform the buyer.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬诐 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛砖讜驻讛 讬讬谉 诇讞讘讬专讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬注专讘 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讗讘诇 诪注专讘 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讬讜诐

Rav Yehuda said: This is what the tanna is saying: One may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may give the buyer sediment of that wine itself. That is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to one who pours wine for another, attempting to pour the liquid while leaving the sediment in the cask, that person may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may mix the sediment of the night before with the wine poured the night before, and the sediment of the next day with the wine of the next day.

诪讬 砖谞转注专讘 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谞讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讚讬注讜 讜讻讜壮 专讘讗 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪讞谞讜转讗 诪讝讙讬讛 讟注诪讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讘住讬诐 砖讚专讬讛 诇讞谞讜转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 转谞谉 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讝讙讗 讚讬讚讬 诪讬讚注 讬讚讬注 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚讟驻讬 讜诪讞讬讬诇讬讛 讜诪讝讘讬谉 诇讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 讗讬谉 诇讚讘专 住讜祝

The mishna teaches: One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. The Gemara relates: They brought wine to Rava from a store. He diluted it with water, tasted it, and it was not tasty. He sent it back to the store, so they could sell it there. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him? Rava said to him: My dilution of the wine is evident to all, as I add more water than is typically added. And lest you say that the storekeeper will add wine, and sweeten the mixture, and sell it again, when the dilution is no longer evident, if this is a concern, there is no end to the matter. It should be prohibited to sell any wine to a merchant due to the concern lest he engage in deceit in its resale.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讛讟讬诇 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谉 讬讟讬诇讜 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 诇诪讞爪讛 诇砖诇讬砖 讜诇专讘讬注 讗诪专 专讘 讜讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讜

The mishna teaches: In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine. It was taught: One may dilute the wine by adding water that will constitute one-half, one-third, or one-fourth of the mixture, in accordance with the local custom. Rav says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. If wine is diluted at a later stage, the dilution will cause the wine to spoil.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讬讞诇拽 讛讞谞讜谞讬 拽诇讬讜转 讜讗讙讜讝讬谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪专讙讬诇谉 诇讘讗 讗爪诇讜 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 讗转 讛砖注专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper may not hand out toasted grain and nuts to children who patronize his store, due to the fact that he thereby accustoms them to come to him at the expense of competing storekeepers. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And one may not reduce the price of sale items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively.

诇讗 讬讘讜专 讗转 讛讙专讬住讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜诪讜讚讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讘讜专 诪注诇 驻讬 诪讙讜专讛 砖讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讻讙讜谞讘 讗转 讛注讬谉 讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐

One may not sift ground beans to remove the waste, lest he charge an inappropriately high price for the sifted meal, beyond its actual value; this is the statement of Abba Shaul. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And the Rabbis concede that one may not sift the meal only from the beans that are close to the opening of the bin to create the impression that the contents of the entire bin were sifted, as this is nothing other than deception. One may neither adorn a person before selling him on the slave market, nor an animal nor vessels that he seeks to sell. Rather, they must be sold unembellished, to avoid deceiving the buyer.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 诪驻诇讬讙谞讗 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜讗转 驻诇讬讙 砖讬住拽讬

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit the free distribution of toasted grain and nuts? It is because the storekeeper can say to his competitors: I hand out nuts; and you hand out jujubes [shiskei]. All merchants are able to hand out goods that will attract children, and consequently this is not unfair competition.

讜诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 讗转 讛砖注专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉

The mishna teaches: And one may not reduce the price of items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who not only condone the practice but even praise the person, saying that he should be remembered positively?

诪砖讜诐 讚拽讗 诪专讜讜讞 诇转专注讗

The Gemara explains: It is due to the fact that by lowering the price he eases the market rate, i.e., his actions lead to the establishment of a lower market price.

讜诇讗 讬讘讜专 讗转 讛讙专讬住讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜讻讜壮 诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪转讬专 讘讚讘专 讛谞专讗讛

The mishna teaches: And one may not sift ground beans to remove the waste and charge a higher price; this is the statement of Abba Shaul. And the Rabbis permit doing so. The Gemara comments: Who are the Rabbis whose opinion is cited in the mishna? It is Rabbi A岣, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi A岣 permits mixing, and sifting, and the like, in the case of an item in which the change is obvious.

讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜讻讜壮 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖专讘讟讬谉 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜讗讬谉 谞讜驻讞讬谉 讘拽专讘讬讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖讜专讬谉 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诪讬诐 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 诪砖专讘讟讬谉 讛讻讗 转专讙诪讜 诪讬讗 讚讞讬讝专讗 讝注讬专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诪讝拽驻转讗

The mishna taught: One may neither adorn a person, nor an animal, nor vessels. The Sages taught: One may neither stiffen the hair of an animal to create the impression that it is more voluminous than it is, nor inflate innards sold as meat to create the impression that it is a more substantial piece of meat, nor soak meat in water in order to change its color and create the impression that it is a choice cut. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: One may not stiffen the hair of an animal? Here, in Babylonia, they explained that it means to feed the animal bran water, which inflates its intestines and causes its hair to stand on end. Ze鈥檈iri said in the name of Rav Kahana: It means scrubbing the hair clean to increase its volume.

砖诪讜讗诇 砖专讗 诇诪专诪讗 转讜诪讬 诇住专讘诇讗 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖专讗 诇讻住讻讜住讬 拽专诪讬 专讘讛 砖专讗 诇诪讬讚拽 爪专讚讬 专讘讗 砖专讗 诇爪诇讜诪讬 讙讬专讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖专讗 诇爪诇讜诪讬 讚讬拽讜诇讬 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 转谞谉 讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讞讚转讬 讛讗 讘注转讬拽讬

The Gemara relates: Shmuel permitted sellers to place fringes on a cloak; Rav Yehuda permitted them to clean and adorn ornamented garments; Rabba permitted them to taper linen garments to cause them to appear more fine; Rava permitted them to draw arrows to ornament garments; Rav Pappa bar Shmuel permitted them to draw baskets for ornamentation. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: One may neither adorn a person, nor an animal, nor vessels? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this series of cases, where the Sages permitted adorning merchandise, are cases of new merchandise. It may be decorated, as doing so merely enhances its intrinsic beauty. That ruling in the mishna, according to which adornment is prohibited, is referring to cases of old merchandise, as the adornment is meant to conceal its flaws.

驻专讻讜住 讚讗讚诐 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讛讛讜讗 注讘讚讗 住讘讗 讚讗讝诇 爪讘注讬讛 诇专讬砖讬讛 讜诇讚讬拽谞讬讛 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 讘谞讬 讘讬转讱

The Gemara asks: Adornment of a person, what is it? The Gemara relates: It is as in that incident involving a certain elderly slave who went and dyed his head and beard black to create a younger impression. He came before Rava and said to him: Purchase me as your slave. Rava said to him that there is a rabbinic adage: Let the poor be members of your household. I follow their advice and therefore do not require a slave. If I need assistance, the paupers who frequent my house can assist me.

讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讘谞讬讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖拽讬讬谉 诪讬讗 讗讝诇 讞讜讜专讬讛 诇专讬砖讬讛 讜诇讚讬拽谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 讚讗谞讗 拽砖讬砖 诪讗讘讜讱 拽专讬 讗谞驻砖讬讛 爪讚讬拽 诪爪专讛 谞讞诇抓 讜讬讘讗 讗讞专 转讞转讬讜

The slave came before Rav Pappa bar Shmuel, who purchased him. One day Rav Pappa said to the slave: Give me water to drink. The slave went and removed the dye and whitened the hair on his head and his beard. The slave said to Rav Pappa: See that I am older than your father, and I am unfit to serve you. Rav Pappa read about himself: The righteous person is delivered from trouble, and another comes in his stead (see Proverbs 11:8). Rav Pappa applied the verse to the incident of the slave. The righteous person, Rava, was spared the problem of the slave; while another, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel, came in his stead.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛讝讛讘

 

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱 讜讗讬讝讛讜 转专讘讬转

MISHNA: The Torah states the prohibition against taking interest: 鈥淎nd if your brother becomes impoverished, and his hand falters with you, then you shall support him; whether a stranger or a native, he shall live with you. You shall not take from him interest [neshekh] or increase [tarbit]; you shall fear your God and your brother shall live with you. You shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:35鈥37). The mishna asks: Which is neshekh, and which is tarbit?

讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱 讛诪诇讜讛 住诇注 讘讞诪砖讛 讚讬谞专讬谉 住讗转讬诐 讞讟讬谉 讘砖诇砖 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 谞讜砖讱

Which is the case in which there is neshekh? With regard to one who lends another a sela, worth four dinars, for five dinars to be paid later, or one who lends another two se鈥檃 of wheat for three se鈥檃 to be returned later, this is prohibited, as it is taking interest [noshekh].

讜讗讬讝讛讜 转专讘讬转 讛诪专讘讛 讘驻讬专讜转 讻讬爪讚 诇拽讞 讛讬诪谞讜 讞讟讬谉 讘讚讬谞专 讝讛讘 讛讻讜专 讜讻谉 讛砖注专 注诪讚讜 讞讟讬谉 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讚讬谞专讬谉

And which is the case in which there is tarbit? It is the case of one who enters into a transaction that yields an increase in the produce beyond his investment. How so? For example, one acquired wheat from another at the price of one kor of wheat for one gold dinar, worth twenty-five silver dinars, with the wheat to be supplied at a later date, and such was the market price of wheat at the time he acquired it. The price of one kor of wheat then increased and stood at thirty dinars.

讗诪专 诇讜 转谉 诇讬 讞讟讬 砖讗谞讬 专讜爪讛 诇诪讜讻专谉 讜诇讬拽讞 讘讛谉 讬讬谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讬 讞讟讬讱 注砖讜讬讜转 注诇讬 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讜讛专讬 诇讱 讗爪诇讬 讘讛谉 讬讬谉 讜讬讬谉 讗讬谉 诇讜

At that point, the buyer said to the seller: Give me all of my wheat now, as I wish to sell it and purchase wine with it. The seller said to him: Since it is ultimately wine that you want, not wheat, each kor of your wheat is considered by me to be worth thirty dinars, and you have the right to collect its value in wine from me. And in this case, the seller did not have wine in his possession. If wine then appreciates in value, the result will be an interest-bearing transaction, as the buyer collects from the seller wine worth more than the wheat for which he paid.

讙诪壮 诪讚砖讘讬拽 诇专讬讘讬转 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜拽讗 诪驻专砖 讚专讘谞谉 诪讻诇诇 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚谞砖讱 讜转专讘讬转 讞讚讗 诪诇转讗 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 拽专讗讬 讻转讬讘讬 谞砖讱 讻住祝 讜专讬讘讬转 讗讜讻诇

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From the fact that in explaining the term tarbit, the tanna sets aside the topic of interest by Torah law, which is interest decided upon at the time of a loan, and instead explicates a case of lending with interest that is prohibited by rabbinic law, one can conclude by inference that by Torah law, neshekh and tarbit are one matter, and there is no halakhic distinction between them. The Gemara asks: But aren鈥檛 the verses written using the term neshekh for interest that is on a loan of money and tarbit or marbit, which are cognates of the term ribit, for interest that is on a loan of food? This is as the verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:37).

讜转讬住讘专讗 讚讗讬讻讗 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讜转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬

The Gemara asks: And can you understand that there is neshekh without tarbit, and tarbit without neshekh? The term neshekh, from a root meaning bite, connotes loss to the borrower, while the term tarbit, literally increase, connotes profit for the lender. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances where there could be neshekh without tarbit?

讗讬 讚讗讜讝驻讬讛 诪讗讛 讘诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪注讬拽专讗 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讘讚谞拽讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 讘讚谞拽讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讚拽讗 谞讻讬转 诇讬讛 讚拽讗 砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 讬讛讬讘 讜转专讘讬转 诇讬讻讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讚讚谞拽讗 讗讜讝驻讬讛 讜讚谞拽讗 拽讗 砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛

If it is in a case where one lends to another one hundred perutot with the agreement to be repaid one hundred and twenty, and initially one hundred copper perutot are worth one-sixth [bedanka] of a dinar, and ultimately, when he pays, one hundred and twenty perutot are worth one-sixth of a dinar, this is not an example of one without the other. Although one might say that there is neshekh, as the lender reduces the borrower鈥檚 assets since the lender takes in payment from the borrower coins that he did not give him in the loan, and there is no tarbit, as there is no profit for the lender in this transaction, since he lent him one-sixth of a dinar and he received from him one-sixth of a dinar, that is not correct.

住讜祝 住讜祝 讗讬 讘转专 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讝诇转 讛专讬 谞砖讱 讜讛专讬 转专讘讬转 讗讬 讘转专 讘住讜祝 讗讝诇转 诇讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讗讬讻讗

The Gemara explains: Ultimately, if you go according to the initial value, when the loan was granted, there is neshekh and there is tarbit, as the borrower agreed to pay more than he received. If you go according to the ultimate value, when the loan was repaid, there is neither neshekh nor is there tarbit, as he repaid only the value he received.

讜转讜 转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚讗讜讝讬祝 诪讗讛 讘诪讗讛 诪注讬拽专讗 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讘讚谞拽讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讛 讘讞讜诪砖讗

Additionally, what are the circumstances in which there could be tarbit without neshekh? If it is in a case where one lends to another one hundred perutot with the agreement to be repaid one hundred, and initially one hundred copper perutot are worth one-sixth of a dinar, and ultimately, when he is repaid, one hundred perutot are worth one-fifth of a dinar, this is not an example of one without the other.

讗讬 讘转专 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讝诇转 诇讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讗讬讻讗 讗讬 讘转专 住讜祝 讗讝诇转 讛专讬 谞砖讱 讜讛专讬 转专讘讬转

The Gemara explains: If you go according to the initial value, when the loan was granted, there is neither neshekh nor is there tarbit, as he is repaid only the value that he lent. If you go according to the ultimate value, when the loan was repaid, there is neshekh and there is tarbit, as the value of one hundred perutot has increased.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 诇讗 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 讜诇讗 讞诇拽谉 讛讻转讜讘 讗诇讗 诇注讘讜专 注诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 诇讗讜讬谉

Rather, Rava said: You do not find neshekh without tarbit nor tarbit without neshekh, and the verse distinguished between them only so that lending with interest always involves violating two prohibitions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗转 讻住驻讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讜 讘谞砖讱 讜讘诪专讘讬转 诇讗 转转谉 讗讻诇讱 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 谞砖讱 讘讻住祝 讜专讘讬转 讘讗讜讻诇 谞砖讱 讘讗讜讻诇 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讗讻诇 专讘讬转 讘讻住祝 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讻住祝

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:37). I have derived only that there is a prohibition of neshekh for a loan of money and a prohibition of ribit for a loan of food. From where is it derived that there is neshekh with regard to a loan of food as well? The baraita answers: A different verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not lend with interest [tashikh] to your brother: Neshekh of money, neshekh of food, neshekh of anything that is lent with interest [asher yishakh]鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20). The baraita continues: From where is it derived that there is ribit with regard to a loan of money? The verse states: 鈥Neshekh of money.鈥

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Bava Metzia 60

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Metzia 60

讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讬砖谞讬诐

And needless to say, one may not intermingle new produce with old produce, in the event that the old produce is superior, as with grains, since intermingling lowers its value.

讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讘讬讬谉 讛转讬专讜 诇注专讘 拽砖讛 讘专讱 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讘讬讞讜 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬 讬讬谉 讘讬讬谉 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜

Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine, because one thereby enhances it. One may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment; the seller is not required to filter the wine.

诪讬 砖谞转注专讘 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谞讜 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讛讜讚讬注讜 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 砖讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 诇专诪讜转 讘讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讛讟讬诇 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谉 讬讟讬诇讜

One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him of the mixture, as, although he is aware that there is water mixed with the wine, it will be used for nothing other than deceit because the merchant will likely not inform the buyer that it is diluted. In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine.

讛转讙专 谞讜讟诇 诪讞诪砖 讙专谞讜转 讜谞讜转谉 诇转讜讱 诪讙讜专讛 讗讞转 诪讞诪砖 讙转讜转 讜谞讜转谉 诇转讜讱 驻讬讟讜诐 讗讞讚 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 诪转讻讜讬谉 诇注专讘

The prohibition against mixing different types of produce applies only to an individual selling the produce of his field. By contrast, a merchant may take grain from five threshing floors belonging to different people, and place the produce in one warehouse. He may also take wine from five winepresses and place the wine in one large cask [pitom], provided that he does not intend to mix low-quality merchandise with high-quality merchandise.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞讚砖讜转 诪讗专讘注 讜讬砖谞讜转 诪砖诇砖 讚讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讚砖讜转 诪砖诇砖 讜讬砖谞讜转 诪讗专讘注 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讗讚诐 专讜爪讛 诇讬砖谞谉

GEMARA: The Sages taught: Needless to say, if the price of the new produce is four se鈥檃 for a sela and the price of the old produce is three se鈥檃 for a sela, one may not intermingle them together. That is full-fledged deceit, as one is selling inexpensive produce at the price of expensive produce. Rather, even if the price of the new produce is three se鈥檃 for a sela and the price of the old produce is four se鈥檃 for a sela, one may not intermingle them. This is because in this case the price of the new produce is higher, as people want to age the produce, i.e., new produce is more valuable to those who seek to place it in storage for a lengthy period, although it may be of inferior quality compared to old produce.

讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讘讬讬谉 讛转讬专讜 诇注专讘 拽砖讛 讘专讱 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讘讬讞讜 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注讚讗 讗诪专讛 讻诇 讘讗诪转 讗诪专讜 讛诇讻讛 讛讬讗

The mishna teaches: Actually, they said: With regard to wine, they permitted one to mix strong wine with weak wine because mixing the wine enhances it. Rabbi Elazar said: That is to say, every time a halakha is introduced with the phrase: Actually they said, it is an established halakha with regard to which there is no uncertainty.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讜

Rav Na岣an says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, i.e., before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. When the wine is still in the process of fermentation, if different wines are mixed and ferment together, this enhances their flavor. By contrast, if they are mixed at a later stage, this will harm their flavor.

讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚拽讗 诪注专讘讬 砖诇讗 讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讚讬讚注讬 讜拽讗 诪讞诇讬 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪转讬专 讘讚讘专 讛谞讟注诐

The Gemara asks: And today, when people mix old and new wine even when the wine is not among the winepresses, on what basis is mixing permitted? Rav Pappa said: It is because buyers are aware of the potential loss and waive it. Rav A岣, son of Rav Ika, said: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi A岣, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi A岣 permits mixing in a case where the product will be tasted before its purchase. Then there is no deceit, as when the buyer tastes it, he is immediately aware that it is a mixture, and the choice of whether or not to purchase the product is his.

讜讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬 讬讬谉 讘讬讬谉 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 讜讻讜壮 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 专讬砖讗 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 讻诇诇 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诪讗讬 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 讚拽讗 诪讜讚注 诇讬讛 讛讗 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讚讬注讜 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪讜讚讬注讜 诪讻诇诇 讚专讬砖讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诇讗 诪讜讚注 诇讬讛

The mishna teaches: And one may not intentionally mix wine sediment with the wine, but one may give the buyer wine with its sediment. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you say in the former clause of the mishna that one may not mix sediment at all? And lest you say: What is the meaning of: He may give the buyer wine with its sediment; it means that he informs the buyer that the wine contains sediment, this suggestion is not tenable. From the fact that the latter clause teaches: One may not sell it in the store unless he informs the buyer and he may not sell it to a merchant even if he informs him, it may be inferred that the former clause is speaking of a situation where one may sell it in the store even if he does not inform the buyer.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪注专讘讬谉 砖诪专讬诐 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讗讘诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 讗转 砖诪专讬讜 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛砖讜驻讛 讬讬谉 诇讞讘讬专讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬注专讘 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讗讘诇 诪注专讘 砖诇 讗诪砖 讘砖诇 讗诪砖 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讘砖诇 讬讜诐

Rav Yehuda said: This is what the tanna is saying: One may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may give the buyer sediment of that wine itself. That is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to one who pours wine for another, attempting to pour the liquid while leaving the sediment in the cask, that person may neither mix sediment remaining from wine that he poured the night before with the wine of the next day, nor the sediment of the next day with the wine of the night before. But he may mix the sediment of the night before with the wine poured the night before, and the sediment of the next day with the wine of the next day.

诪讬 砖谞转注专讘 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谞讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬诪讻专谞讜 讘讞谞讜转 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讚讬注讜 讜讻讜壮 专讘讗 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪讞谞讜转讗 诪讝讙讬讛 讟注诪讬讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讘住讬诐 砖讚专讬讛 诇讞谞讜转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 转谞谉 讜诇讗 诇转讙专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讝讙讗 讚讬讚讬 诪讬讚注 讬讚讬注 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚讟驻讬 讜诪讞讬讬诇讬讛 讜诪讝讘讬谉 诇讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 讗讬谉 诇讚讘专 住讜祝

The mishna teaches: One who had water mix with his wine may not sell it in the store, unless he informs the buyer that it contains water. The Gemara relates: They brought wine to Rava from a store. He diluted it with water, tasted it, and it was not tasty. He sent it back to the store, so they could sell it there. Abaye said to him: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: And he may not sell it to a merchant, even if he informs him? Rava said to him: My dilution of the wine is evident to all, as I add more water than is typically added. And lest you say that the storekeeper will add wine, and sweeten the mixture, and sell it again, when the dilution is no longer evident, if this is a concern, there is no end to the matter. It should be prohibited to sell any wine to a merchant due to the concern lest he engage in deceit in its resale.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讛讟讬诇 诪讬诐 讘讬讬谉 讬讟讬诇讜 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 诇诪讞爪讛 诇砖诇讬砖 讜诇专讘讬注 讗诪专 专讘 讜讘讬谉 讛讙讬转讜转 砖谞讜

The mishna teaches: In a place where they are accustomed to place water into the wine to dilute it and everyone is aware of that fact, one may place water in the wine. It was taught: One may dilute the wine by adding water that will constitute one-half, one-third, or one-fourth of the mixture, in accordance with the local custom. Rav says: And it is with regard to the period when the wine is among the winepresses, before the wine ferments, that they taught this halakha. If wine is diluted at a later stage, the dilution will cause the wine to spoil.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讬讞诇拽 讛讞谞讜谞讬 拽诇讬讜转 讜讗讙讜讝讬谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 诪专讙讬诇谉 诇讘讗 讗爪诇讜 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 讗转 讛砖注专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper may not hand out toasted grain and nuts to children who patronize his store, due to the fact that he thereby accustoms them to come to him at the expense of competing storekeepers. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And one may not reduce the price of sale items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively.

诇讗 讬讘讜专 讗转 讛讙专讬住讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜诪讜讚讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讘讜专 诪注诇 驻讬 诪讙讜专讛 砖讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讻讙讜谞讘 讗转 讛注讬谉 讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐

One may not sift ground beans to remove the waste, lest he charge an inappropriately high price for the sifted meal, beyond its actual value; this is the statement of Abba Shaul. And the Rabbis permit doing so. And the Rabbis concede that one may not sift the meal only from the beans that are close to the opening of the bin to create the impression that the contents of the entire bin were sifted, as this is nothing other than deception. One may neither adorn a person before selling him on the slave market, nor an animal nor vessels that he seeks to sell. Rather, they must be sold unembellished, to avoid deceiving the buyer.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 诪驻诇讬讙谞讗 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讜讗转 驻诇讬讙 砖讬住拽讬

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who permit the free distribution of toasted grain and nuts? It is because the storekeeper can say to his competitors: I hand out nuts; and you hand out jujubes [shiskei]. All merchants are able to hand out goods that will attract children, and consequently this is not unfair competition.

讜诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 讗转 讛砖注专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讝讻讜专 诇讟讜讘 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉

The mishna teaches: And one may not reduce the price of items below the market rate. And the Rabbis say: If he wishes to do so, he should be remembered positively. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis, who not only condone the practice but even praise the person, saying that he should be remembered positively?

诪砖讜诐 讚拽讗 诪专讜讜讞 诇转专注讗

The Gemara explains: It is due to the fact that by lowering the price he eases the market rate, i.e., his actions lead to the establishment of a lower market price.

讜诇讗 讬讘讜专 讗转 讛讙专讬住讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗讘讗 砖讗讜诇 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讜讻讜壮 诪讗谉 讞讻诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪转讬专 讘讚讘专 讛谞专讗讛

The mishna teaches: And one may not sift ground beans to remove the waste and charge a higher price; this is the statement of Abba Shaul. And the Rabbis permit doing so. The Gemara comments: Who are the Rabbis whose opinion is cited in the mishna? It is Rabbi A岣, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi A岣 permits mixing, and sifting, and the like, in the case of an item in which the change is obvious.

讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜讻讜壮 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖专讘讟讬谉 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜讗讬谉 谞讜驻讞讬谉 讘拽专讘讬讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖讜专讬谉 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诪讬诐 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 诪砖专讘讟讬谉 讛讻讗 转专讙诪讜 诪讬讗 讚讞讬讝专讗 讝注讬专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诪讝拽驻转讗

The mishna taught: One may neither adorn a person, nor an animal, nor vessels. The Sages taught: One may neither stiffen the hair of an animal to create the impression that it is more voluminous than it is, nor inflate innards sold as meat to create the impression that it is a more substantial piece of meat, nor soak meat in water in order to change its color and create the impression that it is a choice cut. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: One may not stiffen the hair of an animal? Here, in Babylonia, they explained that it means to feed the animal bran water, which inflates its intestines and causes its hair to stand on end. Ze鈥檈iri said in the name of Rav Kahana: It means scrubbing the hair clean to increase its volume.

砖诪讜讗诇 砖专讗 诇诪专诪讗 转讜诪讬 诇住专讘诇讗 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 砖专讗 诇讻住讻讜住讬 拽专诪讬 专讘讛 砖专讗 诇诪讬讚拽 爪专讚讬 专讘讗 砖专讗 诇爪诇讜诪讬 讙讬专讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖专讗 诇爪诇讜诪讬 讚讬拽讜诇讬 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 转谞谉 讗讬谉 诪驻专讻住讬谉 诇讗 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讘讛诪讛 讜诇讗 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讞讚转讬 讛讗 讘注转讬拽讬

The Gemara relates: Shmuel permitted sellers to place fringes on a cloak; Rav Yehuda permitted them to clean and adorn ornamented garments; Rabba permitted them to taper linen garments to cause them to appear more fine; Rava permitted them to draw arrows to ornament garments; Rav Pappa bar Shmuel permitted them to draw baskets for ornamentation. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: One may neither adorn a person, nor an animal, nor vessels? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this series of cases, where the Sages permitted adorning merchandise, are cases of new merchandise. It may be decorated, as doing so merely enhances its intrinsic beauty. That ruling in the mishna, according to which adornment is prohibited, is referring to cases of old merchandise, as the adornment is meant to conceal its flaws.

驻专讻讜住 讚讗讚诐 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讛讛讜讗 注讘讚讗 住讘讗 讚讗讝诇 爪讘注讬讛 诇专讬砖讬讛 讜诇讚讬拽谞讬讛 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讬讜 注谞讬讬诐 讘谞讬 讘讬转讱

The Gemara asks: Adornment of a person, what is it? The Gemara relates: It is as in that incident involving a certain elderly slave who went and dyed his head and beard black to create a younger impression. He came before Rava and said to him: Purchase me as your slave. Rava said to him that there is a rabbinic adage: Let the poor be members of your household. I follow their advice and therefore do not require a slave. If I need assistance, the paupers who frequent my house can assist me.

讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讝讘谞讬讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖拽讬讬谉 诪讬讗 讗讝诇 讞讜讜专讬讛 诇专讬砖讬讛 讜诇讚讬拽谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讝讬 讚讗谞讗 拽砖讬砖 诪讗讘讜讱 拽专讬 讗谞驻砖讬讛 爪讚讬拽 诪爪专讛 谞讞诇抓 讜讬讘讗 讗讞专 转讞转讬讜

The slave came before Rav Pappa bar Shmuel, who purchased him. One day Rav Pappa said to the slave: Give me water to drink. The slave went and removed the dye and whitened the hair on his head and his beard. The slave said to Rav Pappa: See that I am older than your father, and I am unfit to serve you. Rav Pappa read about himself: The righteous person is delivered from trouble, and another comes in his stead (see Proverbs 11:8). Rav Pappa applied the verse to the incident of the slave. The righteous person, Rava, was spared the problem of the slave; while another, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel, came in his stead.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛讝讛讘

 

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱 讜讗讬讝讛讜 转专讘讬转

MISHNA: The Torah states the prohibition against taking interest: 鈥淎nd if your brother becomes impoverished, and his hand falters with you, then you shall support him; whether a stranger or a native, he shall live with you. You shall not take from him interest [neshekh] or increase [tarbit]; you shall fear your God and your brother shall live with you. You shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:35鈥37). The mishna asks: Which is neshekh, and which is tarbit?

讗讬讝讛讜 谞砖讱 讛诪诇讜讛 住诇注 讘讞诪砖讛 讚讬谞专讬谉 住讗转讬诐 讞讟讬谉 讘砖诇砖 讗住讜专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 谞讜砖讱

Which is the case in which there is neshekh? With regard to one who lends another a sela, worth four dinars, for five dinars to be paid later, or one who lends another two se鈥檃 of wheat for three se鈥檃 to be returned later, this is prohibited, as it is taking interest [noshekh].

讜讗讬讝讛讜 转专讘讬转 讛诪专讘讛 讘驻讬专讜转 讻讬爪讚 诇拽讞 讛讬诪谞讜 讞讟讬谉 讘讚讬谞专 讝讛讘 讛讻讜专 讜讻谉 讛砖注专 注诪讚讜 讞讟讬谉 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讚讬谞专讬谉

And which is the case in which there is tarbit? It is the case of one who enters into a transaction that yields an increase in the produce beyond his investment. How so? For example, one acquired wheat from another at the price of one kor of wheat for one gold dinar, worth twenty-five silver dinars, with the wheat to be supplied at a later date, and such was the market price of wheat at the time he acquired it. The price of one kor of wheat then increased and stood at thirty dinars.

讗诪专 诇讜 转谉 诇讬 讞讟讬 砖讗谞讬 专讜爪讛 诇诪讜讻专谉 讜诇讬拽讞 讘讛谉 讬讬谉 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讬 讞讟讬讱 注砖讜讬讜转 注诇讬 讘砖诇砖讬诐 讜讛专讬 诇讱 讗爪诇讬 讘讛谉 讬讬谉 讜讬讬谉 讗讬谉 诇讜

At that point, the buyer said to the seller: Give me all of my wheat now, as I wish to sell it and purchase wine with it. The seller said to him: Since it is ultimately wine that you want, not wheat, each kor of your wheat is considered by me to be worth thirty dinars, and you have the right to collect its value in wine from me. And in this case, the seller did not have wine in his possession. If wine then appreciates in value, the result will be an interest-bearing transaction, as the buyer collects from the seller wine worth more than the wheat for which he paid.

讙诪壮 诪讚砖讘讬拽 诇专讬讘讬转 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜拽讗 诪驻专砖 讚专讘谞谉 诪讻诇诇 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚谞砖讱 讜转专讘讬转 讞讚讗 诪诇转讗 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 拽专讗讬 讻转讬讘讬 谞砖讱 讻住祝 讜专讬讘讬转 讗讜讻诇

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From the fact that in explaining the term tarbit, the tanna sets aside the topic of interest by Torah law, which is interest decided upon at the time of a loan, and instead explicates a case of lending with interest that is prohibited by rabbinic law, one can conclude by inference that by Torah law, neshekh and tarbit are one matter, and there is no halakhic distinction between them. The Gemara asks: But aren鈥檛 the verses written using the term neshekh for interest that is on a loan of money and tarbit or marbit, which are cognates of the term ribit, for interest that is on a loan of food? This is as the verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:37).

讜转讬住讘专讗 讚讗讬讻讗 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讜转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬

The Gemara asks: And can you understand that there is neshekh without tarbit, and tarbit without neshekh? The term neshekh, from a root meaning bite, connotes loss to the borrower, while the term tarbit, literally increase, connotes profit for the lender. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances where there could be neshekh without tarbit?

讗讬 讚讗讜讝驻讬讛 诪讗讛 讘诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪注讬拽专讗 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讘讚谞拽讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 讘讚谞拽讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讚拽讗 谞讻讬转 诇讬讛 讚拽讗 砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 讬讛讬讘 讜转专讘讬转 诇讬讻讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 专讜讜讞讗 讚讚谞拽讗 讗讜讝驻讬讛 讜讚谞拽讗 拽讗 砖拽讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛

If it is in a case where one lends to another one hundred perutot with the agreement to be repaid one hundred and twenty, and initially one hundred copper perutot are worth one-sixth [bedanka] of a dinar, and ultimately, when he pays, one hundred and twenty perutot are worth one-sixth of a dinar, this is not an example of one without the other. Although one might say that there is neshekh, as the lender reduces the borrower鈥檚 assets since the lender takes in payment from the borrower coins that he did not give him in the loan, and there is no tarbit, as there is no profit for the lender in this transaction, since he lent him one-sixth of a dinar and he received from him one-sixth of a dinar, that is not correct.

住讜祝 住讜祝 讗讬 讘转专 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讝诇转 讛专讬 谞砖讱 讜讛专讬 转专讘讬转 讗讬 讘转专 讘住讜祝 讗讝诇转 诇讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讗讬讻讗

The Gemara explains: Ultimately, if you go according to the initial value, when the loan was granted, there is neshekh and there is tarbit, as the borrower agreed to pay more than he received. If you go according to the ultimate value, when the loan was repaid, there is neither neshekh nor is there tarbit, as he repaid only the value he received.

讜转讜 转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚讗讜讝讬祝 诪讗讛 讘诪讗讛 诪注讬拽专讗 拽讬讬诪讬 诪讗讛 讘讚谞拽讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讛 讘讞讜诪砖讗

Additionally, what are the circumstances in which there could be tarbit without neshekh? If it is in a case where one lends to another one hundred perutot with the agreement to be repaid one hundred, and initially one hundred copper perutot are worth one-sixth of a dinar, and ultimately, when he is repaid, one hundred perutot are worth one-fifth of a dinar, this is not an example of one without the other.

讗讬 讘转专 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讝诇转 诇讗 谞砖讱 讗讬讻讗 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讗讬讻讗 讗讬 讘转专 住讜祝 讗讝诇转 讛专讬 谞砖讱 讜讛专讬 转专讘讬转

The Gemara explains: If you go according to the initial value, when the loan was granted, there is neither neshekh nor is there tarbit, as he is repaid only the value that he lent. If you go according to the ultimate value, when the loan was repaid, there is neshekh and there is tarbit, as the value of one hundred perutot has increased.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜爪讗 诇讗 谞砖讱 讘诇讗 转专讘讬转 讜诇讗 转专讘讬转 讘诇讗 谞砖讱 讜诇讗 讞诇拽谉 讛讻转讜讘 讗诇讗 诇注讘讜专 注诇讬讜 讘砖谞讬 诇讗讜讬谉

Rather, Rava said: You do not find neshekh without tarbit nor tarbit without neshekh, and the verse distinguished between them only so that lending with interest always involves violating two prohibitions.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗转 讻住驻讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讜 讘谞砖讱 讜讘诪专讘讬转 诇讗 转转谉 讗讻诇讱 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 谞砖讱 讘讻住祝 讜专讘讬转 讘讗讜讻诇 谞砖讱 讘讗讜讻诇 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讗讻诇 专讘讬转 讘讻住祝 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 谞砖讱 讻住祝

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not give him your money with neshekh and with marbit you shall not give him your food鈥 (Leviticus 25:37). I have derived only that there is a prohibition of neshekh for a loan of money and a prohibition of ribit for a loan of food. From where is it derived that there is neshekh with regard to a loan of food as well? The baraita answers: A different verse states: 鈥淵ou shall not lend with interest [tashikh] to your brother: Neshekh of money, neshekh of food, neshekh of anything that is lent with interest [asher yishakh]鈥 (Deuteronomy 23:20). The baraita continues: From where is it derived that there is ribit with regard to a loan of money? The verse states: 鈥Neshekh of money.鈥

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