Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

September 2, 2022 | ื•ืณ ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 58

Today’s daf is sponsored by Rochelle Cheifetz in loving memory of her husband, Leonard Cheifetz, Aryeh Leib ben Yehuda, zโ€l, on his 30th yahrzeit. “It is hard to believe itโ€™s been so long. You are missed by all who had the privilege of knowing you.”ย 
Mazel tov to the Agus and Weiss families on the wedding of Talya and Gavi.ย 
What are the different opinions regarding whether a kohen husband can give his soon-to-be-wife (once the twelve months have passed from the proposal) only truma, since there are times in the month when she will be impure and won’t be able to eat truma. Abaye limits the debate between RAbbi Trafon and Rabbi Akiva in two ways. A few other opinions are brought from another tannaitic source. Why was the law changed regarding the right of the woman to eat truma after the twelve moth period has passed? The Mishna discusses whether or not a husband has the right to sanctify his wife’s salary? Does he have the right to sanctify the money she makes that is beyond the basic designated salary amount (motar)? Rav holds that a woman can say to her husband, “I do not want you to give me food and I will keep my salary to myself.” Can this be derived from the Mishna? Can it be inferred from Rabbi Meir’s position in the Mishna that he holds that a person can sanctify/acquire something that is not yet in existence?

ืงื•ื‘ื™ื•ืกื˜ื•ืก ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืกื˜ื™ื ืžื–ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืื• ืžื•ื›ืชื‘ ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื• ืงืœื ืื™ืช ืœื”ื•

a gambler [kuvyustus], it has come to him, meaning that the seller has caught the buyer in a binding transaction, and he cannot annul the sale due to this kind of defect, as these characteristics are common in slaves. What is the halakha if it was discovered that the slave was an armed bandit or that the king had signed his death warrant, and there is a danger that the government will catch him and execute him? These are serious and uncommon defects that in principle could invalidate a sale. However, these defects generate publicity. In such unusual and severe circumstances, everyone is aware of them. Therefore, it is assumed that the buyer knew about them as well and nevertheless acquiesced to buy the slave. Consequently, there is no reason to revoke the sale of a slave.

ืžื›ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžืจ ืœื ืื›ืœื” ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืงื‘ืœ ืžืกืจ ื•ื”ืœืš

The Gemara asks: After all, according to this Sage, Ulla, and according to that Sage, Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda, she may not partake of teruma, so what is the difference between them? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is in cases where he accepted, or he transferred or went. If the husband explicitly accepted her blemishes, there is no concern with regard to abrogation, but there is still a concern that she will give her family members teruma wine. Conversely, if the father transferred his daughter to the agents of the husband and entrusted her to their care, or if the fatherโ€™s own agents went with the girl and the agents of the husband, there is no longer concern that she might give her family members teruma, as she is not with them, but there is still a concern about abrogation.

ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื‘ื‘ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

ยง The mishna states that there is a dispute with regard to how a priest must provide for the sustenance of his betrothed once the appointed time for the marriage arrives. Rabbi Tarfon says: He may give her everything from teruma. Rabbi Akiva says: He must give her half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. Abaye said: This dispute is referring to a daughter of a priest betrothed to a priest. But with regard to an Israelite woman who was betrothed to a priest, all agree that he must give her half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. A priestโ€™s daughter is familiar with the halakhot of teruma and knows how to handle it when she is ritually impure, but when an Israelite woman is not yet familiar with these procedures, there is concern that she might defile the teruma. Consequently, she is given some non-sacred food to use as well.

ื•ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื‘ืืจื•ืกื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื ืฉื•ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

And Abaye also said that this dispute is referring only to a betrothed woman whose wedding date has arrived, but with regard to a married woman, all agree that her husband must give her half of her needs from non-sacred food and half may be teruma, as it is not appropriate for his wife to have to go to the trouble of selling teruma in order to obtain non-sacred food.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืืจื•ืกื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื ืฉื•ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Tarfon says: He may give her everything from teruma, and Rabbi Akiva says: Half must be non-sacred food and half may be teruma. In what case is this statement said? With regard to a daughter of a priest betrothed to a priest. But with regard to an Israelite woman betrothed to a priest, all agree that she gets half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. In what case is this statement said? With regard to a betrothed woman, but with regard to a married woman, all agree that he must give half non-sacred food and half may be teruma.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื”ื™ื ืžื•ื›ืจืช ื•ืœื•ืงื—ืช ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื–ื›ืจื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื›ืคืœื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: He need not give half and half, but rather he may give her two parts teruma and one part non-sacred food. Rabbi Yehuda says: He may give her all of it in teruma, but as the value of teruma is lower than that of non-sacred food, the amount must suffice so that when she sells teruma during the days when she is ritually impure, she can buy a sufficient quantity of non-sacred food with the money. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Wherever teruma is mentioned, he must give her double the amount that she would receive of non-sacred food, so that she will not have difficulty locating buyers for her teruma. Teruma is less popular and its price is significantly lower, since its use is restricted. But if she receives a large amount of teruma, she will be able to sell it at an even lower price and locate a buyer more easily.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื˜ื™ืจื—ื

The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to effort. According to Rabbi Yehuda, she must make an effort to find buyers who will provide her with enough non-sacred food for her needs, and consequently, according to him the husband must provide an amount of teruma that is equal in value to the amount of non-sacred food to which she is entitled. In contrast, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel adds additional teruma to her allotment beyond this amount, so that she will not be forced to go to as much trouble to sell it.

ื”ื™ื‘ื ืื™ื ื• ืžืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืงื ื™ืŸ ื›ืกืคื• ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื•ื”ืื™ ืงื ื™ืŸ ื“ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื•ื

ยง The mishna states that a yavam does not enable the yevama to partake of teruma. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œThe acquisition of his moneyโ€ (Leviticus 22:11) may partake of teruma, but this woman is his brotherโ€™s acquisition and not his, since a yavam does not complete his marriage to the yevama until he consummates the marriage.

ืขืฉืชื” ืฉืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ืืžืจืช ืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื‘ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ื–ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืงืชื ื™

ยง The mishna said that if she completed six months from the time of the request for marriage under the aegis of the husband and another six months under the aegis of the yavam, she may not partake of teruma. It then says that this is also true if she completed most of the year under the aegis of the husband, and then it says that this is also true if she completed most of the time under the aegis of the yavam. The Gemara asks: Now that you say that if she completed most of the time under the aegis of the husband this does not enable her to partake of teruma, is it necessary to say that the same is true if she spent most of the time under the aegis of the yavam? The Gemara answers: The tanna teaches the mishna employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that, meaning that the cases are organized from the less obvious to the more obvious.

ื–ื• ืžืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ

ยง The mishna states that this ruling, that a woman betrothed to a priest may partake of teruma while she is still in her fatherโ€™s house if the time for her wedding has arrived, is according to the initial version of the mishna. But that according to the final version, she may not partake of teruma until she has actually entered the wedding canopy. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this later ruling? Ulla said, and some say that Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said, that it is due to concern about abrogation, as the woman may have some blemish that will cause the annulment of the marriage, and it will then be clear that she consumed teruma unlawfully.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ืฉืžื ื™ืžื–ื’ื• ืœื” ื›ื•ืก ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ

The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, the first ruling that the Sages taught in the initial version of the mishna, namely that she may not partake of teruma in her fatherโ€™s house immediately after betrothal, is because Ulla was concerned lest someone pour her a cup of teruma wine while she would be in her fatherโ€™s house. And the latter ruling, that she may not partake of teruma until she actually enters the wedding canopy, even after the time for marriage arrives, is due to concern about abrogation. Consequently, there are two different reasons for the two different rulings.

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

However, according to Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, the first ruling was due to abrogation and the latter ruling was also due to abrogation. If so, what is the difference between the reasoning of the initial version of the mishna and the decision of the court that convened after them?

ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืฉืžื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื ืฉืžื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื”

The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to superficial investigation, i.e., the investigation that could have been conducted on his behalf by his female relatives, which could have been only a superficial investigation. One Sage holds that superficial investigation is considered a valid investigation, and therefore once he requested to marry her and the marriage date arrived, there is no concern of a later abrogation, and one Sage holds that superficial investigation is not considered a valid investigation, and consequently there is still concern that when he consummates the marriage he will find some blemish on her and abrogate the marriage.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ ืืฉืชื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ืื•ื›ืœืช ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืกื ื“ืœืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

MISHNA: If one consecrates his wifeโ€™s earnings, meaning anything she produces, such as thread that she spins from wool, which, according to the Sagesโ€™ ordinance, belongs to her husband, she may work and sustain herself from her earnings, as the consecration is ineffective. However, there is a dispute with regard to the surplus, meaning any earnings she produces in excess of the amount she is required to produce for her husband. Rabbi Meir says: The surplus is consecrated property, and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan the Cobbler says: The surplus is also non-sacred.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืืฉื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื‘ืขืœื” ืื™ื ื™ ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ื•ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืงืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ ืชืงื™ื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื–ื•ื ื™ ืขื™ืงืจ ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื‘ื” ื•ื›ื™ ืืžืจื” ืื™ื ื™ ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ื•ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ื”ืจืฉื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื”

GEMARA: Rav Huna said that Rav said: A woman may say to her husband: I will not be sustained by you and, in turn, I will not work, i.e., you will not keep my earnings. He holds that when the Sages instituted the various obligations and rights of a husband and wife, the husbandโ€™s obligation to provide for the wifeโ€™s sustenance was the primary one, and they then decreed that her earnings belong to him in return, due to concern about animosity. If he would be obligated to provide for her sustenance but she would be allowed to work and keep her earnings, he would resent her. Since her right to sustenance is the primary one, if she says: I will not be sustained by you and, in turn, I will not work, i.e., you will not keep my earnings, she has permission to do so. As the arrangement was established for her benefit, she may cancel it if it is not suitable for her.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืชืงื ื• ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืชื—ืช ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืชืงื ื• ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืชื—ืช ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: They instituted the husbandโ€™s responsibility for her sustenance in exchange for his right to her earnings. This indicates that the primary enactment is the husbandโ€™s right to his wifeโ€™s earnings, and the ordinance that requires him to provide her with sustenance comes as a result. According to this, the wife would not be allowed to waive the arrangement, contrary to Rav Hunaโ€™s statement. The Gemara responds: Emend the text of the baraita and say instead: They instituted her earnings in exchange for the husbandโ€™s responsibility for her sustenance.

ืœื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ื”ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ ืืฉืชื• ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ืื•ื›ืœืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ืœื ื‘ืฉืื™ื ื” ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช

The Gemara raises an objection: Let us say that the mishna supports Rav Hunaโ€™s opinion, as it is taught: If one consecrates his wifeโ€™s earnings, she may work and sustain herself from her earnings. What, is it not discussing a woman who is sustained by her husband, meaning that he is willing to sustain her, although she relinquishes her right to sustenance in accordance with Rav Hunaโ€™s principle? Therefore, her earnings do not belong to him to consecrate. The Gemara answers: No, it is discussing a woman who is not sustained by her husband, as he does not have sufficient funds to sustain her. Consequently, there is no proof with regard to Rav Hunaโ€™s statement.

ืื™ ื‘ืฉืื™ื ื” ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ืžืื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจื ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื”ืจื‘ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืขื‘ื“ ืขืฉื” ืขืžื™ ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื–ื ืš ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื“ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืขืžืš ืื‘ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืขื‘ืจื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืขืžืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืืฉืชื•

The Gemara asks: If it is discussing a woman who is not sustained, what is the purpose of stating that he may not consecrate her earnings? Even according to the one who says that a master can say to his slave: Work for me but I will not sustain you, this applies only to a Canaanite slave, about whom it is not written: โ€œWith you.โ€ But with regard to a Hebrew slave about whom it is written: โ€œIt is good for him with youโ€ (Deuteronomy 15:16), this does not apply, and the master must sustain him just as he sustains the members of his own household. And this is true all the more so with regard to his wife, as there is a specific obligation of sustenance. Consequently, if he does not do so, he certainly has no right to her earnings.

ืกื™ืคื ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืกื ื“ืœืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: This halakha did not need to be stated, but the latter clause was necessary, as it contains a novelty with regard to the surplus: Rabbi Meir says that the surplus is consecrated property, and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan the Cobbler says it is non-sacred.

ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ืื“ื ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื›ื•ืคื” ืœืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืœื” ื™ืงื“ืฉื• ื™ื“ื™ืš ืœืขื•ืฉื™ื”ื

The Gemara comments: This opinion of Rav Huna disputes that of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: Do not say that the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir is that since he maintains that a person may consecrate an object that has not yet come into the world, the consecration can take effect even on her future earnings. Rather, say that the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir is that since he can compel her to produce her earnings for him, it is as if he had a certain legal claim to the products of her hands, i.e., her earnings. Consequently, he is considered as if he had said to her: Your hands are consecrated to the One Who made them, and the consecration can therefore take effect on something that already exists. Since Reish Lakish said that he may compel her to produce earnings for him, the implication is that she may not say: I will not be sustained and I will not work.

ื•ื”ื ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื” ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืžื•ืฆื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ืœื‘ื˜ืœื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืœื” ื™ืงื“ืฉื• ื™ื“ื™ืš ืœืขื•ืฉื™ื”ื

With regard to Reish Lakishโ€™s statement, the Gemara asks: But he did not say this to her; rather, he said that he was consecrating her earnings. The Gemara answers: Since we heard that Rabbi Meir said: A person does not say things for naught, and according to this principle, when one says something that has no halakhic meaning, it is interpreted as if he had said something that does have halakhic relevance, he is considered as if he had said to her: Your hands are consecrated to the One Who made them.

ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœืืฉื” ื”ืจื™ ืืช ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืื• ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชืชื’ื™ื™ืจื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชืฉืชื—ืจืจื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ืš ืื• ืฉืชืžื•ืช ืื—ื•ืชื™ืš ืื• ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื•ืฅ ืœื™ืš ื™ื‘ืžื™ืš ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช

The Gemara asks: Does Rabbi Meir hold that a person may not consecrate an object that has not yet come into the world? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that if a gentile says to a woman: You are hereby betrothed to me after I convert; or if she was a gentile and he said to her: You are hereby betrothed to me after you convert; or if he was a slave and said to her: After I am emancipated; or if she was a maidservant and he said to her: After you are emancipated; or if she was married and he said to her: After your husband dies; or if he was married to her sister and he said: After your sister dies, as at that point the betrothal could take effect; or if she was a widow waiting for her yavam and he said to her: After your yavam performs แธฅalitza with you, Rabbi Meir says: If any of these cases occurred, she is betrothed. Apparently Rabbi Meir maintains that betrothal can take effect even on something that has not yet come into being.

ืžื”ื”ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื”ื ืœื™ื›ื ืœืžืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

The Gemara answers: Actually, from that baraita, one can learn that this is Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion, but Reish Lakish merely wanted to say that no inference is to be learned from this mishna, as it is possible to explain Rabbi Meirโ€™s words in another way, based on the principle that a person does not say things for naught.

ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืื™ืžืช ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืงื“ื•ืฉ

ยง The mishna states that with regard to the surplus, Rabbi Meir says: It is consecrated property. The Gemara asks: According to this opinion, when does the surplus amount become consecrated? Rav and Shmuel both said: The surplus is consecrated only after the womanโ€™s death. Rav Adda bar Ahava said: The surplus is consecrated while she is still alive.

ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืžืื™ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืงื“ื•ืฉ

Rav Pappa discussed it, as he was perplexed by this dispute: With regard to what do they argue? If we say that the husband provides for her sustenance and additionally provides her with a silver maโ€™a coin every week for the rest of her needs, as he is obligated to do (see 64b), then what is the reason for the opinion of the one who said it is consecrated only after her death? As the husband has fulfilled all of his obligations and is consequently the owner of his wifeโ€™s earnings, he should be capable of consecrating them.

ื•ืืœื ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืงื“ื•ืฉ

And if we rather say that he does not provide for her sustenance and does not provide her with a silver maโ€™a for her needs, and she must consequently support herself entirely, then what is the reason for the opinion of the one who said that it is consecrated in her lifetime? It is possible that at some point she will not find sufficient employment, and since her husband does not provide for her sustenance or her other needs, she will need the money for herself and there will not be any surplus at all.

ืœืขื•ืœื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืชืงื ื•

The Gemara answers: Actually, one must explain that they are discussing a situation where he provides for her sustenance, but does not provide her with a silver maโ€™a for her needs, and this is their dispute: Rav and Shmuel maintain that the main enactment was that they established

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Ketubot: 56-62 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn if a woman can forgo her Ketuva and what happens if she loses her Ketuva....
talking talmud_square

Ketubot 58: Did the Kohen Cook Dinner?

What if a wedding is delayed and one of the couple is a kohen? What happens to the terumah and...

Ketubot 58

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Ketubot 58

ืงื•ื‘ื™ื•ืกื˜ื•ืก ื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืกื˜ื™ื ืžื–ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืื• ืžื•ื›ืชื‘ ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื• ืงืœื ืื™ืช ืœื”ื•

a gambler [kuvyustus], it has come to him, meaning that the seller has caught the buyer in a binding transaction, and he cannot annul the sale due to this kind of defect, as these characteristics are common in slaves. What is the halakha if it was discovered that the slave was an armed bandit or that the king had signed his death warrant, and there is a danger that the government will catch him and execute him? These are serious and uncommon defects that in principle could invalidate a sale. However, these defects generate publicity. In such unusual and severe circumstances, everyone is aware of them. Therefore, it is assumed that the buyer knew about them as well and nevertheless acquiesced to buy the slave. Consequently, there is no reason to revoke the sale of a slave.

ืžื›ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžืจ ืœื ืื›ืœื” ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืงื‘ืœ ืžืกืจ ื•ื”ืœืš

The Gemara asks: After all, according to this Sage, Ulla, and according to that Sage, Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda, she may not partake of teruma, so what is the difference between them? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is in cases where he accepted, or he transferred or went. If the husband explicitly accepted her blemishes, there is no concern with regard to abrogation, but there is still a concern that she will give her family members teruma wine. Conversely, if the father transferred his daughter to the agents of the husband and entrusted her to their care, or if the fatherโ€™s own agents went with the girl and the agents of the husband, there is no longer concern that she might give her family members teruma, as she is not with them, but there is still a concern about abrogation.

ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื‘ื‘ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

ยง The mishna states that there is a dispute with regard to how a priest must provide for the sustenance of his betrothed once the appointed time for the marriage arrives. Rabbi Tarfon says: He may give her everything from teruma. Rabbi Akiva says: He must give her half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. Abaye said: This dispute is referring to a daughter of a priest betrothed to a priest. But with regard to an Israelite woman who was betrothed to a priest, all agree that he must give her half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. A priestโ€™s daughter is familiar with the halakhot of teruma and knows how to handle it when she is ritually impure, but when an Israelite woman is not yet familiar with these procedures, there is concern that she might defile the teruma. Consequently, she is given some non-sacred food to use as well.

ื•ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื‘ืืจื•ืกื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื ืฉื•ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

And Abaye also said that this dispute is referring only to a betrothed woman whose wedding date has arrived, but with regard to a married woman, all agree that her husband must give her half of her needs from non-sacred food and half may be teruma, as it is not appropriate for his wife to have to go to the trouble of selling teruma in order to obtain non-sacred food.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืืจื•ืกื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื ืฉื•ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืชืจื•ืžื”

This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Tarfon says: He may give her everything from teruma, and Rabbi Akiva says: Half must be non-sacred food and half may be teruma. In what case is this statement said? With regard to a daughter of a priest betrothed to a priest. But with regard to an Israelite woman betrothed to a priest, all agree that she gets half non-sacred food and half may be teruma. In what case is this statement said? With regard to a betrothed woman, but with regard to a married woman, all agree that he must give half non-sacred food and half may be teruma.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื” ื”ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื”ื™ื ืžื•ื›ืจืช ื•ืœื•ืงื—ืช ื‘ื“ืžื™ื ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื–ื›ืจื” ืชืจื•ืžื” ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ื›ืคืœื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: He need not give half and half, but rather he may give her two parts teruma and one part non-sacred food. Rabbi Yehuda says: He may give her all of it in teruma, but as the value of teruma is lower than that of non-sacred food, the amount must suffice so that when she sells teruma during the days when she is ritually impure, she can buy a sufficient quantity of non-sacred food with the money. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Wherever teruma is mentioned, he must give her double the amount that she would receive of non-sacred food, so that she will not have difficulty locating buyers for her teruma. Teruma is less popular and its price is significantly lower, since its use is restricted. But if she receives a large amount of teruma, she will be able to sell it at an even lower price and locate a buyer more easily.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื˜ื™ืจื—ื

The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to effort. According to Rabbi Yehuda, she must make an effort to find buyers who will provide her with enough non-sacred food for her needs, and consequently, according to him the husband must provide an amount of teruma that is equal in value to the amount of non-sacred food to which she is entitled. In contrast, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel adds additional teruma to her allotment beyond this amount, so that she will not be forced to go to as much trouble to sell it.

ื”ื™ื‘ื ืื™ื ื• ืžืื›ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืงื ื™ืŸ ื›ืกืคื• ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื•ื”ืื™ ืงื ื™ืŸ ื“ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื•ื

ยง The mishna states that a yavam does not enable the yevama to partake of teruma. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œThe acquisition of his moneyโ€ (Leviticus 22:11) may partake of teruma, but this woman is his brotherโ€™s acquisition and not his, since a yavam does not complete his marriage to the yevama until he consummates the marriage.

ืขืฉืชื” ืฉืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ืืžืจืช ืœื ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื™ื‘ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ื–ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืงืชื ื™

ยง The mishna said that if she completed six months from the time of the request for marriage under the aegis of the husband and another six months under the aegis of the yavam, she may not partake of teruma. It then says that this is also true if she completed most of the year under the aegis of the husband, and then it says that this is also true if she completed most of the time under the aegis of the yavam. The Gemara asks: Now that you say that if she completed most of the time under the aegis of the husband this does not enable her to partake of teruma, is it necessary to say that the same is true if she spent most of the time under the aegis of the yavam? The Gemara answers: The tanna teaches the mishna employing the style: This, and it is unnecessary to say that, meaning that the cases are organized from the less obvious to the more obvious.

ื–ื• ืžืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ

ยง The mishna states that this ruling, that a woman betrothed to a priest may partake of teruma while she is still in her fatherโ€™s house if the time for her wedding has arrived, is according to the initial version of the mishna. But that according to the final version, she may not partake of teruma until she has actually entered the wedding canopy. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this later ruling? Ulla said, and some say that Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said, that it is due to concern about abrogation, as the woman may have some blemish that will cause the annulment of the marriage, and it will then be clear that she consumed teruma unlawfully.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ืฉืžื ื™ืžื–ื’ื• ืœื” ื›ื•ืก ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ

The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, the first ruling that the Sages taught in the initial version of the mishna, namely that she may not partake of teruma in her fatherโ€™s house immediately after betrothal, is because Ulla was concerned lest someone pour her a cup of teruma wine while she would be in her fatherโ€™s house. And the latter ruling, that she may not partake of teruma until she actually enters the wedding canopy, even after the time for marriage arrives, is due to concern about abrogation. Consequently, there are two different reasons for the two different rulings.

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ืกื™ืžืคื•ืŸ ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

However, according to Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, the first ruling was due to abrogation and the latter ruling was also due to abrogation. If so, what is the difference between the reasoning of the initial version of the mishna and the decision of the court that convened after them?

ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืฉืžื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ื™ืงืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื ืฉืžื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื”

The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is with regard to superficial investigation, i.e., the investigation that could have been conducted on his behalf by his female relatives, which could have been only a superficial investigation. One Sage holds that superficial investigation is considered a valid investigation, and therefore once he requested to marry her and the marriage date arrived, there is no concern of a later abrogation, and one Sage holds that superficial investigation is not considered a valid investigation, and consequently there is still concern that when he consummates the marriage he will find some blemish on her and abrogate the marriage.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ ืืฉืชื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ืื•ื›ืœืช ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืกื ื“ืœืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

MISHNA: If one consecrates his wifeโ€™s earnings, meaning anything she produces, such as thread that she spins from wool, which, according to the Sagesโ€™ ordinance, belongs to her husband, she may work and sustain herself from her earnings, as the consecration is ineffective. However, there is a dispute with regard to the surplus, meaning any earnings she produces in excess of the amount she is required to produce for her husband. Rabbi Meir says: The surplus is consecrated property, and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan the Cobbler says: The surplus is also non-sacred.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืืฉื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื‘ืขืœื” ืื™ื ื™ ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ื•ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืงืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ ืชืงื™ื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื–ื•ื ื™ ืขื™ืงืจ ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื‘ื” ื•ื›ื™ ืืžืจื” ืื™ื ื™ ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ื•ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ื”ืจืฉื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื”

GEMARA: Rav Huna said that Rav said: A woman may say to her husband: I will not be sustained by you and, in turn, I will not work, i.e., you will not keep my earnings. He holds that when the Sages instituted the various obligations and rights of a husband and wife, the husbandโ€™s obligation to provide for the wifeโ€™s sustenance was the primary one, and they then decreed that her earnings belong to him in return, due to concern about animosity. If he would be obligated to provide for her sustenance but she would be allowed to work and keep her earnings, he would resent her. Since her right to sustenance is the primary one, if she says: I will not be sustained by you and, in turn, I will not work, i.e., you will not keep my earnings, she has permission to do so. As the arrangement was established for her benefit, she may cancel it if it is not suitable for her.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืชืงื ื• ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืชื—ืช ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืชืงื ื• ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ืชื—ืช ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: They instituted the husbandโ€™s responsibility for her sustenance in exchange for his right to her earnings. This indicates that the primary enactment is the husbandโ€™s right to his wifeโ€™s earnings, and the ordinance that requires him to provide her with sustenance comes as a result. According to this, the wife would not be allowed to waive the arrangement, contrary to Rav Hunaโ€™s statement. The Gemara responds: Emend the text of the baraita and say instead: They instituted her earnings in exchange for the husbandโ€™s responsibility for her sustenance.

ืœื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ื”ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ ืืฉืชื• ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ืื•ื›ืœืช ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ืœื ื‘ืฉืื™ื ื” ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช

The Gemara raises an objection: Let us say that the mishna supports Rav Hunaโ€™s opinion, as it is taught: If one consecrates his wifeโ€™s earnings, she may work and sustain herself from her earnings. What, is it not discussing a woman who is sustained by her husband, meaning that he is willing to sustain her, although she relinquishes her right to sustenance in accordance with Rav Hunaโ€™s principle? Therefore, her earnings do not belong to him to consecrate. The Gemara answers: No, it is discussing a woman who is not sustained by her husband, as he does not have sufficient funds to sustain her. Consequently, there is no proof with regard to Rav Hunaโ€™s statement.

ืื™ ื‘ืฉืื™ื ื” ื ื™ื–ื•ื ืช ืžืื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจื ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื”ืจื‘ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืขื‘ื“ ืขืฉื” ืขืžื™ ื•ืื™ื ื™ ื–ื ืš ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื ืขื ื™ ื“ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืขืžืš ืื‘ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืขื‘ืจื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืขืžืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืืฉืชื•

The Gemara asks: If it is discussing a woman who is not sustained, what is the purpose of stating that he may not consecrate her earnings? Even according to the one who says that a master can say to his slave: Work for me but I will not sustain you, this applies only to a Canaanite slave, about whom it is not written: โ€œWith you.โ€ But with regard to a Hebrew slave about whom it is written: โ€œIt is good for him with youโ€ (Deuteronomy 15:16), this does not apply, and the master must sustain him just as he sustains the members of his own household. And this is true all the more so with regard to his wife, as there is a specific obligation of sustenance. Consequently, if he does not do so, he certainly has no right to her earnings.

ืกื™ืคื ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืกื ื“ืœืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: This halakha did not need to be stated, but the latter clause was necessary, as it contains a novelty with regard to the surplus: Rabbi Meir says that the surplus is consecrated property, and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan the Cobbler says it is non-sacred.

ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืกื‘ืจ ืื“ื ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืœื ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžืชื•ืš ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื›ื•ืคื” ืœืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืœื” ื™ืงื“ืฉื• ื™ื“ื™ืš ืœืขื•ืฉื™ื”ื

The Gemara comments: This opinion of Rav Huna disputes that of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: Do not say that the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir is that since he maintains that a person may consecrate an object that has not yet come into the world, the consecration can take effect even on her future earnings. Rather, say that the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir is that since he can compel her to produce her earnings for him, it is as if he had a certain legal claim to the products of her hands, i.e., her earnings. Consequently, he is considered as if he had said to her: Your hands are consecrated to the One Who made them, and the consecration can therefore take effect on something that already exists. Since Reish Lakish said that he may compel her to produce earnings for him, the implication is that she may not say: I will not be sustained and I will not work.

ื•ื”ื ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื” ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืžื•ืฆื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื• ืœื‘ื˜ืœื” ื ืขืฉื” ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืœื” ื™ืงื“ืฉื• ื™ื“ื™ืš ืœืขื•ืฉื™ื”ื

With regard to Reish Lakishโ€™s statement, the Gemara asks: But he did not say this to her; rather, he said that he was consecrating her earnings. The Gemara answers: Since we heard that Rabbi Meir said: A person does not say things for naught, and according to this principle, when one says something that has no halakhic meaning, it is interpreted as if he had said something that does have halakhic relevance, he is considered as if he had said to her: Your hands are consecrated to the One Who made them.

ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืžืงื“ื™ืฉ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœืืฉื” ื”ืจื™ ืืช ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช ืœื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืื• ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชืชื’ื™ื™ืจื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืืฉืชื—ืจืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืชืฉืชื—ืจืจื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ืš ืื• ืฉืชืžื•ืช ืื—ื•ืชื™ืš ืื• ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ื—ืœื•ืฅ ืœื™ืš ื™ื‘ืžื™ืš ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉืช

The Gemara asks: Does Rabbi Meir hold that a person may not consecrate an object that has not yet come into the world? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that if a gentile says to a woman: You are hereby betrothed to me after I convert; or if she was a gentile and he said to her: You are hereby betrothed to me after you convert; or if he was a slave and said to her: After I am emancipated; or if she was a maidservant and he said to her: After you are emancipated; or if she was married and he said to her: After your husband dies; or if he was married to her sister and he said: After your sister dies, as at that point the betrothal could take effect; or if she was a widow waiting for her yavam and he said to her: After your yavam performs แธฅalitza with you, Rabbi Meir says: If any of these cases occurred, she is betrothed. Apparently Rabbi Meir maintains that betrothal can take effect even on something that has not yet come into being.

ืžื”ื”ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื”ื ืœื™ื›ื ืœืžืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

The Gemara answers: Actually, from that baraita, one can learn that this is Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion, but Reish Lakish merely wanted to say that no inference is to be learned from this mishna, as it is possible to explain Rabbi Meirโ€™s words in another way, based on the principle that a person does not say things for naught.

ื”ืžื•ืชืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ืื™ืžืช ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืงื“ื•ืฉ

ยง The mishna states that with regard to the surplus, Rabbi Meir says: It is consecrated property. The Gemara asks: According to this opinion, when does the surplus amount become consecrated? Rav and Shmuel both said: The surplus is consecrated only after the womanโ€™s death. Rav Adda bar Ahava said: The surplus is consecrated while she is still alive.

ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืžืื™ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืงื“ื•ืฉ

Rav Pappa discussed it, as he was perplexed by this dispute: With regard to what do they argue? If we say that the husband provides for her sustenance and additionally provides her with a silver maโ€™a coin every week for the rest of her needs, as he is obligated to do (see 64b), then what is the reason for the opinion of the one who said it is consecrated only after her death? As the husband has fulfilled all of his obligations and is consequently the owner of his wifeโ€™s earnings, he should be capable of consecrating them.

ื•ืืœื ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืงื“ื•ืฉ

And if we rather say that he does not provide for her sustenance and does not provide her with a silver maโ€™a for her needs, and she must consequently support herself entirely, then what is the reason for the opinion of the one who said that it is consecrated in her lifetime? It is possible that at some point she will not find sufficient employment, and since her husband does not provide for her sustenance or her other needs, she will need the money for herself and there will not be any surplus at all.

ืœืขื•ืœื ื‘ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืขืœื” ืœื” ืžืขื” ื›ืกืฃ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื” ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืชืงื ื•

The Gemara answers: Actually, one must explain that they are discussing a situation where he provides for her sustenance, but does not provide her with a silver maโ€™a for her needs, and this is their dispute: Rav and Shmuel maintain that the main enactment was that they established

Scroll To Top