Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

September 4, 2022 | 讞壮 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 60

This week’s daf is sponsored by Carolyn Hochstadter in loving memory of Fred Hochstadter’s 8th yahrzeit. “We miss you every day, Dad, Saba & Great-Saba. With lots of love, Carolyn, Adam, Michal, Josh, Benny, Izzy, Shim, Zoe & Yehuda.”
Today’s daf is sponsored by the Levant and Dickson families. “Wishing our daughters, Dalia Dickson and Miriam Levant a giyus kal as they start the army today! May Hashem watch over them and may they have a safe and meaningful service.”聽

One of the responsibilities a woman has to her husband is to nurse their child. However, if they get divorced, she does not need to. But if the child recognizes the mother and will not nurse from another woman, the husband can insist she nurse the child, but needs to pay her to do it. The rabbis debate what is the age at which a child can recognize its own mother. A mother is allowed to nurse her child until the child reaches a certain age. There is a debate regarding the age limit. Beyond that age, it is as if the child is nursing from a non-kosher animal. This is contradicted by a braita that infers that breast milk is kosher, as is human blood. The Gemara differentiates between breast milk that is removed from the mother鈥檚 body (permitted to eat) and has not been removed (forbidden, other than to a young child). One who is sick and needs milk and cannot find it elsewhere can suck milk from a kosher animal on Shabbat, even though it is forbidden as it is an act of extracting, a sub-category of the melacha of dash, threshing, as it is done here in an unusual manner and is needed for one who is sick. One who stopped nursing after 24 months and goes back to nurse is also not permitted. How many days is considered having stopped? Suppose one became a widow during the 24-month nursing period. In that case, she cannot get engaged or remarried during that time as she may become pregnant and her milk will dry up and her new husband will not necessarily be willing to pay for the child to be nursed as it is not his child. Others say the waiting period is 18 months (debate between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda, and also between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel). 聽Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that since it takes three months for the milk to dry up, each opinion allows her to get married three months earlier. Abaye made the mistake of ruling like the more lenient opinion but then heard from Rav Yosef that one needs to wait the full 24 months. He tried to run after the person he permitted to marry earlier but had to run through sand dunes and couldn鈥檛 catch up to him. He then taught that one should never permit anything when he is in the vicinity of his teacher. If the woman hired a wet nurse or the child died, can she remarry earlier? Is there a reason to distinguish between these two situations? Is a woman hired as a wet nurse permitted to nurse her child or someone else鈥檚 as well? 聽If the family who hired a wet nurse committed to giving her some food, but not enough, does she have to make sure to eat more? And if so, who pays for it? What foods are good/bad for nursing mothers?

注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讜专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞诪砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬诪讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘砖诇诪讗 专讘 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 讻讬 讞讜专驻讬讛 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 诪讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara asks: How old does the child have to be so that one can assume that he already recognizes his mother? Rava said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: Three months, and Shmuel said: Thirty days, and Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Fifty days. Rav Shimi bar Abaye said: The halakha is in accordance with what Rabbi Yitz岣k said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara asks: Granted, Rav and Rabbi Yo岣nan are in dispute with regard to the difference between fifty days and three months, as it is possible that each baby varies according to its intelligence, as one baby is sufficiently developed at fifty days, while another knows his mother at only three months. However, according to Shmuel, can you find a case like this, a one-month-old baby who recognizes his mother?

讻讬 讗转讗 专诪讬 讘专 讬讞讝拽讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗 转爪讬转讬谞讛讜 诇讛谞讬 讻诇诇讬 讚讻讬讬诇 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讞讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讬专讛

The Gemara relates: When Rami bar Ye岣zkel came from Eretz Yisrael, he said: Do not listen to, i.e., do not accept, those principles that my brother Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel, as Shmuel did not establish a particular time with regard to this matter. Rather, this is what Shmuel said: Whenever he recognizes her, i.e., there is no fixed age at which this occurs. One must check each baby to see whether he recognizes his mother.

讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讝讬诇 讘讚拽讛 讗讝诇 讗讜转讘讛 讘讚专讬 讚谞砖讬 讜砖拽诇讬讛 诇讘专讛 讜拽诪讛讚专 诇讬讛 注诇讬讬讛讜 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讙讘讛 讛讜转 拽讗 诪住讜讬 诇讗驻讛 讻讘砖转谞讛讬 诇注讬谞讛 诪讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 谞讟祝 注讬谞讬讱 拽讜诐 讚专讬 讘专讬讱 住讜诪讗 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘专讬讞讗 讜讘讟注诪讗

The Gemara relates: A certain divorc茅e came before Shmuel, as she did not wish to nurse her son. He said to Rav Dimi bar Yosef: Go and check her, i.e., verify whether the child recognizes his mother. He went, placed her in a row of women, and took her son in his arms and passed him near them to see how the child would react. When the child reached her, he looked at her face with joy, and she averted her eyes from him, as she did not want to look at him. He said to her: Lift up your eyes, get up and take your son, as it is obvious that he knows you. The Gemara asks: If this is so, then how does a blind baby know and recognize his mother? Rav Ashi said: Through smell and through the taste of her milk.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜谞拽 转讬谞讜拽 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讗专讘注 讜讞诪砖 砖谞讬诐 驻讬专砖 诇讗讞专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讞讝专 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓

搂 Apropos the period of time during which a child nurses, the Gemara continues to debate different aspects of this matter. The Sages taught in a baraita: A child may continue to nurse until the age of twenty-four months, and from this point forward, if he continues to nurse, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal, as a woman鈥檚 milk is forbidden to anyone other than a small child; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A child may continue to nurse even for four or five years, and this is permitted. However, if he ceased, i.e., was weaned, after twenty-four months and then resumed nursing, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal.

讗诪专 诪专 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讗 讞诇讘 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讜讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讜诪讛 讘讛诪讛 砖讛拽诇转 讘诪讙注讛 讛讞诪专转 讘讞诇讘讛 讗讚诐 砖讛讞诪专转 讘诪讙注讜 讗讬谞讜 讚讬谉 砖转讞诪讬专 讘讞诇讘讜

The Master said in the baraita: From this point forward he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: One might have thought that the milk of bipeds, i.e., humans, would be non-kosher like that of a non-kosher animal, based on a logical derivation: Just as with regard to a non-kosher animal, where you were lenient with regard to its contact, meaning that it does not render people or items impure through contact when it is alive, you were stringent with regard to its milk, which is prohibited, even more so should this be true with regard to a person. An a fortiori inference would indicate that with regard to a person, where you were stringent about contact, as people can render other people and objects impure even when they are alive, one should be stricter. So isn鈥檛 it logical that you should be stringent with regard to his milk?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转 讛讙诪诇 讻讬 诪注诇讛 讙专讛 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讟诪讗 讜讗讬谉 讞诇讘 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讗诇讗 讟讛讜专 讬讻讜诇 讗讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛讞诇讘 砖讗讬谞讜 砖讜讛 讘讻诇 讜诇讗 讗讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛讚诐 砖讛讜讗 砖讜讛 讘讻诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讟诪讗 讜讗讬谉 讚诐 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讗诇讗 讟讛讜专

This is as the verse states: 鈥淏ut this you shall not eat, of those that only chew the cud, or of those that only part the hoof; the camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, it is impure for you鈥 (Leviticus 11:4). The somewhat superfluous word 鈥渋t鈥 teaches that it alone is impure, but the milk of bipeds is not impure; rather, it is kosher. Furthermore, one might have thought that I should exclude the milk of humans from the prohibition against consumption, as this issue does not apply equally to everyone, since only women produce milk, but I should not exclude from the prohibition human blood, which does apply equally to everyone. Consequently, the verse states 鈥渋t鈥 with regard to a camel, to say that it alone is impure, whereas the blood of bipeds is not impure, but rather is kosher.

讜讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗驻讬诇讜 诪爪讜转 驻专讬砖讛 讗讬谉 讘讜

And Rav Sheshet said about this ruling: There is not even a rabbinic command to refrain from consuming human milk. Therefore, this presents a contradiction to the statement that a child who nurses beyond a certain age is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚驻专讬砖 讛讗 讚诇讗 驻专讬砖

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this statement that the milk is permitted is referring to when it has been removed from the woman鈥檚 body, and that statement, that the milk is forbidden, is referring to when it has not been removed. Fundamentally, human milk is a permitted substance. However, it is prohibited by rabbinic law for anyone other than a very young child to nurse directly from a woman鈥檚 breasts, and one who does so is considered like one who consumes milk from a non-kosher animal.

讜讞诇讜驻讗 讘讚诐 讻讚转谞讬讗 讚诐 砖注诇 讙讘讬 讻讻专 讙讜专专讜 讜讗讜讻诇讜 砖讘讬谉 讛砖讬谞讬诐 诪讜爪爪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖

And the opposite applies to blood: Human blood that has been removed from the body is forbidden, but if it has not yet been removed, it is permitted. As it is taught in a baraita: If some human blood was on a loaf of bread, one scrapes off the blood and then he may eat the bread. Since the blood was detached from the body, it is forbidden by rabbinic law, but if blood was between the teeth, he may suck it and swallow it without concern, as the blood is permitted if it has not been removed from the body.

讗诪专 诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讗专讘注 讜讞诪砖 砖谞讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讘讬诇转讜 注诇 讻转讬驻讬讜 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

The Master said in the aforementioned baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua says: A child may continue to nurse even for four or five years. But isn鈥檛 it taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua says: Even if he can carry his package on his shoulder he can continue to nurse? The Gemara answers: This is not a contradiction, since both this and that are one, the same, measure, and the difference between them is only semantic. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪专讬谞讜住 讗讜诪专 讙讜谞讞 讬讜谞拽 讞诇讘 讘砖讘转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讬讜谞拽 诪驻专拽 讻诇讗讞专 讬讚 讜讘诪拽讜诐 爪注专讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪专讬谞讜住

On the same topic it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Marinos says: One who is coughing due to an illness that requires milk but did not have milk available may suck milk directly from an animal鈥檚 udders on Shabbat, although milking is a prohibited labor on Shabbat. What is the reason? Sucking the milk in this way constitutes an act of extracting in an unusual manner. Although milking is an example of the labor of extracting, a subcategory of the primary category of threshing, it is prohibited by Torah law only when the labor is performed in its typical manner. One who nurses from an animal is extracting the milk in an unusual manner. Such labor is prohibited by rabbinic law, but in a situation involving pain, like one who is coughing, the Sages did not issue a decree. Rabbi Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Marinos.

转谞讬讗 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诇讬讗 讗讜诪专 爪讬谞讜专 砖注诇讜 讘讜 拽砖拽砖讬谉 诪诪注讬讻谉 讘专讙诇讜 讘爪谞注讗 讘砖讘转 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪转拽谉 讻诇讗讞专 讬讚 讛讜讗 讜讘诪拽讜诐 驻住讬讚讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诇讬讗

A ruling similar to the previous halakha is taught in a baraita: Na岣m of Galia says: If a drainage pipe is blocked by weeds [kashkashin] and grass, preventing water from running through the pipe, one may crush them with his foot in private on Shabbat without concern that he is performing the labor of preparing a vessel. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this leniency? This is an example of repairing a vessel in an unusual manner, since it is uncommon to fix an item without using a tool or one鈥檚 hands. Performing labor in an unusual manner is ordinarily prohibited by rabbinic decree, but in a situation involving financial loss, the Sages did not issue a decree. Rabbi Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Na岣m of Galia.

驻讬专砖 诇讗讞专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讞讝专 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讞讘讬讘讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转谞讬 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讞讘讬讘讗 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐

The Gemara continues discussing the aforementioned baraita, which states: If the child ceased nursing after twenty-four months and then resumed, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal. The Gemara asks: How long must he cease nursing to be considered weaned? Rav Yehuda bar 岣viva said that Shmuel said: Three days. There are those who say that this was not an amoraic statement, but rather a baraita that is taught by Rav Yehuda bar 岣viva before Shmuel: Weaning takes effect after three days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬谞拽转 砖诪转 讘注诇讛 讘转讜讱 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讛专讬 讝讜 诇讗 转转讗专住 讜诇讗 转讬谞砖讗

搂 The Gemara discusses other halakhot relating to nursing. The Sages taught: A nursing woman whose husband died within twenty-four months of her child鈥檚 birth may not be betrothed and may not get married

注讚 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讬讜住祝 讛谉 讛谉 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讛谉 讛谉 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 砖讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖

until twenty-four months from the day the child was born. The reason for this decree is to protect the child. If she remarries she may become pregnant and may not be able to continue nursing, but her second husband will not be obligated to support the child who is not his son. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yehuda permits getting married after eighteen months. Rabbi Natan bar Yosef said: These words are the same as the statement of Beit Shammai, and those words are the same as the statement of Beit Hillel, i.e., this is an ancient dispute, as Beit Shammai say: Twenty-four months, and Beit Hillel say: Eighteen months.

讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗谞讬 讗讻专讬注 诇讚讘专讬 讛讗讜诪专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 诪讜转专转 诇讬谞砖讗 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讞讚砖 诇讚讘专讬 讛讗讜诪专 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 诪讜转专转 诇讛谞砖讗 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讛讞诇讘 谞注讻专 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: I will decide. According to the one who says twenty-four months, she may marry after twenty-one months, since even if she gets pregnant, for the first three months of pregnancy she can still continue to nurse. According to the one who says eighteen months, she may marry after fifteen months, since the milk becomes spoiled due to pregnancy only after three months.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讬 讛转讬专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇砖讗转 诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗专讬住讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讛讜 诇讬讗专住 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜注讜讚 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讘讬转 讛诇诇 讜讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讬 讛转讬专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇砖讗转 诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讗转 诇讬讗专住

Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi 岣nina allowed me to marry a nursing woman after fifteen months. It is related that Abaye鈥檚 tenant farmer came before Abaye to ask a question. He said to him: What is the halakha with regard to betrothing a nursing woman after fifteen months? Abaye said to him: One reason it is permitted is that in disputes between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda, the halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And furthermore, this is actually a dispute between earlier tanna鈥檌m, and when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel dispute, the halakha is in accordance with Beit Hillel. And in addition, Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi 岣nina allowed me to marry after fifteen months, and therefore all the more so you are permitted to betroth her, as you are only betrothing and not marrying her.

讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讛诪转讬谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讞讜抓 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讜诇讚 讘讜 讜讞讜抓 诪讬讜诐 砖谞转讗专住讛 讘讜 专讛讟 讘转专讬讛 转诇转讗 驻专住讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 驻专住讗 讘讞诇讗 讜诇讗 讗讚专讻讬讛

When Abaye came before Rav Yosef and told him of the incident, Rav Yosef said to him in response: Rav and Shmuel both say: She must wait twenty-four months before even becoming betrothed, excluding the day that the child was born and excluding the day she became betrothed. When Abaye heard this, he ran three parasangs after his tenant farmer, and some say that he ran one parasang [parsa] through sand. He wanted to inform him that he should not rely on the leniency, but rather he should act in accordance with Rav and Shmuel, who prohibited the betrothal, but he did not succeed in catching up to him.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬注转讗 讘讻讜转讞讗 诇讗 诇讬砖专讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讘诪拽讜诐 专讘讬讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻讗驻拽讬专讜转讗 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讛讗 讗谞讗 讛讜讛 讙诪讬专谞讗 诇讬讛 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诇讬 诪讬诇转讗 诇诪讬诪专

Abaye said that he learned from this situation that which the Sages said: A person should not permit even eating an egg in kuta岣, a dish made with milk, in his teacher鈥檚 vicinity. This is a very simple ruling, as an egg is not meat and may unquestionably be eaten with milk. There are no stringencies that apply to this case, but nevertheless one should not rule even on such a halakha in his teacher鈥檚 vicinity. Abaye explained that this is not because it appears disrespectful to teach halakha in one鈥檚 teacher鈥檚 vicinity, as this is a simple matter that does not require great knowledge of halakha, rather because he will not be successful in saying the matter correctly. An illustration of this principle is what just happened, since I had learned this halakha of Rav and Shmuel, and even so I was unsuccessful in saying it correctly, as I ruled in the vicinity of my teacher, Rav Yosef.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 谞转谞讛 讘谞讛 诇诪讬谞拽转 讗讜 讙诪诇转讜 讗讜 诪转 诪讜转专转 诇讬谞砖讗 诪讬讚 专讘 驻驻讗 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 住讘讜专 诇诪讬注讘讚 注讜讘讚讗 讻讬 讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 讛讛讬讗 住讘转讗 讘讚讬讚讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讗住专 诇讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉

The Sages taught: If a woman gave her child to a wet nurse during the waiting period, or weaned him, or the child died, she is permitted to marry immediately. It is related that Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, thought to act in accordance with this baraita. However, a certain old woman said to them: There was an incident in which I was involved with regard to this issue and Rav Na岣an prohibited it for me.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 砖专讗 诇讛讜 诇讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 砖讗谞讬 讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专讬 讘讛讜

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Na岣an permit this for the members of the Exilarch鈥檚 household? The Gemara answers: The Exilarch鈥檚 household is different, since people employed by them do not renege out of fear of the consequences. Consequently, if a woman from that household arranges a wet nurse for her child, it is certain that the wet nurse will keep her commitment, whereas with other people there is a danger that if the mother remarries the child might be left without anyone to feed him.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 驻驻讬 讜讗转讜谉 诇讗 转住讘专讜讛 诪讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛专讬 砖讛讬转讛 专讚讜驻讛 诇讬诇讱 诇讘讬转 讗讘讬讛 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 诇讛 讻注住 讘讘讬转 讘注诇讛 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘注诇讛 讞讘讜砖 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讗讜 砖讛诇讱 讘注诇讛 诇诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘注诇讛 讝拽谉 讗讜 讞讜诇讛 讗讜 砖讛讬转讛 注拽专讛 讜讝拽谞讛 讗讬讬诇讜谞讬转 讜拽讟谞讛 讜讛诪驻诇转 讗讞专 诪讬转转 讘注诇讛 讜砖讗讬谞讛 专讗讜讬讛 诇讬诇讚 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讜转 诇讛诪转讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Pappi said to Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: And do you not maintain that such a marriage is prohibited from that which is taught in a baraita: If a woman frequently went to her father鈥檚 house and had been there for a long time; or she had been angry with her husband and separated from him while still in his house; or her husband had been incarcerated in prison; or her husband had gone overseas; or her husband had been old or ill; or if she was a barren woman, or elderly, or a sexually underdeveloped woman, or a minor girl; or if she had miscarried after the death of her husband; or if she was unfit to give birth for any other reason, although in any of these cases there is no concern that she might be pregnant, they must all wait at least three months. The Sages said that a woman must wait for three months between marriages, so there would be no doubt as to who is the father of any child she may give birth to, and they did not distinguish between different women with regard to this decree. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 诇讬讗专住 讜诇讬谞砖讗 诪讬讚 讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讙讝讬专讜转讬讜

However, Rabbi Yosei permits all the aforementioned women to be betrothed and to marry immediately, since there is no concern that they may be pregnant. And Rav Na岣an said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to all of his decrees. In every place where Rabbi Meir was stringent so as to avoid possibility of error, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion. Consequently, this ruling should apply also to a nursing mother who wishes to remarry; the restriction should apply equally to a woman who had given her child to a wet nurse, or who had weaned him, or whose child had died.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讬谉 讜讛诇讻转讗 诪转 诪讜转专 讙诪诇转讜 讗住讜专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪转 谞诪讬 讗住讜专 讚诇诪讗 拽讟诇讛 诇讬讛 讜讗讝诇讗 讜诪讬谞住讘讗 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讞谞拽转讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛讛讬讗 砖讜讟讛 讛讜讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 谞砖讬 讚讞谞拽谉 讘谞讬讬讛讜

They answered him: The matter was not in our mind, meaning that we had forgotten this principle. Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: The halakha is that if a nursing mother鈥檚 child died, the mother is permitted to marry immediately, but if she had weaned him, she is prohibited from marrying, lest she forcibly wean him prematurely. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Even if the child died, she is also prohibited from marrying, because if it were permitted when the child dies, there would be concern that she might kill him and then go and get married. It is related that there was an incident where a woman strangled her child for this reason. The Gemara concludes that that is not so, i.e., this incident does not affect the halakha. That woman was insane, and since women do not ordinarily strangle their children, one need not be concerned about this happening.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛专讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讛 讘谉 诇讛谞讬拽 讛专讬 讝讜 诇讗 转谞讬拽 注诪讜 诇讗 讘谞讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 驻住拽讛 拽讬诪注讗 讗讜讻诇转 讛专讘讛 诇讗 转讗讻诇 注诪讜 讚讘专讬诐 讛专注讬诐 诇讞诇讘

The Sages taught: If someone gave a child to a wet nurse, and she agreed to nurse him for payment, she may not nurse her own child or another woman鈥檚 child together with him, in order that she not take away milk from the child she is being paid to nurse. Even if she fixed a small allowance for food with the payment for nursing, she must nevertheless eat large quantities so that she will have enough milk. And she may not eat together with him, i.e., while she is nursing the child, things that are bad for her milk.

讛砖转讗 讘谞讛 讗诪专转 诇讗 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讘谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讞讬讬住 注讬诇讜讬讛 诪诪爪讬讗 诇讬讛 讟驻讬 讗讘诇 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讛讜讛 诇讛 诪讜转专 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪诪爪讬讗 诇讬讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks about this baraita: Now that you said that she may not nurse her own child together with her client鈥檚 child, is it necessary to say that she cannot nurse another woman鈥檚 child? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that the prohibition is limited to her child, as there is a concern that since she favors him, she will feed him more milk than the other child, but with regard to another woman鈥檚 child, if she did not have surplus milk she would not feed him, and therefore it should be permitted, the baraita therefore teaches us not to distinguish between the cases.

驻住拽讛 拽讬诪注讗 讗讜讻诇转 讛专讘讛 诪讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诪砖诇讛

The baraita said that even if she fixed a small allowance for food, she must eat large quantities. The Gemara asks: From where should she get this food if the allowance cannot cover it? Rav Sheshet said: From her own funds. Because she accepted an obligation to nurse the child, she must take the necessary steps to fulfill her obligation.

诇讗 转讗讻诇 注诪讜 讚讘专讬诐 讛专注讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讙讜谉 讻砖讜转 讜讞讝讬讝 讜讚讙讬诐 拽讟谞讬诐 讜讗讚诪讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 拽专讗 讜讞讘讜砖讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 拽专讗 讜讻讜驻专讗 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪讻讗 讜讛专住谞讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 驻住拽讬 讞诇讘讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 注讻专讬 讞诇讘讗

The baraita said: She may not eat together with him things that are bad for her milk. The Gemara asks: What are these foods that are detrimental for milk? Rav Kahana said: For example, hops; and young, green grain sprouts; small fish; and soil. Abaye said: Even pumpkin and quince. Rav Pappa said: Even pumpkin and palm branches with small, unripe dates. Rav Ashi said: Even kuta岣 [kamka] and small fried fish. All these items are bad, as some cause milk to dry up and some cause milk to spoil.

讚诪砖诪砖讗 讘讬 专讬讞讬讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 谞讻驻讬 讚诪砖诪砖讗 注诇 讗专注讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 砖诪讜讟讬 讚讚专讻讗 注诇 专诪讗 讚讞诪专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讙讬专讚谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 讞专讚诇讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讝诇讝诇谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 转讞诇讬 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讚讜诇驻谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 诪讜谞讬谞讬 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 诪爪讬爪讬 注讬谞讗 讚讗讻诇讛 讙专讙讜砖转讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 诪讻讜注专讬 讚砖转讬讗 砖讬讻专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讗讜讻诪讬 讚讗讻诇讛 讘讬砖专讗 讜砖转讬讗 讞诪专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬

The Gemara cites other possible consequences of a mother鈥檚 behavior that could affect her children: A woman who engages in intercourse in a mill will have epileptic children; one who engages in intercourse on the ground will have long-necked children; one who steps on a donkey鈥檚 dung when pregnant will have bald children; one who eats mustard during pregnancy will have gluttonous children; one who eats garden cress [ta岣ei] will have tearful children; one who eats fish brine [moninei] will have children with blinking eyes; one who eats soil will have ugly children; one who drinks intoxicating liquor will have black children; one who eats meat and drinks wine during pregnancy will have children who are

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Ketubot: 56-62 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn if a woman can forgo her Ketuva and what happens if she loses her Ketuva....
talking talmud_square

Ketubot 60: A Mother and Child Reunion

The Gemara discusses its understanding of some developmental milestones and explains how infants recognize their mothers. When can nursing mothers...

Ketubot 60

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Ketubot 60

注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讜专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞诪砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬诪讬 讘专 讗讘讬讬 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘砖诇诪讗 专讘 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讞讚 讜讞讚 讻讬 讞讜专驻讬讛 讗诇讗 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 诪讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara asks: How old does the child have to be so that one can assume that he already recognizes his mother? Rava said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: Three months, and Shmuel said: Thirty days, and Rabbi Yitz岣k said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Fifty days. Rav Shimi bar Abaye said: The halakha is in accordance with what Rabbi Yitz岣k said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara asks: Granted, Rav and Rabbi Yo岣nan are in dispute with regard to the difference between fifty days and three months, as it is possible that each baby varies according to its intelligence, as one baby is sufficiently developed at fifty days, while another knows his mother at only three months. However, according to Shmuel, can you find a case like this, a one-month-old baby who recognizes his mother?

讻讬 讗转讗 专诪讬 讘专 讬讞讝拽讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗 转爪讬转讬谞讛讜 诇讛谞讬 讻诇诇讬 讚讻讬讬诇 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讞讬 诪砖诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讻讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讬专讛

The Gemara relates: When Rami bar Ye岣zkel came from Eretz Yisrael, he said: Do not listen to, i.e., do not accept, those principles that my brother Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel, as Shmuel did not establish a particular time with regard to this matter. Rather, this is what Shmuel said: Whenever he recognizes her, i.e., there is no fixed age at which this occurs. One must check each baby to see whether he recognizes his mother.

讛讛讬讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讚讬诪讬 讘专 讬讜住祝 讝讬诇 讘讚拽讛 讗讝诇 讗讜转讘讛 讘讚专讬 讚谞砖讬 讜砖拽诇讬讛 诇讘专讛 讜拽诪讛讚专 诇讬讛 注诇讬讬讛讜 讻讬 诪讟讗 诇讙讘讛 讛讜转 拽讗 诪住讜讬 诇讗驻讛 讻讘砖转谞讛讬 诇注讬谞讛 诪讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 谞讟祝 注讬谞讬讱 拽讜诐 讚专讬 讘专讬讱 住讜诪讗 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘专讬讞讗 讜讘讟注诪讗

The Gemara relates: A certain divorc茅e came before Shmuel, as she did not wish to nurse her son. He said to Rav Dimi bar Yosef: Go and check her, i.e., verify whether the child recognizes his mother. He went, placed her in a row of women, and took her son in his arms and passed him near them to see how the child would react. When the child reached her, he looked at her face with joy, and she averted her eyes from him, as she did not want to look at him. He said to her: Lift up your eyes, get up and take your son, as it is obvious that he knows you. The Gemara asks: If this is so, then how does a blind baby know and recognize his mother? Rav Ashi said: Through smell and through the taste of her milk.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜谞拽 转讬谞讜拽 讜讛讜诇讱 注讚 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讗专讘注 讜讞诪砖 砖谞讬诐 驻讬专砖 诇讗讞专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讞讝专 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓

搂 Apropos the period of time during which a child nurses, the Gemara continues to debate different aspects of this matter. The Sages taught in a baraita: A child may continue to nurse until the age of twenty-four months, and from this point forward, if he continues to nurse, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal, as a woman鈥檚 milk is forbidden to anyone other than a small child; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A child may continue to nurse even for four or five years, and this is permitted. However, if he ceased, i.e., was weaned, after twenty-four months and then resumed nursing, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal.

讗诪专 诪专 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讗 讞诇讘 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讜讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讜诪讛 讘讛诪讛 砖讛拽诇转 讘诪讙注讛 讛讞诪专转 讘讞诇讘讛 讗讚诐 砖讛讞诪专转 讘诪讙注讜 讗讬谞讜 讚讬谉 砖转讞诪讬专 讘讞诇讘讜

The Master said in the baraita: From this point forward he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: One might have thought that the milk of bipeds, i.e., humans, would be non-kosher like that of a non-kosher animal, based on a logical derivation: Just as with regard to a non-kosher animal, where you were lenient with regard to its contact, meaning that it does not render people or items impure through contact when it is alive, you were stringent with regard to its milk, which is prohibited, even more so should this be true with regard to a person. An a fortiori inference would indicate that with regard to a person, where you were stringent about contact, as people can render other people and objects impure even when they are alive, one should be stricter. So isn鈥檛 it logical that you should be stringent with regard to his milk?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转 讛讙诪诇 讻讬 诪注诇讛 讙专讛 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讟诪讗 讜讗讬谉 讞诇讘 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讗诇讗 讟讛讜专 讬讻讜诇 讗讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛讞诇讘 砖讗讬谞讜 砖讜讛 讘讻诇 讜诇讗 讗讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛讚诐 砖讛讜讗 砖讜讛 讘讻诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讜讗 讛讜讗 讟诪讗 讜讗讬谉 讚诐 诪讛诇讻讬 砖转讬诐 讟诪讗 讗诇讗 讟讛讜专

This is as the verse states: 鈥淏ut this you shall not eat, of those that only chew the cud, or of those that only part the hoof; the camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, it is impure for you鈥 (Leviticus 11:4). The somewhat superfluous word 鈥渋t鈥 teaches that it alone is impure, but the milk of bipeds is not impure; rather, it is kosher. Furthermore, one might have thought that I should exclude the milk of humans from the prohibition against consumption, as this issue does not apply equally to everyone, since only women produce milk, but I should not exclude from the prohibition human blood, which does apply equally to everyone. Consequently, the verse states 鈥渋t鈥 with regard to a camel, to say that it alone is impure, whereas the blood of bipeds is not impure, but rather is kosher.

讜讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗驻讬诇讜 诪爪讜转 驻专讬砖讛 讗讬谉 讘讜

And Rav Sheshet said about this ruling: There is not even a rabbinic command to refrain from consuming human milk. Therefore, this presents a contradiction to the statement that a child who nurses beyond a certain age is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚驻专讬砖 讛讗 讚诇讗 驻专讬砖

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this statement that the milk is permitted is referring to when it has been removed from the woman鈥檚 body, and that statement, that the milk is forbidden, is referring to when it has not been removed. Fundamentally, human milk is a permitted substance. However, it is prohibited by rabbinic law for anyone other than a very young child to nurse directly from a woman鈥檚 breasts, and one who does so is considered like one who consumes milk from a non-kosher animal.

讜讞诇讜驻讗 讘讚诐 讻讚转谞讬讗 讚诐 砖注诇 讙讘讬 讻讻专 讙讜专专讜 讜讗讜讻诇讜 砖讘讬谉 讛砖讬谞讬诐 诪讜爪爪讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖

And the opposite applies to blood: Human blood that has been removed from the body is forbidden, but if it has not yet been removed, it is permitted. As it is taught in a baraita: If some human blood was on a loaf of bread, one scrapes off the blood and then he may eat the bread. Since the blood was detached from the body, it is forbidden by rabbinic law, but if blood was between the teeth, he may suck it and swallow it without concern, as the blood is permitted if it has not been removed from the body.

讗诪专 诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讗专讘注 讜讞诪砖 砖谞讬诐 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讞讘讬诇转讜 注诇 讻转讬驻讬讜 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 讞讚 砖讬注讜专讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

The Master said in the aforementioned baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua says: A child may continue to nurse even for four or five years. But isn鈥檛 it taught in a different baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua says: Even if he can carry his package on his shoulder he can continue to nurse? The Gemara answers: This is not a contradiction, since both this and that are one, the same, measure, and the difference between them is only semantic. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪专讬谞讜住 讗讜诪专 讙讜谞讞 讬讜谞拽 讞诇讘 讘砖讘转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讬讜谞拽 诪驻专拽 讻诇讗讞专 讬讚 讜讘诪拽讜诐 爪注专讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪专讬谞讜住

On the same topic it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Marinos says: One who is coughing due to an illness that requires milk but did not have milk available may suck milk directly from an animal鈥檚 udders on Shabbat, although milking is a prohibited labor on Shabbat. What is the reason? Sucking the milk in this way constitutes an act of extracting in an unusual manner. Although milking is an example of the labor of extracting, a subcategory of the primary category of threshing, it is prohibited by Torah law only when the labor is performed in its typical manner. One who nurses from an animal is extracting the milk in an unusual manner. Such labor is prohibited by rabbinic law, but in a situation involving pain, like one who is coughing, the Sages did not issue a decree. Rabbi Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Marinos.

转谞讬讗 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诇讬讗 讗讜诪专 爪讬谞讜专 砖注诇讜 讘讜 拽砖拽砖讬谉 诪诪注讬讻谉 讘专讙诇讜 讘爪谞注讗 讘砖讘转 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪转拽谉 讻诇讗讞专 讬讚 讛讜讗 讜讘诪拽讜诐 驻住讬讚讗 诇讗 讙讝专讜 讘讛 专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诇讬讗

A ruling similar to the previous halakha is taught in a baraita: Na岣m of Galia says: If a drainage pipe is blocked by weeds [kashkashin] and grass, preventing water from running through the pipe, one may crush them with his foot in private on Shabbat without concern that he is performing the labor of preparing a vessel. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this leniency? This is an example of repairing a vessel in an unusual manner, since it is uncommon to fix an item without using a tool or one鈥檚 hands. Performing labor in an unusual manner is ordinarily prohibited by rabbinic decree, but in a situation involving financial loss, the Sages did not issue a decree. Rabbi Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Na岣m of Galia.

驻讬专砖 诇讗讞专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讞讝专 讻讬讜谞拽 砖拽抓 讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讞讘讬讘讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 转谞讬 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专 讞讘讬讘讗 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐

The Gemara continues discussing the aforementioned baraita, which states: If the child ceased nursing after twenty-four months and then resumed, he is like one who nurses from a non-kosher animal. The Gemara asks: How long must he cease nursing to be considered weaned? Rav Yehuda bar 岣viva said that Shmuel said: Three days. There are those who say that this was not an amoraic statement, but rather a baraita that is taught by Rav Yehuda bar 岣viva before Shmuel: Weaning takes effect after three days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬谞拽转 砖诪转 讘注诇讛 讘转讜讱 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讛专讬 讝讜 诇讗 转转讗专住 讜诇讗 转讬谞砖讗

搂 The Gemara discusses other halakhot relating to nursing. The Sages taught: A nursing woman whose husband died within twenty-four months of her child鈥檚 birth may not be betrothed and may not get married

注讚 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞转谉 讘专 讬讜住祝 讛谉 讛谉 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讛谉 讛谉 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 砖讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖

until twenty-four months from the day the child was born. The reason for this decree is to protect the child. If she remarries she may become pregnant and may not be able to continue nursing, but her second husband will not be obligated to support the child who is not his son. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yehuda permits getting married after eighteen months. Rabbi Natan bar Yosef said: These words are the same as the statement of Beit Shammai, and those words are the same as the statement of Beit Hillel, i.e., this is an ancient dispute, as Beit Shammai say: Twenty-four months, and Beit Hillel say: Eighteen months.

讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗谞讬 讗讻专讬注 诇讚讘专讬 讛讗讜诪专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 诪讜转专转 诇讬谞砖讗 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讞讚砖 诇讚讘专讬 讛讗讜诪专 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 诪讜转专转 诇讛谞砖讗 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讛讞诇讘 谞注讻专 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: I will decide. According to the one who says twenty-four months, she may marry after twenty-one months, since even if she gets pregnant, for the first three months of pregnancy she can still continue to nurse. According to the one who says eighteen months, she may marry after fifteen months, since the milk becomes spoiled due to pregnancy only after three months.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讬 讛转讬专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇砖讗转 诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗专讬住讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讛讜 诇讬讗专住 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜注讜讚 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讛诇讻讛 讻讘讬转 讛诇诇 讜讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讬 讛转讬专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇砖讗转 诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讞讚砖 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讗转 诇讬讗专住

Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi 岣nina allowed me to marry a nursing woman after fifteen months. It is related that Abaye鈥檚 tenant farmer came before Abaye to ask a question. He said to him: What is the halakha with regard to betrothing a nursing woman after fifteen months? Abaye said to him: One reason it is permitted is that in disputes between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda, the halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And furthermore, this is actually a dispute between earlier tanna鈥檌m, and when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel dispute, the halakha is in accordance with Beit Hillel. And in addition, Ulla said: The halakha is in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda. And Mar Ukva said: Rabbi 岣nina allowed me to marry after fifteen months, and therefore all the more so you are permitted to betroth her, as you are only betrothing and not marrying her.

讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 爪专讬讻讛 诇讛诪转讬谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖 讞讜抓 诪讬讜诐 砖谞讜诇讚 讘讜 讜讞讜抓 诪讬讜诐 砖谞转讗专住讛 讘讜 专讛讟 讘转专讬讛 转诇转讗 驻专住讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 驻专住讗 讘讞诇讗 讜诇讗 讗讚专讻讬讛

When Abaye came before Rav Yosef and told him of the incident, Rav Yosef said to him in response: Rav and Shmuel both say: She must wait twenty-four months before even becoming betrothed, excluding the day that the child was born and excluding the day she became betrothed. When Abaye heard this, he ran three parasangs after his tenant farmer, and some say that he ran one parasang [parsa] through sand. He wanted to inform him that he should not rely on the leniency, but rather he should act in accordance with Rav and Shmuel, who prohibited the betrothal, but he did not succeed in catching up to him.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗诪讜专 专讘谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬注转讗 讘讻讜转讞讗 诇讗 诇讬砖专讬 讗讬谞讬砖 讘诪拽讜诐 专讘讬讛 诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻讗驻拽讬专讜转讗 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讛讗 讗谞讗 讛讜讛 讙诪讬专谞讗 诇讬讛 诇讛讗 讚专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 诇讗 诪住转讬讬注讗 诇讬 诪讬诇转讗 诇诪讬诪专

Abaye said that he learned from this situation that which the Sages said: A person should not permit even eating an egg in kuta岣, a dish made with milk, in his teacher鈥檚 vicinity. This is a very simple ruling, as an egg is not meat and may unquestionably be eaten with milk. There are no stringencies that apply to this case, but nevertheless one should not rule even on such a halakha in his teacher鈥檚 vicinity. Abaye explained that this is not because it appears disrespectful to teach halakha in one鈥檚 teacher鈥檚 vicinity, as this is a simple matter that does not require great knowledge of halakha, rather because he will not be successful in saying the matter correctly. An illustration of this principle is what just happened, since I had learned this halakha of Rav and Shmuel, and even so I was unsuccessful in saying it correctly, as I ruled in the vicinity of my teacher, Rav Yosef.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 谞转谞讛 讘谞讛 诇诪讬谞拽转 讗讜 讙诪诇转讜 讗讜 诪转 诪讜转专转 诇讬谞砖讗 诪讬讚 专讘 驻驻讗 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 住讘讜专 诇诪讬注讘讚 注讜讘讚讗 讻讬 讛讗 诪转谞讬转讗 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 讛讛讬讗 住讘转讗 讘讚讬讚讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讗住专 诇讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉

The Sages taught: If a woman gave her child to a wet nurse during the waiting period, or weaned him, or the child died, she is permitted to marry immediately. It is related that Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, thought to act in accordance with this baraita. However, a certain old woman said to them: There was an incident in which I was involved with regard to this issue and Rav Na岣an prohibited it for me.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 砖专讗 诇讛讜 诇讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 砖讗谞讬 讘讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专讬 讘讛讜

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Na岣an permit this for the members of the Exilarch鈥檚 household? The Gemara answers: The Exilarch鈥檚 household is different, since people employed by them do not renege out of fear of the consequences. Consequently, if a woman from that household arranges a wet nurse for her child, it is certain that the wet nurse will keep her commitment, whereas with other people there is a danger that if the mother remarries the child might be left without anyone to feed him.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘 驻驻讬 讜讗转讜谉 诇讗 转住讘专讜讛 诪讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛专讬 砖讛讬转讛 专讚讜驻讛 诇讬诇讱 诇讘讬转 讗讘讬讛 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 诇讛 讻注住 讘讘讬转 讘注诇讛 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘注诇讛 讞讘讜砖 讘讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讗讜 砖讛诇讱 讘注诇讛 诇诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘注诇讛 讝拽谉 讗讜 讞讜诇讛 讗讜 砖讛讬转讛 注拽专讛 讜讝拽谞讛 讗讬讬诇讜谞讬转 讜拽讟谞讛 讜讛诪驻诇转 讗讞专 诪讬转转 讘注诇讛 讜砖讗讬谞讛 专讗讜讬讛 诇讬诇讚 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讜转 诇讛诪转讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Pappi said to Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: And do you not maintain that such a marriage is prohibited from that which is taught in a baraita: If a woman frequently went to her father鈥檚 house and had been there for a long time; or she had been angry with her husband and separated from him while still in his house; or her husband had been incarcerated in prison; or her husband had gone overseas; or her husband had been old or ill; or if she was a barren woman, or elderly, or a sexually underdeveloped woman, or a minor girl; or if she had miscarried after the death of her husband; or if she was unfit to give birth for any other reason, although in any of these cases there is no concern that she might be pregnant, they must all wait at least three months. The Sages said that a woman must wait for three months between marriages, so there would be no doubt as to who is the father of any child she may give birth to, and they did not distinguish between different women with regard to this decree. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 诇讬讗专住 讜诇讬谞砖讗 诪讬讚 讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讘讙讝讬专讜转讬讜

However, Rabbi Yosei permits all the aforementioned women to be betrothed and to marry immediately, since there is no concern that they may be pregnant. And Rav Na岣an said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to all of his decrees. In every place where Rabbi Meir was stringent so as to avoid possibility of error, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion. Consequently, this ruling should apply also to a nursing mother who wishes to remarry; the restriction should apply equally to a woman who had given her child to a wet nurse, or who had weaned him, or whose child had died.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讬谉 讜讛诇讻转讗 诪转 诪讜转专 讙诪诇转讜 讗住讜专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪转 谞诪讬 讗住讜专 讚诇诪讗 拽讟诇讛 诇讬讛 讜讗讝诇讗 讜诪讬谞住讘讗 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讞谞拽转讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 讛讛讬讗 砖讜讟讛 讛讜讗讬 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬 谞砖讬 讚讞谞拽谉 讘谞讬讬讛讜

They answered him: The matter was not in our mind, meaning that we had forgotten this principle. Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: The halakha is that if a nursing mother鈥檚 child died, the mother is permitted to marry immediately, but if she had weaned him, she is prohibited from marrying, lest she forcibly wean him prematurely. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Even if the child died, she is also prohibited from marrying, because if it were permitted when the child dies, there would be concern that she might kill him and then go and get married. It is related that there was an incident where a woman strangled her child for this reason. The Gemara concludes that that is not so, i.e., this incident does not affect the halakha. That woman was insane, and since women do not ordinarily strangle their children, one need not be concerned about this happening.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛专讬 砖谞转谞讜 诇讛 讘谉 诇讛谞讬拽 讛专讬 讝讜 诇讗 转谞讬拽 注诪讜 诇讗 讘谞讛 讜诇讗 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 驻住拽讛 拽讬诪注讗 讗讜讻诇转 讛专讘讛 诇讗 转讗讻诇 注诪讜 讚讘专讬诐 讛专注讬诐 诇讞诇讘

The Sages taught: If someone gave a child to a wet nurse, and she agreed to nurse him for payment, she may not nurse her own child or another woman鈥檚 child together with him, in order that she not take away milk from the child she is being paid to nurse. Even if she fixed a small allowance for food with the payment for nursing, she must nevertheless eat large quantities so that she will have enough milk. And she may not eat together with him, i.e., while she is nursing the child, things that are bad for her milk.

讛砖转讗 讘谞讛 讗诪专转 诇讗 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讘谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讞讬讬住 注讬诇讜讬讛 诪诪爪讬讗 诇讬讛 讟驻讬 讗讘诇 讘谉 讞讘专转讛 讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讛讜讛 诇讛 诪讜转专 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪诪爪讬讗 诇讬讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks about this baraita: Now that you said that she may not nurse her own child together with her client鈥檚 child, is it necessary to say that she cannot nurse another woman鈥檚 child? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that the prohibition is limited to her child, as there is a concern that since she favors him, she will feed him more milk than the other child, but with regard to another woman鈥檚 child, if she did not have surplus milk she would not feed him, and therefore it should be permitted, the baraita therefore teaches us not to distinguish between the cases.

驻住拽讛 拽讬诪注讗 讗讜讻诇转 讛专讘讛 诪讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诪砖诇讛

The baraita said that even if she fixed a small allowance for food, she must eat large quantities. The Gemara asks: From where should she get this food if the allowance cannot cover it? Rav Sheshet said: From her own funds. Because she accepted an obligation to nurse the child, she must take the necessary steps to fulfill her obligation.

诇讗 转讗讻诇 注诪讜 讚讘专讬诐 讛专注讬诐 诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讙讜谉 讻砖讜转 讜讞讝讬讝 讜讚讙讬诐 拽讟谞讬诐 讜讗讚诪讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 拽专讗 讜讞讘讜砖讗 专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 拽专讗 讜讻讜驻专讗 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪讻讗 讜讛专住谞讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 驻住拽讬 讞诇讘讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 注讻专讬 讞诇讘讗

The baraita said: She may not eat together with him things that are bad for her milk. The Gemara asks: What are these foods that are detrimental for milk? Rav Kahana said: For example, hops; and young, green grain sprouts; small fish; and soil. Abaye said: Even pumpkin and quince. Rav Pappa said: Even pumpkin and palm branches with small, unripe dates. Rav Ashi said: Even kuta岣 [kamka] and small fried fish. All these items are bad, as some cause milk to dry up and some cause milk to spoil.

讚诪砖诪砖讗 讘讬 专讬讞讬讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 谞讻驻讬 讚诪砖诪砖讗 注诇 讗专注讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 砖诪讜讟讬 讚讚专讻讗 注诇 专诪讗 讚讞诪专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讙讬专讚谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 讞专讚诇讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讝诇讝诇谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 转讞诇讬 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讚讜诇驻谞讬 讚讗讻诇讛 诪讜谞讬谞讬 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 诪爪讬爪讬 注讬谞讗 讚讗讻诇讛 讙专讙讜砖转讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 诪讻讜注专讬 讚砖转讬讗 砖讬讻专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬 讗讜讻诪讬 讚讗讻诇讛 讘讬砖专讗 讜砖转讬讗 讞诪专讗 讛讜讜 诇讛 讘谞讬

The Gemara cites other possible consequences of a mother鈥檚 behavior that could affect her children: A woman who engages in intercourse in a mill will have epileptic children; one who engages in intercourse on the ground will have long-necked children; one who steps on a donkey鈥檚 dung when pregnant will have bald children; one who eats mustard during pregnancy will have gluttonous children; one who eats garden cress [ta岣ei] will have tearful children; one who eats fish brine [moninei] will have children with blinking eyes; one who eats soil will have ugly children; one who drinks intoxicating liquor will have black children; one who eats meat and drinks wine during pregnancy will have children who are

Scroll To Top