Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

October 14, 2018 | ื”ืณ ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Menachot 65

There was a big debate with the Baytusim regarding the date of the bringing of the Omer which affected the date of Shavuot. The debate between them is brought as well as rituals that were instituted to make itย the rabbi’s position publicย due to the debate


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืคืชื—ื™ื” ืขืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžื• ืคืชื—ื™ื” ืฉืคื•ืชื— ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื“ื•ืจืฉืŸ ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ

And this is as we learned in a mishna (Shekalim 13b): Petaแธฅya was responsible for the nests of birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a zav, a zava, a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaแธฅya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. This Sage is Mordekhai; and why was he called Petaแธฅya, which resembles the word for opening [petaแธฅ]? The reason is that he would open, i.e., elucidate, difficult topics and interpret them to the people, and because he knew all seventy languages known in that region at the time.

ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื™ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื›ืžื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ืžืจืื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ืงื•ืžื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ื–ืงื ื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ื›ืฉืคื™ื ื•ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ืชื”ื ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขืช ืžืคื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaแธฅya? All of the members of the Sanhedrin also know all seventy languages. As Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: They place on the Great Sanhedrin only men of wisdom, and of pleasant appearance, and of high stature, and of suitable age so that they will be respected. And they must also be masters of sorcery, i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, and they must know all seventy languages in order that the Sanhedrin will not need to hear testimony from the mouth of a translator in a case where a witness speaks a different language.

ืืœื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื™ืœ ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ื•ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ื‘ืœืฉืŸ

The Gemara answers: Rather, Petaแธฅya was unique as he not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to combine various languages and interpret them. This is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Mordekhai: โ€œBilshanโ€ (Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [balil] languages [lashon].

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื›ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ื•ื— ืœืงืฆื•ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืฉื ืžืชื›ื ืกื•ืช ืœืฉื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืงืฆืจ ื‘ืขืกืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ

MISHNA: How would they perform the rite of the harvest of the omer? Emissaries of the court would emerge on the eve of the festival of Passover and fashion the stalks of barley into sheaves while the stalks were still attached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reap them. The residents of all the towns adjacent to the site of the harvest would assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื—ืฉื™ื›ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืžื’ืœ ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืžื’ืœ ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ

Once it grew dark, the court emissary says to those assembled: Did the sun set? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: Did the sun set? They again say: Yes. The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with this sickle? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: With this sickle? The assembly says: Yes. The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in this basket? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: In this basket? The assembly says: Yes.

ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื–ื• ืืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื–ื• ืืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืืงืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืงืฆื•ืจ ืืงืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืงืฆื•ืจ

If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs on Shabbat, the court emissary says to the assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on this Shabbat? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: On this Shabbat? The assembly says: Yes. The court emissary says to those assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves? And they say to him in response: Cut. The emissary repeats: Shall I cut the sheaves? And they say to him: Cut.

ืฉืœืฉ ืคืขืžื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ื”ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืกื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืงืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘

The emissary asks three times with regard to each and every matter, and the assembly says to him: Yes, yes, yes. The mishna asks: Why do I need those involved to publicize each stage of the rite to that extent? The mishna answers: It is due to the Boethusians, as they deny the validity of the Oral Law and would say: There is no harvest of the omer at the conclusion of the first Festival day of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the omer harvest.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืœื ืœื”ืชืขื ืื” ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืงืฆืชื”ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ืžืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื“ื ื™ืกืŸ ืขื“ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ืชื•ืงื ืชืžื™ื“ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ื•ืžืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื•ืชื‘ ื—ื’ื ื“ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited as well: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month, the proper sacrifice of the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. And furthermore, from the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the correct date for the festival of Shavuot was restored, and it was similarly decreed not to eulogize during this period.

ืžืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื“ื ื™ืกืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ืชื•ืงื ืชืžื™ื“ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžืชื ื“ื‘ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืื™ ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืฉื ื™ ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

The Gemara discusses the baraita: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month the proper sacrifice of the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. The Gemara explains that the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bring the daily offering, in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. What verse did the Sadducees expound? โ€œThe one lamb shall you offer [taโ€™aseh] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoonโ€ (Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.

ืžืื™ ืื”ื“ืจื• ืืช ืงืจื‘ื ื™ ืœื—ืžื™ ืœืืฉื™ ืชืฉืžืจื• ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ืœืฉื›ื”

The Gemara asks: What did the Sages reply to refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: โ€œCommand the children of Israel, and say to them: My food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, of a pleasing aroma unto Me, you shall observe [tishmeru] to offer to Me in its due seasonโ€ (Numbers 28:2). The term: โ€œYou shall observeโ€ is in the plural form, which indicates that all of the daily offerings should come from collection of the Temple treasury chamber. Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.

ืžืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื•ืชื‘ ื—ื’ื ื“ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืฆืจืช ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the baraita: From the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the correct date for the festival of Shavuot was restored, and it was similarly decreed not to eulogize during this period. As the Boethusians would say that the festival of Shavuot always occurs after Shabbat, on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the omer offering and the festival of Shavuot that follows seven weeks later: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], from the day that you brought the sheaf [omer] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be completeโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase โ€œfrom the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat]โ€ literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.

ื ื™ื˜ืคืœ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื›ื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื™ื‘ื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืคื˜ืคื˜ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื•ืืžืจ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื” ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ืขืžื“ ื•ืชืงื ื” ืื—ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืชืขื ื’ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ืงืจื ืขืœื™ื• ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืื—ื“ ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืจื‘ ื“ืจืš ื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจ

At the time, Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai joined the discussion with the Boethusians and said to them: Fools! From where have you derived this? And there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [mefatpet] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that Shavuot is only one day. Therefore, he arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days. Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai recited this verse in response to that old man: โ€œIt is eleven daysโ€™ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seirโ€ (Deuteronomy 1:2).

ื•ืื ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœืžื” ืื™ื—ืจืŸ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื›ืš ืืชื” ืคื•ื˜ืจื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืœื ืชื”ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืœืžื” ืฉืœื ื• ื›ืฉื™ื—ื” ื‘ื˜ื™ืœื” ืฉืœื›ื

And if Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people, why did he delay them in the wilderness forty years? The elderly man said to him: My teacher, you dismiss me with this retort? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai said to him: Fool! And will our perfect Torah not be as worthy as your frivolous speech? Your claim can easily be refuted.

ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ืชืžื™ืžืช ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื”

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai cites a proof that Shavuot does not need to occur specifically on a Sunday. One verse states: โ€œEven to the morrow after the seventh week you shall number fifty days; and you shall present a new meal offering to the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 23:16), and one verse, the preceding one, apparently contradicts this when it states: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete.โ€ Is the festival of Shavuot seven full weeks after Passover, i.e., counting from Sunday through Shabbat seven times; or is it fifty days after Passover?

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara explains: How so, i.e., how can one reconcile these two verses? Here, the verse that mentions seven complete weeks, is referring to a year when the festival of Passover occurs on Shabbat. In such a year, the fifty-day period between Passover and Shavuot contains seven complete weeks, from Sunday through Shabbat. There, the verse that defines the period as fifty days, is referring to a year when the festival of Passover occurs in the middle of the week.

ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืกื•ืคืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืขืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ

The Gemara presents a mnemonic for several other proofs in refutation of the claim of the Boethusians: That of Rabbi Eliezer: Number; Rabbi Yehoshua: Count; Rabbi Yishmael: From the omer; Rabbi Yehuda: Below.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจ ืœืš ืกืคื™ืจื” ืชืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื—ื“ืฉ ืžืžื—ืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžื—ืจืช ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ืฆืืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืฉืกืคื™ืจืชื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืื“ื

Rabbi Eliezer says: The previous proof is not necessary, as the verse states: โ€œSeven weeks you shall number for you; from the time the sickle is first put to the standing grain you shall begin to number seven weeksโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9). The term โ€œfor youโ€ indicates that the counting of the weeks is dependent upon the decision of the court, as they know how to calculate the new months, upon which the date of the Festival depends. Therefore, when the verse states: โ€œThe morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat]โ€ (Leviticus 23:16), it means: The morrow after the Festival, as the determination of Festivals is by the court. This serves to exclude the interpretation that the counting starts after the Shabbat of Creation, i.e., a regular weekly Shabbat, whose counting can be performed by every person, not exclusively by the court.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื›ืจ ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื›ืจืช

Citing a different proof, Rabbi Yehoshua says: The Torah said to count days, as it is stated: โ€œA month of daysโ€ (Numbers 11:20), and then sanctify the month with offerings. And the Torah also said to count days from Passover and then sanctify the festival of Shavuot with offerings, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). From this comparison, one can learn that just as the start of the counting toward the new month is known even before it comes, as one begins counting toward the following new month on the first day of a month, so too the start of the counting toward the festival of Shavuot is known even before it comes, as one begins counting toward Shavuot on a fixed day of the month.

ื•ืื ืชืืžืจ ืขืฆืจืช ืœืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ืืš ืชื”ื ื ื™ื›ืจืช ืžืฉืœืคื ื™ื”

The Gemara elaborates: And if you say that the festival of Shavuot always occurs the day after Shabbat, how is the counting toward Shavuot known based on what came before it? If the occurrence of Shavuot depends upon a Shabbat, there would be no specific date after Passover upon which the counting occurs yearly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื‘ื ืขื•ืžืจ ื‘ืคืกื— ื•ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื‘ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ

Rabbi Yishmael says there is another refutation of the Boethusian interpretation. The Torah said: Bring the omer offering on the festival on Passover and the two loaves on Shavuot. Just as there, with regard to the offering on the festival of Shavuot, the two loaves are brought at the beginning of the Festival, as it lasts only one day, so too here, with regard to the festival of Passover, the omer must be brought at the beginning of the Festival. If the omer were to always be brought on a Sunday, this might occur at the end of the festival of Passover. For example, if Passover started on a Monday, the omer would be brought only on the next Sunday, at the end of the Festival.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says there is yet another refutation. It is stated โ€œshabbatโ€ above (Leviticus 23:15), with regard to starting the counting of the omer, and it is also stated โ€œshabbatโ€ below (Leviticus 23:16), with regard to the commencement of the festival of Shavuot. Just as there, with regard to the festival of Shavuot, it is stated: โ€œEven until the morrow after the seventh week [hashabbat] you shall number fifty days,โ€ and the word shabbat is referring to the beginning of the Festival and it immediately follows the end of the seventh week; so too here, with regard to the bringing of the omer, the word shabbat means Festival, so that the omer offering immediately follows the beginning of the Festival, on the second day of Passover. According to the Boethusians, the commencement of the counting could start well after the beginning of Passover. For example, if Passover occurs on a Sunday, the counting of the omer would start only the following Sunday.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกืคืจืชื ืœื›ื ืฉืชื”ื ืกืคื™ืจื” ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], from the day that you brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks there shall be completeโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). The phrase: โ€œAnd you shall count for you,โ€ teaches that the mitzva of counting is not a communal obligation. Rather, there should be a counting by each and every person.

ืžืžื—ืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืžื—ืจืช ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืœืžื—ืจืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื›ืœ ืกืคื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืืชื” ืกื•ืคืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื• ืืœื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื

The baraita continues: From the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], this means from the morrow after the festival of Passover. Or perhaps this is not the meaning of the verse, but rather it means after the Shabbat of Creation, i.e., Sunday. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: This cannot be correct, as the verse states: โ€œEven until the morrow after the seventh week you shall number fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). This teaches that all the countings that you count shall be only fifty days.

ื•ืื ืชืืžืจ ืžืžื—ืจืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื•ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืฉื”

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda elaborates: And if you say that the clause: โ€œFrom the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat],โ€ is referring to the Shabbat of Creation, sometimes you will find a count of fifty-one days from the first day of Passover, which is the date that the count began the previous year, until Shavuot; and sometimes you will find fifty-two, or fifty-three, or fifty-four, or fifty-five, or fifty-six. For example, in one year, Passover occurs on Shabbat, and the counting of the omer would start on Sunday, the sixteenth of Nisan, and Shavuot would occur fifty days later. Another year, Passover occurs on a Friday, and the counting starts on Sunday, then the date that Shavuot will occur this year is fifty-one days from the sixteenth of Nisan. If Passover occurs on a Thursday, and the counting begins on the following Sunday, Shavuot will occur fifty-two days from the sixteenth of Nisan.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: That proof is not necessary,

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Menachot 65

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 65

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืคืชื—ื™ื” ืขืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžื• ืคืชื—ื™ื” ืฉืคื•ืชื— ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื“ื•ืจืฉืŸ ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ

And this is as we learned in a mishna (Shekalim 13b): Petaแธฅya was responsible for the nests of birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a zav, a zava, a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaแธฅya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. This Sage is Mordekhai; and why was he called Petaแธฅya, which resembles the word for opening [petaแธฅ]? The reason is that he would open, i.e., elucidate, difficult topics and interpret them to the people, and because he knew all seventy languages known in that region at the time.

ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื™ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื›ืžื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ืžืจืื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ืงื•ืžื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ื–ืงื ื” ื‘ืขืœื™ ื›ืฉืคื™ื ื•ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ืชื”ื ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขืช ืžืคื™ ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaแธฅya? All of the members of the Sanhedrin also know all seventy languages. As Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: They place on the Great Sanhedrin only men of wisdom, and of pleasant appearance, and of high stature, and of suitable age so that they will be respected. And they must also be masters of sorcery, i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, and they must know all seventy languages in order that the Sanhedrin will not need to hear testimony from the mouth of a translator in a case where a witness speaks a different language.

ืืœื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื™ืœ ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ื•ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ื‘ืœืฉืŸ

The Gemara answers: Rather, Petaแธฅya was unique as he not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to combine various languages and interpret them. This is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Mordekhai: โ€œBilshanโ€ (Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [balil] languages [lashon].

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื›ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ื•ื— ืœืงืฆื•ืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื•ืช ืœืฉื ืžืชื›ื ืกื•ืช ืœืฉื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื ื ืงืฆืจ ื‘ืขืกืง ื’ื“ื•ืœ

MISHNA: How would they perform the rite of the harvest of the omer? Emissaries of the court would emerge on the eve of the festival of Passover and fashion the stalks of barley into sheaves while the stalks were still attached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reap them. The residents of all the towns adjacent to the site of the harvest would assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื—ืฉื™ื›ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื”ืฉืžืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืžื’ืœ ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืžื’ืœ ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืงื•ืคื” ื–ื• ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ

Once it grew dark, the court emissary says to those assembled: Did the sun set? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: Did the sun set? They again say: Yes. The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with this sickle? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: With this sickle? The assembly says: Yes. The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in this basket? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: In this basket? The assembly says: Yes.

ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื–ื• ืืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืช ื–ื• ืืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ืืงืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืงืฆื•ืจ ืืงืฆื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืงืฆื•ืจ

If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs on Shabbat, the court emissary says to the assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on this Shabbat? The assembly says in response: Yes. The emissary repeats: On this Shabbat? The assembly says: Yes. The court emissary says to those assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves? And they say to him in response: Cut. The emissary repeats: Shall I cut the sheaves? And they say to him: Cut.

ืฉืœืฉ ืคืขืžื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ื”ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืกื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืงืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘

The emissary asks three times with regard to each and every matter, and the assembly says to him: Yes, yes, yes. The mishna asks: Why do I need those involved to publicize each stage of the rite to that extent? The mishna answers: It is due to the Boethusians, as they deny the validity of the Oral Law and would say: There is no harvest of the omer at the conclusion of the first Festival day of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the omer harvest.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืœื ืœื”ืชืขื ืื” ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ืžืงืฆืชื”ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ืžืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื“ื ื™ืกืŸ ืขื“ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ืชื•ืงื ืชืžื™ื“ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ื•ืžืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื•ืชื‘ ื—ื’ื ื“ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited as well: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month, the proper sacrifice of the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. And furthermore, from the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the correct date for the festival of Shavuot was restored, and it was similarly decreed not to eulogize during this period.

ืžืจื™ืฉ ื™ืจื—ื ื“ื ื™ืกืŸ ื•ืขื“ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ืชื•ืงื ืชืžื™ื“ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžืชื ื“ื‘ ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืžืื™ ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืฉื ื™ ืชืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

The Gemara discusses the baraita: From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of the month the proper sacrifice of the daily offering was established, and therefore it was decreed not to eulogize on these dates. The Gemara explains that the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bring the daily offering, in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. What verse did the Sadducees expound? โ€œThe one lamb shall you offer [taโ€™aseh] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoonโ€ (Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.

ืžืื™ ืื”ื“ืจื• ืืช ืงืจื‘ื ื™ ืœื—ืžื™ ืœืืฉื™ ืชืฉืžืจื• ืฉื™ื”ื™ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ืœืฉื›ื”

The Gemara asks: What did the Sages reply to refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: โ€œCommand the children of Israel, and say to them: My food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, of a pleasing aroma unto Me, you shall observe [tishmeru] to offer to Me in its due seasonโ€ (Numbers 28:2). The term: โ€œYou shall observeโ€ is in the plural form, which indicates that all of the daily offerings should come from collection of the Temple treasury chamber. Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.

ืžืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื•ืชื‘ ื—ื’ื ื“ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื ื“ืœื ืœืžืกืคื“ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื‘ื™ื™ืชื•ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืฆืจืช ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the baraita: From the eighth of Nisan until the end of the festival of Passover, the correct date for the festival of Shavuot was restored, and it was similarly decreed not to eulogize during this period. As the Boethusians would say that the festival of Shavuot always occurs after Shabbat, on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the omer offering and the festival of Shavuot that follows seven weeks later: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], from the day that you brought the sheaf [omer] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be completeโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase โ€œfrom the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat]โ€ literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.

ื ื™ื˜ืคืœ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื›ื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื™ื‘ื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื–ืงืŸ ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืคื˜ืคื˜ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื•ืืžืจ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื” ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืขืฆืจืช ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ืขืžื“ ื•ืชืงื ื” ืื—ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืชืขื ื’ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ืงืจื ืขืœื™ื• ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืื—ื“ ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ืžื—ื•ืจื‘ ื“ืจืš ื”ืจ ืฉืขื™ืจ

At the time, Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai joined the discussion with the Boethusians and said to them: Fools! From where have you derived this? And there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [mefatpet] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that Shavuot is only one day. Therefore, he arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days. Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai recited this verse in response to that old man: โ€œIt is eleven daysโ€™ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seirโ€ (Deuteronomy 1:2).

ื•ืื ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื•ื”ื‘ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœืžื” ืื™ื—ืจืŸ ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื›ืš ืืชื” ืคื•ื˜ืจื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืœื ืชื”ื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืœืžื” ืฉืœื ื• ื›ืฉื™ื—ื” ื‘ื˜ื™ืœื” ืฉืœื›ื

And if Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people, why did he delay them in the wilderness forty years? The elderly man said to him: My teacher, you dismiss me with this retort? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai said to him: Fool! And will our perfect Torah not be as worthy as your frivolous speech? Your claim can easily be refuted.

ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื—ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืข ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ืชืžื™ืžืช ืชื”ื™ื™ื ื”

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai cites a proof that Shavuot does not need to occur specifically on a Sunday. One verse states: โ€œEven to the morrow after the seventh week you shall number fifty days; and you shall present a new meal offering to the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 23:16), and one verse, the preceding one, apparently contradicts this when it states: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete.โ€ Is the festival of Shavuot seven full weeks after Passover, i.e., counting from Sunday through Shabbat seven times; or is it fifty days after Passover?

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara explains: How so, i.e., how can one reconcile these two verses? Here, the verse that mentions seven complete weeks, is referring to a year when the festival of Passover occurs on Shabbat. In such a year, the fifty-day period between Passover and Shavuot contains seven complete weeks, from Sunday through Shabbat. There, the verse that defines the period as fifty days, is referring to a year when the festival of Passover occurs in the middle of the week.

ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืกื•ืคืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžื•ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืขืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ

The Gemara presents a mnemonic for several other proofs in refutation of the claim of the Boethusians: That of Rabbi Eliezer: Number; Rabbi Yehoshua: Count; Rabbi Yishmael: From the omer; Rabbi Yehuda: Below.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจ ืœืš ืกืคื™ืจื” ืชืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื—ื“ืฉ ืžืžื—ืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžื—ืจืช ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ืฆืืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืฉืกืคื™ืจืชื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืื“ื

Rabbi Eliezer says: The previous proof is not necessary, as the verse states: โ€œSeven weeks you shall number for you; from the time the sickle is first put to the standing grain you shall begin to number seven weeksโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:9). The term โ€œfor youโ€ indicates that the counting of the weeks is dependent upon the decision of the court, as they know how to calculate the new months, upon which the date of the Festival depends. Therefore, when the verse states: โ€œThe morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat]โ€ (Leviticus 23:16), it means: The morrow after the Festival, as the determination of Festivals is by the court. This serves to exclude the interpretation that the counting starts after the Shabbat of Creation, i.e., a regular weekly Shabbat, whose counting can be performed by every person, not exclusively by the court.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืžื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ื—ื“ืฉ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื›ืจ ืืฃ ืขืฆืจืช ืกืžื•ืš ืœื‘ื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื›ืจืช

Citing a different proof, Rabbi Yehoshua says: The Torah said to count days, as it is stated: โ€œA month of daysโ€ (Numbers 11:20), and then sanctify the month with offerings. And the Torah also said to count days from Passover and then sanctify the festival of Shavuot with offerings, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall count fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). From this comparison, one can learn that just as the start of the counting toward the new month is known even before it comes, as one begins counting toward the following new month on the first day of a month, so too the start of the counting toward the festival of Shavuot is known even before it comes, as one begins counting toward Shavuot on a fixed day of the month.

ื•ืื ืชืืžืจ ืขืฆืจืช ืœืขื•ืœื ืื—ืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ืืš ืชื”ื ื ื™ื›ืจืช ืžืฉืœืคื ื™ื”

The Gemara elaborates: And if you say that the festival of Shavuot always occurs the day after Shabbat, how is the counting toward Shavuot known based on what came before it? If the occurrence of Shavuot depends upon a Shabbat, there would be no specific date after Passover upon which the counting occurs yearly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื”ื‘ื ืขื•ืžืจ ื‘ืคืกื— ื•ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื‘ืขืฆืจืช ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ

Rabbi Yishmael says there is another refutation of the Boethusian interpretation. The Torah said: Bring the omer offering on the festival on Passover and the two loaves on Shavuot. Just as there, with regard to the offering on the festival of Shavuot, the two loaves are brought at the beginning of the Festival, as it lasts only one day, so too here, with regard to the festival of Passover, the omer must be brought at the beginning of the Festival. If the omer were to always be brought on a Sunday, this might occur at the end of the festival of Passover. For example, if Passover started on a Monday, the omer would be brought only on the next Sunday, at the end of the Festival.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื ืืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ืจื’ืœ ื•ืชื—ืœืช ืจื’ืœ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื”

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says there is yet another refutation. It is stated โ€œshabbatโ€ above (Leviticus 23:15), with regard to starting the counting of the omer, and it is also stated โ€œshabbatโ€ below (Leviticus 23:16), with regard to the commencement of the festival of Shavuot. Just as there, with regard to the festival of Shavuot, it is stated: โ€œEven until the morrow after the seventh week [hashabbat] you shall number fifty days,โ€ and the word shabbat is referring to the beginning of the Festival and it immediately follows the end of the seventh week; so too here, with regard to the bringing of the omer, the word shabbat means Festival, so that the omer offering immediately follows the beginning of the Festival, on the second day of Passover. According to the Boethusians, the commencement of the counting could start well after the beginning of Passover. For example, if Passover occurs on a Sunday, the counting of the omer would start only the following Sunday.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกืคืจืชื ืœื›ื ืฉืชื”ื ืกืคื™ืจื” ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], from the day that you brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks there shall be completeโ€ (Leviticus 23:15). The phrase: โ€œAnd you shall count for you,โ€ teaches that the mitzva of counting is not a communal obligation. Rather, there should be a counting by each and every person.

ืžืžื—ืจืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืžืžื—ืจืช ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืœืžื—ืจืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืกืคืจื• ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื›ืœ ืกืคื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืืชื” ืกื•ืคืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื• ืืœื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื

The baraita continues: From the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat], this means from the morrow after the festival of Passover. Or perhaps this is not the meaning of the verse, but rather it means after the Shabbat of Creation, i.e., Sunday. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: This cannot be correct, as the verse states: โ€œEven until the morrow after the seventh week you shall number fifty daysโ€ (Leviticus 23:16). This teaches that all the countings that you count shall be only fifty days.

ื•ืื ืชืืžืจ ืžืžื—ืจืช ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื•ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉืฉื”

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda elaborates: And if you say that the clause: โ€œFrom the morrow after the day of rest [hashabbat],โ€ is referring to the Shabbat of Creation, sometimes you will find a count of fifty-one days from the first day of Passover, which is the date that the count began the previous year, until Shavuot; and sometimes you will find fifty-two, or fifty-three, or fifty-four, or fifty-five, or fifty-six. For example, in one year, Passover occurs on Shabbat, and the counting of the omer would start on Sunday, the sixteenth of Nisan, and Shavuot would occur fifty days later. Another year, Passover occurs on a Friday, and the counting starts on Sunday, then the date that Shavuot will occur this year is fifty-one days from the sixteenth of Nisan. If Passover occurs on a Thursday, and the counting begins on the following Sunday, Shavuot will occur fifty-two days from the sixteenth of Nisan.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ืจื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš

Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: That proof is not necessary,

Scroll To Top