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Today's Daf Yomi

November 5, 2018 | ื›ืดื– ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Menachot 87

What kind of wine can be used in libations? What sizes of dry measuring cups were used? Were there different types?


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ื”ืงืžื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื•ืœื™ื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฉืžืจื™ื ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืฉืœื™ืฉื” ืžืืžืฆืขื”

the flour-like white scum that floats on the surface, nor from the wine at bottom of the cask due to the sediment that collects there. Rather, one brings from the wine in its middle third.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื”ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ื”ืงื ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื”

How does the Temple treasurer inspect the wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The treasurer sits alongside the cask and has the measuring reed in his hand. The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. When he sees that the wine emerging draws with it chalk-like scum [hagir], he immediately knocks with the reed to indicate that the spigot should be closed.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืงืžื—ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืžื™ืžื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื›ื ื•ืžื ื—ืชื ืชืžื™ืžื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื›ื ื•ื ืกื›ื™ื”ื

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations, as it is stated with regard to animal offerings: โ€œUnblemished they shall be for youโ€ฆand their meal offering shall be fine flour mixed with oilโ€ฆunblemished they shall be for you, and their libationsโ€ (Numbers 28:19โ€“20, 31). This indicates that animal offerings, meal offerings, and libations must all be brought from flawless products. Therefore, the presence of flour-like white scum in wine renders it unfit.

ื’ืžืณ ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืžืชื•ืง ื•ืœื ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ื•ืœื ืžืขื•ืฉืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ื•ื”ื ืงืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ

GEMARA: The mishna teaches: One may not bring libations from sweet wine, nor from boiled wine, nor from wine produced from smoked grapes, and if one did bring a libation from such wine, it is not valid. The Gemara asks: But doesnโ€™t the first clause teach: One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring a libation from such wine it is valid? How can one clause teach that a libation of one type of sweet wine is valid, and the other clause teach that a libation of another type of sweet wine is not valid?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื›ืจื•ืš ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ื ื“ืฉื™ืžืฉื ืœื ืžืื™ืก ื—ื•ืœื™ื ื“ืคื™ืจื ืžืื™ืก

Ravina said: The text of the mishna is corrupt. To correct it, combine the two clauses into one and teach with regard to all the wines mentioned that they are unfit to be used for libations. Rav Ashi said: The text of the mishna is correct. The reason for the difference between the two wines is that the sweetness of grapes sweetended by the sun is not objectionable, so libations of wine made from such grapes are valid, while sweetness that results from the sugars of the fruit itself is objectionable, so libations of wine made from such grapes are not valid.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื‘ืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืชื• ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืชื•

ยง The mishna teaches: One may not bring wine aged for one year; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, but the Rabbis deem it valid. The Gemara provides the source for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s ruling. Rabbi แธคizkiyya said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The verse states with regard to the libations that accompany the New Moon offering: โ€œAnd their libations: Half a hin for a bull, a third of a hin for a ram, and a quarter of a hin for a lamb, of wineโ€ (Numbers 28:14). The juxtaposition of the terms lamb and wine teaches that just as a lamb is fit to be used as an offering only if brought in its first year, so too wine is fit to be used as a libation only if it is in its first year.

ืื™ ืžื” ื›ื‘ืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืœื ื™ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืœื ื™ื‘ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจ ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ

The Gemara ask: If so, take the analogy further and conclude that just as if one offers a lamb in its second year, it is not valid, so too a libation of wine in its second year is not valid. And if you would say that this is indeed the halakha, that is difficult: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that wine in its second year may not be brought ab initio, but if one did bring it as a libation, it is valid? That baraita certainly expresses the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as whom did you hear who said that aged wine may not be brought? Only Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who explicitly states this opinion in the mishna. And yet he says in the baraita: If one did bring a libation of aged wine, it is valid. According to Rabbi แธคizkiyyaโ€™s explanation of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s opinion, such an opinion is illogical.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ืชืจื ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืชืื“ื

Rather, Rava said: This is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: As it is written in the verse exhorting a person not to be enticed by fine wines: โ€œLook not upon the wine when it is redโ€ (Proverbs 23:31). Evidently, the redness of wine is indicative of its quality. After a year, wine begins to lose its redness and so it should not be used, ab initio. Nevertheless, it is still of a sufficient quality to be acceptable, after the fact.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืœื™ื•ืช ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื›ืจืžื™ื ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื™ื ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: One may not bring wine produced from grapes suspended on stakes or trees; rather, one brings wine produced from grapes at foot height and from vineyards that are cultivated. The definition of vineyards that are cultivated is clarified in a baraita that taught: Vineyards that are cultivated twice a year. This is done by hoeing the earth underneath the vines.

ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืงืจื ื ื“ืคืจื“ื™ืกื ื“ืจืคื™ืง ื‘ื™ื” ื˜ืคื™ ืจื™ืคืงื ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื—ืžืจื ื“ื“ืจื™ ืžื™ื ืขืœ ื—ื“ ืชืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara relates the efficacy of cultivating the land twice a year: Rav Yosef had a tract of land that was used an orchard [depardeisa] to which he used to give an extra hoeing, and consequently it produced wine of such superior quality that when preparing the wine for drinking it required a dilution using twice the amount of water than that which is usually used to dilute wine.

ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื›ื•ื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื—ืฆื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืชื ื ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ื•ืช ืœื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื•ืช

ยง The mishna teaches: When people produced wine for libations they would not collect the wine into large barrels, as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it would be placed in small casks. The Sages taught in a baraita: The casks referred to by the mishna are flasks that are made in Lod and that are medium-sized.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืฉืชื™ื ืืœื ืื—ืช ืื—ืช

The Gemara adds another halakha: When storing casks containing wine for libations, they should not be placed in twos, i.e., one atop the other, but rather singly, i.e., each one should be placed separately.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืงื ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื” ืชื ื ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉืžืจื™ื ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: How does the Temple treasurer inspect wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The treasurer sits alongside the cask and has the measuring reed in his hand. The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. If he sees that the wine emerging draws with it chalk-like scum, he immediately knocks with the reed to indicate that the spigot should be closed. The precise point at which he knocks is clarified in a baraita that taught: If the wine draws with it chalk-like scum, which comes from the sediment, he knocks with the reed.

ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžืจ ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื™ืคื” ืœื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื›ืš ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืข ืœื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: Why does the treasurer knock with the reed; let him simply speak. The Gemara explains: This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Just as speech is beneficial to the incense spices, so is speech detrimental to wine, and so the treasurer avoids speaking.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื™ืฉื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืœืงื” ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืคืกื•ืœ ื›ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ื“ืžื™ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ืชื™ืงื•

ยง The mishna teaches: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raises a dilemma concerning such wine: If one consecrated it to be used as a libation, what is the halakha with regard to whether he should be flogged for consecrating it due to the prohibition against consecrating a flawed item as an offering? Does one say that since it is unfit, it is comparable to a blemished animal? Or perhaps, the prohibition to consecrate a flawed item applies only to an animal. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื™ื ืžืžื•ืื‘ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ืžื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืขื’ืœื™ื ืžืฉืจื•ืŸ ื’ื•ื–ืœื•ืช ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš

ยง Having discussed which flours, oils, and wine are fit to be offered in the Temple, the Gemara considers which animals are of sufficient quality to be used as offerings. The Sages taught in a baraita: The choicest rams are those from Moab; the choicest lambs are those from Hebron; the choicest calves are those from Sharon; and the choicest fledglings, i.e., doves and pigeons, are those from the Kingโ€™s Mountain.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ืฉื’ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืจื—ื‘ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืจืขื” ืžืงื ืš ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ืจ ื ืจื—ื‘

Rabbi Yehuda says: One should bring lambs whose height is like their width, i.e., they are so robust that they are as wide as they are tall. Rava bar Rav Sheila said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: โ€œAnd He will give the rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground, and bread of the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and bountiful; your cattle shall graze in wide pastures [kar nirแธฅav] on that dayโ€ (Isaiah 30:23). The word โ€œkarโ€ can also mean a lamb, and โ€œnirแธฅavโ€ means wide. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehuda interprets this verse, on a homiletical level, to be alluding to robust sheep.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืžืชื™ืš ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื”ืคืงื“ืชื™ ืฉืžืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ืชืžื™ื“ ืœื ื™ื—ืฉื• ื”ืžื–ื›ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœ ื“ืžื™ ืœื›ื ืžืื™ ืืžืจื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืืชื” ืชืงื•ื ืชืจื—ื ืฆื™ื•ืŸ

The chapter concludes by quoting an additional prophecy of Isaiah concerning the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael: It is written: โ€œI have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem; they shall never be silent day nor night; those who remind the Lord, take no restโ€ (Isaiah 62:6). This is referring to the angels appointed by God to bring the redemption. The Gemara asks: What do these watchmen say to remind the Lord? This is what Rava bar Rav Sheila said: They recite the verse: โ€œYou will arise and have compassion upon Zion; for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has comeโ€ (Psalms 102:14).

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ื ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื”ืณ ื•ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื• ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ื›ื™ ื‘ื—ืจ ื”ืณ ื‘ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืื•ื” ืœืžื•ืฉื‘ ืœื•

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: They recite the verse: โ€œThe Lord builds up Jerusalem, He gathers together the dispersed of Israelโ€ (Psalms 147:2). The Gemara asks: And initially, when the Temple still stood and the Jewish people were gathered together in Eretz Yisrael, what would the watchmen say? Rava bar Rav Sheila says: They would say: โ€œFor the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His habitation. This is My resting place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired itโ€ (Psalms 132:13โ€“14).

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื›ืœ ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืฉืชื™ ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื‘ืฉ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ

MISHNA: Two sizes of measuring vessels for dry substances were used in the Temple for measuring flour for the meal offerings. One held a tenth of an ephah and the other held one-half of a tenth of an ephah. Rabbi Meir says: There were three measuring vessels; one that held a tenth of an ephah, another one that also held a tenth of an ephah, and a third one that held onehalf of a tenth of an ephah.

ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ ืืœื ืžื•ื“ื“ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ื ื•ืช

What purpose did the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure flour for all the meal offerings. One would not measure the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that held the entire volume of flour required at once, i.e., neither with a vessel of three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a bull, nor with a vessel of two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a ram. Rather, one measures the flour for them by repeatedly using the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel to measure the required number of tenths.

ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

What purpose did the onehalf of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed half of it in the morning and the other half of it in the afternoon.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉืฉืชื™ ืขืฉืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื—ื•ืง

GEMARA: The Gemara cites a baraita that clarifies Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: What is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA tenth, a tenth, for every lambโ€ (Numbers 28:29)? The fact the word โ€œtenthโ€ appears twice teaches that there were two measuring vessels that each held a tenth of an ephah in the Temple. One of them held that volume when it was heaped, and the other one was slightly larger and held that same volume when the flour was leveled with the rim.

ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช

The one that held a tenth of an ephah when heaped was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for all the meal offerings.

ืžื—ื•ืง ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The one that held a tenth of an ephah when leveled was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, and then that flour would be divided into two equal parts.

ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ืืœื ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ

And the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Meir and say: There was only one measuring vessel that held a tenth of an ephah there in the Temple, as it is stated: โ€œAnd one tenth-part for every lambโ€ (Numbers 29:4). But if so, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA tenth, a tenth, for every lambโ€ (Numbers 28:29)? Rabbi Meir derived from the repetition of โ€œa tenthโ€ that there were two measuring vessels that held a tenth of an ephah. How do the Rabbis expound that? They hold it serves to include another measuring vessel for dry substances, one that holds one-half of a tenth of an ephah.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื™ื• ืœื ื“ืจืฉื™

Having cited the baraita, the Gemara discusses each opinion: And as for Rabbi Meir, from where does he derive that there was a measuring vessel that held one-half of a tenth of an ephah? He derives it from the superfluous โ€œandโ€ in the phrase โ€œand one tenth-part for every lamb.โ€ The Gemara asks: And as for the Rabbis, why donโ€™t they expound this from the term โ€œandโ€? They do not derive anything from โ€œand.โ€ They hold that the addition of the word is not significant enough to be expounded.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ืื™ ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: And as for Rabbi Meir, this verse: โ€œAnd one tenth-part for every lamb,โ€ from which the Rabbis derive that there was only one measuring vessel of a tenth of an ephah, what does he do with it? The Gemara answers: That verse teaches that one should not measure the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that holds the entire volume of flour required, i.e., neither with a vessel that holds three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a bull, nor with a vessel that holds two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a ram. Rather, one measures the flour for them by using the tenth-ephah measuring vessel multiple times.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžื ืงื•ื“ื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืžื” ื ืงื•ื“ ื•ื™ื• ืฉื‘ืืžืฆืข ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืงื•ื“ื• ืœื ื“ืจื™ืฉ

The Gemara asks: And as for the Rabbis, from where do they derive that halakha? The Gemara explains: They derive it from its dot. In the Torah text, a dot appears above the term โ€œa tenth.โ€ This is as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Why is the letter vav in the middle of the term โ€œa tenth [issaron]โ€ dotted the first time that the term โ€œa tenthโ€ appears in the verse concerning the first festival day of the Festival of Sukkot? The verse there states: โ€œAnd a tenth, a tenth, for every lamb of the fourteen lambsโ€ (Numbers 29:15). This serves to teach that one should not measure flour using a vessel of a size that holds the entire volume required, i.e., neither with a vessel that holds three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering of a bull, nor with a vessel that holds two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering of a ram. And as for Rabbi Meir, what does he derive from the dot? He does not derive anything from its dot. He holds that the dot is not significant enough to be expounded.

ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

ยง The mishna teaches: What purpose did the one-half of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed half in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. From the mishna it appears that each half-tenth is measured separately.

ืžื•ื“ื“ ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื—ืฆืื™ืŸ ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื•ื—ื•ืฆื”ื•

The mishna indicates that the half-tenth vessel was used for measuring. And the Gemara raises a contradiction to this from a mishna (50b): The twelve loaves of matza, baked from a tenth of an ephah of flour, of the griddle-cake offering of the High Priest did not come from the house of the High Priest in halves. Rather, the High Priest brings from his house a complete tenth of an ephah of flour (see Leviticus 6:13) and divides it in half, and he sacrifices half in the morning and half in the afternoon. It is apparent from this mishna that the tenth of an ephah is first measured in its entirety and only then divided.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืื™ ืžื•ื“ื“ ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืžื—ืœืง

To resolve the contradiction Rav Sheshet said: What is the meaning of: Used for measuring, that the mishna here teaches? It means only that the High Priest would divide the tenth of an ephah into two equal portions using the half-tenth measure, but the quantity would initially be measured in its entirety, as the mishna on 50b states.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ืื• ืžื—ื•ืง ื”ื™ื”

ยง In light of Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion that there were two vessels for measuring a tenth of an ephah, one that held its measure when leveled and one when it was heaped, Rami bar แธคama raised a dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the one-half of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, was it one that held its measure when heaped or was it one that held its measure when leveled?

(ืกื™ืžืŸ ื—ืฆื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ืฉืœื—ืŸ)

Before citing Rav แธคisdaโ€™s response, the Gemara provides a mnemonic that alludes to the three dilemmas it will immediately present: Half; griddle-cake offering; Table. This alludes to one-half of a tenth of an ephah; the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering; and the shewbread Table.

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ืื• ืžื—ื•ืง ื”ื™ื”

Rav แธคisda said to Rami bar แธคama: But why do you ask specifically with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Meir? The dilemma can be raised according to the opinion of the Rabbis. Rami bar แธคama answered: According to the opinion of the Rabbis, it would be with regard to the measuring vessel of a tenth of an ephah itself that one raises the dilemma, asking whether it was one that held its measure when heaped or was one that held its measure when leveled. The dilemma I raised concerned the half-tenth vessel, which is pertinent specifically according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as he holds that there were both heaped and leveled measuring vessels of a tenth of an ephah.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ

In answer to Rami bar แธคamaโ€™s dilemma, Rav แธคisda said to him: From the opinion of Rabbi Meir concerning the vessel of a tenth of an ephah we can extrapolate what Rabbi Meir holds concerning the vessel of one-half of a tenth of an ephah; and from that opinion of Rabbi Meir we can extrapolate what the Rabbis hold concerning both vessels.

ืžื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื—ื•ืง ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžื—ื•ืง ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื—ื•ืง ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžื—ื•ืง

Rav แธคisda elaborates: From the fact that Rabbi Meir said that the vessel of a tenth of an ephah used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering held its measure when leveled, we can extrapolate that the vessel of one-half of a tenth, as well, was such that it held its measure when leveled. It is reasonable that since both vessels were used for the same offering, they should be of the same type. And from the fact that Rabbi Meir holds that vessels used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering held their measures when leveled, we can extrapolate that also according to the Rabbis, who hold that both vessels were used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, both of them held their measures when leveled.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืžื” ืžื—ืœืงืŸ ืœื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ ืื• ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื“ื‘ื™ื“ ื“ืื™ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื˜ื•ืจื˜ื ื™ ื™ื›ื ื™ืก

Rami bar แธคama raised another dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the dough used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, with what would one divide it into the loaves of the offering, six in the morning and six in the afternoon? Was the division done with oneโ€™s hand or with a measuring vessel? Rav แธคisda said to him: It is obvious that it was divided with oneโ€™s hand, as if one suggests that it was done with a measuring vessel, would one bring scales [turtanei] into the Temple courtyard for this purpose?

ื•ื™ื›ื ื™ืก ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืงืœืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื

Rami bar แธคama responds: And let him bring scales into the courtyard. Rav แธคisda explains: Since in Godโ€™s admonition of the Jewish people the act of weighing bread is written as part of a curse: โ€œWhen I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and you shall eat and not be satisfiedโ€ (Leviticus 26:26), as weighing bread is generally performed only at a time of famine, therefore it is not proper conduct to weigh the dough in the Temple.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื“ืฉ ืงืžืฆื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืฉ ืฉืœื• ืžื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื—ื ืงืžืฆื™ื ื ืžื™ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื“ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืงื“ืฉ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืงื“ืฉ

Rami bar แธคama raised another dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the shewbread Table, what is the halakha as to whether it consecrates handfuls removed from meal offerings or from frankincense that were not consecrated by being placed in a service vessel, as they should have been, but were instead placed on the upper part of the Table, between the rows of shewbread? The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: Does one say that from the fact that the Table consecrates the loaves of shewbread placed upon it, it follows that it also consecrates handfuls placed upon it? Or perhaps the Table consecrates only that which is fit for it, i.e., the loaves, but it does not consecrate that which is not fit for it, such as the handfuls.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืงื•ืคืœ ื ืžืฆื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ื—ืžืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื˜ืคื— ืœืžืขืœื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืงื•ืคืœ ื ืžืฆื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื˜ืคื— ืœืžืขืœื”

Rav แธคisda said to him: The Table does not consecrate these handfuls. Rami bar แธคama retorted: Is that so? But didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say: The shewbread loaves were longer than the length of the Table. Accordingly, it was necessary to fold the edges of the loaves in order that they would rest entirely upon the Table itself and not protrude past its edges. How much of each side needed to be folded up is subject to a tannaitic dispute concerning the length of the Table (see 96a). According to the statement of the one who says that one folds two and a half handbreadths from each side of the loaves, it emerges that the Table consecrates fifteen handbreadths above it, as there were six loaves on each side of the Table, which were each two and a half handbreadths high. And according to the statement of the one who says that one folds two handbreadths from each side of the loaves, it emerges that the Table consecrates twelve handbreadths above it. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan stated that the Table consecrates that which is placed above it, regardless of whether it is fit for the Table or not.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื™ืคืกืœ

Rav แธคisda said to him: When I said that the Table does not consecrate the handfuls, I meant that it does not consecrate them to the extent that they can be sacrificed on the altar. But it certainly consecrates them to the extent that they will be disqualified by the same disqualifications that apply to handfuls that were consecrated by being placed in a service vessel, e.g., by being left overnight or by coming in contact with a ritually impure person who had immersed that day.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืฉื‘ืข ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื— ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ

MISHNA: There were seven measuring vessels for liquids in the Temple. There was a vessel of one hin, i.e., twelve log. Three vessels were used to measure the oil and wine for the meal offerings and libations that accompanied the sacrifice of an animal. For a bull there was a vessel of onehalf of a hin, i.e., six log; and for a ram there was one of one-third of a hin, i.e., four log; and for a lamb there was one of one-quarter of a hin, i.e., three log.

ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’

In addition, there was a vessel that held one log to measure the oil for all standard meal offerings; and another one that held onehalf of a log for measuring the water used in the rite of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] and also for the oil used in the loaves accompanying the thanks offering (see 88a); and another one that held one-quarter of a log for measuring the water used in the purification of a leper and also for the oil used in the wafers and loaves that the nazirite brings on the day that his term of naziriteship ends.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ืชื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื”ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœืคืจ ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœืื™ืœ ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ

Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: It was not necessary to have several vessels of different sizes; rather, there were graduations [shenatot] on the vessel that held one hin indicating that until here is the quantity needed for the bull, and until here is the quantity needed for the ram, and until here is the quantity needed for the lamb.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ ืืœื ืžื“ื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

Rabbi Shimon says: There was no vessel there in the Temple that held one hin, as what purpose could a one-hin vessel serve? That volume of liquid was never used in an offering. Rather, there was an additional measuring vessel of one and a half log there, in the Temple, which completed the tally of seven vessels, with which one would measure the oil used for the griddle-cake meal offering of the High Priest; one and a half log were used in the morning and one and a half log in the afternoon.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืข ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื— ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: There were seven measuring vessels for liquids in the Temple. Listed in ascending order of size, they held: One-quarter of a log; one-half of a log; one log; one-quarter of a hin; one-third of a hin; one-half of a hin; and one hin. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says that there were these seven vessels but he lists them in descending order: One hin; one-half of a hin; one-third of a hin; one-quarter of a hin; one log; one-half of a log; and one-quarter of a log. Rabbi Shimon says: There was no vessel there in the Temple that held one hin, as what purpose could a one-hin vessel serve? That volume of liquid was never used in an offering.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Menachot 87

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 87

ื”ืงืžื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื•ืœื™ื” ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฉืžืจื™ื ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืฉืœื™ืฉื” ืžืืžืฆืขื”

the flour-like white scum that floats on the surface, nor from the wine at bottom of the cask due to the sediment that collects there. Rather, one brings from the wine in its middle third.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื”ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ื”ืงื ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื”

How does the Temple treasurer inspect the wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The treasurer sits alongside the cask and has the measuring reed in his hand. The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. When he sees that the wine emerging draws with it chalk-like scum [hagir], he immediately knocks with the reed to indicate that the spigot should be closed.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืงืžื—ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืžื™ืžื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื›ื ื•ืžื ื—ืชื ืชืžื™ืžื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื›ื ื•ื ืกื›ื™ื”ื

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations, as it is stated with regard to animal offerings: โ€œUnblemished they shall be for youโ€ฆand their meal offering shall be fine flour mixed with oilโ€ฆunblemished they shall be for you, and their libationsโ€ (Numbers 28:19โ€“20, 31). This indicates that animal offerings, meal offerings, and libations must all be brought from flawless products. Therefore, the presence of flour-like white scum in wine renders it unfit.

ื’ืžืณ ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืžืชื•ืง ื•ืœื ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ื•ืœื ืžืขื•ืฉืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ื•ื”ื ืงืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ

GEMARA: The mishna teaches: One may not bring libations from sweet wine, nor from boiled wine, nor from wine produced from smoked grapes, and if one did bring a libation from such wine, it is not valid. The Gemara asks: But doesnโ€™t the first clause teach: One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring a libation from such wine it is valid? How can one clause teach that a libation of one type of sweet wine is valid, and the other clause teach that a libation of another type of sweet wine is not valid?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื›ืจื•ืš ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื—ื•ืœื™ื ื“ืฉื™ืžืฉื ืœื ืžืื™ืก ื—ื•ืœื™ื ื“ืคื™ืจื ืžืื™ืก

Ravina said: The text of the mishna is corrupt. To correct it, combine the two clauses into one and teach with regard to all the wines mentioned that they are unfit to be used for libations. Rav Ashi said: The text of the mishna is correct. The reason for the difference between the two wines is that the sweetness of grapes sweetended by the sun is not objectionable, so libations of wine made from such grapes are valid, while sweetness that results from the sugars of the fruit itself is objectionable, so libations of wine made from such grapes are not valid.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ื—ื–ืงื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื” ื›ื‘ืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืชื• ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ืชื•

ยง The mishna teaches: One may not bring wine aged for one year; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, but the Rabbis deem it valid. The Gemara provides the source for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s ruling. Rabbi แธคizkiyya said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The verse states with regard to the libations that accompany the New Moon offering: โ€œAnd their libations: Half a hin for a bull, a third of a hin for a ram, and a quarter of a hin for a lamb, of wineโ€ (Numbers 28:14). The juxtaposition of the terms lamb and wine teaches that just as a lamb is fit to be used as an offering only if brought in its first year, so too wine is fit to be used as a libation only if it is in its first year.

ืื™ ืžื” ื›ื‘ืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœ ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืœื ื™ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืœื ื™ื‘ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจ ืื ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืฉืจ

The Gemara ask: If so, take the analogy further and conclude that just as if one offers a lamb in its second year, it is not valid, so too a libation of wine in its second year is not valid. And if you would say that this is indeed the halakha, that is difficult: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that wine in its second year may not be brought ab initio, but if one did bring it as a libation, it is valid? That baraita certainly expresses the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as whom did you hear who said that aged wine may not be brought? Only Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who explicitly states this opinion in the mishna. And yet he says in the baraita: If one did bring a libation of aged wine, it is valid. According to Rabbi แธคizkiyyaโ€™s explanation of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s opinion, such an opinion is illogical.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ืชืจื ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืชืื“ื

Rather, Rava said: This is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: As it is written in the verse exhorting a person not to be enticed by fine wines: โ€œLook not upon the wine when it is redโ€ (Proverbs 23:31). Evidently, the redness of wine is indicative of its quality. After a year, wine begins to lose its redness and so it should not be used, ab initio. Nevertheless, it is still of a sufficient quality to be acceptable, after the fact.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื“ืœื™ื•ืช ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื›ืจืžื™ื ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื™ื ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: One may not bring wine produced from grapes suspended on stakes or trees; rather, one brings wine produced from grapes at foot height and from vineyards that are cultivated. The definition of vineyards that are cultivated is clarified in a baraita that taught: Vineyards that are cultivated twice a year. This is done by hoeing the earth underneath the vines.

ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืงืจื ื ื“ืคืจื“ื™ืกื ื“ืจืคื™ืง ื‘ื™ื” ื˜ืคื™ ืจื™ืคืงื ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื—ืžืจื ื“ื“ืจื™ ืžื™ื ืขืœ ื—ื“ ืชืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara relates the efficacy of cultivating the land twice a year: Rav Yosef had a tract of land that was used an orchard [depardeisa] to which he used to give an extra hoeing, and consequently it produced wine of such superior quality that when preparing the wine for drinking it required a dilution using twice the amount of water than that which is usually used to dilute wine.

ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื›ื•ื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ื—ืฆื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืชื ื ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ื•ืช ืœื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื•ืช

ยง The mishna teaches: When people produced wine for libations they would not collect the wine into large barrels, as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it would be placed in small casks. The Sages taught in a baraita: The casks referred to by the mishna are flasks that are made in Lod and that are medium-sized.

ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืฉืชื™ื ืืœื ืื—ืช ืื—ืช

The Gemara adds another halakha: When storing casks containing wine for libations, they should not be placed in twos, i.e., one atop the other, but rather singly, i.e., each one should be placed separately.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืงื ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื” ืชื ื ื–ืจืง ื”ื’ื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉืžืจื™ื ื’ื–ื‘ืจ ื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืงื ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: How does the Temple treasurer inspect wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The treasurer sits alongside the cask and has the measuring reed in his hand. The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. If he sees that the wine emerging draws with it chalk-like scum, he immediately knocks with the reed to indicate that the spigot should be closed. The precise point at which he knocks is clarified in a baraita that taught: If the wine draws with it chalk-like scum, which comes from the sediment, he knocks with the reed.

ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžืจ ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื™ืคื” ืœื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื›ืš ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืข ืœื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: Why does the treasurer knock with the reed; let him simply speak. The Gemara explains: This supports the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Just as speech is beneficial to the incense spices, so is speech detrimental to wine, and so the treasurer avoids speaking.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื™ืฉื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืœืงื” ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืคืกื•ืœ ื›ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ื“ืžื™ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ื ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ืชื™ืงื•

ยง The mishna teaches: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raises a dilemma concerning such wine: If one consecrated it to be used as a libation, what is the halakha with regard to whether he should be flogged for consecrating it due to the prohibition against consecrating a flawed item as an offering? Does one say that since it is unfit, it is comparable to a blemished animal? Or perhaps, the prohibition to consecrate a flawed item applies only to an animal. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื™ื ืžืžื•ืื‘ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ืžื—ื‘ืจื•ืŸ ืขื’ืœื™ื ืžืฉืจื•ืŸ ื’ื•ื–ืœื•ืช ืžื”ืจ ื”ืžืœืš

ยง Having discussed which flours, oils, and wine are fit to be offered in the Temple, the Gemara considers which animals are of sufficient quality to be used as offerings. The Sages taught in a baraita: The choicest rams are those from Moab; the choicest lambs are those from Hebron; the choicest calves are those from Sharon; and the choicest fledglings, i.e., doves and pigeons, are those from the Kingโ€™s Mountain.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ืฉื’ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ืจื—ื‘ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืจืขื” ืžืงื ืš ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ืจ ื ืจื—ื‘

Rabbi Yehuda says: One should bring lambs whose height is like their width, i.e., they are so robust that they are as wide as they are tall. Rava bar Rav Sheila said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: โ€œAnd He will give the rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground, and bread of the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and bountiful; your cattle shall graze in wide pastures [kar nirแธฅav] on that dayโ€ (Isaiah 30:23). The word โ€œkarโ€ can also mean a lamb, and โ€œnirแธฅavโ€ means wide. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehuda interprets this verse, on a homiletical level, to be alluding to robust sheep.

ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขืœ ื—ื•ืžืชื™ืš ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื”ืคืงื“ืชื™ ืฉืžืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ืชืžื™ื“ ืœื ื™ื—ืฉื• ื”ืžื–ื›ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœ ื“ืžื™ ืœื›ื ืžืื™ ืืžืจื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืืชื” ืชืงื•ื ืชืจื—ื ืฆื™ื•ืŸ

The chapter concludes by quoting an additional prophecy of Isaiah concerning the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael: It is written: โ€œI have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem; they shall never be silent day nor night; those who remind the Lord, take no restโ€ (Isaiah 62:6). This is referring to the angels appointed by God to bring the redemption. The Gemara asks: What do these watchmen say to remind the Lord? This is what Rava bar Rav Sheila said: They recite the verse: โ€œYou will arise and have compassion upon Zion; for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has comeโ€ (Psalms 102:14).

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื‘ื•ื ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื”ืณ ื•ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื• ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ื›ื™ ื‘ื—ืจ ื”ืณ ื‘ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืื•ื” ืœืžื•ืฉื‘ ืœื•

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: They recite the verse: โ€œThe Lord builds up Jerusalem, He gathers together the dispersed of Israelโ€ (Psalms 147:2). The Gemara asks: And initially, when the Temple still stood and the Jewish people were gathered together in Eretz Yisrael, what would the watchmen say? Rava bar Rav Sheila says: They would say: โ€œFor the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His habitation. This is My resting place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired itโ€ (Psalms 132:13โ€“14).

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื›ืœ ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื”ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืฉืชื™ ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื‘ืฉ ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ

MISHNA: Two sizes of measuring vessels for dry substances were used in the Temple for measuring flour for the meal offerings. One held a tenth of an ephah and the other held one-half of a tenth of an ephah. Rabbi Meir says: There were three measuring vessels; one that held a tenth of an ephah, another one that also held a tenth of an ephah, and a third one that held onehalf of a tenth of an ephah.

ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ ืืœื ืžื•ื“ื“ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ื ื•ืช

What purpose did the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure flour for all the meal offerings. One would not measure the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that held the entire volume of flour required at once, i.e., neither with a vessel of three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a bull, nor with a vessel of two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a ram. Rather, one measures the flour for them by repeatedly using the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel to measure the required number of tenths.

ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

What purpose did the onehalf of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed half of it in the morning and the other half of it in the afternoon.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉืฉืชื™ ืขืฉืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื—ื•ืง

GEMARA: The Gemara cites a baraita that clarifies Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: What is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA tenth, a tenth, for every lambโ€ (Numbers 28:29)? The fact the word โ€œtenthโ€ appears twice teaches that there were two measuring vessels that each held a tenth of an ephah in the Temple. One of them held that volume when it was heaped, and the other one was slightly larger and held that same volume when the flour was leveled with the rim.

ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช

The one that held a tenth of an ephah when heaped was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for all the meal offerings.

ืžื—ื•ืง ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The one that held a tenth of an ephah when leveled was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, and then that flour would be divided into two equal parts.

ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ืืœื ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ

And the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Meir and say: There was only one measuring vessel that held a tenth of an ephah there in the Temple, as it is stated: โ€œAnd one tenth-part for every lambโ€ (Numbers 29:4). But if so, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA tenth, a tenth, for every lambโ€ (Numbers 28:29)? Rabbi Meir derived from the repetition of โ€œa tenthโ€ that there were two measuring vessels that held a tenth of an ephah. How do the Rabbis expound that? They hold it serves to include another measuring vessel for dry substances, one that holds one-half of a tenth of an ephah.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื™ื• ืœื ื“ืจืฉื™

Having cited the baraita, the Gemara discusses each opinion: And as for Rabbi Meir, from where does he derive that there was a measuring vessel that held one-half of a tenth of an ephah? He derives it from the superfluous โ€œandโ€ in the phrase โ€œand one tenth-part for every lamb.โ€ The Gemara asks: And as for the Rabbis, why donโ€™t they expound this from the term โ€œandโ€? They do not derive anything from โ€œand.โ€ They hold that the addition of the word is not significant enough to be expounded.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ืื™ ื•ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ ื”ืื—ื“ ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: And as for Rabbi Meir, this verse: โ€œAnd one tenth-part for every lamb,โ€ from which the Rabbis derive that there was only one measuring vessel of a tenth of an ephah, what does he do with it? The Gemara answers: That verse teaches that one should not measure the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that holds the entire volume of flour required, i.e., neither with a vessel that holds three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a bull, nor with a vessel that holds two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of a ram. Rather, one measures the flour for them by using the tenth-ephah measuring vessel multiple times.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืคืงื ืœื”ื• ืžื ืงื•ื“ื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืžื” ื ืงื•ื“ ื•ื™ื• ืฉื‘ืืžืฆืข ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื’ ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืœืื™ืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืงื•ื“ื• ืœื ื“ืจื™ืฉ

The Gemara asks: And as for the Rabbis, from where do they derive that halakha? The Gemara explains: They derive it from its dot. In the Torah text, a dot appears above the term โ€œa tenth.โ€ This is as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Why is the letter vav in the middle of the term โ€œa tenth [issaron]โ€ dotted the first time that the term โ€œa tenthโ€ appears in the verse concerning the first festival day of the Festival of Sukkot? The verse there states: โ€œAnd a tenth, a tenth, for every lamb of the fourteen lambsโ€ (Numbers 29:15). This serves to teach that one should not measure flour using a vessel of a size that holds the entire volume required, i.e., neither with a vessel that holds three-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering of a bull, nor with a vessel that holds two-tenths of an ephah for the meal offering of a ram. And as for Rabbi Meir, what does he derive from the dot? He does not derive anything from its dot. He holds that the dot is not significant enough to be expounded.

ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉ ืฉื‘ื• ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

ยง The mishna teaches: What purpose did the one-half of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel serve? It was the vessel with which one would measure the flour for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed half in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. From the mishna it appears that each half-tenth is measured separately.

ืžื•ื“ื“ ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื—ืฆืื™ืŸ ืืœื ืžื‘ื™ื ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ื•ื—ื•ืฆื”ื•

The mishna indicates that the half-tenth vessel was used for measuring. And the Gemara raises a contradiction to this from a mishna (50b): The twelve loaves of matza, baked from a tenth of an ephah of flour, of the griddle-cake offering of the High Priest did not come from the house of the High Priest in halves. Rather, the High Priest brings from his house a complete tenth of an ephah of flour (see Leviticus 6:13) and divides it in half, and he sacrifices half in the morning and half in the afternoon. It is apparent from this mishna that the tenth of an ephah is first measured in its entirety and only then divided.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืžืื™ ืžื•ื“ื“ ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืžื—ืœืง

To resolve the contradiction Rav Sheshet said: What is the meaning of: Used for measuring, that the mishna here teaches? It means only that the High Priest would divide the tenth of an ephah into two equal portions using the half-tenth measure, but the quantity would initially be measured in its entirety, as the mishna on 50b states.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ืื• ืžื—ื•ืง ื”ื™ื”

ยง In light of Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion that there were two vessels for measuring a tenth of an ephah, one that held its measure when leveled and one when it was heaped, Rami bar แธคama raised a dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the one-half of a tenth of an ephah measuring vessel, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, was it one that held its measure when heaped or was it one that held its measure when leveled?

(ืกื™ืžืŸ ื—ืฆื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ืฉืœื—ืŸ)

Before citing Rav แธคisdaโ€™s response, the Gemara provides a mnemonic that alludes to the three dilemmas it will immediately present: Half; griddle-cake offering; Table. This alludes to one-half of a tenth of an ephah; the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering; and the shewbread Table.

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื’ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ืื• ืžื—ื•ืง ื”ื™ื”

Rav แธคisda said to Rami bar แธคama: But why do you ask specifically with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Meir? The dilemma can be raised according to the opinion of the Rabbis. Rami bar แธคama answered: According to the opinion of the Rabbis, it would be with regard to the measuring vessel of a tenth of an ephah itself that one raises the dilemma, asking whether it was one that held its measure when heaped or was one that held its measure when leveled. The dilemma I raised concerned the half-tenth vessel, which is pertinent specifically according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as he holds that there were both heaped and leveled measuring vessels of a tenth of an ephah.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื ืฉืžืข ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ

In answer to Rami bar แธคamaโ€™s dilemma, Rav แธคisda said to him: From the opinion of Rabbi Meir concerning the vessel of a tenth of an ephah we can extrapolate what Rabbi Meir holds concerning the vessel of one-half of a tenth of an ephah; and from that opinion of Rabbi Meir we can extrapolate what the Rabbis hold concerning both vessels.

ืžื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ืžื—ื•ืง ื—ืฆื™ ืขืฉืจื•ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžื—ื•ืง ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื—ื•ืง ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžื—ื•ืง

Rav แธคisda elaborates: From the fact that Rabbi Meir said that the vessel of a tenth of an ephah used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering held its measure when leveled, we can extrapolate that the vessel of one-half of a tenth, as well, was such that it held its measure when leveled. It is reasonable that since both vessels were used for the same offering, they should be of the same type. And from the fact that Rabbi Meir holds that vessels used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering held their measures when leveled, we can extrapolate that also according to the Rabbis, who hold that both vessels were used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, both of them held their measures when leveled.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืžื” ืžื—ืœืงืŸ ืœื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ ืื• ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื“ื‘ื™ื“ ื“ืื™ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื˜ื•ืจื˜ื ื™ ื™ื›ื ื™ืก

Rami bar แธคama raised another dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the dough used for the High Priestโ€™s griddle-cake offering, with what would one divide it into the loaves of the offering, six in the morning and six in the afternoon? Was the division done with oneโ€™s hand or with a measuring vessel? Rav แธคisda said to him: It is obvious that it was divided with oneโ€™s hand, as if one suggests that it was done with a measuring vessel, would one bring scales [turtanei] into the Temple courtyard for this purpose?

ื•ื™ื›ื ื™ืก ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืงืœืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื

Rami bar แธคama responds: And let him bring scales into the courtyard. Rav แธคisda explains: Since in Godโ€™s admonition of the Jewish people the act of weighing bread is written as part of a curse: โ€œWhen I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and you shall eat and not be satisfiedโ€ (Leviticus 26:26), as weighing bread is generally performed only at a time of famine, therefore it is not proper conduct to weigh the dough in the Temple.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื“ืฉ ืงืžืฆื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื“ืฉ ืฉืœื• ืžื“ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื—ื ืงืžืฆื™ื ื ืžื™ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื“ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืงื“ืฉ ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืงื“ืฉ

Rami bar แธคama raised another dilemma before Rav แธคisda: With regard to the shewbread Table, what is the halakha as to whether it consecrates handfuls removed from meal offerings or from frankincense that were not consecrated by being placed in a service vessel, as they should have been, but were instead placed on the upper part of the Table, between the rows of shewbread? The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: Does one say that from the fact that the Table consecrates the loaves of shewbread placed upon it, it follows that it also consecrates handfuls placed upon it? Or perhaps the Table consecrates only that which is fit for it, i.e., the loaves, but it does not consecrate that which is not fit for it, such as the handfuls.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงื“ืฉ ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืงื•ืคืœ ื ืžืฆื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ื—ืžืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื˜ืคื— ืœืžืขืœื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืงื•ืคืœ ื ืžืฆื ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื˜ืคื— ืœืžืขืœื”

Rav แธคisda said to him: The Table does not consecrate these handfuls. Rami bar แธคama retorted: Is that so? But didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say: The shewbread loaves were longer than the length of the Table. Accordingly, it was necessary to fold the edges of the loaves in order that they would rest entirely upon the Table itself and not protrude past its edges. How much of each side needed to be folded up is subject to a tannaitic dispute concerning the length of the Table (see 96a). According to the statement of the one who says that one folds two and a half handbreadths from each side of the loaves, it emerges that the Table consecrates fifteen handbreadths above it, as there were six loaves on each side of the Table, which were each two and a half handbreadths high. And according to the statement of the one who says that one folds two handbreadths from each side of the loaves, it emerges that the Table consecrates twelve handbreadths above it. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan stated that the Table consecrates that which is placed above it, regardless of whether it is fit for the Table or not.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื‘ ืื‘ืœ ืžืงื“ืฉ ืœื™ืคืกืœ

Rav แธคisda said to him: When I said that the Table does not consecrate the handfuls, I meant that it does not consecrate them to the extent that they can be sacrificed on the altar. But it certainly consecrates them to the extent that they will be disqualified by the same disqualifications that apply to handfuls that were consecrated by being placed in a service vessel, e.g., by being left overnight or by coming in contact with a ritually impure person who had immersed that day.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืฉื‘ืข ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื— ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ

MISHNA: There were seven measuring vessels for liquids in the Temple. There was a vessel of one hin, i.e., twelve log. Three vessels were used to measure the oil and wine for the meal offerings and libations that accompanied the sacrifice of an animal. For a bull there was a vessel of onehalf of a hin, i.e., six log; and for a ram there was one of one-third of a hin, i.e., four log; and for a lamb there was one of one-quarter of a hin, i.e., three log.

ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’

In addition, there was a vessel that held one log to measure the oil for all standard meal offerings; and another one that held onehalf of a log for measuring the water used in the rite of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] and also for the oil used in the loaves accompanying the thanks offering (see 88a); and another one that held one-quarter of a log for measuring the water used in the purification of a leper and also for the oil used in the wafers and loaves that the nazirite brings on the day that his term of naziriteship ends.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ืชื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ื”ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœืคืจ ื•ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœืื™ืœ ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ ืœื›ื‘ืฉ

Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: It was not necessary to have several vessels of different sizes; rather, there were graduations [shenatot] on the vessel that held one hin indicating that until here is the quantity needed for the bull, and until here is the quantity needed for the ram, and until here is the quantity needed for the lamb.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ ืืœื ืžื“ื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื

Rabbi Shimon says: There was no vessel there in the Temple that held one hin, as what purpose could a one-hin vessel serve? That volume of liquid was never used in an offering. Rather, there was an additional measuring vessel of one and a half log there, in the Temple, which completed the tally of seven vessels, with which one would measure the oil used for the griddle-cake meal offering of the High Priest; one and a half log were used in the morning and one and a half log in the afternoon.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืข ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื— ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื•ื’ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืœื•ื’ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืœื•ื’ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื ื”ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ื” ื”ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: There were seven measuring vessels for liquids in the Temple. Listed in ascending order of size, they held: One-quarter of a log; one-half of a log; one log; one-quarter of a hin; one-third of a hin; one-half of a hin; and one hin. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says that there were these seven vessels but he lists them in descending order: One hin; one-half of a hin; one-third of a hin; one-quarter of a hin; one log; one-half of a log; and one-quarter of a log. Rabbi Shimon says: There was no vessel there in the Temple that held one hin, as what purpose could a one-hin vessel serve? That volume of liquid was never used in an offering.

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