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December 25, 2022 | 讗壮 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讙

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

Nedarim 61

If one vowed until the jubilee year, does that include the jubilee year or not? This is based on a more general debate regarding the jubilee year – is it considered both the end of the previous cycle of seven shmita cycles and as the first year in the next shmita cycle or only as the last year and not as the first year. How are the verses in the Torah used by each side to prove their opinion? If one said 鈥榰ntil lifnei Pesach鈥 there is a debate whether that means until it starts or until it ends. Their debate is based on whether or not you hold that one puts oneself into situations of doubt. However, this stands in complete contradiction to a Mishna in Kiddushin 64b where each of the rabbis in our Mishna holds the opposite position. This is resolved by suggesting that the opinions in our Mishna are flipped. In what way do we differentiate between one who limited the time on one鈥檚 vow to something that has a set time (like a holiday) or something that does not have a set time (like the harvest)?

讗讬诇讬诪讗 讻讚拽转谞讬 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讚讗诪专 砖谞讛 讗诇诪讗 砖谞讛 讻讛砖谞讛 讚诪讬 讜讬讜诐 谞诪讬 讻讛讬讜诐 讚讬谞讬讛


If we say that it is exactly as it teaches, why do I need to state this halakha? It is obvious that a year means that entire year, even if it is a leap year. Rather, is it not referring to a case where he did not say that the vow applies this year, but rather, he said that it applies for a year, and the mishna teaches that the vow applies for the remainder of that year? Apparently, saying that a vow applies for a year is comparable to saying it applies this year; and similarly, the halakha in a case where one accepts a vow for a day should also be like the halakha in a case where one accepts a vow for today.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讚讗诪专 讛砖谞讛 讜诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛诇讱 讗讞专 专讜讘 讛砖谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讗讬转 讘讛讜 注讬讘讜专 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉


The Gemara refutes this argument: No, actually, the case in the mishna is that he said his vow should apply this year, and it was necessary to state this halakha lest you say: Follow the majority of years, which do not have an intercalated month, and his vow should be understood as referring to a twelve month period. The tanna therefore teaches us that the phrase this year means that the vow should last until the end of the year.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗诪专 讬讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讟讜注诐 讬讜讘诇 诪讗讬 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜 讻诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讬诐


A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one said: Any wine that I taste for a Jubilee is hereby forbidden to me, what is the halakha? Is the fiftieth year considered as before fifty, i.e., is it included in the vow, or is it considered as after fifty, in which case it is not included in the vow?


转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘谞谉 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讬讜讘诇 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘讜注 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 注讜诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘讜注


The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita that there is a dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall sanctify the fiftieth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:10), from which it is derived: You count it as the fiftieth year, i.e., the Jubilee Year, but you do not count it as both the fiftieth year and the first year of the next Sabbatical and Jubilee cycles. From here they stated: The Jubilee Year is not included in the counting of the seven-year cycle of the Sabbatical Year. Rather, the year following the Jubilee Year is considered the first year of the next seven-year cycle. Rabbi Yehuda says: The Jubilee Year is included in the counting of the following seven-year cycle of the Sabbatical Year.


讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 砖砖 砖谞讬诐 转讝专注 砖讚讱 讜讗讬谉 讻讗谉 讗诇讗 讞诪砖


The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: Doesn鈥檛 the verse state: 鈥淪ix years you shall sow your field鈥 (Leviticus 25:3)? But according to your opinion there are only five years here, in the Sabbatical cycle following the Jubilee Year, as the first year would be the Jubilee Year, when it is forbidden to sow one鈥檚 field.


讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讚讘专讬讻诐 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注砖转 讗转 讛转讘讜讗讛 诇砖诇砖 讛砖谞讬诐 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注


Rabbi Yehuda said to them: There is a difficulty according to your statement as well. Doesn鈥檛 the verse state: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth produce for the three years鈥 (Leviticus 25:21)? The Torah promises the Jewish people that in the year preceding the Sabbatical Year, the land will bring forth enough produce to last for the duration of that year, for the Sabbatical Year, and for part of the following year, until the new produce grows. However, in the case of the Jubilee, there are four years to account for, as agricultural labor is prohibited in the forty-ninth year, which is a Sabbatical Year, and in the following year, which is the Jubilee Year.


讗诇讗 讗讬讻讗 诇讗讜拽诪讛 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 讚讬诇讬 谞诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诇讗讜拽诪讛 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注:


Rather, you must say that it is possible to establish the verse as referring to the other years of seven-year cycles, i.e., other Sabbatical Years apart from the Sabbatical Year right before the Jubilee Year. With regard to my opinion also, it is possible to establish the verse you presented as a difficulty as referring to the other years of seven-year cycles, i.e., other Sabbatical cycles apart from the cycle immediately following the Jubilee. With regard to the dilemma cited previously, according to the Rabbis, just as the Jubilee Year does not count as part of the ensuing Jubilee cycle because it is considered the end of the previous Jubilee cycle, if one takes a vow and states that it applies for the Jubilee cycle, the Jubilee Year is included in the vow. According to Rabbi Yehuda, the Jubilee Year itself actually begins the next Jubilee cycle, and therefore if one takes a vow for the current Jubilee cycle, the Jubilee Year itself is not included.


注讚 讛驻住讞 讗住讜专 讻讜壮: 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 诇讗 诪注讬讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 谞驻砖讬讛


搂 It was taught in the mishna that if one vows that wine is forbidden to him until Passover, he is prohibited from drinking wine until the Festival arrives. However, if one vows that wine is forbidden to him until before Passover, there is a dispute as to whether the vow remains in effect until the beginning or the end of the Festival. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that Rabbi Meir, who holds that it is prohibited only until the beginning of Passover, maintains that a person does not place himself


诇住驻讬拽讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 诪注讬讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 谞驻砖讬讛 诇住驻讬拽讗


in a position of uncertainty, and Rabbi Yosei holds that a person does place himself in a position of uncertainty?


讜专诪讬谞讛讬 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 砖转讬 讻讬转讬 讘谞讜转 诪砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讗诪专 拽讚砖转讬 讗转 讘转讬 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讗诐 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转 讗诐 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转 讜讗诐 拽讟谞讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转 砖讛讬讗 讙讚讜诇讛 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转 讻讜诇谉 讗住讜专讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽讟谞讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转


The Gemara raises a contradiction from the following mishna (Kiddushin 64b): In the case of one who has two groups of two daughters born to him from two women, e.g., he has two daughters from his first wife, and after his first wife died he remarried and had two daughters with his second wife, and he said: I betrothed my older daughter to someone, but I do not know if I meant the older of the older group of daughters; or if I meant the older daughter of the younger group; or if I meant the younger daughter of the older group, who is nevertheless older than the older daughter of the younger group, then all three of those daughters are prohibited to marry another man due to the uncertainty, as he failed to clarify which daughter was betrothed. This applies to all the daughters apart from the younger daughter of the younger group, who is certainly not betrothed. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.


专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讻讜诇谉 诪讜转专讜转 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转


Rabbi Yosei says: They are all permitted to marry, apart from the older daughter of the older group. This demonstrates that according to Rabbi Meir, one must take into account any of the possible meanings of the imprecise expression: My older daughter, whereas Rabbi Yosei maintains that only the narrowest possible meaning of the phrase is taken into account. This contradicts the mishna here.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 诪讜讞诇驻转 讛砖讬讟讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讜讗诪专 注讚 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬爪讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注:


In response to this question, Rabbi 岣nina bar Avdimi said that Rav said: The attribution of the opinions is reversed, i.e., the views stated in the mishna here must be reversed in order to reconcile them with the mishna in Kiddushin. And it is indeed taught in a baraita that this is the principle: With regard to any vow which specifies a fixed time, i.e., an event that occurs on a particular date, and one said that the vow applies until before that event, Rabbi Meir says the vow applies until the event ends, and Rabbi Yosei says that the vow is in effect only until the event arrives. This is another proof that the opinions in the mishna here must be reversed.


诪转谞讬壮 注讚 讛拽爪讬专 注讚 讛讘爪讬专 注讚 讛诪住讬拽 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讜讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗住讜专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讗住讜专 注讚 砖讬爪讗 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讘讬谉 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讘讬谉 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 注讚 砖讬讙讬注


MISHNA: If one takes a vow that something is forbidden to him until the grain harvest, or until the grape harvest, or until the olive harvest, it is forbidden to him only until the arrival of that season. This is the principle: With regard to any occasion whose time is fixed, and one said: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion arrives. If he said: Until it will be, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion ends. And with regard to any occasion whose time is not fixed, i.e., it does not fall on a precise date, whether he said: Until it will be, or: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him only until the specified occasion arrives.


注讚 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬转讞讬诇讜 讛注诐 诇讛讻谞讬住 讘讻诇讻诇讜转 注讚 砖讬注讘讜专 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬拽驻讬诇讜 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转:


If he said: Until the summer [kayitz], or: Until it will be summer, the vow remains in effect until the people begin to bring fruit into their houses in baskets. If he said: Until the summer has passed, the vow remains in effect until the people set aside [yakpilu] the knives [hamaktzuot] with which the figs are cut after being harvested, and return them to their place of storage.


讙诪壮 转谞讗 讻诇讻诇讛 砖讗诪专讜 讻诇讻诇讛 砖诇 转讗谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讻诇讻诇讛 砖诇 注谞讘讬诐 转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪驻讬专讜转 讛拽讬抓 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讘转讗谞讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注谞讘讬诐 讘讻诇诇 转讗谞讬诐


GEMARA: The Sage taught: The basket about which they spoke in the mishna is a basket of figs, and not a basket of grapes, which are gathered later than figs. It is taught in a baraita: One who vows that summer [kayitz] produce is forbidden to him is prohibited from partaking only of figs, as the fig harvest is called kayitz. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Grapes are included in the category of the summer produce, along with figs.


诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 拽住讘专 转讗谞讬诐 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗 注谞讘讬诐 诇讗 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 注谞讘讬诐 谞诪讬 讻讬 诪讬专讚讚谉 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗:


The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? The Gemara answers: He holds that since figs are plucked [mikkatzetzan] by hand, while grapes are plucked not by hand but with tools, it is only figs that are considered summer [kayitz] produce. Conversely, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that grapes, too, when they are sufficiently ripe, are plucked by hand. Therefore, they can be considered summer produce as well.


注讚 砖讬注讘讜专 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬讻驻诇讜 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转: 转谞讗 注讚 砖讬讻驻讬诇讜 专讜讘 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转


搂 The mishna states that if one said: Until the summer has passed, then the vow remains in effect until the people set aside the knives used to cut the figs. It was taught: This means until most people set aside their knives, even if there are still some individuals who have yet to do so.


  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

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Nedarim 61

讗讬诇讬诪讗 讻讚拽转谞讬 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讚讗诪专 砖谞讛 讗诇诪讗 砖谞讛 讻讛砖谞讛 讚诪讬 讜讬讜诐 谞诪讬 讻讛讬讜诐 讚讬谞讬讛


If we say that it is exactly as it teaches, why do I need to state this halakha? It is obvious that a year means that entire year, even if it is a leap year. Rather, is it not referring to a case where he did not say that the vow applies this year, but rather, he said that it applies for a year, and the mishna teaches that the vow applies for the remainder of that year? Apparently, saying that a vow applies for a year is comparable to saying it applies this year; and similarly, the halakha in a case where one accepts a vow for a day should also be like the halakha in a case where one accepts a vow for today.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讚讗诪专 讛砖谞讛 讜诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛诇讱 讗讞专 专讜讘 讛砖谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讗讬转 讘讛讜 注讬讘讜专 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉


The Gemara refutes this argument: No, actually, the case in the mishna is that he said his vow should apply this year, and it was necessary to state this halakha lest you say: Follow the majority of years, which do not have an intercalated month, and his vow should be understood as referring to a twelve month period. The tanna therefore teaches us that the phrase this year means that the vow should last until the end of the year.


讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗诪专 讬讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讟讜注诐 讬讜讘诇 诪讗讬 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讻诇驻谞讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讗讜 讻诇讗讞专 讞诪砖讬诐


A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one said: Any wine that I taste for a Jubilee is hereby forbidden to me, what is the halakha? Is the fiftieth year considered as before fifty, i.e., is it included in the vow, or is it considered as after fifty, in which case it is not included in the vow?


转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘谞谉 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专讜 讬讜讘诇 讗讬谞讜 注讜诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘讜注 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 注讜诇讛 诇诪谞讬谉 砖讘讜注


The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita that there is a dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall sanctify the fiftieth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:10), from which it is derived: You count it as the fiftieth year, i.e., the Jubilee Year, but you do not count it as both the fiftieth year and the first year of the next Sabbatical and Jubilee cycles. From here they stated: The Jubilee Year is not included in the counting of the seven-year cycle of the Sabbatical Year. Rather, the year following the Jubilee Year is considered the first year of the next seven-year cycle. Rabbi Yehuda says: The Jubilee Year is included in the counting of the following seven-year cycle of the Sabbatical Year.


讗诪专讜 诇讜 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 砖砖 砖谞讬诐 转讝专注 砖讚讱 讜讗讬谉 讻讗谉 讗诇讗 讞诪砖


The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: Doesn鈥檛 the verse state: 鈥淪ix years you shall sow your field鈥 (Leviticus 25:3)? But according to your opinion there are only five years here, in the Sabbatical cycle following the Jubilee Year, as the first year would be the Jubilee Year, when it is forbidden to sow one鈥檚 field.


讗诪专 诇讛诐 诇讚讘专讬讻诐 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜注砖转 讗转 讛转讘讜讗讛 诇砖诇砖 讛砖谞讬诐 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注


Rabbi Yehuda said to them: There is a difficulty according to your statement as well. Doesn鈥檛 the verse state: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth produce for the three years鈥 (Leviticus 25:21)? The Torah promises the Jewish people that in the year preceding the Sabbatical Year, the land will bring forth enough produce to last for the duration of that year, for the Sabbatical Year, and for part of the following year, until the new produce grows. However, in the case of the Jubilee, there are four years to account for, as agricultural labor is prohibited in the forty-ninth year, which is a Sabbatical Year, and in the following year, which is the Jubilee Year.


讗诇讗 讗讬讻讗 诇讗讜拽诪讛 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注 讚讬诇讬 谞诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诇讗讜拽诪讛 讘砖讗专 砖谞讬 砖讘讜注:


Rather, you must say that it is possible to establish the verse as referring to the other years of seven-year cycles, i.e., other Sabbatical Years apart from the Sabbatical Year right before the Jubilee Year. With regard to my opinion also, it is possible to establish the verse you presented as a difficulty as referring to the other years of seven-year cycles, i.e., other Sabbatical cycles apart from the cycle immediately following the Jubilee. With regard to the dilemma cited previously, according to the Rabbis, just as the Jubilee Year does not count as part of the ensuing Jubilee cycle because it is considered the end of the previous Jubilee cycle, if one takes a vow and states that it applies for the Jubilee cycle, the Jubilee Year is included in the vow. According to Rabbi Yehuda, the Jubilee Year itself actually begins the next Jubilee cycle, and therefore if one takes a vow for the current Jubilee cycle, the Jubilee Year itself is not included.


注讚 讛驻住讞 讗住讜专 讻讜壮: 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 诇讗 诪注讬讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 谞驻砖讬讛


搂 It was taught in the mishna that if one vows that wine is forbidden to him until Passover, he is prohibited from drinking wine until the Festival arrives. However, if one vows that wine is forbidden to him until before Passover, there is a dispute as to whether the vow remains in effect until the beginning or the end of the Festival. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that Rabbi Meir, who holds that it is prohibited only until the beginning of Passover, maintains that a person does not place himself


诇住驻讬拽讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 诪注讬讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 谞驻砖讬讛 诇住驻讬拽讗


in a position of uncertainty, and Rabbi Yosei holds that a person does place himself in a position of uncertainty?


讜专诪讬谞讛讬 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 砖转讬 讻讬转讬 讘谞讜转 诪砖转讬 谞砖讬诐 讜讗诪专 拽讚砖转讬 讗转 讘转讬 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讗诐 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转 讗诐 讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转 讜讗诐 拽讟谞讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转 砖讛讬讗 讙讚讜诇讛 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转 讻讜诇谉 讗住讜专讜转 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛拽讟谞讛 砖讘拽讟谞讜转


The Gemara raises a contradiction from the following mishna (Kiddushin 64b): In the case of one who has two groups of two daughters born to him from two women, e.g., he has two daughters from his first wife, and after his first wife died he remarried and had two daughters with his second wife, and he said: I betrothed my older daughter to someone, but I do not know if I meant the older of the older group of daughters; or if I meant the older daughter of the younger group; or if I meant the younger daughter of the older group, who is nevertheless older than the older daughter of the younger group, then all three of those daughters are prohibited to marry another man due to the uncertainty, as he failed to clarify which daughter was betrothed. This applies to all the daughters apart from the younger daughter of the younger group, who is certainly not betrothed. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.


专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讻讜诇谉 诪讜转专讜转 讞讜抓 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇讛 砖讘讙讚讜诇讜转


Rabbi Yosei says: They are all permitted to marry, apart from the older daughter of the older group. This demonstrates that according to Rabbi Meir, one must take into account any of the possible meanings of the imprecise expression: My older daughter, whereas Rabbi Yosei maintains that only the narrowest possible meaning of the phrase is taken into account. This contradicts the mishna here.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 诪讜讞诇驻转 讛砖讬讟讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讜讗诪专 注讚 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬爪讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注:


In response to this question, Rabbi 岣nina bar Avdimi said that Rav said: The attribution of the opinions is reversed, i.e., the views stated in the mishna here must be reversed in order to reconcile them with the mishna in Kiddushin. And it is indeed taught in a baraita that this is the principle: With regard to any vow which specifies a fixed time, i.e., an event that occurs on a particular date, and one said that the vow applies until before that event, Rabbi Meir says the vow applies until the event ends, and Rabbi Yosei says that the vow is in effect only until the event arrives. This is another proof that the opinions in the mishna here must be reversed.


诪转谞讬壮 注讚 讛拽爪讬专 注讚 讛讘爪讬专 注讚 讛诪住讬拽 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讜讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗住讜专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讗住讜专 注讚 砖讬爪讗 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谉 讝诪谞讜 拽讘讜注 讘讬谉 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讘讬谉 讗诪专 注讚 砖讬讙讬注 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 注讚 砖讬讙讬注


MISHNA: If one takes a vow that something is forbidden to him until the grain harvest, or until the grape harvest, or until the olive harvest, it is forbidden to him only until the arrival of that season. This is the principle: With regard to any occasion whose time is fixed, and one said: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion arrives. If he said: Until it will be, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion ends. And with regard to any occasion whose time is not fixed, i.e., it does not fall on a precise date, whether he said: Until it will be, or: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him only until the specified occasion arrives.


注讚 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬讛讗 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬转讞讬诇讜 讛注诐 诇讛讻谞讬住 讘讻诇讻诇讜转 注讚 砖讬注讘讜专 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬拽驻讬诇讜 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转:


If he said: Until the summer [kayitz], or: Until it will be summer, the vow remains in effect until the people begin to bring fruit into their houses in baskets. If he said: Until the summer has passed, the vow remains in effect until the people set aside [yakpilu] the knives [hamaktzuot] with which the figs are cut after being harvested, and return them to their place of storage.


讙诪壮 转谞讗 讻诇讻诇讛 砖讗诪专讜 讻诇讻诇讛 砖诇 转讗谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讻诇讻诇讛 砖诇 注谞讘讬诐 转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪驻讬专讜转 讛拽讬抓 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讘转讗谞讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 注谞讘讬诐 讘讻诇诇 转讗谞讬诐


GEMARA: The Sage taught: The basket about which they spoke in the mishna is a basket of figs, and not a basket of grapes, which are gathered later than figs. It is taught in a baraita: One who vows that summer [kayitz] produce is forbidden to him is prohibited from partaking only of figs, as the fig harvest is called kayitz. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Grapes are included in the category of the summer produce, along with figs.


诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 拽住讘专 转讗谞讬诐 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗 注谞讘讬诐 诇讗 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 注谞讘讬诐 谞诪讬 讻讬 诪讬专讚讚谉 诪讬拽爪爪谉 讘讬讚讗:


The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? The Gemara answers: He holds that since figs are plucked [mikkatzetzan] by hand, while grapes are plucked not by hand but with tools, it is only figs that are considered summer [kayitz] produce. Conversely, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that grapes, too, when they are sufficiently ripe, are plucked by hand. Therefore, they can be considered summer produce as well.


注讚 砖讬注讘讜专 讛拽讬抓 注讚 砖讬讻驻诇讜 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转: 转谞讗 注讚 砖讬讻驻讬诇讜 专讜讘 讛诪拽爪讜注讜转


搂 The mishna states that if one said: Until the summer has passed, then the vow remains in effect until the people set aside the knives used to cut the figs. It was taught: This means until most people set aside their knives, even if there are still some individuals who have yet to do so.


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