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Today's Daf Yomi

December 26, 2022 | ื‘ืณ ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

Nedarim 62

If one vows until the summer (kayitz), it is understood as referring to the fig harvest. If the language connotes the end of the season, the indicator of that is when they put aside the miktzuot to be used the next year. What are miktzuot? There are other laws connected to this putting aside the miktzuot – people can collect what was left in the fields and the food is exempt from tithes as it is considered ownerless. A number of stories are brought in which some people ate from other peopleโ€™s fields at this time of the year but others were not willing to. Why not? Rabbi Tarfon was attacked and almost killed for eating in someoneโ€™s field at this time of the season. Why did the owner want to kill him if it was permitted for him to eat the produce? How did he save himself? Rabbi Tarfon in the end was upset with himself that he used the fact that he was a Torah scholar to save himself as one is not allowed to use the crown of Torah. What are the exceptions to this rule? In what ways are Talmud scholars treated like kohanim? What respect is awarded to kohanim and from where is this derived? If one vows until the harvest, it is assumed the vow was referring to the wheat harvest, unless it is more common in that area to be harvesting barley. If one vows until the rains, or until there will be rains, there is a debate whether this is referring to a particular time (when the second rains are expected) or until the second rains actually fall. If one vows until the end of the rains, there is a debate whether that means until the end of Passover or until the end of the month of Nissan.ย 

ืชื ื ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื–ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช

The Sages taught: If most of the knives have been set aside, the figs left in the field are permitted with regard to the laws of stealing and are exempt from tithes, since their owners presumably do not want them and the figs are therefore considered ownerless property.

ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืงืœืขื• ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืื›ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืืชื ืžืจื”ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืื™ ืœื ืื›ืœื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืกื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืกื ื™ื•ืช ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื

The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi ate the figs left in the field, but Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat. The owner of the field came and said to them: Why are the Sages not eating? It is now the period when most of the knives have been set aside. The Gemara notes: But nevertheless, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat, since he thought that it was only due to embarrassment over the matter that that man said his comment, but he did not really mean to declare his figs ownerless.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ืงืื›ื™ืœ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืžืขื™ื” ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื›ื•ืœ ื›ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื‘ื™ื• ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื–ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจ

The Gemara relates another incident: Rabbi แธคama bar Rabbi แธคanina arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. He ate from the figs that were left in the field, but when he gave some to his attendant the latter did not eat. Rabbi แธคama said to him: Eat, as Rabbi Yishmael bar Rabbi Yosei said to me the following ruling in the name of his father: If most of the knives have been set aside, the figs are permitted with regard to the laws of stealing and are exempt from the tithe.

ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื“ืงืื›ื™ืœ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื‘ืฉืงื ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื” ื•ืืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ืœืžืฉื“ื™ื” ื‘ื ื”ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืฉื–ื” ื”ื•ืจื’ื• ืฉืžืข ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ื•ืขืจืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ืฆื“ื™ืง ื”ื™ื” ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื™ ืฉื ืฉืชืžืฉืชื™ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”

The Gemara relates another incident: A certain man found Rabbi Tarfon eating figs from his field at the time when most of the knives had been set aside. He placed Rabbi Tarfon in a sack, lifted him up, and carried him to throw him into the river. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Woe to Tarfon, for this man is killing him. When that man heard that he was carrying the great Rabbi Tarfon, he left him and fled. Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi แธคananya ben Gamliel: All the days of that righteous man, Rabbi Tarfon, he was distressed over this matter, saying: Woe is me, for I made use of the crown of Torah, as Rabbi Tarfon was only released out of respect for his Torah learning.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ืฉื ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืขืฉื• ื›ืœื™ ื—ื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ื™ืœืœื•ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืคืจืฆื•ื ื ืขืฉื• ื—ื•ืœ ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

And with regard to this statement, Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Whoever makes use of the crown of Torah is uprooted from the world. This can be derived by means of an a fortiori inference: If Belshazzar, who made use of the sacred Temple vessels, which had already become non-sacred vessels by that time, as after their forcible removal from the Temple the vessels lost their sanctity, as it is stated in the verse: โ€œAnd robbers shall enter into it, and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22), showing that once the Temple vessels have been robbed they become non-sacred, was uprooted from the world for his actions, as it is written: โ€œOn that night Belshazzar the Chaldean king was killedโ€ (Daniel 5:30); one who makes use of the crown of Torah, which lives and endures forever and whose sanctity cannot be removed, all the more so shall he be uprooted.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืื›ื™ืœ ื“ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ืืžืื™ ืฆืขืจื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ื• ื’ื ื‘ื™ ืœื™ื” ืขื ื‘ื™ ื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืชื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืกื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื’ื ื‘ืŸ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืื™ ืฆื™ืขืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื” ื•ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

The Gemara returns to the incident involving Rabbi Tarfon. And in the case of Rabbi Tarfon, since he was eating during the time when most of the knives had been set aside, why did that man trouble him? The Gemara explains: It was because someone had been stealing grapes from that man all year, and when he found Rabbi Tarfon he thought: This is the one who stole from me the entire year. The Gemara asks: If so, why did Rabbi Tarfon berate himself? Clearly he was justified in saving himself. The Gemara answers: Since Rabbi Tarfon was very wealthy, he should have sought to appease him with money in order to save himself, rather than relying on his status as a Torah scholar.

ืชื ื™ื ืœืื”ื‘ื” ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืœืฉืžื•ืข ื‘ืงืœื• ื•ืœื“ื‘ืงื” ื‘ื• ืฉืœื ื™ืืžืจ ืื“ื ืืงืจื ืฉื™ืงืจืื•ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ืืฉื ื” ืฉื™ืงืจืื•ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืฉื ืŸ ืฉืื”ื™ื” ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื”

Apropos the story of Rabbi Tarfonโ€™s regret for gaining personal benefit from his status as a Torah scholar, the Gemara cites similar teachings. It is taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œTo love the Lord your God, to listen to His voice, and to cleave to Himโ€ (Deuteronomy 30:20). This verse indicates that a person should not say: I will read the written Torah so that they will call me a Sage; I will study Mishna so that they will call me Rabbi; I will review my studies so that I will be an Elder and will sit in the academy.

ืืœื ืœืžื“ ืžืื”ื‘ื” ื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืงืฉืจื ืขืœ ืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ืš ื›ืชื‘ื ืขืœ ืœื•ื— ืœื‘ืš ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื“ืจื›ื™ื” ื“ืจื›ื™ ื ื•ืขื ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืœืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื” ื•ืชืžื›ื™ื” ืžืืฉืจ

Rather, learn out of love, as the verse states: โ€œTo love the Lord your God.โ€ And the honor will eventually come of its own accord, as it is stated: โ€œBind them upon your fingers; write them on the tablet of your heartโ€ (Proverbs 7:3), and it states: โ€œIts ways are ways of pleasantness, and all its paths are peaceโ€ (Proverbs 3:17), and it states: โ€œIt is a tree of life to those who grasp it; happy is everyone who holds it fastโ€ (Proverbs 3:17). Consequently, one who studies in order to master Torah for its own sake, as reflected in the verse โ€œbind them upon your fingers,โ€ will eventually merit pleasantness, peace, and happiness.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืฉื ืคืขืœื ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืœืฉืžื ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืขื˜ืจื” ืœื”ืชื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืงื•ืจื“ื•ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ื“ืจ ื‘ื• ื•ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ืฉืœื ื ืฉืชืžืฉ ืืœื ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืขืฉื• ื›ืœื™ ื—ื•ืœ ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

Rabbi Eliezer bar Rabbi Tzadok says: Do things for the sake of their performance, not for any ulterior motive, and speak words of Torah for their own sake. Do not make them a crown with which to become glorified, and do not make them nor make them a dolabra [kordom] with which to hoe, i.e., do not use Torah study as a means of earning a livelihood. And this is an a fortiori inference: If Belshazzar, who made use only of sacred vessels that had become non-sacred vessels, was uprooted from the world, one who makes use of the crown of Torah, whose sanctity is permanent, all the more so shall he be uprooted from the world.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืื•ื“ื•ืขื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขื‘ื“ืš ื™ืจื ืืช ื”ืณ ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ืืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืคื™ื™ืกื™ื” ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

Rava said: In a time of need, it is permitted for a person to make himself known in a place where people do not know him. The proof is from what Obadiah said to Elijah in order to identify himself, as it is written: โ€œBut I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youthโ€ (Iย Kings 18:12). The Gemara asks: But this is difficult with regard to the story about Rabbi Tarfon, who was distraught because he revealed his identity to the man who placed him in the sack. The Gemara answers: The case of Rabbi Tarfon is different, as he was very wealthy, and therefore he should have sought to appease him with money.

ืจื‘ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขื‘ื“ืš ื™ืจื ืืช ื”ืณ ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื”ืœืœืš ื–ืจ ื•ืœื ืคื™ืš ื”ื ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื”

Rava raises a contradiction: It is written that Obadiah spoke highly of himself: โ€œBut I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youth.โ€ And it is written: โ€œLet another praise you, and not your own mouthโ€ (Proverbs 27:2). He answers: This verse is referring to a place where people know him, where he should not praise himself, whereas that verse is referring to a place where people do not know him.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื ื ืฉืจื• ืœื™ ืชื™ื’ืจืื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืืฃ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ื›ื™ ืืช ืœื—ื (ื”ืณ) ืืœื”ื™ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื”

Rava said further: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a Torah scholar, so resolve my case first, as it is written: โ€œAnd the sons of David were priestsโ€ (IIย Samuel 8:18). The sons of David could not have been actual priests, as David was not a priest. Rather, the verse indicates that just as a priest takes his portion first, so too, a Torah scholar takes his portion first. And a priest, from where do we derive that he takes his portion first? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall sanctify him, for he offers the bread of your Godโ€ (Leviticus 21:8). And the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The phrase โ€œand you shall sanctify himโ€ applies with regard to every matter of sanctity:

ืœืคืชื•ื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืจืš ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื ื” ื™ืคื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

To open the Torah reading first, to recite a blessing first, and to take a fine portion first. When portions are distributed equally, a priest can choose his share first. The verse with regard to the sons of David proves that the same halakha applies to Torah scholars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืื›ืจื’ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื ื“ื” ื‘ืœื• ื•ื”ืœืš ืœื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ืœืžื™ืจืžื ืขืœื™ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื ื“ื” ื–ื• ืžื ืช ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ืœื• ื–ื• ื›ืกืฃ ื’ื•ืœื’ืœืชื ื•ื”ืœืš ื–ื• ืืจื ื•ื ื

Furthermore, Rava said: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I will not pay the head tax [karga], as it is written that the king of Persia wrote to Ezra, with regard to the priests, the Levites, and others who worked in the Temple: โ€œIt shall not be lawful to impose minda, belo, and halakh upon themโ€ (Ezra 7:24). And Rabbi Yehuda said: Minda; this is the kingโ€™s portion. Belo; this is the money of the head tax. And halakh; this is arnona, a levy on people and their animals to perform physical labor in the service of the ruling authority. Since a Torah scholar is considered equivalent to a priest, as he is also dedicated to a sacred task, this exemption applies to him as well.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืขื‘ื“ื ื“ื ื•ืจื ืื ื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืื›ืจื’ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœืื‘ืจื•ื—ื™ ืืจื™ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืงืืžืจ

And Rava said further: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a servant of the priests of fire worship and therefore I will not pay the head tax. Rava maintains that a scholar may issue a statement of this kind in a place where the priests of fire-worshippers are exempt from the head tax, because he actually is declaring himself a servant of God, who is referred to as โ€œa devouring fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:24). What is the reason that he is allowed to make this statement? He is saying it merely in order to chase a lion away from him, i.e., to avoid suffering a loss.

ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื ื–ื‘ื ื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ ื ื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ืื™ื›ื ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื•ื‘ ืขืฆื™ื ืœื”ืกืงื” ื ื™ืชื ื•

The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi had a particular forest, and he sold it for its wood to the temple of fire worship. Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Isnโ€™t there the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14), which prohibits assisting others in committing transgressions? And yet you are providing assistance to an idolatrous cult. He said to him: Most of the wood they use is for kindling, not for their ritual service. Consequently, I need not be concerned that the particular wood that I have sold them will be used for idolatry.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืขื“ ื”ืงืฆื™ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชื—ื™ืœ ื”ืขื ืœืงืฆื•ืจ ืงืฆื™ืจ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืขื•ืจื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ืœืคื™ ืžืงื•ื ื ื“ืจื• ืื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื”

MISHNA: If one takes a vow until the harvest, the vow remains in effect until people begin to harvest. This is referring to the wheat harvest but not the barley harvest. As for the exact date of this event, all is determined according to the place where he took his vow. If he was on a mountain, it is assumed that he referred to the time of the harvest on the mountain, and if he was in a valley, it is assumed that he meant the time of the harvest in the valley.

ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืชืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžื ื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืขื“ ืฉื™ืคืกืงื• ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆื ื ื™ืกืŸ ื›ื•ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืคืกื—

If one takes a vow until the rains, or until there are rains, the vow remains in effect until the second rain of the rainy season falls. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the second rainfall arrives, even if rain does not fall. If one takes a vow until the rains end, the vow remains in effect until the entire month of Nisan has ended; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until Passover has passed.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื“ืจ ืขื“ ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ื™ืจื“ ืœืขืžืงื™ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ืขืžืงื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who vows until the summer in the Galilee and subsequently descends to the valleys, even if the summer season has already arrived in the valleys, the subject of his vow remains forbidden to him until summer arrives in the Galilee, in accordance with the mishnaโ€™s ruling that the duration of a vow is in accordance with the place where it was made.

ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืชืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉื ืขื“ ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืงืืžืจ

The mishna states that if one takes a vow until the rains, or until there are rains, he means until the second rain of the rainy season. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the second rainfall arrives. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Zeira said: The dispute is in a case where one said: Until the rains. However, if he says: Until the rain, everyone agrees that he is saying that the vow should remain in effect until the time of the rains, but not necessarily until the rain actually falls.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

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Nedarim 62

ืชื ื ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื–ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจื•ืช

The Sages taught: If most of the knives have been set aside, the figs left in the field are permitted with regard to the laws of stealing and are exempt from tithes, since their owners presumably do not want them and the figs are therefore considered ownerless property.

ืจื‘ื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื™ืงืœืขื• ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืื›ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืืชื ืžืจื”ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืื™ ืœื ืื›ืœื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืกื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืกื ื™ื•ืช ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื

The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi ate the figs left in the field, but Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat. The owner of the field came and said to them: Why are the Sages not eating? It is now the period when most of the knives have been set aside. The Gemara notes: But nevertheless, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat, since he thought that it was only due to embarrassment over the matter that that man said his comment, but he did not really mean to declare his figs ownerless.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ืงืื›ื™ืœ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœืฉืžืขื™ื” ืœื ืื›ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื›ื•ืœ ื›ืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื‘ื™ื• ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื–ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžืขืฉืจ

The Gemara relates another incident: Rabbi แธคama bar Rabbi แธคanina arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. He ate from the figs that were left in the field, but when he gave some to his attendant the latter did not eat. Rabbi แธคama said to him: Eat, as Rabbi Yishmael bar Rabbi Yosei said to me the following ruling in the name of his father: If most of the knives have been set aside, the figs are permitted with regard to the laws of stealing and are exempt from the tithe.

ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื“ืงืื›ื™ืœ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื‘ืฉืงื ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื” ื•ืืžื˜ื™ื™ื” ืœืžืฉื“ื™ื” ื‘ื ื”ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืฉื–ื” ื”ื•ืจื’ื• ืฉืžืข ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ื•ืขืจืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ื• ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื• ืฆื“ื™ืง ื”ื™ื” ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื™ ืฉื ืฉืชืžืฉืชื™ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื”

The Gemara relates another incident: A certain man found Rabbi Tarfon eating figs from his field at the time when most of the knives had been set aside. He placed Rabbi Tarfon in a sack, lifted him up, and carried him to throw him into the river. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Woe to Tarfon, for this man is killing him. When that man heard that he was carrying the great Rabbi Tarfon, he left him and fled. Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi แธคananya ben Gamliel: All the days of that righteous man, Rabbi Tarfon, he was distressed over this matter, saying: Woe is me, for I made use of the crown of Torah, as Rabbi Tarfon was only released out of respect for his Torah learning.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ืฉื ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ืฉ ืฉื ืขืฉื• ื›ืœื™ ื—ื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ื™ืœืœื•ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืคืจืฆื•ื ื ืขืฉื• ื—ื•ืœ ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

And with regard to this statement, Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Whoever makes use of the crown of Torah is uprooted from the world. This can be derived by means of an a fortiori inference: If Belshazzar, who made use of the sacred Temple vessels, which had already become non-sacred vessels by that time, as after their forcible removal from the Temple the vessels lost their sanctity, as it is stated in the verse: โ€œAnd robbers shall enter into it, and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22), showing that once the Temple vessels have been robbed they become non-sacred, was uprooted from the world for his actions, as it is written: โ€œOn that night Belshazzar the Chaldean king was killedโ€ (Daniel 5:30); one who makes use of the crown of Torah, which lives and endures forever and whose sanctity cannot be removed, all the more so shall he be uprooted.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืื›ื™ืœ ื“ื”ื•ืงืคืœื• ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ืืžืื™ ืฆืขืจื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ื• ื’ื ื‘ื™ ืœื™ื” ืขื ื‘ื™ ื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืชื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืกื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื’ื ื‘ืŸ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืื™ ืฆื™ืขืจ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื” ื•ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืคื™ื™ืกื• ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

The Gemara returns to the incident involving Rabbi Tarfon. And in the case of Rabbi Tarfon, since he was eating during the time when most of the knives had been set aside, why did that man trouble him? The Gemara explains: It was because someone had been stealing grapes from that man all year, and when he found Rabbi Tarfon he thought: This is the one who stole from me the entire year. The Gemara asks: If so, why did Rabbi Tarfon berate himself? Clearly he was justified in saving himself. The Gemara answers: Since Rabbi Tarfon was very wealthy, he should have sought to appease him with money in order to save himself, rather than relying on his status as a Torah scholar.

ืชื ื™ื ืœืื”ื‘ื” ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืœืฉืžื•ืข ื‘ืงืœื• ื•ืœื“ื‘ืงื” ื‘ื• ืฉืœื ื™ืืžืจ ืื“ื ืืงืจื ืฉื™ืงืจืื•ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ืืฉื ื” ืฉื™ืงืจืื•ื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืฉื ืŸ ืฉืื”ื™ื” ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื”

Apropos the story of Rabbi Tarfonโ€™s regret for gaining personal benefit from his status as a Torah scholar, the Gemara cites similar teachings. It is taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œTo love the Lord your God, to listen to His voice, and to cleave to Himโ€ (Deuteronomy 30:20). This verse indicates that a person should not say: I will read the written Torah so that they will call me a Sage; I will study Mishna so that they will call me Rabbi; I will review my studies so that I will be an Elder and will sit in the academy.

ืืœื ืœืžื“ ืžืื”ื‘ื” ื•ืกื•ืฃ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืœื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืงืฉืจื ืขืœ ืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ืš ื›ืชื‘ื ืขืœ ืœื•ื— ืœื‘ืš ื•ืื•ืžืจ ื“ืจื›ื™ื” ื“ืจื›ื™ ื ื•ืขื ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืœืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ื‘ื” ื•ืชืžื›ื™ื” ืžืืฉืจ

Rather, learn out of love, as the verse states: โ€œTo love the Lord your God.โ€ And the honor will eventually come of its own accord, as it is stated: โ€œBind them upon your fingers; write them on the tablet of your heartโ€ (Proverbs 7:3), and it states: โ€œIts ways are ways of pleasantness, and all its paths are peaceโ€ (Proverbs 3:17), and it states: โ€œIt is a tree of life to those who grasp it; happy is everyone who holds it fastโ€ (Proverbs 3:17). Consequently, one who studies in order to master Torah for its own sake, as reflected in the verse โ€œbind them upon your fingers,โ€ will eventually merit pleasantness, peace, and happiness.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ืขืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืฉื ืคืขืœื ื•ื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืœืฉืžื ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืขื˜ืจื” ืœื”ืชื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืงื•ืจื“ื•ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ื“ืจ ื‘ื• ื•ืงืœ ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœืฉืฆืจ ืฉืœื ื ืฉืชืžืฉ ืืœื ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืขืฉื• ื›ืœื™ ื—ื•ืœ ื ืขืงืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื›ืชืจื” ืฉืœ ืชื•ืจื” ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

Rabbi Eliezer bar Rabbi Tzadok says: Do things for the sake of their performance, not for any ulterior motive, and speak words of Torah for their own sake. Do not make them a crown with which to become glorified, and do not make them nor make them a dolabra [kordom] with which to hoe, i.e., do not use Torah study as a means of earning a livelihood. And this is an a fortiori inference: If Belshazzar, who made use only of sacred vessels that had become non-sacred vessels, was uprooted from the world, one who makes use of the crown of Torah, whose sanctity is permanent, all the more so shall he be uprooted from the world.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืื•ื“ื•ืขื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขื‘ื“ืš ื™ืจื ืืช ื”ืณ ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ืืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืขืฉื™ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืคื™ื™ืกื™ื” ื‘ื“ืžื™ื

Rava said: In a time of need, it is permitted for a person to make himself known in a place where people do not know him. The proof is from what Obadiah said to Elijah in order to identify himself, as it is written: โ€œBut I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youthโ€ (Iย Kings 18:12). The Gemara asks: But this is difficult with regard to the story about Rabbi Tarfon, who was distraught because he revealed his identity to the man who placed him in the sack. The Gemara answers: The case of Rabbi Tarfon is different, as he was very wealthy, and therefore he should have sought to appease him with money.

ืจื‘ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืขื‘ื“ืš ื™ืจื ืืช ื”ืณ ืžื ืขื•ืจื™ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื”ืœืœืš ื–ืจ ื•ืœื ืคื™ืš ื”ื ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื‘ืืชืจื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ ืœื™ื”

Rava raises a contradiction: It is written that Obadiah spoke highly of himself: โ€œBut I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youth.โ€ And it is written: โ€œLet another praise you, and not your own mouthโ€ (Proverbs 27:2). He answers: This verse is referring to a place where people know him, where he should not praise himself, whereas that verse is referring to a place where people do not know him.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื ื ืฉืจื• ืœื™ ืชื™ื’ืจืื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืืฃ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ื›ื™ ืืช ืœื—ื (ื”ืณ) ืืœื”ื™ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื”

Rava said further: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a Torah scholar, so resolve my case first, as it is written: โ€œAnd the sons of David were priestsโ€ (IIย Samuel 8:18). The sons of David could not have been actual priests, as David was not a priest. Rather, the verse indicates that just as a priest takes his portion first, so too, a Torah scholar takes his portion first. And a priest, from where do we derive that he takes his portion first? As it is written: โ€œAnd you shall sanctify him, for he offers the bread of your Godโ€ (Leviticus 21:8). And the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The phrase โ€œand you shall sanctify himโ€ applies with regard to every matter of sanctity:

ืœืคืชื•ื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืจืš ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื ื” ื™ืคื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

To open the Torah reading first, to recite a blessing first, and to take a fine portion first. When portions are distributed equally, a priest can choose his share first. The verse with regard to the sons of David proves that the same halakha applies to Torah scholars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืื›ืจื’ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื ื“ื” ื‘ืœื• ื•ื”ืœืš ืœื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ืœืžื™ืจืžื ืขืœื™ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื ื“ื” ื–ื• ืžื ืช ื”ืžืœืš ื‘ืœื• ื–ื• ื›ืกืฃ ื’ื•ืœื’ืœืชื ื•ื”ืœืš ื–ื• ืืจื ื•ื ื

Furthermore, Rava said: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I will not pay the head tax [karga], as it is written that the king of Persia wrote to Ezra, with regard to the priests, the Levites, and others who worked in the Temple: โ€œIt shall not be lawful to impose minda, belo, and halakh upon themโ€ (Ezra 7:24). And Rabbi Yehuda said: Minda; this is the kingโ€™s portion. Belo; this is the money of the head tax. And halakh; this is arnona, a levy on people and their animals to perform physical labor in the service of the ruling authority. Since a Torah scholar is considered equivalent to a priest, as he is also dedicated to a sacred task, this exemption applies to him as well.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืฆื•ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืขื‘ื“ื ื“ื ื•ืจื ืื ื ืœื ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืื›ืจื’ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœืื‘ืจื•ื—ื™ ืืจื™ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืงืืžืจ

And Rava said further: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a servant of the priests of fire worship and therefore I will not pay the head tax. Rava maintains that a scholar may issue a statement of this kind in a place where the priests of fire-worshippers are exempt from the head tax, because he actually is declaring himself a servant of God, who is referred to as โ€œa devouring fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:24). What is the reason that he is allowed to make this statement? He is saying it merely in order to chase a lion away from him, i.e., to avoid suffering a loss.

ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืื‘ื ื–ื‘ื ื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ ื ื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ืื™ื›ื ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื•ื‘ ืขืฆื™ื ืœื”ืกืงื” ื ื™ืชื ื•

The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi had a particular forest, and he sold it for its wood to the temple of fire worship. Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Isnโ€™t there the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14), which prohibits assisting others in committing transgressions? And yet you are providing assistance to an idolatrous cult. He said to him: Most of the wood they use is for kindling, not for their ritual service. Consequently, I need not be concerned that the particular wood that I have sold them will be used for idolatry.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืขื“ ื”ืงืฆื™ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชื—ื™ืœ ื”ืขื ืœืงืฆื•ืจ ืงืฆื™ืจ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืขื•ืจื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ืœืคื™ ืžืงื•ื ื ื“ืจื• ืื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื”ืจ ื‘ื”ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื” ื‘ื‘ืงืขื”

MISHNA: If one takes a vow until the harvest, the vow remains in effect until people begin to harvest. This is referring to the wheat harvest but not the barley harvest. As for the exact date of this event, all is determined according to the place where he took his vow. If he was on a mountain, it is assumed that he referred to the time of the harvest on the mountain, and if he was in a valley, it is assumed that he meant the time of the harvest in the valley.

ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืชืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžื ื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืขื“ ืฉื™ืคืกืงื• ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆื ื ื™ืกืŸ ื›ื•ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืคืกื—

If one takes a vow until the rains, or until there are rains, the vow remains in effect until the second rain of the rainy season falls. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the second rainfall arrives, even if rain does not fall. If one takes a vow until the rains end, the vow remains in effect until the entire month of Nisan has ended; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until Passover has passed.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื“ืจ ืขื“ ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ ื•ื™ืจื“ ืœืขืžืงื™ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ืขืžืงื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื”ืงื™ืฅ ื‘ื’ืœื™ืœ

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: With regard to one who vows until the summer in the Galilee and subsequently descends to the valleys, even if the summer season has already arrived in the valleys, the subject of his vow remains forbidden to him until summer arrives in the Galilee, in accordance with the mishnaโ€™s ruling that the duration of a vow is in accordance with the place where it was made.

ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืชืจื“ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉื ืขื“ ื–ืžืŸ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืงืืžืจ

The mishna states that if one takes a vow until the rains, or until there are rains, he means until the second rain of the rainy season. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the second rainfall arrives. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Zeira said: The dispute is in a case where one said: Until the rains. However, if he says: Until the rain, everyone agrees that he is saying that the vow should remain in effect until the time of the rains, but not necessarily until the rain actually falls.

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