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Daf Yomi

December 27, 2022 | ื’ืณ ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

Nedarim 63

This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Jonathan Katz in memory of his grandfather Yaโ€™akov ben Shlomo.

This weekโ€™s learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Long Island for a refuah shleima for Dovid ben Aidel, husband to our leader and daf sister, Gitta.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Debra Antzis in memory of her father, Rabbi Norman Antzis, Menachem Nachum ben Yisrael and Blima Phrimit, whose yahrzeit is today. ื™ืฉ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืจื‘ ืคื ื™ื ื™ื ื•ื›ืœื™ ื™ืงืจ ืฉืคืชื™ ื“ืขืช ื”ื ืฉืžื” ืœืš ื•ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ืคืขืœืš ื—ื•ืกื” ืขืœ ืขืžืœืš.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Laura and Mark Warshawsky in honor of the marriage of their son Avi to Malki Infield.

Today’s daf is sponsored by Catriella Freedman in honor of Julie Mendelsohn and her family in celebration of Noah Mendelsohn and Hadas Koler’s wedding Mazal tov!

There is a debate in the Mishna regarding one who vows “until the rains” – is it until the beginning of the second rain when they actually arrive or until the date known as the time for the second rain. Rabbi Zeira says they do not disagree in the case of one who vowed until ‘the rain’ (in singular form) as that certainly connotes the date the rains are supposed to come. A difficulty is raised against him from the Tosefta but is resolved. The Mishna deals with what happens in a leap year. If one vowed for this year, the leap month is included. If one vowed until Adar, it is referring to the first Adar. Does the Mishna only accord with Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion that Adar without a descriptor is the first Adar? Or can the Mishna be explained according to Rabbi Meir as well? Rabbi Yehuda holds that if one vowed from wine until it will be Pesach, which usually means the end of Pesach, one is permitted to drink wine on Pesach as we assume because of the mitzva of drinking wine on the first night, one meant until the beginning of Pesach. Similarly, if one vowed not to eat meat until the night of the fast, they would be permitted to eat meat before the fast. Rabbi Yosi adds the same for garlic on Shabbat, based on the takana of Ezra that people should eat garlic on Friday nights. A number of examples are brought in the Mishna of vows that do not need a chacham to undo or only apply in a limited manner, as one can explain the fulfillment of the vow in some other way.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ื–ืžื ื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ื”ื‘ื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ืฉืœืฉื” ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืคื™ืœื” ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื”


The Gemara raises an objection against the statement by Rabbi Zeira from the following baraita: When is the time of the rainfall? The early rainfall occurs on the third of the month of Marแธฅeshvan; the intermediate rainfall is on the seventh of the month, while the late rainfall is on the twenty-third of the month. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: The respective dates are on the seventh, on the seventeenth, and on the twenty-third of Marแธฅeshvan.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื›ืกืœื™ื• ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืžืชืขื ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ืกืœื™ื•


Rabbi Yosei says: The first two time periods are on the seventeenth and on the twenty-third of Marแธฅeshvan, and the last period is at the beginning of the month of Kislev. And so too, Rabbi Yosei would say: The learned individuals, who would start to fast due to a drought at an earlier time than the rest of the community, do not start to fast until the New Moon of Kislev arrives and no rain has fallen.


ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœื™ืฉืืœ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืœื”ืชืขื ื•ืช ืืœื ืฉื ื™ื” ืœืžืื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื ื•ื“ืจ


And we say about this: Granted, they disagreed over the time of the first rainfall, as this time is relevant with regard to asking for rain through prayer. The time when the third rainfall is expected is relevant with regard to fasting due to lack of rain. But as for the expected time for the second rainfall, for what purpose did they disagree about its date? And Rabbi Zeira said: It is significant for one who vows until the rain.


ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืฉื™ืจื“ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ื™ืžื™ื ื–ื” ืื—ืจ ื–ื” ืืชื” ืžื•ื ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


And furthermore, we say about this: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in the baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In the case of rains that fell for seven days, one after another, you count them as the first rainfall and the second. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who is the only tanna who holds that the first and second periods of rainfall span seven days. It is evident from this discussion that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel argues that one who vows until the rain must wait until after the second actual rainfall. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Zeira that until the rain is referring to the date when rain is supposed to fall.


ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื:


The Gemara answers: That baraita is referring to one who said: Until the rains, rather than: Until the rain. Consequently, the expiration of his vow is determined by the actual time of rainfall.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืœืฉื ื” ื ืชืขื‘ืจื” ื”ืฉื ื” ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื” ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ:


MISHNA: In the case of one who said: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it for the entire year, if the year was extended, i.e., it was declared to be a leap year, he is prohibited from drinking wine during the year and its intercalated month. If he vowed until the beginning of the month of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the beginning of the first Adar. Similarly, if he says that his vow applies until the end of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the end of the first Adar.


ื’ืžืณ ืืœืžื ืกืชืžื ื“ืื“ืจ ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื


GEMARA: The Gemara comments on the statement in the mishna that if one takes a vow until the beginning of Adar, it remains in effect until the beginning of the first Adar. Apparently, when one says Adar without specification, his statement is understood as a reference to the first Adar.


ืœื™ืžื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื“ืจ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืื“ืจ ืกืชื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืกืชื ืื“ืจ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืชื™ื ื™ื™ืŸ


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is taught in a baraita: In the first month of Adar, when dating a document, one writes that the document was composed in the first Adar. During the second Adar, one writes the name of the month of Adar without specification; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says the reverse: During the first Adar one writes the name of the month without specification, and in the second Adar he writes that the document was composed in the second Adar.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ืข ื“ืžืขื‘ืจื ืฉืชื ื”ื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืข


Abaye said: You can even say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as there is a difference between the cases: In this baraita, the case is one where the individual who took the vow knew that the year was extended, i.e., declared as a leap year, and the disagreement concerns which Adar is considered the principal one. Conversely, that mishna is referring to a case where he did not know that it is a leap year and that there are two months of Adar. Consequently, when he referred to Adar, all agree that he meant the first Adar.


ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื ื” ืžืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืฉื ื™


And, so too, it is taught in a baraita: If one vows until the New Moon of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the New Moon of the first Adar, and if it was a leap year, it remains in effect until the New Moon of the second Adar.


ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืจื™ืฉื ืœืื• ื‘ืžืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ื ื“ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืขื‘ืจื ืฉืชื ื”ื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืข:


The Gemara analyzes this baraita: Does the latter clause prove by inference that in the first clause, we are not dealing with a leap year? In a regular year there is only one month of Adar, so it is impossible to speak of a first or second Adar. Rather, learn from it that this latter clause is referring to a case where it is obvious to him that the year was extended, and therefore when he refers to the month of Adar he means the second Adar, whereas that first clause is referring to a case where he did not know that it was a leap year, in which case he means the first Adar.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ืคืกื— ืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœ ื”ืคืกื— ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืฉืชื•ืช ื™ื™ืŸ


MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: In the case of one who says: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Passover, it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the night of Passover, i.e., until the time when it is customary for people to drink wine in order to fulfill the mitzva of drinking the four cups, but he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to fulfill this mitzva.


ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ืฆื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฆื•ื ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืฉื•ื ืฉืื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉืชื”ื ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื


Similarly, if he said: Meat is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be the fast of Yom Kippur, he is prohibited from eating meat only until the eve of [leilei] the fast. This is because it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat meat in the festive meal before the fast, and he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to participate in that meal. Rabbi Yosei, his son, says: One who vows: Garlic is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Shabbat, it is prohibited for him to eat garlic only until the eve of Shabbat, as it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat garlic.


ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืœืš ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืœื‘ื ื™ืš ื›ื•ืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืืช ื ื“ืจื• ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื›ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœื•ื ืืžืจืช ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื™ ื–ื”ื• ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื™


In the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from you is konam for me, i.e., I am prohibited from deriving benefit from you, if you do not come and take for your son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine as a gift, this other individual can dissolve his vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: Did you say your vow for any reason other than due to my honor, in order to convince me to accept a gift for my son? This is my honor, that I refrain from accepting the gift, and consequently the vow is annulled.


ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื ื ืฉืืช ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืŸ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืืช ื ื“ืจื• ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื›ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืื ื™ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ืชืงื‘ืœืชื™


And, so too, in the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from me is konam for you, i.e., you are prohibited from deriving benefit from me, if you do not come and give my son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine, Rabbi Meir says: It is prohibited for the other individual to benefit from the speaker until he gives the gifts to his son. However, the Rabbis say: Even this individual who took the vow can dissolve his own vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: I hereby consider it as though I have received the gift.


ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืจื‘ ื‘ื• ืœืฉืืช ื‘ืช ืื—ื•ืชื• ื•ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืฉื”ื™ื ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืžื’ืจืฉ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืืฉืชื™ ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื™ ืืœื• ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืœื”ื ื•ืช ืœื• ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืฉื•ื ืื™ืฉื•ืช


If an individual was urging another to marry the daughter of his sister, and in order to deflect the pressure, the other man said: Benefiting from me is konam for her forever, i.e., she is prohibited from deriving any benefit from me forever, and, so too, if there is one who divorces his wife and says: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife forever, these women are permitted to derive benefit from him, as this man intended to take this vow only for the purpose of prohibiting marriage between them, but not to prohibit all forms of benefit.


ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืจื‘ ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉื™ืื›ืœ ืืฆืœื• ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืœื‘ื™ืชืš ืฉืื ื™ ื ื›ื ืก ื˜ื™ืคืช ืฆื•ื ืŸ ืฉืื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืœืš ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืžืžื ื• ืฆื•ื ืŸ ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืฉื•ื ืื›ื™ืœื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื”:


Similarly, if one was urging another to eat with him, and the latter said: Entering your house is konam for me, as is tasting even a drop of cold liquid of yours, the individual who took the vow is nevertheless permitted to enter his house and to drink a cold beverage of his. This is because this individual intended to take this vow only for the purpose of eating and drinking a meal, but not to prohibit himself from entering the house entirely or from drinking in small quantities (Commentary on Nedarim).


ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ



  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

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Nedarim 63

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ื–ื•ื”ื™ ื–ืžื ื” ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ื”ื‘ื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ืฉืœืฉื” ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืคื™ืœื” ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื”


The Gemara raises an objection against the statement by Rabbi Zeira from the following baraita: When is the time of the rainfall? The early rainfall occurs on the third of the month of Marแธฅeshvan; the intermediate rainfall is on the seventh of the month, while the late rainfall is on the twenty-third of the month. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: The respective dates are on the seventh, on the seventeenth, and on the twenty-third of Marแธฅeshvan.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื›ืกืœื™ื• ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืžืชืขื ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ืกืœื™ื•


Rabbi Yosei says: The first two time periods are on the seventeenth and on the twenty-third of Marแธฅeshvan, and the last period is at the beginning of the month of Kislev. And so too, Rabbi Yosei would say: The learned individuals, who would start to fast due to a drought at an earlier time than the rest of the community, do not start to fast until the New Moon of Kislev arrives and no rain has fallen.


ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœื™ืฉืืœ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืœื”ืชืขื ื•ืช ืืœื ืฉื ื™ื” ืœืžืื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื ื•ื“ืจ


And we say about this: Granted, they disagreed over the time of the first rainfall, as this time is relevant with regard to asking for rain through prayer. The time when the third rainfall is expected is relevant with regard to fasting due to lack of rain. But as for the expected time for the second rainfall, for what purpose did they disagree about its date? And Rabbi Zeira said: It is significant for one who vows until the rain.


ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืฉื™ืจื“ื• ืฉื‘ืขื” ื™ืžื™ื ื–ื” ืื—ืจ ื–ื” ืืชื” ืžื•ื ื” ื‘ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ืขื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


And furthermore, we say about this: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in the baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In the case of rains that fell for seven days, one after another, you count them as the first rainfall and the second. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who is the only tanna who holds that the first and second periods of rainfall span seven days. It is evident from this discussion that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel argues that one who vows until the rain must wait until after the second actual rainfall. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Zeira that until the rain is referring to the date when rain is supposed to fall.


ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื:


The Gemara answers: That baraita is referring to one who said: Until the rains, rather than: Until the rain. Consequently, the expiration of his vow is determined by the actual time of rainfall.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืœืฉื ื” ื ืชืขื‘ืจื” ื”ืฉื ื” ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื” ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืกื•ืฃ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ:


MISHNA: In the case of one who said: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it for the entire year, if the year was extended, i.e., it was declared to be a leap year, he is prohibited from drinking wine during the year and its intercalated month. If he vowed until the beginning of the month of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the beginning of the first Adar. Similarly, if he says that his vow applies until the end of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the end of the first Adar.


ื’ืžืณ ืืœืžื ืกืชืžื ื“ืื“ืจ ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื


GEMARA: The Gemara comments on the statement in the mishna that if one takes a vow until the beginning of Adar, it remains in effect until the beginning of the first Adar. Apparently, when one says Adar without specification, his statement is understood as a reference to the first Adar.


ืœื™ืžื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื“ืจ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืื“ืจ ืกืชื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืกืชื ืื“ืจ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืชื™ื ื™ื™ืŸ


The Gemara asks: Shall we say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is taught in a baraita: In the first month of Adar, when dating a document, one writes that the document was composed in the first Adar. During the second Adar, one writes the name of the month of Adar without specification; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says the reverse: During the first Adar one writes the name of the month without specification, and in the second Adar he writes that the document was composed in the second Adar.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ืข ื“ืžืขื‘ืจื ืฉืชื ื”ื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืข


Abaye said: You can even say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as there is a difference between the cases: In this baraita, the case is one where the individual who took the vow knew that the year was extended, i.e., declared as a leap year, and the disagreement concerns which Adar is considered the principal one. Conversely, that mishna is referring to a case where he did not know that it is a leap year and that there are two months of Adar. Consequently, when he referred to Adar, all agree that he meant the first Adar.


ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื ื” ืžืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืขื“ ืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื“ืจ ื”ืฉื ื™


And, so too, it is taught in a baraita: If one vows until the New Moon of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the New Moon of the first Adar, and if it was a leap year, it remains in effect until the New Moon of the second Adar.


ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืจื™ืฉื ืœืื• ื‘ืžืขื•ื‘ืจืช ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ื ื“ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืžืขื‘ืจื ืฉืชื ื”ื ื“ืœื ื™ื“ืข:


The Gemara analyzes this baraita: Does the latter clause prove by inference that in the first clause, we are not dealing with a leap year? In a regular year there is only one month of Adar, so it is impossible to speak of a first or second Adar. Rather, learn from it that this latter clause is referring to a case where it is obvious to him that the year was extended, and therefore when he refers to the month of Adar he means the second Adar, whereas that first clause is referring to a case where he did not know that it was a leap year, in which case he means the first Adar.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ืคืกื— ืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœ ื”ืคืกื— ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืฉืชื•ืช ื™ื™ืŸ


MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: In the case of one who says: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Passover, it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the night of Passover, i.e., until the time when it is customary for people to drink wine in order to fulfill the mitzva of drinking the four cups, but he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to fulfill this mitzva.


ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉืื™ื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื ื”ืฆื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฆื•ื ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืฉื•ื ืฉืื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืขื“ ืฉืชื”ื ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืขื“ ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืขื” ืฉื“ืจืš ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืฉื•ื


Similarly, if he said: Meat is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be the fast of Yom Kippur, he is prohibited from eating meat only until the eve of [leilei] the fast. This is because it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat meat in the festive meal before the fast, and he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to participate in that meal. Rabbi Yosei, his son, says: One who vows: Garlic is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Shabbat, it is prohibited for him to eat garlic only until the eve of Shabbat, as it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat garlic.


ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืœืš ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืœื‘ื ื™ืš ื›ื•ืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืืช ื ื“ืจื• ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื›ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœื•ื ืืžืจืช ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื™ ื–ื”ื• ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื™


In the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from you is konam for me, i.e., I am prohibited from deriving benefit from you, if you do not come and take for your son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine as a gift, this other individual can dissolve his vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: Did you say your vow for any reason other than due to my honor, in order to convince me to accept a gift for my son? This is my honor, that I refrain from accepting the gift, and consequently the vow is annulled.


ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื ื ืฉืืช ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื‘ื ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื›ื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืกื•ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืŸ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืคืจ ืืช ื ื“ืจื• ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื›ื ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืจื™ ืื ื™ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ืชืงื‘ืœืชื™


And, so too, in the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from me is konam for you, i.e., you are prohibited from deriving benefit from me, if you do not come and give my son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine, Rabbi Meir says: It is prohibited for the other individual to benefit from the speaker until he gives the gifts to his son. However, the Rabbis say: Even this individual who took the vow can dissolve his own vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: I hereby consider it as though I have received the gift.


ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืจื‘ ื‘ื• ืœืฉืืช ื‘ืช ืื—ื•ืชื• ื•ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืฉื”ื™ื ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืžื’ืจืฉ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ืื•ืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืืฉืชื™ ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื™ ืืœื• ืžื•ืชืจื•ืช ืœื”ื ื•ืช ืœื• ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืฉื•ื ืื™ืฉื•ืช


If an individual was urging another to marry the daughter of his sister, and in order to deflect the pressure, the other man said: Benefiting from me is konam for her forever, i.e., she is prohibited from deriving any benefit from me forever, and, so too, if there is one who divorces his wife and says: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife forever, these women are permitted to derive benefit from him, as this man intended to take this vow only for the purpose of prohibiting marriage between them, but not to prohibit all forms of benefit.


ื”ื™ื” ืžืกืจื‘ ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืฉื™ืื›ืœ ืืฆืœื• ืืžืจ ืงื•ื ื ืœื‘ื™ืชืš ืฉืื ื™ ื ื›ื ืก ื˜ื™ืคืช ืฆื•ื ืŸ ืฉืื ื™ ื˜ื•ืขื ืœืš ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชื• ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืžืžื ื• ืฆื•ื ืŸ ืฉืœื ื ืชื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืฉื•ื ืื›ื™ืœื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื”:


Similarly, if one was urging another to eat with him, and the latter said: Entering your house is konam for me, as is tasting even a drop of cold liquid of yours, the individual who took the vow is nevertheless permitted to enter his house and to drink a cold beverage of his. This is because this individual intended to take this vow only for the purpose of eating and drinking a meal, but not to prohibit himself from entering the house entirely or from drinking in small quantities (Commentary on Nedarim).


ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืงื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ



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