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Today's Daf Yomi

November 5, 2021 | 讗壮 讘讻住诇讜 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of Monica Howell z"l.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 27

Hadran Women of Minneapolis is sponsoring the month of Kislev in memory of our Daf Yomi study partner, Monica Howell. Most in our group were connected via our shul, our neighborhood, or just from around town. Monica showed up to our first Siyum pre-Covid and introduced herself to us, she was the only newcomer to our group. Soon after that Siyum the world turned virtual and we never saw Monica in person again, just over the zoom screen. Week after week Monica joined our group. We admired that Monica chose to be part of a group with folks she didn鈥檛 know and a topic she was just beginning to learn. Monica鈥檚 friend Andrew reached out to let us know that Monica was dying, he shared that even with her camera off, she found comfort in the words and discussion surrounding the Daf. May we all learn to be brave and fearless in our learning and may memories of Monica be for a blessing to all.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Emma Rinberg in loving memory of her mother-in-law Phyllis Rinberg – Fruma Sarah bat Reb Aharon and Mira on the occasion of her 50th yahrzeit which will take place tomorrow. 鈥淧hyllis died far too young, at age 45, and I was not privileged to know her. She was a talented teacher, headteacher, and lecturer in education. She was creative – loved gardening and sewing. She would, I am sure, be so proud of her son, my husband, and our family. She would certainly have appreciated the idea of us all learning Daf Yomi together, as education was very important to her. May her memory be blessed.鈥

Can the mouth of the shofar be covered in gold? How were they able to blow the shofar with the trumpets if one cannot hear two sounds at the same time? Perhaps that is why the shofar blasts are longer than the trumpet blasts. However, if we say that, it implies that one can fulfill one’s obligation by hearing half of the shofar blast. The is questioned by two different sources that seem to indicate otherwise. One can be explained differently, but the second cannot. Therefore the Gemara explains that it must be that one can hear two sounds from different people but not from one person. However, another source is brought that shows that two people reading the targum on the Torah cannot be heard at the same time. This question is rejected because our case (shofar)聽 is more similar to the cases at the end of that source that speaks about many people reading the megilla or reciting Hallel which is permitted, presumably because it is special as it is said on a special occasion and therefore people will make the effort to be able to hear it. The shofar for Rosh Hashana adorned with gold and on fasts with silver – either because gatherings are done with instruments of silver as it says in the Torah or because the Torah did not want us to have to spend too much money so only for the sake of Yom Tov was gold required. The shofar and trumpets blasts were performed only in the Temple. From what verse is this derived? Rav Shmuel bar Yitchak pointed out that our prayers match Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion (that the world was created in Tishrei) as we say “Today is the day the world was created.” Does this match with our Mishna? Although Rav Shisha brings a different version of the discussion. What are the laws regarding a broken shofar? If one blows the shofar in a pit, cistern, or barrel, can one fulfill one’s obligation? If one passed by a place where they were blowing the shofar or reading megilla, one can fulfill one’s obligation only if one has intent. The Gemara brings some braitot that add several other laws about whether one can blow a shofar where different types of changes/fixes were made to it. If one blows the shofar in a pit, the ones inside the pit hear it directly and therefore fulfill their obligation, but anyone standing on the edge of the pit, outside the pit, hear only the echo and not a direct sound and therefore, do not fulfill their obligation.

讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讝讛讘 讜讛转谞讬讗 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讬讜 驻住讜诇 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讬讜 讻砖专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 转谞谉

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And the mouth of the shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana was plated with gold. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If a shofar was plated with gold at the place where one puts his mouth, it is unfit for blowing; if it was plated, but not at the place where he puts his mouth, it is fit for blowing? Abaye said: When we learned in the mishna as well, we learned that it referred not to the place where one puts his mouth, but a little above it.

讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬诐 讜转专讬 拽诇讬 诪讬 诪砖转诪注讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讝讻讜专 讜砖诪讜专 讘讚讬讘讜专 讗讞讚 谞讗诪专讜 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讛驻讛 讬讻讜诇讛 诇讚讘专 讜讗讬谉 讛讗讜讝谉 讬讻讜诇讛 诇砖诪讜注 诇讻讱 诪讗专讬讱 讘砖讜驻专

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And there were two trumpets, one on each of the two sides of the person sounding the shofar. The Gemara asks: But is it really possible to properly discern two different sounds, that of the shofar and that of the trumpets, at the same time? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The two versions of the fifth of the Ten Commandments, 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day鈥 (Exodus 20:8) and 鈥淜eep the Shabbat day鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12), were spoken by God simultaneously in a single utterance, something that the human mouth cannot speak and the human ear cannot hear? This indicates that it is impossible to take in two sounds at once, and so, due to the sound of the trumpets, it should be impossible to hear the blast of the shofar. The Gemara answers: For this reason they would sound a long blast with the shofar, to make it possible to hear the sound of the shofar on its own.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬 砖诪注 住讜祝 转拽讬注讛 讘诇讗 转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 讬爪讗 讜诪诪讬诇讗 转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 讘诇讗 住讜祝 转拽讬注讛 讬爪讗

The Gemara rejects this answer: Is this to say that if one hears the end of a blast without hearing the beginning of the blast he has fulfilled his obligation? In this case one hears only the end of the shofar blast, since the shofar was initially sounded together with the trumpets. If so, it would follow that if one hears the beginning of the blast without hearing the end of the blast, he has also fulfilled his obligation.

转讗 砖诪注 转拽注 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜诪砖讱 讘砖谞讬讛 讻砖转讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讗诇讗 讗讞转 讗诪讗讬 转讬住诇拽 诇讬讛 讘转专转讬 驻住讜拽讬 转拽讬注转讗 诪讛讚讚讬 诇讗 驻住拽讬谞谉

This, however, is difficult. Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: If one blew the initial tekia, a long, continuous shofar blast, of the first tekia-terua-tekia set, and then drew out the final tekia of that set so that it spans the length of two tekiot, it counts as only one tekia and is not considered two tekiot, i.e., the final tekia of the first set, and the initial tekia of the second set. But why is this so? Let it count for him as two tekiot, since as stated above, half a blast is considered a blast. The Gemara explains: If one hears only the beginning or the end of a shofar blast, he has indeed fulfilled his obligation, but nevertheless we do not divide a shofar blast into two.

转讗 砖诪注 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛驻讬讟住 讗诐 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讬驻讜拽 讘转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬注专讘讘 拽诇讗

The Gemara raises another difficulty: Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: With regard to one who sounds a shofar into a pit, or into a cistern, or into a large jug [pitas], if he clearly heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he also heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled his obligation. But why is this so? If half a blast is indeed considered a complete blast, let him fulfill his obligation with the beginning of the blast, before the sound is confused with the echo, since the beginning of the blast was heard clearly.

讗诇讗 转专转讬 拽诇讬 诪讞讚 讙讘专讗 诇讗 诪砖转诪注讬 诪转专讬 讙讘专讬 诪砖转诪注讬

Rather, we must retreat from the explanation offered above and say as follows: Two sounds coming from one source or person cannot be discerned, and this was the miracle at Sinai in which the people heard both 鈥淩emember the Shabbat鈥 (Exodus 20:8) and 鈥淜eep the Shabbat鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12) in a single divine utterance. But two sounds from two different sources or people can be properly discerned.

讜诪转专讬 讙讘专讬 诪讬 诪砖转诪注讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讘转讜专讛 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜讗讞讚 诪转专讙诐 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But is it really true that two sounds coming from two different people can be properly discerned? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to the public reading of the Torah, one person may read and one may translate, provided that there are not two people reading and two people translating. Consequently it is clear that two sounds cannot be properly heard, even when they come from two different people.

讛讗 诇讗 讚诪讬讗 讗诇讗 诇住讬驻讗 讘讛诇诇 讜讘诪讙讬诇讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘 讬讛讬讘 讚注转讬讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘 讬讛讬讘 讚注转讬讛 讜砖诪注

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, since our case is only similar to the case mentioned in the latter clause of that baraita, which reads: With regard to the reading of hallel and the Scroll of Esther, even ten people may read simultaneously. Apparently, since these readings are dear to their listeners, they direct their attention to them, listen attentively, and distinguish between the different readers. Here too, since the sounding of the shofar is dear to the listener, he directs his attention to the matter and discerns between the two sounds.

讗诇讗 诇诪讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘砖讜驻专 诇讬讚注 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘砖讜驻专

The Gemara asks: But if it is indeed possible to discern the sound of the shofar even when it is sounded simultaneously with the trumpets, why does he sound a long blast with the shofar? The Gemara answers: This is so people should know that the mitzva of the day is specifically with the shofar.

讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讻住祝 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛转诐 讚讝讛讘 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛讻讗 讚讻住祝 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻诇 讻讬谞讜驻讬讗 讚讻住祝 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 诇讱 砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讻住祝 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛转讜专讛 讞住讛 注诇 诪诪讜谞谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇

搂 It was taught in the mishna: The shofarot that were used on public fast days were made from the curved horns of rams, and their mouths were plated with silver. The Gemara asks: What is different there that the shofar of Rosh HaShana is plated with gold, and what is different here that the shofarot of fast days are plated with silver? The Gemara answers: If you wish, you can say: Any shofar made for the purpose of gathering people together is made of silver, as it is written: 鈥淢ake for yourself two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shall you make them, and you shall use them for calling the assembly and for the journeying of the camps鈥 (Numbers 10:2). And if you wish, you can say: The Torah spared the money of the Jewish people and therefore allows these shofarot to be made of silver, which is less costly than gold.

讛转诐 谞诪讬 谞注讘讬讚 讚讻住祝 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讻讘讜讚 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 注讚讬祝

The Gemara asks: If so, there too, the shofar of Rosh HaShana should be made with silver plating. The Gemara answers: Even so, the duty of honoring the Festival is given priority, so that it is proper to beautify the shofar of Rosh HaShana. On a fast day, however, since it is not a Festival, there is no need to use gold, and silver is sufficient.

专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘专 诇诪讬注讘讚 注讜讘讚讗 讻诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪拽讚砖 讗讘诇 讘讙讘讜诇讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讗讬谉 砖讜驻专 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 砖讜驻专 讗讬谉 讞爪讜爪专讜转

It is related that Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to act in accordance with the mishna regarding all the details of the shofar and the trumpets. But Rava said to him: They said this only with regard to the Temple. This is also taught in a baraita: In what case is this statement said? Only in the Temple, but in the provinces, anywhere outside the Temple, the halakha is as follows: Wherever there are trumpets, e.g., on fast days, there is no shofar, and wherever there is a shofar, e.g., on Rosh HaShana, there are no trumpets.

讜讻谉 讛谞讛讬讙 专讘讬 讞诇驻转讗 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 转专讚讬讜谉 讘住讬讻谞讬 讜讻砖讘讗 讚讘专 讗爪诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讘砖注专讬 诪讝专讞 讜讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讘诇讘讚

And similarly, Rabbi 岣lafta established the custom in Tzippori as it is described in the mishna, and so did Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon in Sikhni, and when the matter came before the Rabbis they said: They acted in this manner only at the east gates of the Temple and on the Temple Mount.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讛专讬注讜 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讛壮 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讛壮 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讗讘诇 讘注诇诪讗 诇讗

Rava said, and some say it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi that said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written: 鈥淲ith trumpets and the sound of a shofar make joyful noise before the Lord, the King鈥 (Psalms 98:6), from which it may be inferred: Only before the Lord, the King, i.e., in His Temple, do we need both trumpets and the sound of a shofar, but in general, outside the Temple, we do not need both.

砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻诪讗谉 诪爪诇讬谞谉 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

搂 It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray today on Rosh HaShana, saying: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day? In accordance with whom? In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei. We therefore mention on Rosh HaShana that it is the first day.

诪转讬讘 专讘 注讬谞讗 砖讜讛 讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讚讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬转讗 讜讘讬讜讘诇 诇讬转讗 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗砖讗专讗

Rav Eina raised an objection: It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. But there are the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, which is neither: The beginning of Your works, nor: A commemoration of the first day. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara answers: When the mishna was taught, saying that the blessings of the Jubilee and Rosh HaShana are the same, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but the line beginning: This day, is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.

专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪转谞讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讛讗 讚转谞谉 砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讻诪讗谉 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讚讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬转讗 讜讘讬讜讘诇 诇讬转讗 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗砖讗专讗

Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, taught the previous passage as follows: Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: That which we learn in the mishna, Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer; in accordance with whom was it taught? Apparently it was not taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as if it reflects the view of Rabbi Eliezer, there is a difficulty. Since he said that the world was created in Tishrei, then there are also the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana, but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara rejects this argument: When the mishna was taught, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but this line is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.

诪转谞讬壮 砖讜驻专 砖谞住讚拽 讜讚讘拽讜 驻住讜诇 讚讬讘拽 砖讘专讬 砖讜驻专讜转 驻住讜诇

MISHNA: A shofar that was cracked and then glued together, even though it appears to be whole, is unfit. Similarly, if one glued together broken fragments of shofarot to form a complete shofar, the shofar is unfit.

谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转 讛转拽讬注讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛驻讬讟住 讗诐 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗

If the shofar was punctured and the puncture was sealed, if it impedes the blowing, the shofar is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If one sounds a shofar into a pit, or into a cistern, or into a large jug, if he clearly heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation; but if he heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讜讻谉 诪讬 砖讛讬讛 注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘讬转讜 住诪讜讱 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜砖诪注 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讗讜 拽讜诇 诪讙讬诇讛 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讝讛 砖诪注 讜讝讛 砖诪注 讝讛 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讜讝讛 诇讗 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜

And similarly, if one was passing behind a synagogue,or his house was adjacent to the synagogue, and he heard the sound of the shofar or the sound of the Scroll of Esther being read, if he focused his heart, i.e. his intent, to fulfill his obligation, he has fulfilled his obligation; but if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation. It is therefore possible for two people to hear the shofar blasts, but only one of them fulfills his obligation. Even though this one heard and also the other one heard, nevertheless, this one focused his heart to fulfill his obligation and has therefore indeed fulfilled it, but the other one did not focus his heart, and so he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讜讱 讜拽爪专讜 讻砖专 讙专讚讜 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙诇讚讜 讻砖专 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 驻住讜诇 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 讻砖专 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 诪讘驻谞讬诐 驻住讜诇 诪讘讞讜抓 讗诐 谞砖转谞讛 拽讜诇讜 诪讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: If a shofar was long and it was shortened, it is still fit. If it was scraped out, so that only its outer layer remains, it is also fit. If the shofar was plated with gold at the place where one puts his mouth, it is unfit; if it was plated not at the place where he puts his mouth, it is fit. If it was plated with gold on the inside, it is unfit, as one does not hear the sound of a shofar but the sound of a golden instrument. If, however, it was plated with gold on the outside, the following distinction applies: If its sound changed from what it was before the plating, it is unfit, but if not, the gold plating is mere ornamentation and it is therefore fit.

谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转 讛转拽讬注讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 谞转谉 砖讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖讜驻专 讗诐 拽讜诇 驻谞讬诪讬 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讞讬爪讜谉 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗

The baraita continues: If the shofar was punctured and the puncture was sealed, if it impedes the blowing, the shofar is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If one placed one shofar inside another shofar and blew, if he heard the sound of the inner shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, because it is considered one shofar, but if he heard the sound of the outer shofar he has not fulfilled it, as the sound issues from two shofarot at once.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙专讚讜 讘讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讘讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讻砖专 讙专讚讜 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙诇讚讜 讻砖专 讛谞讬讞 砖讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖讜驻专 讗诐 拽讜诇 驻谞讬诪讬 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讞讬爪讜谉 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛驻讻讜 讜转拽注 讘讜 诇讗 讬爪讗

The Sages taught in a different baraita: If a shofar was scraped down, whether on the inside or on the outside, it is fit. Even if it was scraped out to the point that only its outer layer remains, it is still fit. If one placed one shofar inside another shofar and blew, if he heard the sound of the inner shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he heard the sound of the outer shofar, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he inverted the shofar and blew it, he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讚讛驻讻讬讛 讻讻转讜谞讗 讗诇讗 砖讛专讞讬讘 讗转 讛拽爪专 讜拽讬爪专 讗转 讛专讞讘 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讚专讘 诪转谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 讜讛注讘专转 讚专讱 讛注讘专转讜 讘注讬谞谉

Rav Pappa said: Do not say that this means that he softened the shofar and turned it inside out like a tunic. Rather, the meaning is that he widened the narrow end of the shofar and narrowed its wide end. What is the reason that this is unfit? It is according to the opinion of Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said that the verse states: 鈥淵ou shall proclaim [veha鈥檃varta] with the shofar鈥 (Leviticus 25:9), where the word veha鈥檃varta literally means carry, thereby teaching that we need the shofar to be sounded the same way that it was carried on the head of the animal, and if a change was made, it is unfit.

讚讬讘拽 砖讘专讬 砖讜驻专讜转 驻住讜诇 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜住讬祝 注诇讬讜 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讘讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讘讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘诪讬谞讜 讻砖专 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇

搂 It was taught in the mishna: If one glued together broken fragments of shofarot to form a complete shofar, the shofar is unfit. The Sages taught in a baraita: If anything was added to a shofar, whether of the same substance, i.e., horn, or of a foreign substance, the shofar is unfit. If the shofar was punctured and sealed, whether with the same substance or with a foreign substance, it is unfit. Rabbi Natan says: If it was sealed with the same substance, it is fit; with a foreign substance, it is unfit.

讘诪讬谞讜 讻砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖谞砖转讬讬专 专讜讘讜 诪讻诇诇 讚砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖谞砖转讬讬专 专讜讘讜 驻住讜诇

The baraita stated: If it was sealed with the same substance, it is fit. Concerning this Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This applies only where most of the original shofar is intact and only a small patch was added. The Gemara concludes: By inference, if it was sealed with a foreign substance, then even if most of the original shofar is intact, it is unfit.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖谞驻讞转 专讜讘讜 诪讻诇诇 讚讘诪讬谞讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖谞驻讞转 专讜讘讜 讻砖专

Some teach this ruling with regard to the last clause of the baraita, in which it was taught: If it was sealed with a foreign substance, it is unfit. Concerning this Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is only where most of the original shofar was missing, so that the patch constitutes the majority. The Gemara concludes: By inference, if it was sealed with the same substance, then even if most of the original shofar was missing, it is still fit.

爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 诪讘驻谞讬诐 驻住讜诇 诪讘讞讜抓 讗诐 谞砖转谞讛 拽讜诇讜 诪讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 谞住讚拽 诇讗讜专讻讜 驻住讜诇 诇专讜讞讘讜 讗诐 谞砖转讬讬专 讘讜 砖讬注讜专 转拽讬注讛 讻砖专 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻住讜诇

The baraita continues: If the shofar was plated with gold on the inside, it is unfit. If, however, it was plated on the outside, and if its sound changed from what it was before the plating, it is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If the shofar was cracked lengthwise, it is unfit. But if it was cracked along its width, the following distinction applies: If, of the portion above the crack there remains a measure sufficient to sound a blast, it is fit, but if not, it is unfit.

讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专 转拽讬注讛 驻讬专砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻讚讬 砖讬讗讞讝谞讜 讘讬讚讜 讜讬专讗讛 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉 讛讬讛 拽讜诇讜 讚拽 讗讜 注讘讛 讗讜 爪专讜专 讻砖专 砖讻诇 讛拽讜诇讜转 讻砖讬专讬谉 [讘砖讜驻专]

And how much is a measure sufficient to sound a blast? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel explained: Enough that when he holds it in his hand, it can be seen protruding on one side of his hand and on the other side. If the sound of the shofar is high or deep or dry, it is fit for blowing, as the Torah does not require a particular sound, and all sounds coming from a shofar are fit.

砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 拽讚讞讜 讜转拽注 讘讜 讬爪讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讻讜诇讛讜 谞诪讬 诪讬拽讚讞 拽讚讞讜 诇讛讜

It is related that the following ruling was sent from Eretz Yisrael to Shmuel鈥檚 father: If one drilled out the inside of a horn and blew it, he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara asks: It is obvious, for all shofarot are drilled, since after the horn is removed from the animal, the bone that fills the horn and connects it to the animal鈥檚 head must be removed. What, then, does this ruling teach us?

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖拽讚讞讜 讘讝讻专讜转讜 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Ashi said: Here we are discussing a case where he drilled the bone that fills the horn instead of removing it in the usual manner. Lest you say that even something made of the same substance interposes, and the sound that is produced is emitted from the bone and not from the shofar, the ruling therefore teaches us that since the bone and the horn are considered to be of the same substance, the shofar is fit and he has fulfilled his obligation.

讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 砖驻转 讛讘讜专 讗讘诇 讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讘讜专 讬爪讗讜

搂 It was taught in the mishna: If one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has not fulfilled his obligation. Rav Huna said: They taught this only with respect to those standing at the edge of the pit, i.e., on the outside, as they can hear only the echo coming from the pit. But those standing in the pit itself have fulfilled their obligation, since they initially hear the sound of the shofar.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讬爪讗 讜讛转谞谉 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

This is also taught in a baraita: If one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has fulfilled his obligation. But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that in that case he has not fulfilled his obligation? Rather, isn鈥檛 it correct to conclude from here that the contradiction must be reconciled in accordance with Rav Huna? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is so.

讗讬讻讗 讚专诪讬 诇讛讜 诪讬专诪讗 转谞谉 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 注诇 砖驻转 讛讘讜专 讻讗谉 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讘讜专

Some had a different version of the previous passage. There are those who raise the following source as a contradiction: We learned in the mishna that if one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has not fulfilled his obligation. But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that in that case he has fulfilled his obligation? Rav Huna said: This is not difficult; here, in the mishna, we are dealing with those standing at the edge of the pit, whereas there, in the baraita we are dealing with those standing in the pit.

讗诪专 专讘讛

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Rosh Hashanah: 25-29 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

The Gemara describes different testimonies given before the court. It describes seeming contradictions and explains how they could be true....

Rosh Hashanah 27

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 27

讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讝讛讘 讜讛转谞讬讗 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讬讜 驻住讜诇 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讬讜 讻砖专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 转谞谉

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And the mouth of the shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana was plated with gold. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If a shofar was plated with gold at the place where one puts his mouth, it is unfit for blowing; if it was plated, but not at the place where he puts his mouth, it is fit for blowing? Abaye said: When we learned in the mishna as well, we learned that it referred not to the place where one puts his mouth, but a little above it.

讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬诐 讜转专讬 拽诇讬 诪讬 诪砖转诪注讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讝讻讜专 讜砖诪讜专 讘讚讬讘讜专 讗讞讚 谞讗诪专讜 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讛驻讛 讬讻讜诇讛 诇讚讘专 讜讗讬谉 讛讗讜讝谉 讬讻讜诇讛 诇砖诪讜注 诇讻讱 诪讗专讬讱 讘砖讜驻专

搂 It was taught in the mishna: And there were two trumpets, one on each of the two sides of the person sounding the shofar. The Gemara asks: But is it really possible to properly discern two different sounds, that of the shofar and that of the trumpets, at the same time? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The two versions of the fifth of the Ten Commandments, 鈥淩emember the Shabbat day鈥 (Exodus 20:8) and 鈥淜eep the Shabbat day鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12), were spoken by God simultaneously in a single utterance, something that the human mouth cannot speak and the human ear cannot hear? This indicates that it is impossible to take in two sounds at once, and so, due to the sound of the trumpets, it should be impossible to hear the blast of the shofar. The Gemara answers: For this reason they would sound a long blast with the shofar, to make it possible to hear the sound of the shofar on its own.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻讬 砖诪注 住讜祝 转拽讬注讛 讘诇讗 转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 讬爪讗 讜诪诪讬诇讗 转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 讘诇讗 住讜祝 转拽讬注讛 讬爪讗

The Gemara rejects this answer: Is this to say that if one hears the end of a blast without hearing the beginning of the blast he has fulfilled his obligation? In this case one hears only the end of the shofar blast, since the shofar was initially sounded together with the trumpets. If so, it would follow that if one hears the beginning of the blast without hearing the end of the blast, he has also fulfilled his obligation.

转讗 砖诪注 转拽注 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜诪砖讱 讘砖谞讬讛 讻砖转讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬讚讜 讗诇讗 讗讞转 讗诪讗讬 转讬住诇拽 诇讬讛 讘转专转讬 驻住讜拽讬 转拽讬注转讗 诪讛讚讚讬 诇讗 驻住拽讬谞谉

This, however, is difficult. Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: If one blew the initial tekia, a long, continuous shofar blast, of the first tekia-terua-tekia set, and then drew out the final tekia of that set so that it spans the length of two tekiot, it counts as only one tekia and is not considered two tekiot, i.e., the final tekia of the first set, and the initial tekia of the second set. But why is this so? Let it count for him as two tekiot, since as stated above, half a blast is considered a blast. The Gemara explains: If one hears only the beginning or the end of a shofar blast, he has indeed fulfilled his obligation, but nevertheless we do not divide a shofar blast into two.

转讗 砖诪注 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛驻讬讟住 讗诐 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讬驻讜拽 讘转讞讬诇转 转拽讬注讛 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬注专讘讘 拽诇讗

The Gemara raises another difficulty: Come and hear that which was taught in a mishna: With regard to one who sounds a shofar into a pit, or into a cistern, or into a large jug [pitas], if he clearly heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he also heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled his obligation. But why is this so? If half a blast is indeed considered a complete blast, let him fulfill his obligation with the beginning of the blast, before the sound is confused with the echo, since the beginning of the blast was heard clearly.

讗诇讗 转专转讬 拽诇讬 诪讞讚 讙讘专讗 诇讗 诪砖转诪注讬 诪转专讬 讙讘专讬 诪砖转诪注讬

Rather, we must retreat from the explanation offered above and say as follows: Two sounds coming from one source or person cannot be discerned, and this was the miracle at Sinai in which the people heard both 鈥淩emember the Shabbat鈥 (Exodus 20:8) and 鈥淜eep the Shabbat鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:12) in a single divine utterance. But two sounds from two different sources or people can be properly discerned.

讜诪转专讬 讙讘专讬 诪讬 诪砖转诪注讬 讜讛讗 转谞讬讗 讘转讜专讛 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜讗讞讚 诪转专讙诐 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But is it really true that two sounds coming from two different people can be properly discerned? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to the public reading of the Torah, one person may read and one may translate, provided that there are not two people reading and two people translating. Consequently it is clear that two sounds cannot be properly heard, even when they come from two different people.

讛讗 诇讗 讚诪讬讗 讗诇讗 诇住讬驻讗 讘讛诇诇 讜讘诪讙讬诇讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘 讬讛讬讘 讚注转讬讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘 讬讛讬讘 讚注转讬讛 讜砖诪注

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, since our case is only similar to the case mentioned in the latter clause of that baraita, which reads: With regard to the reading of hallel and the Scroll of Esther, even ten people may read simultaneously. Apparently, since these readings are dear to their listeners, they direct their attention to them, listen attentively, and distinguish between the different readers. Here too, since the sounding of the shofar is dear to the listener, he directs his attention to the matter and discerns between the two sounds.

讗诇讗 诇诪讛 诪讗专讬讱 讘砖讜驻专 诇讬讚注 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘砖讜驻专

The Gemara asks: But if it is indeed possible to discern the sound of the shofar even when it is sounded simultaneously with the trumpets, why does he sound a long blast with the shofar? The Gemara answers: This is so people should know that the mitzva of the day is specifically with the shofar.

讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讻住祝 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛转诐 讚讝讛讘 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讛讻讗 讚讻住祝 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻诇 讻讬谞讜驻讬讗 讚讻住祝 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 诇讱 砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讻住祝 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛转讜专讛 讞住讛 注诇 诪诪讜谞谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇

搂 It was taught in the mishna: The shofarot that were used on public fast days were made from the curved horns of rams, and their mouths were plated with silver. The Gemara asks: What is different there that the shofar of Rosh HaShana is plated with gold, and what is different here that the shofarot of fast days are plated with silver? The Gemara answers: If you wish, you can say: Any shofar made for the purpose of gathering people together is made of silver, as it is written: 鈥淢ake for yourself two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shall you make them, and you shall use them for calling the assembly and for the journeying of the camps鈥 (Numbers 10:2). And if you wish, you can say: The Torah spared the money of the Jewish people and therefore allows these shofarot to be made of silver, which is less costly than gold.

讛转诐 谞诪讬 谞注讘讬讚 讚讻住祝 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 讻讘讜讚 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 注讚讬祝

The Gemara asks: If so, there too, the shofar of Rosh HaShana should be made with silver plating. The Gemara answers: Even so, the duty of honoring the Festival is given priority, so that it is proper to beautify the shofar of Rosh HaShana. On a fast day, however, since it is not a Festival, there is no need to use gold, and silver is sufficient.

专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘专 诇诪讬注讘讚 注讜讘讚讗 讻诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讚砖 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪拽讚砖 讗讘诇 讘讙讘讜诇讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讗讬谉 砖讜驻专 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 砖讜驻专 讗讬谉 讞爪讜爪专讜转

It is related that Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to act in accordance with the mishna regarding all the details of the shofar and the trumpets. But Rava said to him: They said this only with regard to the Temple. This is also taught in a baraita: In what case is this statement said? Only in the Temple, but in the provinces, anywhere outside the Temple, the halakha is as follows: Wherever there are trumpets, e.g., on fast days, there is no shofar, and wherever there is a shofar, e.g., on Rosh HaShana, there are no trumpets.

讜讻谉 讛谞讛讬讙 专讘讬 讞诇驻转讗 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 转专讚讬讜谉 讘住讬讻谞讬 讜讻砖讘讗 讚讘专 讗爪诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讘砖注专讬 诪讝专讞 讜讘讛专 讛讘讬转 讘诇讘讚

And similarly, Rabbi 岣lafta established the custom in Tzippori as it is described in the mishna, and so did Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon in Sikhni, and when the matter came before the Rabbis they said: They acted in this manner only at the east gates of the Temple and on the Temple Mount.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讘讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讛专讬注讜 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讛壮 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讛壮 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讜拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讗讘诇 讘注诇诪讗 诇讗

Rava said, and some say it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi that said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written: 鈥淲ith trumpets and the sound of a shofar make joyful noise before the Lord, the King鈥 (Psalms 98:6), from which it may be inferred: Only before the Lord, the King, i.e., in His Temple, do we need both trumpets and the sound of a shofar, but in general, outside the Temple, we do not need both.

砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻诪讗谉 诪爪诇讬谞谉 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

搂 It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray today on Rosh HaShana, saying: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day? In accordance with whom? In accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei. We therefore mention on Rosh HaShana that it is the first day.

诪转讬讘 专讘 注讬谞讗 砖讜讛 讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讚讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬转讗 讜讘讬讜讘诇 诇讬转讗 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗砖讗专讗

Rav Eina raised an objection: It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. But there are the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, which is neither: The beginning of Your works, nor: A commemoration of the first day. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara answers: When the mishna was taught, saying that the blessings of the Jubilee and Rosh HaShana are the same, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but the line beginning: This day, is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.

专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪转谞讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讛讗 讚转谞谉 砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 讻诪讗谉 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讝讛 讛讬讜诐 转讞诇转 诪注砖讬讱 讝讻专讜谉 诇讬讜诐 专讗砖讜谉 讚讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬转讗 讜讘讬讜讘诇 诇讬转讗 讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗砖讗专讗

Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, taught the previous passage as follows: Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: That which we learn in the mishna, Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer; in accordance with whom was it taught? Apparently it was not taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as if it reflects the view of Rabbi Eliezer, there is a difficulty. Since he said that the world was created in Tishrei, then there are also the words: This day is the beginning of Your works, a commemoration of the first day, which can be recited on Rosh HaShana, but cannot be recited on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year. If so, how can one recite the same blessing on both occasions? The Gemara rejects this argument: When the mishna was taught, it was taught with regard to the other parts of the blessings, but this line is indeed omitted on Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year.

诪转谞讬壮 砖讜驻专 砖谞住讚拽 讜讚讘拽讜 驻住讜诇 讚讬讘拽 砖讘专讬 砖讜驻专讜转 驻住讜诇

MISHNA: A shofar that was cracked and then glued together, even though it appears to be whole, is unfit. Similarly, if one glued together broken fragments of shofarot to form a complete shofar, the shofar is unfit.

谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转 讛转拽讬注讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛驻讬讟住 讗诐 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗

If the shofar was punctured and the puncture was sealed, if it impedes the blowing, the shofar is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If one sounds a shofar into a pit, or into a cistern, or into a large jug, if he clearly heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation; but if he heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讜讻谉 诪讬 砖讛讬讛 注讜讘专 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讗讜 砖讛讬讛 讘讬转讜 住诪讜讱 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜砖诪注 拽讜诇 砖讜驻专 讗讜 拽讜诇 诪讙讬诇讛 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讝讛 砖诪注 讜讝讛 砖诪注 讝讛 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讜讝讛 诇讗 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜

And similarly, if one was passing behind a synagogue,or his house was adjacent to the synagogue, and he heard the sound of the shofar or the sound of the Scroll of Esther being read, if he focused his heart, i.e. his intent, to fulfill his obligation, he has fulfilled his obligation; but if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation. It is therefore possible for two people to hear the shofar blasts, but only one of them fulfills his obligation. Even though this one heard and also the other one heard, nevertheless, this one focused his heart to fulfill his obligation and has therefore indeed fulfilled it, but the other one did not focus his heart, and so he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讜讱 讜拽爪专讜 讻砖专 讙专讚讜 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙诇讚讜 讻砖专 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 驻住讜诇 砖诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 讛谞讞转 驻讛 讻砖专 爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 诪讘驻谞讬诐 驻住讜诇 诪讘讞讜抓 讗诐 谞砖转谞讛 拽讜诇讜 诪讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: If a shofar was long and it was shortened, it is still fit. If it was scraped out, so that only its outer layer remains, it is also fit. If the shofar was plated with gold at the place where one puts his mouth, it is unfit; if it was plated not at the place where he puts his mouth, it is fit. If it was plated with gold on the inside, it is unfit, as one does not hear the sound of a shofar but the sound of a golden instrument. If, however, it was plated with gold on the outside, the following distinction applies: If its sound changed from what it was before the plating, it is unfit, but if not, the gold plating is mere ornamentation and it is therefore fit.

谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讗诐 诪注讻讘 讗转 讛转拽讬注讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 谞转谉 砖讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖讜驻专 讗诐 拽讜诇 驻谞讬诪讬 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讞讬爪讜谉 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗

The baraita continues: If the shofar was punctured and the puncture was sealed, if it impedes the blowing, the shofar is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If one placed one shofar inside another shofar and blew, if he heard the sound of the inner shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, because it is considered one shofar, but if he heard the sound of the outer shofar he has not fulfilled it, as the sound issues from two shofarot at once.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙专讚讜 讘讬谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讘讬谉 诪讘讞讜抓 讻砖专 讙专讚讜 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙诇讚讜 讻砖专 讛谞讬讞 砖讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖讜驻专 讗诐 拽讜诇 驻谞讬诪讬 砖诪注 讬爪讗 讜讗诐 拽讜诇 讞讬爪讜谉 砖诪注 诇讗 讬爪讗 讛驻讻讜 讜转拽注 讘讜 诇讗 讬爪讗

The Sages taught in a different baraita: If a shofar was scraped down, whether on the inside or on the outside, it is fit. Even if it was scraped out to the point that only its outer layer remains, it is still fit. If one placed one shofar inside another shofar and blew, if he heard the sound of the inner shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he heard the sound of the outer shofar, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If he inverted the shofar and blew it, he has not fulfilled his obligation.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讚讛驻讻讬讛 讻讻转讜谞讗 讗诇讗 砖讛专讞讬讘 讗转 讛拽爪专 讜拽讬爪专 讗转 讛专讞讘 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讚专讘 诪转谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 讜讛注讘专转 讚专讱 讛注讘专转讜 讘注讬谞谉

Rav Pappa said: Do not say that this means that he softened the shofar and turned it inside out like a tunic. Rather, the meaning is that he widened the narrow end of the shofar and narrowed its wide end. What is the reason that this is unfit? It is according to the opinion of Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said that the verse states: 鈥淵ou shall proclaim [veha鈥檃varta] with the shofar鈥 (Leviticus 25:9), where the word veha鈥檃varta literally means carry, thereby teaching that we need the shofar to be sounded the same way that it was carried on the head of the animal, and if a change was made, it is unfit.

讚讬讘拽 砖讘专讬 砖讜驻专讜转 驻住讜诇 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讜住讬祝 注诇讬讜 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讘讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 谞讬拽讘 讜住转诪讜 讘讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讘诪讬谞讜 讻砖专 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇

搂 It was taught in the mishna: If one glued together broken fragments of shofarot to form a complete shofar, the shofar is unfit. The Sages taught in a baraita: If anything was added to a shofar, whether of the same substance, i.e., horn, or of a foreign substance, the shofar is unfit. If the shofar was punctured and sealed, whether with the same substance or with a foreign substance, it is unfit. Rabbi Natan says: If it was sealed with the same substance, it is fit; with a foreign substance, it is unfit.

讘诪讬谞讜 讻砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖谞砖转讬讬专 专讜讘讜 诪讻诇诇 讚砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖谞砖转讬讬专 专讜讘讜 驻住讜诇

The baraita stated: If it was sealed with the same substance, it is fit. Concerning this Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This applies only where most of the original shofar is intact and only a small patch was added. The Gemara concludes: By inference, if it was sealed with a foreign substance, then even if most of the original shofar is intact, it is unfit.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 砖诇讗 讘诪讬谞讜 驻住讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讛讜讗 砖谞驻讞转 专讜讘讜 诪讻诇诇 讚讘诪讬谞讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖谞驻讞转 专讜讘讜 讻砖专

Some teach this ruling with regard to the last clause of the baraita, in which it was taught: If it was sealed with a foreign substance, it is unfit. Concerning this Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is only where most of the original shofar was missing, so that the patch constitutes the majority. The Gemara concludes: By inference, if it was sealed with the same substance, then even if most of the original shofar was missing, it is still fit.

爪讬驻讛讜 讝讛讘 诪讘驻谞讬诐 驻住讜诇 诪讘讞讜抓 讗诐 谞砖转谞讛 拽讜诇讜 诪讻诪讜转 砖讛讬讛 驻住讜诇 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讻砖专 谞住讚拽 诇讗讜专讻讜 驻住讜诇 诇专讜讞讘讜 讗诐 谞砖转讬讬专 讘讜 砖讬注讜专 转拽讬注讛 讻砖专 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 驻住讜诇

The baraita continues: If the shofar was plated with gold on the inside, it is unfit. If, however, it was plated on the outside, and if its sound changed from what it was before the plating, it is unfit, but if not, it is fit. If the shofar was cracked lengthwise, it is unfit. But if it was cracked along its width, the following distinction applies: If, of the portion above the crack there remains a measure sufficient to sound a blast, it is fit, but if not, it is unfit.

讜讻诪讛 砖讬注讜专 转拽讬注讛 驻讬专砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻讚讬 砖讬讗讞讝谞讜 讘讬讚讜 讜讬专讗讛 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉 讛讬讛 拽讜诇讜 讚拽 讗讜 注讘讛 讗讜 爪专讜专 讻砖专 砖讻诇 讛拽讜诇讜转 讻砖讬专讬谉 [讘砖讜驻专]

And how much is a measure sufficient to sound a blast? Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel explained: Enough that when he holds it in his hand, it can be seen protruding on one side of his hand and on the other side. If the sound of the shofar is high or deep or dry, it is fit for blowing, as the Torah does not require a particular sound, and all sounds coming from a shofar are fit.

砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 诇讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 拽讚讞讜 讜转拽注 讘讜 讬爪讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讻讜诇讛讜 谞诪讬 诪讬拽讚讞 拽讚讞讜 诇讛讜

It is related that the following ruling was sent from Eretz Yisrael to Shmuel鈥檚 father: If one drilled out the inside of a horn and blew it, he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara asks: It is obvious, for all shofarot are drilled, since after the horn is removed from the animal, the bone that fills the horn and connects it to the animal鈥檚 head must be removed. What, then, does this ruling teach us?

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖拽讚讞讜 讘讝讻专讜转讜 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪讬谉 讘诪讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rav Ashi said: Here we are discussing a case where he drilled the bone that fills the horn instead of removing it in the usual manner. Lest you say that even something made of the same substance interposes, and the sound that is produced is emitted from the bone and not from the shofar, the ruling therefore teaches us that since the bone and the horn are considered to be of the same substance, the shofar is fit and he has fulfilled his obligation.

讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 砖驻转 讛讘讜专 讗讘诇 讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讘讜专 讬爪讗讜

搂 It was taught in the mishna: If one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has not fulfilled his obligation. Rav Huna said: They taught this only with respect to those standing at the edge of the pit, i.e., on the outside, as they can hear only the echo coming from the pit. But those standing in the pit itself have fulfilled their obligation, since they initially hear the sound of the shofar.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 讬爪讗 讜讛转谞谉 诇讗 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

This is also taught in a baraita: If one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has fulfilled his obligation. But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that in that case he has not fulfilled his obligation? Rather, isn鈥檛 it correct to conclude from here that the contradiction must be reconciled in accordance with Rav Huna? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is so.

讗讬讻讗 讚专诪讬 诇讛讜 诪讬专诪讗 转谞谉 讛转讜拽注 诇转讜讱 讛讘讜专 讗讜 诇转讜讱 讛讚讜转 诇讗 讬爪讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬爪讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 注诇 砖驻转 讛讘讜专 讻讗谉 诇讗讜转谉 讛注讜诪讚讬谉 讘讘讜专

Some had a different version of the previous passage. There are those who raise the following source as a contradiction: We learned in the mishna that if one sounds a shofar into a pit or into a cistern, he has not fulfilled his obligation. But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that in that case he has fulfilled his obligation? Rav Huna said: This is not difficult; here, in the mishna, we are dealing with those standing at the edge of the pit, whereas there, in the baraita we are dealing with those standing in the pit.

讗诪专 专讘讛

Rabba said:

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