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Today's Daf Yomi

October 31, 2017 | י״א במרחשוון תשע״ח

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Sanhedrin 107

In connection with Achitofel, the gemara diverts to the story of David and Batsheva is analyzed – why was David tested in this way and why did he fail the test?  What was the reaction of those around him?  And how did he get forgiveness from God?  How in the end was it made obvious to others that he received forgiveness?  For what reason did Geichazi not get a portion in the World to Come?   Elisha is also criticized for how he dealt with Geichazi.


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אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב

who did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me” (Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מפני מה אומרים ׳אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב׳ ואין אומרים ׳אלהי דוד׳ אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בחנני ונסני שנאמר ׳בחנני ה׳ ונסני׳ וגו׳

§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should never bring himself to undergo an ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself to undergo an ordeal and failed. David said before God: Master of the Universe, for what reason does one say in prayer: God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David? God said to David: They have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me. David said before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal; try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).

אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו׳

God said to him: I will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for you that I did not perform for the Patriarchs, as for them, I did not inform them of the nature of the ordeal, while I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter of a married woman, with whom relations are forbidden. Immediately, it is written: “And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed” (II Samuel 11:2).

אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע

Rav Yehuda says: Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. He transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed, i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. But a halakha, i.e., a Torah statement, escaped him: There is a small limb in man that he employs in sexual intercourse. If he starves the limb, and does not overindulge, it is satiated; but if he satiates the limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it is starving, and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.

ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה

The verse states: “And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon” (II Samuel 11:2). Bathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive, which concealed her from sight. Satan came and appeared to David as a bird. David shot an arrow at the bird, the arrow severed the beehive, Bathsheba was exposed, and David saw her.

מיד וישלח דוד וידרש לאשה ויאמר הלוא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבוא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטמאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמתי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא

Immediately, it is written: “And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house” (II Samuel 11:3–4). And that is the meaning of that which is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips” (Psalms 17:3). David said: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me, a euphemism for his own mouth, and I would not have said anything like that and I would have withstood the ordeal.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב למנצח לדוד בה׳ חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפר אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו ׳הר שבכם צפור נדדתו׳

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain” (Psalms 11:1)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sin with Bathsheba so that the wicked people will not say: The mountain that is among you, i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, was driven from the world due to a bird that led to his transgression.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו ׳עבדא זכי למריה׳

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge” (Psalms 51:6)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress my evil inclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said: I will sin, so that they will not say a servant overcame his master and withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For I am ready to stumble [letzela] and my pain is always before me” (Psalms 38:18)? Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, was designated as fit for David from the six days of Creation. Rava interprets that the term letzela is referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [tzela] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. But she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, was designated as fit for David, but he partook of her unripe, before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [dammu]” (Psalms 35:15)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that if my enemies were to tear my flesh, my blood [dami] would not flow to the ground, due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).

ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות בית דין פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי ׳דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה׳ אמרתי להם ׳הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעולם הבא אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא׳

David continued: Moreover, my enemies torment me to the extent that at the time when they are engaged in the public study of the halakhot of the four court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David, concerning one who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his death is effected with what form of execution? And I said to them: Concerning one who engages in intercourse with a married woman before witnesses and with forewarning, his death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come. The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד עבודה זרה שנאמר ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא עבודה זרה שנאמר והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilled the mitzva of conjugal rights for eighteen wives, as it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears” (Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: David sought to engage in idol worship during Absalom’s coup, as it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [rosh] of the ascent, where he would bow to God” (II Samuel 15:32), and rosh means nothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [reishei] was of fine gold” (Daniel 2:32).

והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד עבודה זרה אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד עבודה זרה ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא

It is written: “Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head” (II Samuel 15:32). Hushai said to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship? David said to him: Is it preferable that they say with regard to a king like me, known to be righteous, that his son will kill him? David continued, referring to himself in third person: It is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in public through the murder of a righteous king in this manner.

אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר אמר ליה יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה אמר ליה לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה ׳כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה׳ כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה

Hushai said to him: What is the reason that you married a beautiful woman, the mother of Absalom? David said to him: With regard to a beautiful woman, the Merciful One permitted marrying her. Hushai said to him: But you did not interpret the juxtaposed verses, as juxtaposed to the portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: “If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son” (Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: Anyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son. Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother.

דרש רבי דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם שגיאות מי יבין [אמר ליה] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך

Rabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable? He is comparable to a Samaritan merchant, who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors” (Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David asked more: “Cleanse me from hidden faults” (Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David requested: “Keep back your servant also from intentional sins” (Psalms 19:14). God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David requested: “Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless” (Psalms 19:14), and I further request that the Sages will not speak of me and condemn me. God said to him: They are forgiven for you.

ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו אי אפשר ומה יוד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר ׳ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע׳ כל הפרשה כולה על אחת כמה וכמה

David requested: “And I shall be clear from great transgression” (Psalms 19:14), meaning that my transgression with Bathsheba and Uriah will not be written in the Bible. God said to him: That is impossible. And just as the letter yod that I removed from the name of Sarai, wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was standing and screaming several years over its omission from the Bible until Joshua came and I added the yod to his name, as it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [Yehoshua]” (Numbers 13:16); the entire portion of your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, all the more so it cannot be omitted.

ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו ׳היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנגע בה׳ אמר ליה כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא אמר לו קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו

The verse states: “And I shall be clear from great transgression” (Psalms 19:14). David said before God: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin. God said to him: Your son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished” (Proverbs 6:27–29). David said to Him: Will that man, David, be expelled for that entire transgression, with no remedy? God said to David: Accept upon yourself afflictions, and that will atone for your sins. He accepted afflictions upon himself.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתיב ישובו לי יראיך וגו׳ ששה חדשים מנלן דכתיב והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: For six months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him and the members of the Sanhedrin dissociated themselves from him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow” (Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. The Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit” (Psalms 51:14). And the members of the Sanhedrin dissociated themselves from him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me, and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). From where do we derive that this lasted for six months? It is derived as it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years;

בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו׳ והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב שמע מינה נצטרע

in Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years” (I Kings 2:11). And it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months and in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). And those six months, the prophet did not tally them as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. Conclude from it that there were six months that he was not considered king because he was afflicted with leprosy.

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שנאי ויבשו כי אתה ה׳ עזרתני ונחמתני אמר ליה בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך

David said before Him after this: Master of the Universe, pardon me for this sin. God said to him: It is forgiven for you. David requested: “Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame” (Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God said to him: In your lifetime I will not make it known that you were forgiven, but I will make it known in the lifetime of your son, Solomon.

בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר ׳שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ עזוז וגבור ה׳ גבור מלחמה׳ ונאמר ׳שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד׳ וגו׳ ולא נענה

The Gemara explains: When Solomon built the Temple and sought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung together and could not be opened. Solomon uttered twenty-four songs of praise, and his prayer was not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). And it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), and he was not answered.

כיון שאמר ה׳ אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקדוש ברוך הוא על אותו העון

Once he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant” (II Chronicles 6:42), he was immediately answered, and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). At that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turned dark like the charred bottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin, as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.

גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל אמר רבי יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה

§ The mishna states that Gehazi, the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is as it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus (see II Kings 8:7). Where did he go, and for what purpose? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent. Elisha said to him: Repent. Gehazi said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent.

מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך

What did he do that caused the masses to sin? There are those who say that he hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin, i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that he suspended it between heaven and earth, i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. And there are those who say: He engraved the sacred name of God on its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I am the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), and: “You shall not have other gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before.

ואיכא דאמרי רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו ישבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר]

And there are those who say: Gehazi pushed the Sages away from coming before him, i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us” (II Kings 6:1). It may be derived by inference that until now they were not numerous and the place was not cramped for them, as Gehazi would turn people away.

תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ולא כיהושע בן פרחיא שדחפו לישו הנוצרי בשתי ידיו

The Sages taught: Always have the left hand drive sinners away and the right draw them near, so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is unlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two hands and caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, and unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands.

גחזי דכתיב ׳ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף׳ וגו ׳ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות׳ ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל

Elisha drove Gehazi away, as it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: “And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?” (II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: And did Gehazi take all that? It is merely silver and garments that he took.

אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא אמר ליה זיל טבול בירדן אמר ליה אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This was the incident involving Gehazi: At that moment, Elisha was sitting and teaching the halakhot of the eight impure creeping animals. Now Naaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. When Naaman came to him, Elisha said to him: Go immerse in the Jordan. Naaman said to him: Are you mocking me by suggesting that this will cure me? Those companions who were with Naaman said to him: What is the difference to you? Go, try it. Naaman went and immersed in the Jordan and was healed. Naaman came and brought to Elisha all those items that he had taken with him from Aram, and Elisha did not agree to receive them from him. Gehazi took leave from before Elisha and went and took from Naaman what he took, and he deposited them.

כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחה עלויה רישיה אמר ליה רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך לעולם ויצא מלפניו מצרע כשלג וארבעה אנשים היו מצרעים פתח השער אמר רבי יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו

When Gehazi came, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown on Gehazi’s head. Elisha said to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to take your reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals. Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: “The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow” (II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: “And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate” (II Kings 7:3), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: These were Gehazi and his three sons, as he and his descendants were cursed.

יהושע בן פרחיה מאי היא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל יהושע בן פרחיה וישו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח מיני ירושלים עיר הקדש ליכי אלכסנדריה של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה

§ What is the incident involving Yehoshua ben Peraḥya? The Gemara relates: When King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus, his student, went to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peace between King Yannai and the Sages, Shimon ben Shataḥ sent a message to Yehoshua ben Peraḥya: From me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate. The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.

קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה

Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, arose, came, and happened to arrive at a certain inn on the way to Jerusalem. They treated him with great honor. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said: How beautiful is this inn. Jesus, his student, said to him: But my teacher, the eyes of the innkeeper’s wife are narrow [terutot]. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said to him: Wicked one! Do you involve yourself with regard to that matter, the appearance of a married woman? He produced four hundred shofarot and ostracized him.

אתא לקמיה כמה זימנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי לי אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר ישו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל

Jesus came before Yehoshua ben Peraḥya several times and said to him: Accept our, i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya took no notice of him. One day Yehoshua ben Peraḥya was reciting Shema and Jesus came before him with the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya intended to accept his request, and signaled him with his hand to wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and thought: He is driving me away. He went and stood a brick upright to serve as an idol and he bowed to it. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then said to Jesus: Repent. Jesus said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incited Jews to engage in idolatry, and led Israel astray. Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil.

תניא אמר רבי שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: With regard to the evil inclination, to a child, and to a woman, have the left hand drive them away and the right draw them near. Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness.

תנו רבנן שלשה חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנאמר ואלישע חלה את חליו׳ וגו׳]

The Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: One illness was due to the fact that he incited bears to attack and eat children (see II Kings 2:24–25); and one was due to the fact that he pushed Gehazi away with two hands and caused him to despair of atonement; and one was the illness from which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.

עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חלה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנאמר ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו

Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: Until the time of Abraham there was no aging, and the old and the young looked the same. Anyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac, and anyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age” (Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. Until the time of Jacob there was no weakness, i.e., illness. Jacob prayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill” (Genesis 48:1). Until the time of Elisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.

מתני׳ דור המבול אין להם חלק לעולם הבא ואין עומדין בדין שנאמר לא ידון רוחי באדם לעלם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ויפץ ה׳ אתם משם על פני כל הארץ וכתיב ומשם הפיצם ויפץ ה׳ אתם בעולם הזה ומשם הפיצם ה׳ לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ואנשי סדם רעים וחטאים לה׳ מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין

mishna The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment at the end of days, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [yadon] in man forever” (Genesis 6:3); neither will they stand in judgment [din] nor shall their souls be restored to them. The members of the generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8), and it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter them upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). “And the Lord scattered them” indicates in this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them” indicates for the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly” (Genesis 13:13). “Wicked” indicates in this world; “and sinners” indicates for the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgment and they will be sentenced to eternal contempt.

רבי נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר על כן לא יקמו

Rabbi Neḥemya says: Both these, the people of Sodom, and those, the members of the generation of the flood, will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Sanhedrin 107

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Sanhedrin 107

אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב

who did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me” (Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מפני מה אומרים ׳אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב׳ ואין אומרים ׳אלהי דוד׳ אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בחנני ונסני שנאמר ׳בחנני ה׳ ונסני׳ וגו׳

§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should never bring himself to undergo an ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself to undergo an ordeal and failed. David said before God: Master of the Universe, for what reason does one say in prayer: God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David? God said to David: They have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me. David said before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal; try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).

אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו׳

God said to him: I will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for you that I did not perform for the Patriarchs, as for them, I did not inform them of the nature of the ordeal, while I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter of a married woman, with whom relations are forbidden. Immediately, it is written: “And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed” (II Samuel 11:2).

אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע

Rav Yehuda says: Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. He transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed, i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. But a halakha, i.e., a Torah statement, escaped him: There is a small limb in man that he employs in sexual intercourse. If he starves the limb, and does not overindulge, it is satiated; but if he satiates the limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it is starving, and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.

ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה

The verse states: “And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon” (II Samuel 11:2). Bathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive, which concealed her from sight. Satan came and appeared to David as a bird. David shot an arrow at the bird, the arrow severed the beehive, Bathsheba was exposed, and David saw her.

מיד וישלח דוד וידרש לאשה ויאמר הלוא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבוא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטמאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמתי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא

Immediately, it is written: “And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house” (II Samuel 11:3–4). And that is the meaning of that which is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips” (Psalms 17:3). David said: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me, a euphemism for his own mouth, and I would not have said anything like that and I would have withstood the ordeal.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב למנצח לדוד בה׳ חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפר אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו ׳הר שבכם צפור נדדתו׳

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain” (Psalms 11:1)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sin with Bathsheba so that the wicked people will not say: The mountain that is among you, i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, was driven from the world due to a bird that led to his transgression.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו ׳עבדא זכי למריה׳

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge” (Psalms 51:6)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress my evil inclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said: I will sin, so that they will not say a servant overcame his master and withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For I am ready to stumble [letzela] and my pain is always before me” (Psalms 38:18)? Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, was designated as fit for David from the six days of Creation. Rava interprets that the term letzela is referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [tzela] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. But she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, was designated as fit for David, but he partook of her unripe, before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [dammu]” (Psalms 35:15)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that if my enemies were to tear my flesh, my blood [dami] would not flow to the ground, due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).

ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות בית דין פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי ׳דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה׳ אמרתי להם ׳הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעולם הבא אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא׳

David continued: Moreover, my enemies torment me to the extent that at the time when they are engaged in the public study of the halakhot of the four court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David, concerning one who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his death is effected with what form of execution? And I said to them: Concerning one who engages in intercourse with a married woman before witnesses and with forewarning, his death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come. The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד עבודה זרה שנאמר ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא עבודה זרה שנאמר והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilled the mitzva of conjugal rights for eighteen wives, as it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears” (Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: David sought to engage in idol worship during Absalom’s coup, as it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [rosh] of the ascent, where he would bow to God” (II Samuel 15:32), and rosh means nothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [reishei] was of fine gold” (Daniel 2:32).

והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד עבודה זרה אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד עבודה זרה ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא

It is written: “Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head” (II Samuel 15:32). Hushai said to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship? David said to him: Is it preferable that they say with regard to a king like me, known to be righteous, that his son will kill him? David continued, referring to himself in third person: It is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in public through the murder of a righteous king in this manner.

אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר אמר ליה יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה אמר ליה לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה ׳כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה׳ כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה

Hushai said to him: What is the reason that you married a beautiful woman, the mother of Absalom? David said to him: With regard to a beautiful woman, the Merciful One permitted marrying her. Hushai said to him: But you did not interpret the juxtaposed verses, as juxtaposed to the portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: “If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son” (Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: Anyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son. Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother.

דרש רבי דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם שגיאות מי יבין [אמר ליה] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך

Rabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable? He is comparable to a Samaritan merchant, who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors” (Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David asked more: “Cleanse me from hidden faults” (Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David requested: “Keep back your servant also from intentional sins” (Psalms 19:14). God said to him: They are forgiven for you. David requested: “Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless” (Psalms 19:14), and I further request that the Sages will not speak of me and condemn me. God said to him: They are forgiven for you.

ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו אי אפשר ומה יוד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר ׳ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע׳ כל הפרשה כולה על אחת כמה וכמה

David requested: “And I shall be clear from great transgression” (Psalms 19:14), meaning that my transgression with Bathsheba and Uriah will not be written in the Bible. God said to him: That is impossible. And just as the letter yod that I removed from the name of Sarai, wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was standing and screaming several years over its omission from the Bible until Joshua came and I added the yod to his name, as it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [Yehoshua]” (Numbers 13:16); the entire portion of your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, all the more so it cannot be omitted.

ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו ׳היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנגע בה׳ אמר ליה כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא אמר לו קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו

The verse states: “And I shall be clear from great transgression” (Psalms 19:14). David said before God: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin. God said to him: Your son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished” (Proverbs 6:27–29). David said to Him: Will that man, David, be expelled for that entire transgression, with no remedy? God said to David: Accept upon yourself afflictions, and that will atone for your sins. He accepted afflictions upon himself.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתיב ישובו לי יראיך וגו׳ ששה חדשים מנלן דכתיב והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: For six months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him and the members of the Sanhedrin dissociated themselves from him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow” (Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. The Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit” (Psalms 51:14). And the members of the Sanhedrin dissociated themselves from him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me, and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). From where do we derive that this lasted for six months? It is derived as it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years;

בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו׳ והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב שמע מינה נצטרע

in Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years” (I Kings 2:11). And it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months and in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). And those six months, the prophet did not tally them as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. Conclude from it that there were six months that he was not considered king because he was afflicted with leprosy.

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שנאי ויבשו כי אתה ה׳ עזרתני ונחמתני אמר ליה בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך

David said before Him after this: Master of the Universe, pardon me for this sin. God said to him: It is forgiven for you. David requested: “Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame” (Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God said to him: In your lifetime I will not make it known that you were forgiven, but I will make it known in the lifetime of your son, Solomon.

בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר ׳שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה׳ עזוז וגבור ה׳ גבור מלחמה׳ ונאמר ׳שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבוא מלך הכבוד׳ וגו׳ ולא נענה

The Gemara explains: When Solomon built the Temple and sought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung together and could not be opened. Solomon uttered twenty-four songs of praise, and his prayer was not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). And it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), and he was not answered.

כיון שאמר ה׳ אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקדוש ברוך הוא על אותו העון

Once he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant” (II Chronicles 6:42), he was immediately answered, and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). At that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turned dark like the charred bottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin, as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.

גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל אמר רבי יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה

§ The mishna states that Gehazi, the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is as it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus (see II Kings 8:7). Where did he go, and for what purpose? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent. Elisha said to him: Repent. Gehazi said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent.

מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך

What did he do that caused the masses to sin? There are those who say that he hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin, i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that he suspended it between heaven and earth, i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. And there are those who say: He engraved the sacred name of God on its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I am the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), and: “You shall not have other gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before.

ואיכא דאמרי רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו ישבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר]

And there are those who say: Gehazi pushed the Sages away from coming before him, i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us” (II Kings 6:1). It may be derived by inference that until now they were not numerous and the place was not cramped for them, as Gehazi would turn people away.

תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ולא כיהושע בן פרחיא שדחפו לישו הנוצרי בשתי ידיו

The Sages taught: Always have the left hand drive sinners away and the right draw them near, so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is unlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two hands and caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, and unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands.

גחזי דכתיב ׳ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף׳ וגו ׳ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות׳ ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל

Elisha drove Gehazi away, as it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: “And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?” (II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: And did Gehazi take all that? It is merely silver and garments that he took.

אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא אמר ליה זיל טבול בירדן אמר ליה אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This was the incident involving Gehazi: At that moment, Elisha was sitting and teaching the halakhot of the eight impure creeping animals. Now Naaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. When Naaman came to him, Elisha said to him: Go immerse in the Jordan. Naaman said to him: Are you mocking me by suggesting that this will cure me? Those companions who were with Naaman said to him: What is the difference to you? Go, try it. Naaman went and immersed in the Jordan and was healed. Naaman came and brought to Elisha all those items that he had taken with him from Aram, and Elisha did not agree to receive them from him. Gehazi took leave from before Elisha and went and took from Naaman what he took, and he deposited them.

כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחה עלויה רישיה אמר ליה רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך לעולם ויצא מלפניו מצרע כשלג וארבעה אנשים היו מצרעים פתח השער אמר רבי יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו

When Gehazi came, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown on Gehazi’s head. Elisha said to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to take your reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals. Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: “The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow” (II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: “And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate” (II Kings 7:3), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: These were Gehazi and his three sons, as he and his descendants were cursed.

יהושע בן פרחיה מאי היא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל יהושע בן פרחיה וישו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח מיני ירושלים עיר הקדש ליכי אלכסנדריה של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה

§ What is the incident involving Yehoshua ben Peraḥya? The Gemara relates: When King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus, his student, went to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peace between King Yannai and the Sages, Shimon ben Shataḥ sent a message to Yehoshua ben Peraḥya: From me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate. The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.

קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה

Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, arose, came, and happened to arrive at a certain inn on the way to Jerusalem. They treated him with great honor. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said: How beautiful is this inn. Jesus, his student, said to him: But my teacher, the eyes of the innkeeper’s wife are narrow [terutot]. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said to him: Wicked one! Do you involve yourself with regard to that matter, the appearance of a married woman? He produced four hundred shofarot and ostracized him.

אתא לקמיה כמה זימנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי לי אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר ישו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל

Jesus came before Yehoshua ben Peraḥya several times and said to him: Accept our, i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya took no notice of him. One day Yehoshua ben Peraḥya was reciting Shema and Jesus came before him with the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya intended to accept his request, and signaled him with his hand to wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and thought: He is driving me away. He went and stood a brick upright to serve as an idol and he bowed to it. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then said to Jesus: Repent. Jesus said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incited Jews to engage in idolatry, and led Israel astray. Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil.

תניא אמר רבי שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: With regard to the evil inclination, to a child, and to a woman, have the left hand drive them away and the right draw them near. Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness.

תנו רבנן שלשה חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנאמר ואלישע חלה את חליו׳ וגו׳]

The Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: One illness was due to the fact that he incited bears to attack and eat children (see II Kings 2:24–25); and one was due to the fact that he pushed Gehazi away with two hands and caused him to despair of atonement; and one was the illness from which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.

עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חלה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנאמר ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו

Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: Until the time of Abraham there was no aging, and the old and the young looked the same. Anyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac, and anyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age” (Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. Until the time of Jacob there was no weakness, i.e., illness. Jacob prayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill” (Genesis 48:1). Until the time of Elisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.

מתני׳ דור המבול אין להם חלק לעולם הבא ואין עומדין בדין שנאמר לא ידון רוחי באדם לעלם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ויפץ ה׳ אתם משם על פני כל הארץ וכתיב ומשם הפיצם ויפץ ה׳ אתם בעולם הזה ומשם הפיצם ה׳ לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ואנשי סדם רעים וחטאים לה׳ מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין

mishna The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment at the end of days, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [yadon] in man forever” (Genesis 6:3); neither will they stand in judgment [din] nor shall their souls be restored to them. The members of the generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8), and it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter them upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). “And the Lord scattered them” indicates in this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them” indicates for the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly” (Genesis 13:13). “Wicked” indicates in this world; “and sinners” indicates for the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgment and they will be sentenced to eternal contempt.

רבי נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר על כן לא יקמו

Rabbi Neḥemya says: Both these, the people of Sodom, and those, the members of the generation of the flood, will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand

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