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Today's Daf Yomi

November 1, 2017 | י״ב במרחשוון תשע״ח

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Sanhedrin 108

The mishna describes groups of people who do not have a share in the World to Come, like the generation of the flood, migdal bavel and the people of Sedom.   The gemara discusses in depth details relating to the flood and the building of the ark.


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רשעים במשפט וחטאים בעדת צדיקים על כן לא יקומו רשעים במשפט זה דור המבול וחטאים בעדת צדיקים אלו אנשי סדום אמרו לו אינם עומדין בעדת צדיקים אבל עומדין בעדת רשעים

in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5). “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”; this is referring to the generation of the flood, about whom it is written: “The wickedness of man was great upon the earth” (Genesis 6:5). “Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”; these are the people of Sodom, about whom it is written: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners” (Genesis 13:13). The Sages said to Rabbi Neḥemya: They will not stand in judgment for resurrection in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in judgment in the congregation of the wicked.

מרגלים אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר וימתו האנשים מוצאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה לפני ה׳ וימתו בעולם הזה במגפה לעולם הבא

The spies who spread an evil report of their visit to Canaan have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And those men who spread the evil report about the land died by plague before the Lord” (Numbers 14:37). “And…died” indicates in this world; “by plague” indicates for the World-to-Come.

דור המדבר אין להם חלק לעולם הבא ואין עומדין בדין שנאמר במדבר הזה יתמו ושם ימתו דברי רבי עקיבא רבי אליעזר אומר עליהם הוא אומר אספו לי חסידי כרתי בריתי עלי זבח

The members of the generation of the wilderness have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:35). “They shall be consumed” indicates in this world; “and there they shall die” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: The members of the generation of the wilderness were essentially righteous, and about them the verse says: “Gather My pious together to Me, those that have entered into My covenant by offering” (Psalms 50:5). It is they who entered into the covenant with God and they will certainly be rewarded in the future.

עדת קרח אינה עתידה לעלות שנאמר ותכס עליהם הארץ בעולם הזה ויאבדו מתוך הקהל לעולם הבא דברי רבי עקיבא רבי אליעזר אומר עליהם הוא אומר ה׳ ממית ומחיה מוריד שאול ויעל

The assembly of Korah is not destined to arise for resurrection, as it is stated: “And the earth closed upon them” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in this world, and also: “And they perished from among the assembly” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: About them the verse says: “The Lord kills and makes alive; He lowers to the grave, and raises” (I Samuel 2:6), indicating that the assembly of Korah has a share in the World-to-Come.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן דור המבול אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ׳וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה׳ ׳וימח את כל היקום׳ בעולם הזה ׳וימחו מן הארץ׳ לעולם הבא דברי רבי עקיבא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר לא חיין ולא נדונין שנאמר ׳לא ידון רוחי באדם לעלם׳ לא דין ולא רוח דבר אחר ׳לא ידון רוחי׳ שלא תהא נשמתן חוזרת לנדנה

gemara The Sages taught in a baraita: The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven; and they were obliterated from the earth” (Genesis 7:23). “And He obliterated every living thing” indicates in this world, whereas “and they were obliterated from the earth” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The members of the generation of the flood will neither live nor be judged, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [yadon] in man forever” (Genesis 6:3), meaning neither will they stand in judgment [din], nor shall their souls be restored to them. Alternatively, “My soul shall not abide” means their souls will not return to their sheaths [nadan], i.e., to their bodies.

רבי מנחם ברבי יוסף אומר אפילו בשעה שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחזיר נשמות לפגרים מתים נשמתן קשה להם בגיהנם שנאמר ׳תהרו חשש תלדו קש רוחכם אש תאכלכם׳

Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosef, says: Even at a time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, restores souls to lifeless corpses, the souls of the generation of the flood will afflict them harshly as if they were in Gehenna, as it is stated: “You shall conceive chaff; you shall bring forth straw; your soul is a fire that shall devour you” (Isaiah 33:11).

תנו רבנן דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל טובה שהשפיע להם הקדוש ברוך הוא ומה כתיב בהם ׳בתיהם שלום מפחד ולא שבט אלוה עליהם׳ וכתיב ׳שורו עבר ולא יגעל תפלט פרתו ולא תשכל׳ וכתיב ׳ישלחו כצאן עויליהם וילדיהם ירקדון׳ וכתיב ׳ישאו בתף וכנור וישמחו לקול עוגב׳ וכתיב ׳יכלו ימיהם בטוב ושניהם בנעימים׳ וכתיב ׳וברגע שאול יחתו׳

The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Sota 3:10): The generation of the flood became haughty and sinned due only to the excessive goodness that the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestowed upon them. And what is written concerning them, indicating that goodness? “Their houses are safe without fear, nor is the rod of God upon them” (Job 21:9). And it is written: “Their bull sires, and will not fall; their cow calves, and does not cast her calf” (Job 21:10). And it is written: “They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance” (Job 21:11). And it is written: “They sing to the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the pipe” (Job 21:12). And it is written: “They shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures” (Job 36:11). And it is written: “And peacefully they go down to the grave” (Job 21:13).

והיא גרמה שאמרו לאל ׳סור ממנו ודעת דרכיך לא חפצנו מה שדי כי נעבדנו ומה נועיל כי נפגע בו׳ אמרו ׳כלום צריכין אנו לו אלא לטיפה של גשמים יש לנו נהרות ומעינות שאנו מסתפקין מהן׳ אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא ׳בטובה שהשפעתי להן בה מכעיסין אותי ובה אני דן אותם׳ שנאמר ׳ואני הנני מביא את המבול מים׳

And that success caused them to say to God: “Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of Your ways. What is the Almighty, that we should serve Him, and what profit should we have if we pray unto Him” (Job 21:14–15). The members of the generation of the flood said: Do we need Him for anything, even for the drop of rain that He causes to fall? We have rivers and springs from which we take our supply of water; we do not fear Him. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: With the goodness that I bestowed upon them, with that they infuriate Me and with it I will sentence them, as it is stated: “And behold I will bring the flood of water” (Genesis 6:17).

רבי יוסי אמר דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל גלגל העין שדומה למים [שנאמר ׳ויקחו להם נשים מכל אשר בחרו׳] לפיכך דן אותן במים שדומה לגלגל העין שנאמר ׳נבקעו כל מעינות תהום רבה וארבות השמים נפתחו׳

Rabbi Yosei says: The generation of the flood became haughty due only to the covetousness of the eyeball, which is similar to water, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prominent men saw that the daughters of men were fair; and they took for themselves wives from anyone they chose” (Genesis 6:2). Consequently, God punished them with water, which is similar to an eyeball [legalgal ha’ayin], as it is stated: “All the fountains [mayenot] of the great deep were breached, and the flues of heaven were opened” (Genesis 7:11).

אמר רבי יוחנן דור המבול ברבה קלקלו וברבה נידונו ברבה קלקלו שנאמר וירא ה׳ כי רבה רעת האדם וברבה נידונו שנאמר כל מעינות תהום רבה אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה נשתיירו מהם בלועה דגדר וחמי טבריא ועיניא רבתי דבירם

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The members of the generation of the flood sinned with “great” and were punished with “great.” They sinned with “great,” as it is stated: “And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great” (Genesis 6:5). And they were punished with great, as it is stated: “All the fountains of the great deep were breached” (Genesis 7:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three fountains of the great deep that were breached in the flood remained, and boiling water continues to flow in them as it did during the flood. They are: Beloa of Gader, and the hot springs of Tiberias, and the great spring of Beiram.

כי השחית כל בשר את דרכו על הארץ אמר רבי יוחנן מלמד שהרביעו בהמה על חיה וחיה על בהמה והכל על אדם ואדם על הכל אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא וכולם חזרו חוץ מתושלמי

With regard to the verse: “For all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth” (Genesis 6:12), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that the people of the generation of the flood mated male domesticated animals with female undomesticated animals, and male undomesticated animals with female domesticated animals, and all male animals with human females, and human males with all female animals. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: And after the flood all of the creatures returned to mate with their own species, except for the bird called tushlami, which continued to mate with other species.

ויאמר ה׳ לנח קץ כל בשר בא לפני אמר רבי יוחנן בא וראה כמה גדול כחה של חמס שהרי דור המבול עברו על הכל ולא נחתם עליהם גזר דינם עד שפשטו ידיהם בגזל שנאמר כי מלאה הארץ חמס מפניהם והנני משחיתם את הארץ וכתיב החמס קם למטה רשע לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

With regard to the verse: “And God said to Noah: The end of all flesh is come before Me, for the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Come and see how great is the power of robbery, as the generation of the flood violated every precept, but their sentence to be destroyed was not sealed until they extended their hands and engaged in robbery, as it is stated: “For the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13). And it is written: “Robbery is risen up into a rod of wickedness; nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing [no’ah] for them” (Ezekiel 7:11).

אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שזקף עצמו כמקל ועמד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

Rabbi Elazar says: This teaches that robbery straightened itself like a rod and stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and said before Him: Master of the Universe: “Nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing for them,” i.e., none of the robbers are fit to exist.

(ואף על נח נחתם גזר דין שנאמר ולא נח בהם) תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אף על נח נחתך גזר דין אלא שמצא חן בעיני ה׳ שנאמר ׳נחמתי כי עשיתם ונח מצא חן בעיני ה׳׳

And the sentence of Noah was also sealed; he was going to die with the rest of the generation of the flood, as it is stated: Nor shall there be No’aḥ for them. The Gemara interprets the term spelled nun, heh, in the aforementioned verse, as if it were spelled nun, ḥet. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The sentence of Noah was also decided; but he was spared through the kindness of God due to the fact that he found favor in the eyes of God, as it is stated: “For I regret that I have made them. And Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord” (Genesis 6:7–8). The juxtaposition of the term “and Noah” to the phrase “for I regret that I have made them” indicates that Noah should have been killed as well.

וינחם ה׳ כי עשה את האדם בארץ כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ מאי משמע כתיב הכא וינחם ה׳ וכתיב התם וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם

It is written: “Vayyinaḥem the Lord that He made man on the earth [ba’aretz]” (Genesis 6:6). The meaning of the term “vayyinaḥem” is subject to a dispute. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said in explanation: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I did well that I prepared graves for people in the earth [ba’aretz]. The Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a positive connotation? The Gemara answers: It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And he comforted them [vayenaḥem otam] and spoke to their heart” (Genesis 50:21).

ואיכא דאמרי לא יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ כתיב הכא וינחם וכתיב התם וינחם ה׳ על הרעה אשר דבר לעשות לעמו

And there are those who say that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a different meaning: I did not do well that I prepared graves for people in the earth, as I should not have created them in order to destroy them. From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a negative connotation? It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And the Lord regretted [vayyinaḥem] the evil that He thought to do to His people” (Exodus 32:14).

אלה תולדות נח [נח איש צדיק תמים היה בדרתיו] אמר רבי יוחנן בדורותיו ולא בדורות אחרים וריש לקיש אמר בדורותיו כל שכן בדורות אחרים

§ With regard to the verse: “These are the generations of Noah; Noah was a righteous man, and wholehearted in his generations” (Genesis 6:9), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Relative to the other people of his generation he was righteous and wholehearted, but not relative to those of other generations. And Reish Lakish says: In his generation he was righteous and wholehearted despite being surrounded by bad influences; all the more so would he have been considered righteous and wholehearted in other generations.

אמר רבי חנינא משל דרבי יוחנן למה הדבר דומה לחבית של יין שהיתה מונחת במרתף של חומץ במקומה ריחה נודף שלא במקומה אין ריחה נודף אמר רבי אושעיא משל דריש לקיש למה הדבר דומה לצלוחית של פלייטון שהיתה מונחת במקום הטנופת במקומה ריחה נודף וכל שכן במקום הבוסם

Rabbi Ḥanina says: There is a parable for the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a barrel of wine that was placed in a cellar where vinegar is stored; in its place, its fragrance diffuses, i.e., is noticeable, relative to the odor of the vinegar. When it is not in its place surrounded by vinegar, its fragrance does not diffuse, and its pleasant odor is not sensed. Rabbi Oshaya says: There is a parable for the statement of Reish Lakish; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a flask of perfume [palyaton] that was placed in a location of filth. In its place its fragrance diffuses despite the ambient odor, and all the more so is its fragrance noticeable if it is placed in a location where there is perfume.

וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה

With regard to the verse: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23), the Gemara asks: If man sinned, in what way did the animal kingdom sin that it, too, warranted destruction?

תנא משום רבי יהושע בן קרחה משל לאדם שעשה חופה לבנו והתקין מכל מיני סעודה לימים מת בנו עמד (ובלבל) [ופזר] את חופתו אמר ׳כלום עשיתי אלא בשביל בני עכשיו שמת חופה למה לי׳ אף הקדוש ברוך הוא אמר ׳כלום בראתי בהמה וחיה אלא בשביל אדם עכשיו שאדם חוטא בהמה וחיה למה לי׳

The Gemara answers: It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: There is a parable for this matter, to a man who fashioned a wedding canopy for his son and prepared all sorts of food for the wedding feast. Sometime later, before the wedding, his son died. What did the man do? He arose and dismantled his son’s wedding canopy. He said: Did I do this for any reason other than for my son? Now that my son has died, why do I need a wedding canopy? So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Did I create domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals for any reason other than for man? Now that man sins and is sentenced to destruction, why do I need domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals?

מכל אשר בחרבה מתו ולא דגים שבים

It is written: “Of all that was on dry land died” (Genesis 7:22), from which it is inferred: But not the fish that are in the sea, which are not on dry land.

דרש רבי יוסי דמן קסרי מאי דכתיב קל הוא על פני מים תקלל חלקתם בארץ מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח בהם ואומר להם עשו תשובה ואם לאו הקדוש ברוך הוא מביא עליכם את המבול ומקפה נבלתכם על המים כזיקין שנאמר ׳קל הוא על פני מים׳ ולא עוד אלא שלוקחין מהם קללה לכל באי עולם שנאמר תקלל חלקתם בארץ

Rabbi Yosei from Caesarea taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He is swift upon the face of the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth; he turns not by way of the vineyards” (Job 24:18)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation and say to them: Repent. And if you do not, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring a flood upon you and float your corpses on the water like wineskins filled with air that float on water, as it is stated: “He is swift upon the face of the waters.” Moreover, a curse is taken from them to all who enter the world, as people will curse others, saying: They shall be like the generation of the flood. As it is stated: “Their portion is cursed in the earth.”

לא יפנה דרך כרמים מלמד שהיו מפנים דרך כרמים אמרו לו ומי מעכב אמר להם פרידה אחת יש לי להוציא מכם

The conclusion of that verse: “He turns not by way of the vineyards,” teaches that they would clear a path through vineyards. They said to Noah: And who is preventing the flood from coming? Noah said to them: I have one pigeon, Methuselah, who will die at his appointed time, which I must remove from among you before the flood.

אם כן לא נפנה דרך כרמים

They said to him: If so we will not clear a path through vineyards, i.e., we will continue to sin.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים והיו (בוזים) [מבזין] אותו אמרו לו זקן תיבה זו למה אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא מביא עליכם את המבול אמרו מבול של מה אם מבול של אש יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה ואם של מים הוא מביא אם מן הארץ הוא מביא יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ ואם מן השמים הוא מביא יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו ואמרי לה עקש שמו

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A contemptible torch [lapid] in the thought of him that is at ease, a thing ready for them whose foot slips” (Job 12:5)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation, and he said to them statements that are harsh as torches [kelapidim], and they would treat him with contempt. They said to him: Old man, why are you building this ark? Noah said to them: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is bringing a flood upon you. They said to him: A flood of what? If it is a flood of fire, we have another item and it is called alita, and it is fireproof. And if it is a flood of water that He brings, if He brings the water from the earth, we have iron plates with which we can plate the earth to prevent the water from rising. And if He brings the water from the heavens, we have an item and it is called ekev, and some say it is called ikkesh, which will absorb the water.

אמר להם הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם שנאמר ׳נכון למועדי רגל׳ תניא מימי המבול קשים כשכבת זרע שנאמר ׳נכון למועדי רגל׳ אמר רב חסדא ברותחין קלקלו בעבירה וברותחין נידונו כתיב הכא וישכו המים וכתיב התם וחמת המלך שככה

Noah said to them: If He wishes He will bring the water from between your feet and you can do nothing to prevent it, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips.” It is taught in a baraita: The waters of the flood were as hard and thick as semen, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips”; foot is a euphemism. Rav Ḥisda says: With hot semen they sinned, and with hot water they were punished. As it is written here, at the conclusion of the flood: “And the waters assuaged” (Genesis 8:1), and it is written there: “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged” (Esther 7:10). Just as the term “assuaged” there is referring to the heat of Ahasuerus’s wrath, so too, “assuaged” with regard to the flood is referring to the heat of the waters.

ויהי לשבעת הימים ומי המבול היו על הארץ מה טיבם של שבעת הימים

With regard to the verse: “And it came to pass that after seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth” (Genesis 7:10), the Gemara asks: What is the nature of these seven additional days?

אמר רב אלו ימי אבילות של מתושלח ללמדך שהספדן של צדיקים מעכבין את הפורענות לבא דבר אחר לשבעת ששינה עליהם הקדוש ברוך הוא סדר בראשית שהיתה חמה יוצאת ממערב ושוקעת במזרח דבר אחר שקבע להם הקדוש ברוך הוא זמן גדול ואחר כך זמן קטן דבר אחר לשבעת הימים שהטעימם מעין העולם הבא כדי שידעו מה טובה מנעו מהן

Rav says: These were the days of mourning for the death of Methuselah; and this is to teach you that eulogies for the righteous prevent calamities from ensuing. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered the order of Creation for that generation, i.e., in seven days He reversed the process of Creation, so that the sun would emerge in the west and set in the east. Alternatively, it means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, designated a substantial period for them, one hundred and twenty years, to repent, and thereafter designated a brief period for them, an additional seven days, as a final opportunity for them to repent. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that during those seven days, God gave them a foretaste of the delights of the World-to-Come, which will be actualized during the seventh millennium, so that they would know what munificence their sins prevented them from receiving.

מכל הבהמה הטהורה תקח לך שבעה שבעה איש ואשתו אישות לבהמה מי אית לה אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאותם שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה

§ With regard to the verse: “Of every kosher animal you shall take to you by sevens, husband and wife” (Genesis 7:2), the Gemara asks: Is there marriage for animals? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: The reference is to those animals with which the transgression of relations with another species was not performed. Therefore, the Torah underscores that the animals that entered the ark were husband and wife.

מנא ידע אמר רב חסדא שהעבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתו בידוע שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה וכל שאין התיבה קולטתו בידוע שנעבדה בה עבירה רבי אבהו אמר מאותן הבאין מאיליהן

The Gemara asks: From where did Noah know which animals were not involved in that transgression? Rav Ḥisda says: He passed them before the ark. All animals that the ark accepted, it was known that a transgression had not been performed with them. And any animal that the ark did not accept, it was known that a transgression had been performed with it. Rabbi Abbahu says: Noah took onto the ark only from those animals that came on their own, as it appeared that they were sent from Heaven, and they were certainly fit for this purpose.

עשה לך תבת עצי גפר מאי גופר אמר רב אדא אמרי דבי רבי שילא זו מבליגה ואמרי לה גולמיש

With regard to the verse: “Make you an ark of gopher wood” (Genesis 6:14), the Gemara asks: What is gopher wood? Rav Adda says that they say in the school of Rabbi Sheila: This is wood from the mavliga tree; and some say that it is wood from the willow [gulamish] tree.

צהר תעשה לתבה אמר רבי יוחנן אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לנח קבע בה אבנים טובות ומרגליות כדי שיהיו מאירות לכם כצהרים

With regard to the verse: “A tzohar you shall make for the ark” (Genesis 6:16), Rabbi Yoḥanan says that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Set precious stones and jewels in the ark so that they will shine for you as the afternoon [tzohorayim] sun.

ואל אמה תכלנה מלמעלה דבהכי [הוא] דקיימא

With regard to the verse: “And to a cubit you shall finish it above” (Genesis 6:16), the Gemara explains that in that manner, having been built wide at its base and narrow at its top, the ark would stand upright and would not capsize.

תחתים שנים ושלשים תעשה תנא תחתיים לזבל אמצעיים לבהמה עליונים לאדם

With regard to the verse: “With lower, second and third stories shall you make it” (Genesis 6:16), it was taught in a baraita: The bottom story was for manure, the middle story was for animals, and the top story was for people.

וישלח את הערב אמר ריש לקיש תשובה ניצחת השיבו עורב לנח אמר לו רבך שונאני ואתה שנאתני רבך שונאני מן הטהורין שבעה מן הטמאים שנים ואתה שנאתני שאתה מניח ממין שבעה ושולח ממין שנים אם פוגע בי שר חמה או שר צנה לא נמצא עולם חסר בריה אחת או שמא לאשתי אתה צריך

With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from the earth” (Genesis 8:7), Reish Lakish says: The raven provided a convincing response to Noah; when it did not wish to leave the ark the raven said to him: Your Master, God, hates me, and you hate me. Your Master hates me, as He commanded to take from the kosher species seven and from the non-kosher species two. And you hate me, as you disregard those from the species of seven, i.e., the kosher birds, and instead dispatch one from the species of two, i.e., the non-kosher birds. If the angel of heat or the angel of cold harms me and kills me, will the world not be lacking one species of creature, as there was only one pair of ravens? Or perhaps you are sending me because it is my wife that you need, in order to engage in intercourse with her.

אמר לו רשע במותר לי נאסר לי בנאסר לי לא כל שכן

Noah said to the raven: Wicked one! If with the woman who is generally permitted to me, my wife, intercourse is forbidden to me, then with regard to domesticated and undomesticated animals, which are generally forbidden to me, is it not all the more so the case that they are forbidden to me?

ומנלן דנאסרו דכתיב ובאת אל התבה אתה ובניך ואשתך ונשי בניך אתך וכתיב צא מן התבה אתה ואשתך ובניך ונשי בניך אתך ואמר רבי יוחנן מיכן אמרו שנאסרו בתשמיש המטה

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that it was prohibited for them to engage in intercourse while in the ark? The Gemara answers: It is derived from that which is written: “And you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 6:18); and it is written: “Emerge from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 8:16). And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: From here, the Sages derived and said that it was prohibited to engage in intercourse while in the ark, as when Noah and his family entered, the husbands and wives were listed separately, and when they emerged, the husbands were listed with their wives.

תנו רבנן שלשה שמשו בתיבה וכולם לקו כלב ועורב וחם כלב נקשר עורב רק חם לקה בעורו

The Sages taught: Three violated that directive and engaged in intercourse while in the ark, and all of them were punished for doing so. They are: The dog, and the raven, and Ham, son of Noah. The dog was punished in that it is bound; the raven was punished in that it spits, and Ham was afflicted in that his skin turned black.

וישלח את היונה מאתו לראות הקלו המים אמר רבי ירמיה מכאן שדירתן של עופות טהורים עם הצדיקים

With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the dove from him, to see if the waters abated” (Genesis 8:8), Rabbi Yirmeya says: From here it is derived that the dwelling place of kosher birds in the ark was with the righteous people, as the verse emphasizes that Noah dispatched the dove from his place.

והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה אמר רבי אלעזר אמרה יונה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם יהיו מזונותי מרורים כזית ומסורים בידך ואל יהיו מתוקים כדבש ומסורים ביד בשר ודם מאי משמע דהאי טרף לישנא דמזוני הוא דכתיב הטריפני לחם חקי

With regard to the verse: “And in her mouth was an olive branch plucked off [taraf ]” (Genesis 8:11), Rabbi Elazar says: The dove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, may my sustenance be bitter as the olive and dependent on Your hands, and not sweet as honey and dependent on the hands of flesh and blood. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that taraf is a term that indicates sustenance? The Gemara answers: It is inferred from that which is written: “Feed me [hatrifeni] with my allotted portion” (Proverbs 30:8).

למשפחתיהם יצאו מן התבה אמר רבי יוחנן למשפחותם ולא הם

With regard to the verse: “After their kinds [lemishpeḥoteihem], they emerged from the ark” (Genesis 8:19), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: After their kinds [lemishpeḥotam] the animals emerged, but not them [hem] themselves, as some of the animals that entered the ark died during that year and it was their descendants who emerged.

אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ליה אליעזר לשם רבא כתיב ׳למשפחתיהם יצאו מן התבה׳ אתון היכן הויתון אמרו ליה צער גדול היה לנו בתיבה בריה שדרכה להאכילה ביום האכלנוה ביום שדרכה להאכילה בלילה האכלנוה בלילה האי זקיתא לא הוה ידע אבא מה אכלה יומא חד הוה יתיב וקא פאלי רמונא נפל תולעתא מינה אכלה מיכן ואילך הוה גביל לה חיזרא כי מתלע אכלה

Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says: Eliezer, servant of Abraham, said to Shem the Great, son of Noah: It is written: “After their kinds, they emerged from the ark,” indicating that the different types of animals were not intermingled while in the ark. Where were you and what did you do to care for them while they were in the ark? Shem said to him: We experienced great suffering in the ark caring for the animals. Where there was a creature that one typically feeds during the day, we fed it during the day, and where there was a creature that one typically feeds at night, we fed it at night. With regard to that chameleon, my father did not know what it eats. One day, my father was sitting and peeling a pomegranate. A worm fell from it and the chameleon ate it. From that point forward my father would knead bran with water, and when it became overrun with worms, the chameleon would eat it.

אריא אישתא זינתיה דאמר רב לא בציר משיתא ולא טפי מתריסר זינא אישתא אורשינה אשכחיניה אבא דגני בספנא דתיבותא אמר ליה לא בעית מזוני׳ אמר ליה חזיתיך דהות טרידא אמינא לא אצערך׳ אמר ליה יהא רעוא דלא תמות שנאמר ואמר עם קני אגוע וכחול ארבה ימים׳

With regard to the lion, a fever sustained it, since when it suffered from a fever, it did not need to eat; as Rav said: For no fewer than six days and no more than twelve days, fever sustains a person; he need not eat and is sustained from his own fats. Shem continued: With regard to the phoenix [avarshina], my father found it lying in its compartment on the side of the ark. He said to the bird: Do you not want food? The bird said to him: I saw that you were busy, and I said I would not trouble you by requesting food. Noah said to the bird: May it be God’s will that you shall not die, and through that bird the verse was fulfilled, as it is stated: “And I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix” (Job 29:18).

אמר רב חנה בר לואי אמר שם רבא לאליעזר כי אתו עלייכו מלכי מזרח ומערב אתון היכי עבידיתו אמר ליה אייתי הקדוש ברוך הוא לאברהם ואותביה מימיניה והוה שדינן עפרא והוו חרבי גילי והוי גירי שנאמר מזמור לדוד נאם ה׳ לאדני שב לימיני עד אשית איביך הדם לרגליך׳ וכתיב מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו יתן לפניו גוים ומלכים ירד יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו׳

§ Rav Ḥana bar Leva’ei says that Shem the Great said to Eliezer, servant of Abraham: When the four great kings of the east and the west came upon you to wage war with Abraham, what did you do? Eliezer said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought Abraham and placed him to His right, and we would throw dust and it became swords, and we threw straw and it became arrows, as it is stated: “A Psalm of David. The Lord says to my master: Sit to My right, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalms 110:1), and it is written: “Who has raised up one from the east at whose steps victory attends? He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as driven straw” (Isaiah 41:2).

נחום איש גם זו הוה רגיל דכל דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה יומא חד בעו [ישראל] לשדורי דורון לקיסר אמרי בהדי

Apropos Abraham’s miraculous weapons, the Gemara relates: Naḥum of Gam Zo was accustomed that in response to any circumstance that arose in his regard, he would say: This too [gam zo] is for the best. One day the Jewish people sought to send a gift [doron] to the emperor. They said: With

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Sanhedrin 108

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 108

רשעים במשפט וחטאים בעדת צדיקים על כן לא יקומו רשעים במשפט זה דור המבול וחטאים בעדת צדיקים אלו אנשי סדום אמרו לו אינם עומדין בעדת צדיקים אבל עומדין בעדת רשעים

in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5). “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”; this is referring to the generation of the flood, about whom it is written: “The wickedness of man was great upon the earth” (Genesis 6:5). “Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”; these are the people of Sodom, about whom it is written: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners” (Genesis 13:13). The Sages said to Rabbi Neḥemya: They will not stand in judgment for resurrection in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in judgment in the congregation of the wicked.

מרגלים אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר וימתו האנשים מוצאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה לפני ה׳ וימתו בעולם הזה במגפה לעולם הבא

The spies who spread an evil report of their visit to Canaan have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And those men who spread the evil report about the land died by plague before the Lord” (Numbers 14:37). “And…died” indicates in this world; “by plague” indicates for the World-to-Come.

דור המדבר אין להם חלק לעולם הבא ואין עומדין בדין שנאמר במדבר הזה יתמו ושם ימתו דברי רבי עקיבא רבי אליעזר אומר עליהם הוא אומר אספו לי חסידי כרתי בריתי עלי זבח

The members of the generation of the wilderness have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:35). “They shall be consumed” indicates in this world; “and there they shall die” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: The members of the generation of the wilderness were essentially righteous, and about them the verse says: “Gather My pious together to Me, those that have entered into My covenant by offering” (Psalms 50:5). It is they who entered into the covenant with God and they will certainly be rewarded in the future.

עדת קרח אינה עתידה לעלות שנאמר ותכס עליהם הארץ בעולם הזה ויאבדו מתוך הקהל לעולם הבא דברי רבי עקיבא רבי אליעזר אומר עליהם הוא אומר ה׳ ממית ומחיה מוריד שאול ויעל

The assembly of Korah is not destined to arise for resurrection, as it is stated: “And the earth closed upon them” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in this world, and also: “And they perished from among the assembly” (Numbers 16:33), meaning in the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eliezer says: About them the verse says: “The Lord kills and makes alive; He lowers to the grave, and raises” (I Samuel 2:6), indicating that the assembly of Korah has a share in the World-to-Come.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן דור המבול אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ׳וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה׳ ׳וימח את כל היקום׳ בעולם הזה ׳וימחו מן הארץ׳ לעולם הבא דברי רבי עקיבא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר לא חיין ולא נדונין שנאמר ׳לא ידון רוחי באדם לעלם׳ לא דין ולא רוח דבר אחר ׳לא ידון רוחי׳ שלא תהא נשמתן חוזרת לנדנה

gemara The Sages taught in a baraita: The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven; and they were obliterated from the earth” (Genesis 7:23). “And He obliterated every living thing” indicates in this world, whereas “and they were obliterated from the earth” indicates for the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The members of the generation of the flood will neither live nor be judged, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [yadon] in man forever” (Genesis 6:3), meaning neither will they stand in judgment [din], nor shall their souls be restored to them. Alternatively, “My soul shall not abide” means their souls will not return to their sheaths [nadan], i.e., to their bodies.

רבי מנחם ברבי יוסף אומר אפילו בשעה שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחזיר נשמות לפגרים מתים נשמתן קשה להם בגיהנם שנאמר ׳תהרו חשש תלדו קש רוחכם אש תאכלכם׳

Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosef, says: Even at a time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, restores souls to lifeless corpses, the souls of the generation of the flood will afflict them harshly as if they were in Gehenna, as it is stated: “You shall conceive chaff; you shall bring forth straw; your soul is a fire that shall devour you” (Isaiah 33:11).

תנו רבנן דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל טובה שהשפיע להם הקדוש ברוך הוא ומה כתיב בהם ׳בתיהם שלום מפחד ולא שבט אלוה עליהם׳ וכתיב ׳שורו עבר ולא יגעל תפלט פרתו ולא תשכל׳ וכתיב ׳ישלחו כצאן עויליהם וילדיהם ירקדון׳ וכתיב ׳ישאו בתף וכנור וישמחו לקול עוגב׳ וכתיב ׳יכלו ימיהם בטוב ושניהם בנעימים׳ וכתיב ׳וברגע שאול יחתו׳

The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Sota 3:10): The generation of the flood became haughty and sinned due only to the excessive goodness that the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestowed upon them. And what is written concerning them, indicating that goodness? “Their houses are safe without fear, nor is the rod of God upon them” (Job 21:9). And it is written: “Their bull sires, and will not fall; their cow calves, and does not cast her calf” (Job 21:10). And it is written: “They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance” (Job 21:11). And it is written: “They sing to the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the pipe” (Job 21:12). And it is written: “They shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures” (Job 36:11). And it is written: “And peacefully they go down to the grave” (Job 21:13).

והיא גרמה שאמרו לאל ׳סור ממנו ודעת דרכיך לא חפצנו מה שדי כי נעבדנו ומה נועיל כי נפגע בו׳ אמרו ׳כלום צריכין אנו לו אלא לטיפה של גשמים יש לנו נהרות ומעינות שאנו מסתפקין מהן׳ אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא ׳בטובה שהשפעתי להן בה מכעיסין אותי ובה אני דן אותם׳ שנאמר ׳ואני הנני מביא את המבול מים׳

And that success caused them to say to God: “Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of Your ways. What is the Almighty, that we should serve Him, and what profit should we have if we pray unto Him” (Job 21:14–15). The members of the generation of the flood said: Do we need Him for anything, even for the drop of rain that He causes to fall? We have rivers and springs from which we take our supply of water; we do not fear Him. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: With the goodness that I bestowed upon them, with that they infuriate Me and with it I will sentence them, as it is stated: “And behold I will bring the flood of water” (Genesis 6:17).

רבי יוסי אמר דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל גלגל העין שדומה למים [שנאמר ׳ויקחו להם נשים מכל אשר בחרו׳] לפיכך דן אותן במים שדומה לגלגל העין שנאמר ׳נבקעו כל מעינות תהום רבה וארבות השמים נפתחו׳

Rabbi Yosei says: The generation of the flood became haughty due only to the covetousness of the eyeball, which is similar to water, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prominent men saw that the daughters of men were fair; and they took for themselves wives from anyone they chose” (Genesis 6:2). Consequently, God punished them with water, which is similar to an eyeball [legalgal ha’ayin], as it is stated: “All the fountains [mayenot] of the great deep were breached, and the flues of heaven were opened” (Genesis 7:11).

אמר רבי יוחנן דור המבול ברבה קלקלו וברבה נידונו ברבה קלקלו שנאמר וירא ה׳ כי רבה רעת האדם וברבה נידונו שנאמר כל מעינות תהום רבה אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה נשתיירו מהם בלועה דגדר וחמי טבריא ועיניא רבתי דבירם

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The members of the generation of the flood sinned with “great” and were punished with “great.” They sinned with “great,” as it is stated: “And the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great” (Genesis 6:5). And they were punished with great, as it is stated: “All the fountains of the great deep were breached” (Genesis 7:11). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three fountains of the great deep that were breached in the flood remained, and boiling water continues to flow in them as it did during the flood. They are: Beloa of Gader, and the hot springs of Tiberias, and the great spring of Beiram.

כי השחית כל בשר את דרכו על הארץ אמר רבי יוחנן מלמד שהרביעו בהמה על חיה וחיה על בהמה והכל על אדם ואדם על הכל אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא וכולם חזרו חוץ מתושלמי

With regard to the verse: “For all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth” (Genesis 6:12), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: This teaches that the people of the generation of the flood mated male domesticated animals with female undomesticated animals, and male undomesticated animals with female domesticated animals, and all male animals with human females, and human males with all female animals. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: And after the flood all of the creatures returned to mate with their own species, except for the bird called tushlami, which continued to mate with other species.

ויאמר ה׳ לנח קץ כל בשר בא לפני אמר רבי יוחנן בא וראה כמה גדול כחה של חמס שהרי דור המבול עברו על הכל ולא נחתם עליהם גזר דינם עד שפשטו ידיהם בגזל שנאמר כי מלאה הארץ חמס מפניהם והנני משחיתם את הארץ וכתיב החמס קם למטה רשע לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

With regard to the verse: “And God said to Noah: The end of all flesh is come before Me, for the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Come and see how great is the power of robbery, as the generation of the flood violated every precept, but their sentence to be destroyed was not sealed until they extended their hands and engaged in robbery, as it is stated: “For the earth is filled with robbery through them, and behold, I will destroy them with the earth” (Genesis 6:13). And it is written: “Robbery is risen up into a rod of wickedness; nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing [no’ah] for them” (Ezekiel 7:11).

אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שזקף עצמו כמקל ועמד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ואמר לפניו רבונו של עולם לא מהם ולא מהמונם ולא מהמהם ולא נה בהם

Rabbi Elazar says: This teaches that robbery straightened itself like a rod and stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and said before Him: Master of the Universe: “Nothing comes from them, nor from their multitude, nor from any of them, nor shall there be wailing for them,” i.e., none of the robbers are fit to exist.

(ואף על נח נחתם גזר דין שנאמר ולא נח בהם) תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אף על נח נחתך גזר דין אלא שמצא חן בעיני ה׳ שנאמר ׳נחמתי כי עשיתם ונח מצא חן בעיני ה׳׳

And the sentence of Noah was also sealed; he was going to die with the rest of the generation of the flood, as it is stated: Nor shall there be No’aḥ for them. The Gemara interprets the term spelled nun, heh, in the aforementioned verse, as if it were spelled nun, ḥet. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The sentence of Noah was also decided; but he was spared through the kindness of God due to the fact that he found favor in the eyes of God, as it is stated: “For I regret that I have made them. And Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord” (Genesis 6:7–8). The juxtaposition of the term “and Noah” to the phrase “for I regret that I have made them” indicates that Noah should have been killed as well.

וינחם ה׳ כי עשה את האדם בארץ כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ מאי משמע כתיב הכא וינחם ה׳ וכתיב התם וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם

It is written: “Vayyinaḥem the Lord that He made man on the earth [ba’aretz]” (Genesis 6:6). The meaning of the term “vayyinaḥem” is subject to a dispute. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said in explanation: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I did well that I prepared graves for people in the earth [ba’aretz]. The Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a positive connotation? The Gemara answers: It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And he comforted them [vayenaḥem otam] and spoke to their heart” (Genesis 50:21).

ואיכא דאמרי לא יפה עשיתי שתקנתי להם קברות בארץ כתיב הכא וינחם וכתיב התם וינחם ה׳ על הרעה אשר דבר לעשות לעמו

And there are those who say that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a different meaning: I did not do well that I prepared graves for people in the earth, as I should not have created them in order to destroy them. From where is it inferred that the term “vayyinaḥem” has a negative connotation? It is written here: “Vayyinaḥem,” and it is written there: “And the Lord regretted [vayyinaḥem] the evil that He thought to do to His people” (Exodus 32:14).

אלה תולדות נח [נח איש צדיק תמים היה בדרתיו] אמר רבי יוחנן בדורותיו ולא בדורות אחרים וריש לקיש אמר בדורותיו כל שכן בדורות אחרים

§ With regard to the verse: “These are the generations of Noah; Noah was a righteous man, and wholehearted in his generations” (Genesis 6:9), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Relative to the other people of his generation he was righteous and wholehearted, but not relative to those of other generations. And Reish Lakish says: In his generation he was righteous and wholehearted despite being surrounded by bad influences; all the more so would he have been considered righteous and wholehearted in other generations.

אמר רבי חנינא משל דרבי יוחנן למה הדבר דומה לחבית של יין שהיתה מונחת במרתף של חומץ במקומה ריחה נודף שלא במקומה אין ריחה נודף אמר רבי אושעיא משל דריש לקיש למה הדבר דומה לצלוחית של פלייטון שהיתה מונחת במקום הטנופת במקומה ריחה נודף וכל שכן במקום הבוסם

Rabbi Ḥanina says: There is a parable for the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a barrel of wine that was placed in a cellar where vinegar is stored; in its place, its fragrance diffuses, i.e., is noticeable, relative to the odor of the vinegar. When it is not in its place surrounded by vinegar, its fragrance does not diffuse, and its pleasant odor is not sensed. Rabbi Oshaya says: There is a parable for the statement of Reish Lakish; to what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a flask of perfume [palyaton] that was placed in a location of filth. In its place its fragrance diffuses despite the ambient odor, and all the more so is its fragrance noticeable if it is placed in a location where there is perfume.

וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה אם אדם חטא בהמה מה חטאה

With regard to the verse: “And He obliterated every living thing that was upon the face of the ground, from man to cattle to creeping animal to the birds of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23), the Gemara asks: If man sinned, in what way did the animal kingdom sin that it, too, warranted destruction?

תנא משום רבי יהושע בן קרחה משל לאדם שעשה חופה לבנו והתקין מכל מיני סעודה לימים מת בנו עמד (ובלבל) [ופזר] את חופתו אמר ׳כלום עשיתי אלא בשביל בני עכשיו שמת חופה למה לי׳ אף הקדוש ברוך הוא אמר ׳כלום בראתי בהמה וחיה אלא בשביל אדם עכשיו שאדם חוטא בהמה וחיה למה לי׳

The Gemara answers: It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: There is a parable for this matter, to a man who fashioned a wedding canopy for his son and prepared all sorts of food for the wedding feast. Sometime later, before the wedding, his son died. What did the man do? He arose and dismantled his son’s wedding canopy. He said: Did I do this for any reason other than for my son? Now that my son has died, why do I need a wedding canopy? So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Did I create domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals for any reason other than for man? Now that man sins and is sentenced to destruction, why do I need domesticated animals and non-domesticated animals?

מכל אשר בחרבה מתו ולא דגים שבים

It is written: “Of all that was on dry land died” (Genesis 7:22), from which it is inferred: But not the fish that are in the sea, which are not on dry land.

דרש רבי יוסי דמן קסרי מאי דכתיב קל הוא על פני מים תקלל חלקתם בארץ מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח בהם ואומר להם עשו תשובה ואם לאו הקדוש ברוך הוא מביא עליכם את המבול ומקפה נבלתכם על המים כזיקין שנאמר ׳קל הוא על פני מים׳ ולא עוד אלא שלוקחין מהם קללה לכל באי עולם שנאמר תקלל חלקתם בארץ

Rabbi Yosei from Caesarea taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He is swift upon the face of the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth; he turns not by way of the vineyards” (Job 24:18)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation and say to them: Repent. And if you do not, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring a flood upon you and float your corpses on the water like wineskins filled with air that float on water, as it is stated: “He is swift upon the face of the waters.” Moreover, a curse is taken from them to all who enter the world, as people will curse others, saying: They shall be like the generation of the flood. As it is stated: “Their portion is cursed in the earth.”

לא יפנה דרך כרמים מלמד שהיו מפנים דרך כרמים אמרו לו ומי מעכב אמר להם פרידה אחת יש לי להוציא מכם

The conclusion of that verse: “He turns not by way of the vineyards,” teaches that they would clear a path through vineyards. They said to Noah: And who is preventing the flood from coming? Noah said to them: I have one pigeon, Methuselah, who will die at his appointed time, which I must remove from among you before the flood.

אם כן לא נפנה דרך כרמים

They said to him: If so we will not clear a path through vineyards, i.e., we will continue to sin.

דרש רבא מאי דכתיב לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים והיו (בוזים) [מבזין] אותו אמרו לו זקן תיבה זו למה אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא מביא עליכם את המבול אמרו מבול של מה אם מבול של אש יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה ואם של מים הוא מביא אם מן הארץ הוא מביא יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ ואם מן השמים הוא מביא יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו ואמרי לה עקש שמו

Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A contemptible torch [lapid] in the thought of him that is at ease, a thing ready for them whose foot slips” (Job 12:5)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation, and he said to them statements that are harsh as torches [kelapidim], and they would treat him with contempt. They said to him: Old man, why are you building this ark? Noah said to them: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is bringing a flood upon you. They said to him: A flood of what? If it is a flood of fire, we have another item and it is called alita, and it is fireproof. And if it is a flood of water that He brings, if He brings the water from the earth, we have iron plates with which we can plate the earth to prevent the water from rising. And if He brings the water from the heavens, we have an item and it is called ekev, and some say it is called ikkesh, which will absorb the water.

אמר להם הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם שנאמר ׳נכון למועדי רגל׳ תניא מימי המבול קשים כשכבת זרע שנאמר ׳נכון למועדי רגל׳ אמר רב חסדא ברותחין קלקלו בעבירה וברותחין נידונו כתיב הכא וישכו המים וכתיב התם וחמת המלך שככה

Noah said to them: If He wishes He will bring the water from between your feet and you can do nothing to prevent it, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips.” It is taught in a baraita: The waters of the flood were as hard and thick as semen, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips”; foot is a euphemism. Rav Ḥisda says: With hot semen they sinned, and with hot water they were punished. As it is written here, at the conclusion of the flood: “And the waters assuaged” (Genesis 8:1), and it is written there: “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged” (Esther 7:10). Just as the term “assuaged” there is referring to the heat of Ahasuerus’s wrath, so too, “assuaged” with regard to the flood is referring to the heat of the waters.

ויהי לשבעת הימים ומי המבול היו על הארץ מה טיבם של שבעת הימים

With regard to the verse: “And it came to pass that after seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth” (Genesis 7:10), the Gemara asks: What is the nature of these seven additional days?

אמר רב אלו ימי אבילות של מתושלח ללמדך שהספדן של צדיקים מעכבין את הפורענות לבא דבר אחר לשבעת ששינה עליהם הקדוש ברוך הוא סדר בראשית שהיתה חמה יוצאת ממערב ושוקעת במזרח דבר אחר שקבע להם הקדוש ברוך הוא זמן גדול ואחר כך זמן קטן דבר אחר לשבעת הימים שהטעימם מעין העולם הבא כדי שידעו מה טובה מנעו מהן

Rav says: These were the days of mourning for the death of Methuselah; and this is to teach you that eulogies for the righteous prevent calamities from ensuing. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered the order of Creation for that generation, i.e., in seven days He reversed the process of Creation, so that the sun would emerge in the west and set in the east. Alternatively, it means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, designated a substantial period for them, one hundred and twenty years, to repent, and thereafter designated a brief period for them, an additional seven days, as a final opportunity for them to repent. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that during those seven days, God gave them a foretaste of the delights of the World-to-Come, which will be actualized during the seventh millennium, so that they would know what munificence their sins prevented them from receiving.

מכל הבהמה הטהורה תקח לך שבעה שבעה איש ואשתו אישות לבהמה מי אית לה אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאותם שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה

§ With regard to the verse: “Of every kosher animal you shall take to you by sevens, husband and wife” (Genesis 7:2), the Gemara asks: Is there marriage for animals? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: The reference is to those animals with which the transgression of relations with another species was not performed. Therefore, the Torah underscores that the animals that entered the ark were husband and wife.

מנא ידע אמר רב חסדא שהעבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתו בידוע שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה וכל שאין התיבה קולטתו בידוע שנעבדה בה עבירה רבי אבהו אמר מאותן הבאין מאיליהן

The Gemara asks: From where did Noah know which animals were not involved in that transgression? Rav Ḥisda says: He passed them before the ark. All animals that the ark accepted, it was known that a transgression had not been performed with them. And any animal that the ark did not accept, it was known that a transgression had been performed with it. Rabbi Abbahu says: Noah took onto the ark only from those animals that came on their own, as it appeared that they were sent from Heaven, and they were certainly fit for this purpose.

עשה לך תבת עצי גפר מאי גופר אמר רב אדא אמרי דבי רבי שילא זו מבליגה ואמרי לה גולמיש

With regard to the verse: “Make you an ark of gopher wood” (Genesis 6:14), the Gemara asks: What is gopher wood? Rav Adda says that they say in the school of Rabbi Sheila: This is wood from the mavliga tree; and some say that it is wood from the willow [gulamish] tree.

צהר תעשה לתבה אמר רבי יוחנן אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לנח קבע בה אבנים טובות ומרגליות כדי שיהיו מאירות לכם כצהרים

With regard to the verse: “A tzohar you shall make for the ark” (Genesis 6:16), Rabbi Yoḥanan says that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Set precious stones and jewels in the ark so that they will shine for you as the afternoon [tzohorayim] sun.

ואל אמה תכלנה מלמעלה דבהכי [הוא] דקיימא

With regard to the verse: “And to a cubit you shall finish it above” (Genesis 6:16), the Gemara explains that in that manner, having been built wide at its base and narrow at its top, the ark would stand upright and would not capsize.

תחתים שנים ושלשים תעשה תנא תחתיים לזבל אמצעיים לבהמה עליונים לאדם

With regard to the verse: “With lower, second and third stories shall you make it” (Genesis 6:16), it was taught in a baraita: The bottom story was for manure, the middle story was for animals, and the top story was for people.

וישלח את הערב אמר ריש לקיש תשובה ניצחת השיבו עורב לנח אמר לו רבך שונאני ואתה שנאתני רבך שונאני מן הטהורין שבעה מן הטמאים שנים ואתה שנאתני שאתה מניח ממין שבעה ושולח ממין שנים אם פוגע בי שר חמה או שר צנה לא נמצא עולם חסר בריה אחת או שמא לאשתי אתה צריך

With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from the earth” (Genesis 8:7), Reish Lakish says: The raven provided a convincing response to Noah; when it did not wish to leave the ark the raven said to him: Your Master, God, hates me, and you hate me. Your Master hates me, as He commanded to take from the kosher species seven and from the non-kosher species two. And you hate me, as you disregard those from the species of seven, i.e., the kosher birds, and instead dispatch one from the species of two, i.e., the non-kosher birds. If the angel of heat or the angel of cold harms me and kills me, will the world not be lacking one species of creature, as there was only one pair of ravens? Or perhaps you are sending me because it is my wife that you need, in order to engage in intercourse with her.

אמר לו רשע במותר לי נאסר לי בנאסר לי לא כל שכן

Noah said to the raven: Wicked one! If with the woman who is generally permitted to me, my wife, intercourse is forbidden to me, then with regard to domesticated and undomesticated animals, which are generally forbidden to me, is it not all the more so the case that they are forbidden to me?

ומנלן דנאסרו דכתיב ובאת אל התבה אתה ובניך ואשתך ונשי בניך אתך וכתיב צא מן התבה אתה ואשתך ובניך ונשי בניך אתך ואמר רבי יוחנן מיכן אמרו שנאסרו בתשמיש המטה

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that it was prohibited for them to engage in intercourse while in the ark? The Gemara answers: It is derived from that which is written: “And you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 6:18); and it is written: “Emerge from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 8:16). And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: From here, the Sages derived and said that it was prohibited to engage in intercourse while in the ark, as when Noah and his family entered, the husbands and wives were listed separately, and when they emerged, the husbands were listed with their wives.

תנו רבנן שלשה שמשו בתיבה וכולם לקו כלב ועורב וחם כלב נקשר עורב רק חם לקה בעורו

The Sages taught: Three violated that directive and engaged in intercourse while in the ark, and all of them were punished for doing so. They are: The dog, and the raven, and Ham, son of Noah. The dog was punished in that it is bound; the raven was punished in that it spits, and Ham was afflicted in that his skin turned black.

וישלח את היונה מאתו לראות הקלו המים אמר רבי ירמיה מכאן שדירתן של עופות טהורים עם הצדיקים

With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the dove from him, to see if the waters abated” (Genesis 8:8), Rabbi Yirmeya says: From here it is derived that the dwelling place of kosher birds in the ark was with the righteous people, as the verse emphasizes that Noah dispatched the dove from his place.

והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה אמר רבי אלעזר אמרה יונה לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם יהיו מזונותי מרורים כזית ומסורים בידך ואל יהיו מתוקים כדבש ומסורים ביד בשר ודם מאי משמע דהאי טרף לישנא דמזוני הוא דכתיב הטריפני לחם חקי

With regard to the verse: “And in her mouth was an olive branch plucked off [taraf ]” (Genesis 8:11), Rabbi Elazar says: The dove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, may my sustenance be bitter as the olive and dependent on Your hands, and not sweet as honey and dependent on the hands of flesh and blood. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that taraf is a term that indicates sustenance? The Gemara answers: It is inferred from that which is written: “Feed me [hatrifeni] with my allotted portion” (Proverbs 30:8).

למשפחתיהם יצאו מן התבה אמר רבי יוחנן למשפחותם ולא הם

With regard to the verse: “After their kinds [lemishpeḥoteihem], they emerged from the ark” (Genesis 8:19), Rabbi Yoḥanan says: After their kinds [lemishpeḥotam] the animals emerged, but not them [hem] themselves, as some of the animals that entered the ark died during that year and it was their descendants who emerged.

אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ליה אליעזר לשם רבא כתיב ׳למשפחתיהם יצאו מן התבה׳ אתון היכן הויתון אמרו ליה צער גדול היה לנו בתיבה בריה שדרכה להאכילה ביום האכלנוה ביום שדרכה להאכילה בלילה האכלנוה בלילה האי זקיתא לא הוה ידע אבא מה אכלה יומא חד הוה יתיב וקא פאלי רמונא נפל תולעתא מינה אכלה מיכן ואילך הוה גביל לה חיזרא כי מתלע אכלה

Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says: Eliezer, servant of Abraham, said to Shem the Great, son of Noah: It is written: “After their kinds, they emerged from the ark,” indicating that the different types of animals were not intermingled while in the ark. Where were you and what did you do to care for them while they were in the ark? Shem said to him: We experienced great suffering in the ark caring for the animals. Where there was a creature that one typically feeds during the day, we fed it during the day, and where there was a creature that one typically feeds at night, we fed it at night. With regard to that chameleon, my father did not know what it eats. One day, my father was sitting and peeling a pomegranate. A worm fell from it and the chameleon ate it. From that point forward my father would knead bran with water, and when it became overrun with worms, the chameleon would eat it.

אריא אישתא זינתיה דאמר רב לא בציר משיתא ולא טפי מתריסר זינא אישתא אורשינה אשכחיניה אבא דגני בספנא דתיבותא אמר ליה לא בעית מזוני׳ אמר ליה חזיתיך דהות טרידא אמינא לא אצערך׳ אמר ליה יהא רעוא דלא תמות שנאמר ואמר עם קני אגוע וכחול ארבה ימים׳

With regard to the lion, a fever sustained it, since when it suffered from a fever, it did not need to eat; as Rav said: For no fewer than six days and no more than twelve days, fever sustains a person; he need not eat and is sustained from his own fats. Shem continued: With regard to the phoenix [avarshina], my father found it lying in its compartment on the side of the ark. He said to the bird: Do you not want food? The bird said to him: I saw that you were busy, and I said I would not trouble you by requesting food. Noah said to the bird: May it be God’s will that you shall not die, and through that bird the verse was fulfilled, as it is stated: “And I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix” (Job 29:18).

אמר רב חנה בר לואי אמר שם רבא לאליעזר כי אתו עלייכו מלכי מזרח ומערב אתון היכי עבידיתו אמר ליה אייתי הקדוש ברוך הוא לאברהם ואותביה מימיניה והוה שדינן עפרא והוו חרבי גילי והוי גירי שנאמר מזמור לדוד נאם ה׳ לאדני שב לימיני עד אשית איביך הדם לרגליך׳ וכתיב מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו יתן לפניו גוים ומלכים ירד יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו׳

§ Rav Ḥana bar Leva’ei says that Shem the Great said to Eliezer, servant of Abraham: When the four great kings of the east and the west came upon you to wage war with Abraham, what did you do? Eliezer said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought Abraham and placed him to His right, and we would throw dust and it became swords, and we threw straw and it became arrows, as it is stated: “A Psalm of David. The Lord says to my master: Sit to My right, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalms 110:1), and it is written: “Who has raised up one from the east at whose steps victory attends? He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as driven straw” (Isaiah 41:2).

נחום איש גם זו הוה רגיל דכל דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה יומא חד בעו [ישראל] לשדורי דורון לקיסר אמרי בהדי

Apropos Abraham’s miraculous weapons, the Gemara relates: Naḥum of Gam Zo was accustomed that in response to any circumstance that arose in his regard, he would say: This too [gam zo] is for the best. One day the Jewish people sought to send a gift [doron] to the emperor. They said: With

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