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Today's Daf Yomi

August 11, 2017 | 讬状讟 讘讗讘 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Sanhedrin 26

What was originally the situation with collectors of shviit and what changed? 聽An interesting story about Reish Lakish聽tagging along two rabbis is mentioned and in the context of that, stories about Shevna, Hizkiyahu’s steward, are brought. 聽Are people who are wrongdoers in areas that do not involve money also prohibited from testifying?


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讜诪讬讙谞讝讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讻讬 讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪诪讗谉 谞讘注讬

And everyone would hide. When the head tax collector would arrive, Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 father would say to him: From whom shall I request taxes? The city is scarcely populated, and only a small sum of taxes should be imposed on it.

讻讬 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖拽讜诇讜 转诇讬住专 诪注讬 讚爪讬讬专讬 诇讬 讘住讚讬谞讗讬 讜讛讚专讜 诇讬讛 诇驻诇谞讬讗 讚砖拽诇转讬谞讛讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讜 诇讬

When he was dying, he said to those standing around his deathbed: Take thirteen ma鈥檃 that are tied up in my sheet and return them to so-and-so, as I took them from him but I did not need them to pay the tax. Evidently, some tax collectors are God-fearing, and should not be disqualified.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讗讜转谉 壮讗讜住驻讬 砖讘讬注讬转壮

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon said: Initially people would call them: Gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year. Once the tax collectors grew abundant they would then call them: Merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year.

诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜住驻讬 砖讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讬谉 住讜讞专讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is he saying? What is Rabbi Shimon teaching in this statement? Rav Yehuda says this is what he is saying: Initially the Sages would say that gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, i.e., those who gather a large quantity of produce of the Sabbatical Year for themselves, are fit to bear witness, but merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year are disqualified.

诪砖专讘讜 诪诪爪讬讗讬 诪注讜转 诇注谞讬讬诐 讜讗讝诇讬 注谞讬讬诐 讜讗住驻讬 诇讛讜 讜诪讬讬转讜 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 驻住讜诇讬谉

Once those who would offer money to the poor to gather produce for them grew abundant, and the poor would go and gather the produce for those who hired them and bring it to them, then gathering a large amount of produce of the Sabbatical Year was considered a business. The Sages then said that both this category, gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, and that category, merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year, are disqualified.

拽砖讜 讘讛 讘谞讬 专讞讘讛 讛讗讬 诪砖专讘讜 讛讗谞住讬诐 诪砖专讘讜 讛转讙专讬谉 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

The children of the Sage Ra岣va had a difficulty with this explanation, as accordingly this phrase: Once the tax collectors grew abundant, is inaccurate; the mishna should have stated: Once the merchants grew abundant.

讗诇讗 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 驻住讜诇讬谉 诪砖专讘讜 讛讗谞住讬谉 讜诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗专谞讜谞讗 讻讚诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 驻讜拽讜 讜讝专注讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪砖讜诐 讗专谞讜谞讗 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讗讜住驻讬谉 讻砖专讬谉 住讜讞专讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉

Rather, Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 statement should be explained differently, as follows: Initially the Sages would say that both this category, gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, and that category, merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year, are disqualified. Once the tax collectors grew abundant it was permitted to gather the produce of the Sabbatical Year. And what tax did they collect? Arnona, which was a heavy tax on property collected both during the Sabbatical Year and in other years, placing pressure on those observing the Sabbatical Year. As Rabbi Yannai proclaimed: Go out and sow the fields during the Sabbatical Year due to the arnona that you must pay. Once this happened, the Sages then said: Gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year are fit to bear witness, as they were no longer viewed as transgressors, but merchants who trade in this produce are still disqualified.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讝专谞讜拽讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜爪讚拽 讛讜讜 拽讗讝诇讬 诇注讘专 砖谞讛 讘注住讬讗 驻讙注 讘讛讜 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讬讟驻讬诇 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讞讝讬 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 注讜讘讚讗

搂 The Gemara recounts an incident connected tangentially to the discussion concerning the Sabbatical Year: Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak were going to intercalate the year in Asya, as circumstances did not enable them to perform the intercalation of the year in Eretz Yisrael. Reish Lakish met them and joined with them. He said: I will go see how they do the deed, i.e., how the intercalation is performed practically.

讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讻专讬讘 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讛谉 讜讞讜专砖 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 讗讙讬住讟讜谉 讗谞讬 讘转讜讻讜

Reish Lakish saw a certain man plowing a field. He said to the other Sages: Look at this priest who is plowing during the Sabbatical Year. They said to him that he could say in his own defense: I am a hired worker [agiston] in the field, which belongs to a gentile. Therefore, it is permitted.

转讜 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讛讜讛 讻住讞 讘讻专诪讬 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讛谉 讜讝诪专 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇注拽诇 讘讬转 讛讘讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛诇讘 讬讜讚注 讗诐 诇注拽诇 讗诐 诇注拽诇拽诇讜转

Reish Lakish further saw a certain man pruning vines in the vineyards. He said to the other Sages: Look at this priest who is pruning vines during the Sabbatical Year. They said to him that he could say: I need the branches to make a bale [ekel ] for my olive press, i.e., a basket to hold olives for pressing. Since he is not pruning the vines for agricultural purposes but to use the branches, it is permitted for him to do so in the Sabbatical Year. Reish Lakish said to them, in a play on words: The heart knows whether he is doing so for a bale [ekel ], or whether he is saying this as deceit [la鈥檃kalkalot].

讛讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘专讬砖讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘专讬砖讗 讛讗 谞诪讬 诇讬诪专讜 讗讙讬住讟讜谉 讗谞讬 讘转讜讻讜 讗诇讗 讛讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专讬砖讗 讜讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛讱

The Gemara asks: Which did he say to them first? Which incident occurred first? If we say that first he said to them that first exclamation, that a priest was plowing the field, let them say to him in this latter incident too, in which someone was pruning vines, that he could claim in his defense: I am a hired worker in the field. This would have been a better justification than claiming he needed the branches. Rather, apparently first he said to them this exclamation, that a priest was pruning vines, and only then he said to them that a priest was plowing the field.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讻讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讚讞砖讬讚讬 讗砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara asks: What is different about a priest? Why did Reish Lakish assume the man was a priest? The Gemara answers: It is because priests are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year.

讚转谞谉 住讗讛 转专讜诪讛 砖谞驻诇讛 诇诪讗讛 住讗讬谉 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 转注诇讛 驻讞讜转 诪讬讻谉 讬专拽讘讜

As we learned in a baraita: A se鈥檃 of teruma, the portion of the produce designated for the priest, that fell into a hundred se鈥檃 of Sabbatical Year produce and was indistinguishable, is nullified, i.e., it no longer has the status of teruma, and can be eaten until the time that Sabbatical Year produce must be removed from one鈥檚 possession. If it fell into a lesser quantity of Sabbatical Year produce, the entire mixture must be left to rot, as it is prohibited for non-priests to partake of teruma.

讜讛讜讬谞谉 讘讛 讗诪讗讬 讬专拽讘讜 讬诪讻专谞讜 诇讻讛谉 讘讚诪讬 转专讜诪讛 讞讜抓 诪讚诪讬 讗讜转讛 住讗讛

And we discussed it: Why must the produce rot? Let its owner sell it to a priest in accordance with its value as teruma, which is less expensive than regular produce because it can be eaten only by priests, and except for the value of that se鈥檃 of teruma that fell in, which the owner is required to give to a priest for free. The priest may then partake of the produce, treating the entire mixture as though it has the sanctity of teruma, and both the priest and the owner will benefit.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 谞讞砖讚讜 讻讛谞讬诐 讗砖讘讬注讬转

And Rav 岣yya said in the name of Ulla: That is to say, i.e., one can infer from the fact that one is not permitted to sell the mixture to a priest, that priests are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year by partaking of its produce after the time it must be removed from one鈥檚 possession. They did so because they considered it theirs, the same as teruma, as both mitzvot pertain to the produce of Eretz Yisrael. Therefore, produce of the Sabbatical Year should not be given or sold to priests. Similarly, Reish Lakish assumed that those who desecrated the Sabbatical Year were priests.

讗诪专讜 讟专讜讚讗 讛讜讗 讚讬谉 讻讬 诪讟讜 诇讛转诐 住诇讬拽讜 诇讗讬讙专讗 砖诇驻讜讛 诇讚专讙讗 诪转讜转讬讛

After Reish Lakish continually bothered them with his comments, Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak said: This one is a nuisance. In order to rid themselves of him, when they reached the location where they intended to intercalate the year, they went up to the roof and took the ladder out from under them so that he would stay below and would not be able to join them.

讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛讞砖讜讚讬谉 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讬谉 诇注讘专 砖谞讛

Sometime later, Reish Lakish came before Rabbi Yo岣nan. Reish Lakish said to him: Are people who are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year fit to intercalate the year? He believed that the two Sages who were sent to intercalate the year treated the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year with disrespect.

讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 诇讬 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗砖诇砖讛 专讜注讬 讘拽专 讜专讘谞谉 讗讞讜砖讘谞讬讬讛讜 住诪讜讱

Reish Lakish then said in response to his own question: This is not difficult for me; just as the Sages once intercalated the year in accordance with the assessment of three cattle herders (see 18b), which was permitted, as the Sages depended not on the assessment of the cattle herders but on their own calculation, perhaps here too the Sages depended on their own calculations and not on the decision of Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak.

讜讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讗 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讛讚讜专 讗讬诪谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜注讘专讜讛 诇讛讛讜讗 砖转讗 讛讻讗 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讛讜讗 讜拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗 注拽讗

Reish Lakish changed his mind and then said: It is not similar. There, in the case of the cattle herders, afterward the Sages were counted, i.e., they made a decision, and intercalated that year themselves. Here, by contrast, it is a conspiracy of wicked people, as the Sages who intercalated the year are disqualified from doing so; and a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This problem you raise is troublesome.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 拽专讬 诇谉 专讜注讬 讘拽专 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讜讗讬 拽专讬 诇讻讜 专讜注讬 爪讗谉 诪讗讬 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讬讛

When Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak subsequently came before Rabbi Yo岣nan, after hearing about his discussion with Reish Lakish, they said to him bitterly: Reish Lakish referred to us as cattle herders, and the Master said nothing to him in response? Rabbi Yo岣nan said to them dismissively: And even if he had referred to you as shepherds, who are disqualified from bearing witness in addition to being disqualified from serving as judges, what should I have said to him? He is correct.

诪讗讬 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 砖讘谞讗 讛讜讛 讚专讬砖 讘转诇讬住专 专讘讜讜转讗 讞讝拽讬讛 讛讜讛 讚专讬砖 讘讞讚 住专 专讘讜讜转讗

搂 The Gemara asks: What is the source of the halakha that a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted as part of a group? The Gemara answers: Shebna, a steward and a minister in King Hezekiah鈥檚 court, was a prominent and influential figure. He would teach Torah to an audience of 130,000 followers, whereas King Hezekiah would teach Torah to an audience of merely 110,000 followers.

讻讬 讗转讗 住谞讞专讬讘 讜爪专 注诇讛 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻转讘 砖讘谞讗 驻转拽讗 砖讚讗 讘讙讬专讗 砖讘谞讗 讜住讬注转讜 讛砖诇讬诪讜 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 诇讗 讛砖诇讬诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讛谞讛 讛专砖注讬诐 讬讚专讻讜谉 拽砖转 讻讜谞谞讜 讞爪诐 注诇 讬转专

When Sennacherib came and besieged Jerusalem, Shebna wrote a note and shot it over the wall with an arrow. It read: Shebna and his camp have appeased Sennacherib and are ready to surrender; Hezekiah and his camp have not appeased Sennacherib. As it is stated in allusion to this incident: 鈥淔or behold, the wicked bend the bow, they have made ready their arrow upon the string鈥 (Psalms 11:2).

讛讜讛 拽讗 诪住转驻讬 讞讝拽讬讛 讗诪专 讚讬诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 谞讟讬讛 讚注转讬讛 讚拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘转专 专讜讘讗 讻讬讜谉 讚专讜讘讗 诪讬诪住专讬 讗讬谞讛讜 谞诪讬 诪讬诪住专讬 讘讗 谞讘讬讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗 转讗诪专讜谉 拽砖专 诇讻诇 讗砖专 讬讗诪专 讛注诐 讛讝讛 拽砖专 讻诇讜诪专 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讛讜讗 讜拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉

Hezekiah was afraid. He said: Perhaps, God forbid, the opinion of the Holy One, Blessed be He, will follow the majority; and since the majority have submitted to the Assyrians, even those who have not submitted will also be submitted into their hands. The prophet Isaiah then came and said to him: 鈥淪ay not: A conspiracy, concerning all of which this people say: A conspiracy鈥 (Isaiah 8:12). Meaning, it is a conspiracy of wicked people, and a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted. Therefore, although they are many, they are not considered the majority.

讛诇讱 诇讞爪讘 诇讜 拽讘专 讘拽讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讜讚 讘讗 谞讘讬讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 诇讱 驻讛 讜诪讬 诇讱 驻讛 讻讬 讞爪讘转 诇讱 驻讛 拽讘专 讛谞讛 讛壮 诪讟诇讟诇讱 讟诇讟诇讛 讙讘专

Shebna went to carve out a grave for himself among the graves of the house of David, as he thought that the kingship would be given to him. The prophet Isaiah then came and said to him: 鈥淲hat have you here, and whom have you here, that you have carved out a grave for yourself here? You, who have carved yourself out a grave on high, and hollowed a habitation for yourself in the rock? Behold, the Lord will make you wander like the wandering of a man; and he will wind you round and round鈥 (Isaiah 22:16鈥17).

讗诪专 专讘 讟诇讟讜诇讗 讚讙讘专讗 拽砖讬 诪讚讗讬转转讗

The Gemara mentions tangentially: Rav says that the wandering of a man is more difficult than that of a woman. He derives it from the expression 鈥渓ike the wandering of a man.鈥

讜注讟讱 注讟讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪诇诪讚 砖驻专讞讛 讘讜 爪专注转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜注讟讱 注讟讛 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛

With regard to the phrase: 鈥淎nd he will wind you round and round,鈥 Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, says: This teaches that Shebna developed leprosy; it is written here: 鈥淎nd he will wind you round and round [ve鈥檕tkha ato],鈥 and it is written there, in the Torah, with regard to a leper: 鈥淎nd the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be torn, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip [ya鈥檛e]鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). The Hebrew word for upper lip is from the same root as the verb in the verse cited from Isaiah.

爪谞讜祝 讬爪谞驻讱 爪谞驻讛 讻讚讜专 讗诇 讗专抓 专讞讘转 讬讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮 转谞讗 讛讜讗 讘讬拽砖 拽诇讜谉 讘讬转 讗讚谞讬讜 诇驻讬讻讱 谞讛驻讱 讻讘讜讚讜 诇拽诇讜谉 讻讬 讛讜讛 谞驻讬拽 讗讬讛讜 讗转讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讗讞讚讬讛 诇讚砖讗 讘讗驻讬 诪砖专讬讬转讬讛

The Gemara continues to interpret the prophecy about Shebna: 鈥淗e will violently roll and toss you like a ball into a large country; there you shall die, and there shall be the chariots of your glory, you shame of your lord鈥檚 house鈥 (Isaiah 22:18). A baraita taught: He, Shebna, desired shame for his master鈥檚 house; therefore his glory turned to shame. This is what happened to him: When he was going out of the gate of Jerusalem to submit to the Assyrians, the angel Gabriel came and held the gate in front of his camp so they could not follow him. Consequently, he went out by himself.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪砖讬专讬讬转讱 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 讛讚专讜 讘讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 讗讞讜讻讬 拽讗 诪讞讬讬讻转 讘谉 谞拽讘讜讛讜 讘注拽讘讬讜 讜转诇讗讜讛讜 讘讝谞讘讬 住讜住讬讛诐 讜讛讬讜 诪讙专专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注诇 讛拽讜爪讬诐 讜注诇 讛讘专拽谞讬谉

The Assyrians said to him: Where is your camp? Shebna said: They backed out on me. They said to him: If so, you are mocking us; you led us to believe that behind you stands a large camp of supporters. They punched holes in his heels and hung him by the tails of their horses, and dragged him on the thorns and on the bristles.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖讘谞讗 讘注诇 讛谞讗讛 讛讬讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 诇讱 讘讗 讗诇 讛住讻谉 讛讝讛 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜转讛讬 诇讜 住讻谞转

Rabbi Elazar says: Shebna was a hedonist. It is written here: 鈥淕o, get yourself to this steward [hasokhen], to Shebna, who is over the house鈥 (Isaiah 22:15), and it is written there with regard to Abishag the Shunammite: 鈥淎nd let her be a companion [sokhenet] to him; and let her lie in your bosom, that my lord the king may get heat鈥 (I Kings 1:2).

讜讗讜诪专 讻讬 讛砖转讜转 讬讛专住讜谉 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘 注讬谞讗 讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 谞讛专住讬诐 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讬讛专住 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 讜注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪讞砖讘讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讗讬谞谉 谞讛专住讜转 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇

And following the aforementioned verse: 鈥淔or behold, the wicked bend the bow, they have made ready their arrow upon the string,鈥 the next verse states: 鈥淲hen the foundations are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done?鈥 (Psalms 11:3). Rav Yehuda and Rav Eina interpret this verse. One says: If Hezekiah and his camp are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And one says: If the Temple should be destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And Ulla says: If the intentions of that wicked person, Sennacherib, are not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done?

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪讞砖讘讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛砖转讜转 讬讛专住讜谉

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that the verse means: If the intentions of that wicked person are not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done, this is the reason that it is written: 鈥淲hen the foundations [hashatot] are destroyed,鈥 i.e., the intentions of Sennacherib are destroyed, as intentions are called shatot.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞诪讬 讚转谞谉 讗讘谉 讛讬转讛 砖诐 诪讬诪讜转 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜砖转讬讬讛 讛讬转讛 谞拽专讗转

And according to the one who says it is referring to the Temple, the word hashatot is also clear, as we learned in a mishna (Yoma 53b): There was a stone in the Holy of Holies from the days of the early prophets, David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, and this stone was called the Foundation [shetiyya] Stone.

讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 讛讬讻讗 讗砖讻讞谉 爪讚讬拽讬 讚讗讬拽专讜 砖转讜转

But according to the one who says that the reference is to Hezekiah and his camp, where do we find that righteous people are referred to as shatot?

讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇讛壮 诪爪拽讬 讗专抓 讜讬砖转 注诇讬讛诐 转讘诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讛驻诇讗 注爪讛 讛讙讚讬诇 转讜砖讬讛

The Gemara answers: As it is written: 鈥淗e raises up the poor out of the dust, He lifts up the needy from the dung hill, to make them sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory; for the pillars of the earth are the Lord鈥檚, and He has set [vayyashet] the world upon them鈥 (I Samuel 2:8). Since the righteous are considered the foundations of the world, this verse is interpreted in reference to them. And if you wish, say instead that it is derived from here: 鈥淲onderful is His counsel, and great His wisdom [tushiyya]鈥 (Isaiah 28:29). Accordingly, the wise, righteous people are called shatot.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 转讜砖讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 诪转砖转 讻讞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讚讘专 讗讞专 转讜砖讬讛 砖谞讬转谞讛 讘讞砖讗讬 诪驻谞讬 讛砖讟谉 讚讘专 讗讞专 转讜砖讬讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 转讜讛讜 砖讛注讜诇诐 诪砖讜转转 注诇讬讛诐

With regard to the latter verse, Rabbi 岣nan says: Why is the Torah called tushiyya? Because it weakens [matteshet] the strength of a person who engages in its study. Alternatively, tushiyya can be interpreted as an abbreviation: That it was given in secret [shenittena be岣shai]. This was done because of the Satan, lest he claim that the Jewish people are not worthy of it. Alternatively, tushiyya can be interpreted as an abbreviation for amorphous [tohu] matters that seem foreign and strange, but nevertheless the world is founded [meshotat] on them.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪讞砖讘讛 诪讜注诇转 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪驻专 诪讞砖讘讜转 注专讜诪讬诐 讜诇讗 转注砖讬谞讛 讬讚讬讛诐 转讜砖讬讛

Ulla says: Thought, i.e., concern, is effective [mo鈥檈let] in disturbing even the study of statements of Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淗e frustrates the thoughts of the crafty, so that their hands can perform nothing [velo鈥ushiyya]鈥 (Job 5:12), and tushiyya is a reference to Torah.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讗诐 注住讜拽讬谉 诇砖诪讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讜注诇转 砖谞讗诪专 专讘讜转 诪讞砖讘讜转 讘诇讘 讗讬砖 讜注爪转 讛壮 讛讬讗 转拽讜诐 注爪讛 砖讬砖 讘讛 讚讘专 讛壮 讛讬讗 转拽讜诐 诇注讜诇诐

Rabba says: If people engage in Torah study for its own sake, concern is not effective; as it is stated: 鈥淭here are many devices in a man鈥檚 heart; but the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand鈥 (Proverbs 19:21). Rabba interprets this to mean that a counsel that has in it the statement of the Lord shall rise forever and cannot be disturbed.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: When are all these people, e.g., gamblers and those who lend with interest, disqualified from bearing witness? It is when they have no occupation other than this one. Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Elazar says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 讛讻专讝讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

And Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Elazar says: All of these require a proclamation in the court. In other words, one is disqualified only after it is proclaimed in court that he was found guilty of this behavior.

专讜注讛 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讜专讘讬谞讗 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讗 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛

With regard to a shepherd, who is also disqualified from bearing witness, Rav A岣 and Ravina disagree. One says that he requires a proclamation that he is disqualified due to his being a shepherd, and one says that he does not require a proclamation and is disqualified automatically.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 住转诐 专讜注讛 驻住讜诇 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 诪讗讬 住转诐 专讜注讛 驻住讜诇

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that he does not require a proclamation, this is what Rav Yehuda means when he says that Rav says that an ordinary shepherd is disqualified, i.e., he does not require a specific proclamation. But according to the one who says that a shepherd requires a proclamation, what is meant by the statement that an ordinary shepherd is disqualified?

讚讘住转诪讗 诪讻专讝讬谞谉 注诇讬讛

The Gemara answers: It means that in an ordinary case, the court proclaims about him that he is disqualified for having engaged in shepherding. If the court discovers that he regularly engages in this trade, it proclaims immediately that he is disqualified, and the court does not need to prove that he shepherds his flock in the fields of others.

讛讛讬讗 诪转谞讛 讚讛讜讜 讞转讬诪讬 注诇讛 转专讬谉 讙讝诇谞讬谉 住讘专 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗讻砖讜专讛 讚讛讗 诇讗 讗讻专讝讬谞谉 注诇讬讬讛讜

The Gemara recounts: With regard to a certain deed of gift on which the names of two robbers were signed, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to deem it valid despite the identity of the witnesses, as the court did not proclaim about them that they were disqualified.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 谞讛讬 讚讘注讬谞谉 讛讻专讝讛 讘讙讝诇谉 讚专讘谞谉 讘讙讝诇谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 讛讻专讝讛

Rava said to him: Although we require a proclamation in order to disqualify a robber from bearing witness, this is only with regard to a robber who is guilty of stealing by rabbinic law; with regard to a robber who is guilty of stealing by Torah law, do we require a proclamation? He is disqualified automatically.

住讬诪谉 讚讘专 讜注专讬讜转 讙谞讘

搂 The Gemara states a mnemonic for the following statements with regard to disqualification from testifying: Something; and forbidden sexual relations; and a thief.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讜讻诇讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 驻住讜诇讬谉 诇注讚讜转

Rav Na岣an says: Those who eat something else, a euphemism for pork, are disqualified from bearing witness. This is referring to those who accept charity from gentiles, thereby causing a desecration of God鈥檚 name. They are tantamount to wicked people guilty of monetary transgressions, as they are willing to desecrate God鈥檚 name for monetary gain.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘驻专讛住讬讗 讗讘诇 讘爪讬谞注讛 诇讗 讜讘驻专讛住讬讗 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚讗驻砖专 诇讬讛 诇讗讬转讝讜谞讬 讘爪讬谞注讛 讜拽讗 诪讘讝讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘驻专讛住讬讗 讗讘诇 诇讗 讗驻砖专 诇讬讛 讞讬讜转讬讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara comments: This statement applies with regard to taking charity from gentiles in public [befarhesya], but if one takes it in private he is not disqualified. And even if he takes it in public, we said that he is disqualified only in a case where he can sustain himself by accepting charity from gentiles in private and despite this he disgraces himself by taking it in public. But if he cannot support himself in any other manner, he is not disqualified, as it is his livelihood.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛注专讬讜转 讻砖专 诇注讚讜转 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 注谞讬 诪专讬 讗专讘注讬谉 讘讻转驻讬讛 讜讻砖专

Rav Na岣an says: One who due to a rumor is suspected of engaging in forbidden sexual relations is fit to bear witness. Rav Sheshet said to him: Answer me, my Master: The halakha is that one who is rumored to have engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse receives forty lashes on his shoulders, and yet you say he is fit to bear witness?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜诪讜讚讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇注谞讬谉 注讚讜转 讗砖讛 砖讛讜讗 驻住讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讗驻讜拽讛 讗讘诇 诇注讬讜诇讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛

Rava said: And Rav Na岣an concedes that he is disqualified with regard to testimony about the status of a married woman, as he is clearly under suspicion with regard to this matter. Ravina says, and some say Rav Pappa says: We said he is disqualified only with regard to testimony that removes her status as a married woman, e.g., testimony that her husband died, as he is suspected of wanting her for himself. But with regard to testimony that establishes her in that status, we have no problem with it.

驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛讗 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬诐 讙谞讜讘讬诐 讬诪转拽讜 讜讙讜壮 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讻诪讛 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讻讬讞讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious? Why should he be suspected of lying in order to render a woman married? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if he wants her for himself, this situation, i.e., her being married to another, is preferable to him; as it is written: 鈥淪tolen waters are sweet and bread eaten in secret is pleasant鈥 (Proverbs 9:17), i.e., the forbidden is more pleasant than the permitted, Rav Pappa teaches us that this is not the case, as the way the woman is now, being unmarried, she is more available to him. He therefore is not motivated to testify falsely that she is married.

讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讙谞讘 谞讬住谉 讜讙谞讘 转砖专讬 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讙谞讘

And Rav Na岣an says: A thief of Nisan and a thief of Tishrei, i.e., one who steals during the harvest seasons, is not called a thief and is therefore not disqualified from bearing witness.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讗专讬住讗 讜讚讘专 诪讜注讟 讜讘讚讘专 砖谞讙诪专讛 诪诇讗讻转讜

The Gemara explains: This statement applies specifically with regard to a tenant farmer, and it is a situation where he took a small amount, and in a case where it was an item whose work was completed, i.e., that needed no further processing. Since the produce was sufficiently processed, the tenant may assume that he deserves additional pay for any further labor and justify taking a small amount of the produce for his effort. Consequently, his theft is not willful.

讗讬讻专讬讛 讚专讘 讝讘讬讚 讞讚 讙谞讘 拽讘讗 讚砖注专讬 讜驻住诇讬讛 讜讞讚 讙谞讘 拽讬讘讜专讗 讚讗讛讬谞讬 讜驻住诇讬讛

The Gemara recounts: An incident occurred with the tenant farmers of Rav Zevid. One stole a kav of barley, and Rav Zevid disqualified him from bearing witness, and one stole a cluster of dates, and he disqualified him. The reason for their disqualification is that the quantity of produce they stole is not considered a small amount.

讛谞讛讜 拽讘讜专讗讬 讚拽讘讜专 谞驻砖讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 注爪专转 砖诪转讬谞讛讜 专讘 驻驻讗 讜驻住诇讬谞讛讜 诇注讚讜转 讜讗讻砖专讬谞讛讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注

The Gemara relates: There were these gravediggers, who buried a person on the first day of the festival of Shavuot, desecrating the Festival. Rav Pappa excommunicated them and then disqualified them from bearing witness, and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, deemed them fit to bear witness.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛讗 专砖注讬诐 谞讬谞讛讜 住讘专讬 诪爪讜讛 拽讗 注讘讚讬

Rav Pappa said to Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: But aren鈥檛 they wicked people, as they violated a Torah prohibition? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered him: They assumed they were doing a mitzva, as they were burying the dead.

讜讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪转讬谞讗 诇讛讜 住讘专讬 讻驻专讛 拽讗 注讘讚讬 诇谉 专讘谞谉

Rav Pappa asked: But didn鈥檛 I excommunicate them for this? Nevertheless, they continued to bury people on the Festival. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered: They assumed: We were not excommunicated for doing something wrong. Rather, since the mitzva of burying the dead involved desecrating the Festival, the Sages are achieving atonement for us, although our behavior was appropriate.

讗讬转诪专

搂 A conspiring witness is one who testified that a certain incident occurred at a particular time and place, and then two other witnesses testify that he was elsewhere at that time. The Gemara discusses the disqualification of a conspiring witness from providing testimony in other cases. It was stated

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Sanhedrin 26

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 26

讜诪讬讙谞讝讜 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讻讬 讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪诪讗谉 谞讘注讬

And everyone would hide. When the head tax collector would arrive, Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 father would say to him: From whom shall I request taxes? The city is scarcely populated, and only a small sum of taxes should be imposed on it.

讻讬 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖拽讜诇讜 转诇讬住专 诪注讬 讚爪讬讬专讬 诇讬 讘住讚讬谞讗讬 讜讛讚专讜 诇讬讛 诇驻诇谞讬讗 讚砖拽诇转讬谞讛讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讜 诇讬

When he was dying, he said to those standing around his deathbed: Take thirteen ma鈥檃 that are tied up in my sheet and return them to so-and-so, as I took them from him but I did not need them to pay the tax. Evidently, some tax collectors are God-fearing, and should not be disqualified.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讗讜转谉 壮讗讜住驻讬 砖讘讬注讬转壮

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon said: Initially people would call them: Gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year. Once the tax collectors grew abundant they would then call them: Merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year.

诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜住驻讬 砖讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讬谉 住讜讞专讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is he saying? What is Rabbi Shimon teaching in this statement? Rav Yehuda says this is what he is saying: Initially the Sages would say that gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, i.e., those who gather a large quantity of produce of the Sabbatical Year for themselves, are fit to bear witness, but merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year are disqualified.

诪砖专讘讜 诪诪爪讬讗讬 诪注讜转 诇注谞讬讬诐 讜讗讝诇讬 注谞讬讬诐 讜讗住驻讬 诇讛讜 讜诪讬讬转讜 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 驻住讜诇讬谉

Once those who would offer money to the poor to gather produce for them grew abundant, and the poor would go and gather the produce for those who hired them and bring it to them, then gathering a large amount of produce of the Sabbatical Year was considered a business. The Sages then said that both this category, gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, and that category, merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year, are disqualified.

拽砖讜 讘讛 讘谞讬 专讞讘讛 讛讗讬 诪砖专讘讜 讛讗谞住讬诐 诪砖专讘讜 讛转讙专讬谉 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

The children of the Sage Ra岣va had a difficulty with this explanation, as accordingly this phrase: Once the tax collectors grew abundant, is inaccurate; the mishna should have stated: Once the merchants grew abundant.

讗诇讗 讘转讞讬诇讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讝讛 讜讗讞讚 讝讛 驻住讜诇讬谉 诪砖专讘讜 讛讗谞住讬谉 讜诪讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讗专谞讜谞讗 讻讚诪讻专讬讝 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 驻讜拽讜 讜讝专注讜 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪砖讜诐 讗专谞讜谞讗 讞讝专讜 诇讜诪专 讗讜住驻讬谉 讻砖专讬谉 住讜讞专讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉

Rather, Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 statement should be explained differently, as follows: Initially the Sages would say that both this category, gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year, and that category, merchants who trade in the produce of the Sabbatical Year, are disqualified. Once the tax collectors grew abundant it was permitted to gather the produce of the Sabbatical Year. And what tax did they collect? Arnona, which was a heavy tax on property collected both during the Sabbatical Year and in other years, placing pressure on those observing the Sabbatical Year. As Rabbi Yannai proclaimed: Go out and sow the fields during the Sabbatical Year due to the arnona that you must pay. Once this happened, the Sages then said: Gatherers of the produce of the Sabbatical Year are fit to bear witness, as they were no longer viewed as transgressors, but merchants who trade in this produce are still disqualified.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讝专谞讜拽讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜爪讚拽 讛讜讜 拽讗讝诇讬 诇注讘专 砖谞讛 讘注住讬讗 驻讙注 讘讛讜 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗讬讟驻讬诇 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讞讝讬 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 注讜讘讚讗

搂 The Gemara recounts an incident connected tangentially to the discussion concerning the Sabbatical Year: Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak were going to intercalate the year in Asya, as circumstances did not enable them to perform the intercalation of the year in Eretz Yisrael. Reish Lakish met them and joined with them. He said: I will go see how they do the deed, i.e., how the intercalation is performed practically.

讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 讻专讬讘 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讛谉 讜讞讜专砖 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 讗讙讬住讟讜谉 讗谞讬 讘转讜讻讜

Reish Lakish saw a certain man plowing a field. He said to the other Sages: Look at this priest who is plowing during the Sabbatical Year. They said to him that he could say in his own defense: I am a hired worker [agiston] in the field, which belongs to a gentile. Therefore, it is permitted.

转讜 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讛讜讛 讻住讞 讘讻专诪讬 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讻讛谉 讜讝诪专 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇注拽诇 讘讬转 讛讘讚 讗谞讬 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛诇讘 讬讜讚注 讗诐 诇注拽诇 讗诐 诇注拽诇拽诇讜转

Reish Lakish further saw a certain man pruning vines in the vineyards. He said to the other Sages: Look at this priest who is pruning vines during the Sabbatical Year. They said to him that he could say: I need the branches to make a bale [ekel ] for my olive press, i.e., a basket to hold olives for pressing. Since he is not pruning the vines for agricultural purposes but to use the branches, it is permitted for him to do so in the Sabbatical Year. Reish Lakish said to them, in a play on words: The heart knows whether he is doing so for a bale [ekel ], or whether he is saying this as deceit [la鈥檃kalkalot].

讛讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘专讬砖讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘专讬砖讗 讛讗 谞诪讬 诇讬诪专讜 讗讙讬住讟讜谉 讗谞讬 讘转讜讻讜 讗诇讗 讛讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专讬砖讗 讜讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛讱

The Gemara asks: Which did he say to them first? Which incident occurred first? If we say that first he said to them that first exclamation, that a priest was plowing the field, let them say to him in this latter incident too, in which someone was pruning vines, that he could claim in his defense: I am a hired worker in the field. This would have been a better justification than claiming he needed the branches. Rather, apparently first he said to them this exclamation, that a priest was pruning vines, and only then he said to them that a priest was plowing the field.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讻讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讚讞砖讬讚讬 讗砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara asks: What is different about a priest? Why did Reish Lakish assume the man was a priest? The Gemara answers: It is because priests are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year.

讚转谞谉 住讗讛 转专讜诪讛 砖谞驻诇讛 诇诪讗讛 住讗讬谉 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 转注诇讛 驻讞讜转 诪讬讻谉 讬专拽讘讜

As we learned in a baraita: A se鈥檃 of teruma, the portion of the produce designated for the priest, that fell into a hundred se鈥檃 of Sabbatical Year produce and was indistinguishable, is nullified, i.e., it no longer has the status of teruma, and can be eaten until the time that Sabbatical Year produce must be removed from one鈥檚 possession. If it fell into a lesser quantity of Sabbatical Year produce, the entire mixture must be left to rot, as it is prohibited for non-priests to partake of teruma.

讜讛讜讬谞谉 讘讛 讗诪讗讬 讬专拽讘讜 讬诪讻专谞讜 诇讻讛谉 讘讚诪讬 转专讜诪讛 讞讜抓 诪讚诪讬 讗讜转讛 住讗讛

And we discussed it: Why must the produce rot? Let its owner sell it to a priest in accordance with its value as teruma, which is less expensive than regular produce because it can be eaten only by priests, and except for the value of that se鈥檃 of teruma that fell in, which the owner is required to give to a priest for free. The priest may then partake of the produce, treating the entire mixture as though it has the sanctity of teruma, and both the priest and the owner will benefit.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚注讜诇讗 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 谞讞砖讚讜 讻讛谞讬诐 讗砖讘讬注讬转

And Rav 岣yya said in the name of Ulla: That is to say, i.e., one can infer from the fact that one is not permitted to sell the mixture to a priest, that priests are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year by partaking of its produce after the time it must be removed from one鈥檚 possession. They did so because they considered it theirs, the same as teruma, as both mitzvot pertain to the produce of Eretz Yisrael. Therefore, produce of the Sabbatical Year should not be given or sold to priests. Similarly, Reish Lakish assumed that those who desecrated the Sabbatical Year were priests.

讗诪专讜 讟专讜讚讗 讛讜讗 讚讬谉 讻讬 诪讟讜 诇讛转诐 住诇讬拽讜 诇讗讬讙专讗 砖诇驻讜讛 诇讚专讙讗 诪转讜转讬讛

After Reish Lakish continually bothered them with his comments, Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak said: This one is a nuisance. In order to rid themselves of him, when they reached the location where they intended to intercalate the year, they went up to the roof and took the ladder out from under them so that he would stay below and would not be able to join them.

讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛讞砖讜讚讬谉 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讬谉 诇注讘专 砖谞讛

Sometime later, Reish Lakish came before Rabbi Yo岣nan. Reish Lakish said to him: Are people who are suspected of desecrating the Sabbatical Year fit to intercalate the year? He believed that the two Sages who were sent to intercalate the year treated the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year with disrespect.

讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 诇讬 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗砖诇砖讛 专讜注讬 讘拽专 讜专讘谞谉 讗讞讜砖讘谞讬讬讛讜 住诪讜讱

Reish Lakish then said in response to his own question: This is not difficult for me; just as the Sages once intercalated the year in accordance with the assessment of three cattle herders (see 18b), which was permitted, as the Sages depended not on the assessment of the cattle herders but on their own calculation, perhaps here too the Sages depended on their own calculations and not on the decision of Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak.

讜讛讚专 讗诪专 诇讗 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讛讚讜专 讗讬诪谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜注讘专讜讛 诇讛讛讜讗 砖转讗 讛讻讗 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讛讜讗 讜拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗 注拽讗

Reish Lakish changed his mind and then said: It is not similar. There, in the case of the cattle herders, afterward the Sages were counted, i.e., they made a decision, and intercalated that year themselves. Here, by contrast, it is a conspiracy of wicked people, as the Sages who intercalated the year are disqualified from doing so; and a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This problem you raise is troublesome.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 拽专讬 诇谉 专讜注讬 讘拽专 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讜讗讬 拽专讬 诇讻讜 专讜注讬 爪讗谉 诪讗讬 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讬讛

When Rabbi 岣yya bar Zarnokei and Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak subsequently came before Rabbi Yo岣nan, after hearing about his discussion with Reish Lakish, they said to him bitterly: Reish Lakish referred to us as cattle herders, and the Master said nothing to him in response? Rabbi Yo岣nan said to them dismissively: And even if he had referred to you as shepherds, who are disqualified from bearing witness in addition to being disqualified from serving as judges, what should I have said to him? He is correct.

诪讗讬 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 砖讘谞讗 讛讜讛 讚专讬砖 讘转诇讬住专 专讘讜讜转讗 讞讝拽讬讛 讛讜讛 讚专讬砖 讘讞讚 住专 专讘讜讜转讗

搂 The Gemara asks: What is the source of the halakha that a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted as part of a group? The Gemara answers: Shebna, a steward and a minister in King Hezekiah鈥檚 court, was a prominent and influential figure. He would teach Torah to an audience of 130,000 followers, whereas King Hezekiah would teach Torah to an audience of merely 110,000 followers.

讻讬 讗转讗 住谞讞专讬讘 讜爪专 注诇讛 讚讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻转讘 砖讘谞讗 驻转拽讗 砖讚讗 讘讙讬专讗 砖讘谞讗 讜住讬注转讜 讛砖诇讬诪讜 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 诇讗 讛砖诇讬诪讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讛谞讛 讛专砖注讬诐 讬讚专讻讜谉 拽砖转 讻讜谞谞讜 讞爪诐 注诇 讬转专

When Sennacherib came and besieged Jerusalem, Shebna wrote a note and shot it over the wall with an arrow. It read: Shebna and his camp have appeased Sennacherib and are ready to surrender; Hezekiah and his camp have not appeased Sennacherib. As it is stated in allusion to this incident: 鈥淔or behold, the wicked bend the bow, they have made ready their arrow upon the string鈥 (Psalms 11:2).

讛讜讛 拽讗 诪住转驻讬 讞讝拽讬讛 讗诪专 讚讬诇诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 谞讟讬讛 讚注转讬讛 讚拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讘转专 专讜讘讗 讻讬讜谉 讚专讜讘讗 诪讬诪住专讬 讗讬谞讛讜 谞诪讬 诪讬诪住专讬 讘讗 谞讘讬讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诇讗 转讗诪专讜谉 拽砖专 诇讻诇 讗砖专 讬讗诪专 讛注诐 讛讝讛 拽砖专 讻诇讜诪专 拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讛讜讗 讜拽砖专 专砖注讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉

Hezekiah was afraid. He said: Perhaps, God forbid, the opinion of the Holy One, Blessed be He, will follow the majority; and since the majority have submitted to the Assyrians, even those who have not submitted will also be submitted into their hands. The prophet Isaiah then came and said to him: 鈥淪ay not: A conspiracy, concerning all of which this people say: A conspiracy鈥 (Isaiah 8:12). Meaning, it is a conspiracy of wicked people, and a conspiracy of wicked people is not counted. Therefore, although they are many, they are not considered the majority.

讛诇讱 诇讞爪讘 诇讜 拽讘专 讘拽讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讜讚 讘讗 谞讘讬讗 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 诇讱 驻讛 讜诪讬 诇讱 驻讛 讻讬 讞爪讘转 诇讱 驻讛 拽讘专 讛谞讛 讛壮 诪讟诇讟诇讱 讟诇讟诇讛 讙讘专

Shebna went to carve out a grave for himself among the graves of the house of David, as he thought that the kingship would be given to him. The prophet Isaiah then came and said to him: 鈥淲hat have you here, and whom have you here, that you have carved out a grave for yourself here? You, who have carved yourself out a grave on high, and hollowed a habitation for yourself in the rock? Behold, the Lord will make you wander like the wandering of a man; and he will wind you round and round鈥 (Isaiah 22:16鈥17).

讗诪专 专讘 讟诇讟讜诇讗 讚讙讘专讗 拽砖讬 诪讚讗讬转转讗

The Gemara mentions tangentially: Rav says that the wandering of a man is more difficult than that of a woman. He derives it from the expression 鈥渓ike the wandering of a man.鈥

讜注讟讱 注讟讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪诇诪讚 砖驻专讞讛 讘讜 爪专注转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讜注讟讱 注讟讛 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜注诇 砖驻诐 讬注讟讛

With regard to the phrase: 鈥淎nd he will wind you round and round,鈥 Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, says: This teaches that Shebna developed leprosy; it is written here: 鈥淎nd he will wind you round and round [ve鈥檕tkha ato],鈥 and it is written there, in the Torah, with regard to a leper: 鈥淎nd the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be torn, and the hair of his head shall go loose, and he shall cover his upper lip [ya鈥檛e]鈥 (Leviticus 13:45). The Hebrew word for upper lip is from the same root as the verb in the verse cited from Isaiah.

爪谞讜祝 讬爪谞驻讱 爪谞驻讛 讻讚讜专 讗诇 讗专抓 专讞讘转 讬讚讬诐 讜讙讜壮 转谞讗 讛讜讗 讘讬拽砖 拽诇讜谉 讘讬转 讗讚谞讬讜 诇驻讬讻讱 谞讛驻讱 讻讘讜讚讜 诇拽诇讜谉 讻讬 讛讜讛 谞驻讬拽 讗讬讛讜 讗转讗 讙讘专讬讗诇 讗讞讚讬讛 诇讚砖讗 讘讗驻讬 诪砖专讬讬转讬讛

The Gemara continues to interpret the prophecy about Shebna: 鈥淗e will violently roll and toss you like a ball into a large country; there you shall die, and there shall be the chariots of your glory, you shame of your lord鈥檚 house鈥 (Isaiah 22:18). A baraita taught: He, Shebna, desired shame for his master鈥檚 house; therefore his glory turned to shame. This is what happened to him: When he was going out of the gate of Jerusalem to submit to the Assyrians, the angel Gabriel came and held the gate in front of his camp so they could not follow him. Consequently, he went out by himself.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪砖讬专讬讬转讱 讛讬讻讗 讗诪专 讛讚专讜 讘讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 讗讞讜讻讬 拽讗 诪讞讬讬讻转 讘谉 谞拽讘讜讛讜 讘注拽讘讬讜 讜转诇讗讜讛讜 讘讝谞讘讬 住讜住讬讛诐 讜讛讬讜 诪讙专专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注诇 讛拽讜爪讬诐 讜注诇 讛讘专拽谞讬谉

The Assyrians said to him: Where is your camp? Shebna said: They backed out on me. They said to him: If so, you are mocking us; you led us to believe that behind you stands a large camp of supporters. They punched holes in his heels and hung him by the tails of their horses, and dragged him on the thorns and on the bristles.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 砖讘谞讗 讘注诇 讛谞讗讛 讛讬讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 诇讱 讘讗 讗诇 讛住讻谉 讛讝讛 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜转讛讬 诇讜 住讻谞转

Rabbi Elazar says: Shebna was a hedonist. It is written here: 鈥淕o, get yourself to this steward [hasokhen], to Shebna, who is over the house鈥 (Isaiah 22:15), and it is written there with regard to Abishag the Shunammite: 鈥淎nd let her be a companion [sokhenet] to him; and let her lie in your bosom, that my lord the king may get heat鈥 (I Kings 1:2).

讜讗讜诪专 讻讬 讛砖转讜转 讬讛专住讜谉 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘 注讬谞讗 讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 谞讛专住讬诐 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讬讛专住 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇 讜注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪讞砖讘讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讗讬谞谉 谞讛专住讜转 爪讚讬拽 诪讛 驻注诇

And following the aforementioned verse: 鈥淔or behold, the wicked bend the bow, they have made ready their arrow upon the string,鈥 the next verse states: 鈥淲hen the foundations are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done?鈥 (Psalms 11:3). Rav Yehuda and Rav Eina interpret this verse. One says: If Hezekiah and his camp are destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And one says: If the Temple should be destroyed, what has the Righteous One done? And Ulla says: If the intentions of that wicked person, Sennacherib, are not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done?

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪讞砖讘讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讜 专砖注 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛砖转讜转 讬讛专住讜谉

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that the verse means: If the intentions of that wicked person are not destroyed, what has the Righteous One done, this is the reason that it is written: 鈥淲hen the foundations [hashatot] are destroyed,鈥 i.e., the intentions of Sennacherib are destroyed, as intentions are called shatot.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 谞诪讬 讚转谞谉 讗讘谉 讛讬转讛 砖诐 诪讬诪讜转 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜砖转讬讬讛 讛讬转讛 谞拽专讗转

And according to the one who says it is referring to the Temple, the word hashatot is also clear, as we learned in a mishna (Yoma 53b): There was a stone in the Holy of Holies from the days of the early prophets, David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, and this stone was called the Foundation [shetiyya] Stone.

讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 讜住讬注转讜 讛讬讻讗 讗砖讻讞谉 爪讚讬拽讬 讚讗讬拽专讜 砖转讜转

But according to the one who says that the reference is to Hezekiah and his camp, where do we find that righteous people are referred to as shatot?

讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇讛壮 诪爪拽讬 讗专抓 讜讬砖转 注诇讬讛诐 转讘诇 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讛驻诇讗 注爪讛 讛讙讚讬诇 转讜砖讬讛

The Gemara answers: As it is written: 鈥淗e raises up the poor out of the dust, He lifts up the needy from the dung hill, to make them sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory; for the pillars of the earth are the Lord鈥檚, and He has set [vayyashet] the world upon them鈥 (I Samuel 2:8). Since the righteous are considered the foundations of the world, this verse is interpreted in reference to them. And if you wish, say instead that it is derived from here: 鈥淲onderful is His counsel, and great His wisdom [tushiyya]鈥 (Isaiah 28:29). Accordingly, the wise, righteous people are called shatot.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞谉 诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 转讜砖讬讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 诪转砖转 讻讞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讚讘专 讗讞专 转讜砖讬讛 砖谞讬转谞讛 讘讞砖讗讬 诪驻谞讬 讛砖讟谉 讚讘专 讗讞专 转讜砖讬讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 转讜讛讜 砖讛注讜诇诐 诪砖讜转转 注诇讬讛诐

With regard to the latter verse, Rabbi 岣nan says: Why is the Torah called tushiyya? Because it weakens [matteshet] the strength of a person who engages in its study. Alternatively, tushiyya can be interpreted as an abbreviation: That it was given in secret [shenittena be岣shai]. This was done because of the Satan, lest he claim that the Jewish people are not worthy of it. Alternatively, tushiyya can be interpreted as an abbreviation for amorphous [tohu] matters that seem foreign and strange, but nevertheless the world is founded [meshotat] on them.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诪讞砖讘讛 诪讜注诇转 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪驻专 诪讞砖讘讜转 注专讜诪讬诐 讜诇讗 转注砖讬谞讛 讬讚讬讛诐 转讜砖讬讛

Ulla says: Thought, i.e., concern, is effective [mo鈥檈let] in disturbing even the study of statements of Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淗e frustrates the thoughts of the crafty, so that their hands can perform nothing [velo鈥ushiyya]鈥 (Job 5:12), and tushiyya is a reference to Torah.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讗诐 注住讜拽讬谉 诇砖诪讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讜注诇转 砖谞讗诪专 专讘讜转 诪讞砖讘讜转 讘诇讘 讗讬砖 讜注爪转 讛壮 讛讬讗 转拽讜诐 注爪讛 砖讬砖 讘讛 讚讘专 讛壮 讛讬讗 转拽讜诐 诇注讜诇诐

Rabba says: If people engage in Torah study for its own sake, concern is not effective; as it is stated: 鈥淭here are many devices in a man鈥檚 heart; but the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand鈥 (Proverbs 19:21). Rabba interprets this to mean that a counsel that has in it the statement of the Lord shall rise forever and cannot be disturbed.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: When are all these people, e.g., gamblers and those who lend with interest, disqualified from bearing witness? It is when they have no occupation other than this one. Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Elazar says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 讛讻专讝讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

And Rabbi Abbahu says that Rabbi Elazar says: All of these require a proclamation in the court. In other words, one is disqualified only after it is proclaimed in court that he was found guilty of this behavior.

专讜注讛 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讜专讘讬谞讗 讞讚 讗诪专 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诇讗 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛

With regard to a shepherd, who is also disqualified from bearing witness, Rav A岣 and Ravina disagree. One says that he requires a proclamation that he is disqualified due to his being a shepherd, and one says that he does not require a proclamation and is disqualified automatically.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 住转诐 专讜注讛 驻住讜诇 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘注讬 讛讻专讝讛 诪讗讬 住转诐 专讜注讛 驻住讜诇

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that he does not require a proclamation, this is what Rav Yehuda means when he says that Rav says that an ordinary shepherd is disqualified, i.e., he does not require a specific proclamation. But according to the one who says that a shepherd requires a proclamation, what is meant by the statement that an ordinary shepherd is disqualified?

讚讘住转诪讗 诪讻专讝讬谞谉 注诇讬讛

The Gemara answers: It means that in an ordinary case, the court proclaims about him that he is disqualified for having engaged in shepherding. If the court discovers that he regularly engages in this trade, it proclaims immediately that he is disqualified, and the court does not need to prove that he shepherds his flock in the fields of others.

讛讛讬讗 诪转谞讛 讚讛讜讜 讞转讬诪讬 注诇讛 转专讬谉 讙讝诇谞讬谉 住讘专 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗讻砖讜专讛 讚讛讗 诇讗 讗讻专讝讬谞谉 注诇讬讬讛讜

The Gemara recounts: With regard to a certain deed of gift on which the names of two robbers were signed, Rav Pappa bar Shmuel thought to deem it valid despite the identity of the witnesses, as the court did not proclaim about them that they were disqualified.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 谞讛讬 讚讘注讬谞谉 讛讻专讝讛 讘讙讝诇谉 讚专讘谞谉 讘讙讝诇谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讬 讘注讬谞谉 讛讻专讝讛

Rava said to him: Although we require a proclamation in order to disqualify a robber from bearing witness, this is only with regard to a robber who is guilty of stealing by rabbinic law; with regard to a robber who is guilty of stealing by Torah law, do we require a proclamation? He is disqualified automatically.

住讬诪谉 讚讘专 讜注专讬讜转 讙谞讘

搂 The Gemara states a mnemonic for the following statements with regard to disqualification from testifying: Something; and forbidden sexual relations; and a thief.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讜讻诇讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 驻住讜诇讬谉 诇注讚讜转

Rav Na岣an says: Those who eat something else, a euphemism for pork, are disqualified from bearing witness. This is referring to those who accept charity from gentiles, thereby causing a desecration of God鈥檚 name. They are tantamount to wicked people guilty of monetary transgressions, as they are willing to desecrate God鈥檚 name for monetary gain.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘驻专讛住讬讗 讗讘诇 讘爪讬谞注讛 诇讗 讜讘驻专讛住讬讗 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚讗驻砖专 诇讬讛 诇讗讬转讝讜谞讬 讘爪讬谞注讛 讜拽讗 诪讘讝讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘驻专讛住讬讗 讗讘诇 诇讗 讗驻砖专 诇讬讛 讞讬讜转讬讛 讛讜讗

The Gemara comments: This statement applies with regard to taking charity from gentiles in public [befarhesya], but if one takes it in private he is not disqualified. And even if he takes it in public, we said that he is disqualified only in a case where he can sustain himself by accepting charity from gentiles in private and despite this he disgraces himself by taking it in public. But if he cannot support himself in any other manner, he is not disqualified, as it is his livelihood.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讛讞砖讜讚 注诇 讛注专讬讜转 讻砖专 诇注讚讜转 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 注谞讬 诪专讬 讗专讘注讬谉 讘讻转驻讬讛 讜讻砖专

Rav Na岣an says: One who due to a rumor is suspected of engaging in forbidden sexual relations is fit to bear witness. Rav Sheshet said to him: Answer me, my Master: The halakha is that one who is rumored to have engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse receives forty lashes on his shoulders, and yet you say he is fit to bear witness?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜诪讜讚讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇注谞讬谉 注讚讜转 讗砖讛 砖讛讜讗 驻住讜诇 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讗驻讜拽讛 讗讘诇 诇注讬讜诇讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛

Rava said: And Rav Na岣an concedes that he is disqualified with regard to testimony about the status of a married woman, as he is clearly under suspicion with regard to this matter. Ravina says, and some say Rav Pappa says: We said he is disqualified only with regard to testimony that removes her status as a married woman, e.g., testimony that her husband died, as he is suspected of wanting her for himself. But with regard to testimony that establishes her in that status, we have no problem with it.

驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讛讗 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬诐 讙谞讜讘讬诐 讬诪转拽讜 讜讙讜壮 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讻诪讛 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讻讬讞讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious? Why should he be suspected of lying in order to render a woman married? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if he wants her for himself, this situation, i.e., her being married to another, is preferable to him; as it is written: 鈥淪tolen waters are sweet and bread eaten in secret is pleasant鈥 (Proverbs 9:17), i.e., the forbidden is more pleasant than the permitted, Rav Pappa teaches us that this is not the case, as the way the woman is now, being unmarried, she is more available to him. He therefore is not motivated to testify falsely that she is married.

讜讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讙谞讘 谞讬住谉 讜讙谞讘 转砖专讬 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讙谞讘

And Rav Na岣an says: A thief of Nisan and a thief of Tishrei, i.e., one who steals during the harvest seasons, is not called a thief and is therefore not disqualified from bearing witness.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讗专讬住讗 讜讚讘专 诪讜注讟 讜讘讚讘专 砖谞讙诪专讛 诪诇讗讻转讜

The Gemara explains: This statement applies specifically with regard to a tenant farmer, and it is a situation where he took a small amount, and in a case where it was an item whose work was completed, i.e., that needed no further processing. Since the produce was sufficiently processed, the tenant may assume that he deserves additional pay for any further labor and justify taking a small amount of the produce for his effort. Consequently, his theft is not willful.

讗讬讻专讬讛 讚专讘 讝讘讬讚 讞讚 讙谞讘 拽讘讗 讚砖注专讬 讜驻住诇讬讛 讜讞讚 讙谞讘 拽讬讘讜专讗 讚讗讛讬谞讬 讜驻住诇讬讛

The Gemara recounts: An incident occurred with the tenant farmers of Rav Zevid. One stole a kav of barley, and Rav Zevid disqualified him from bearing witness, and one stole a cluster of dates, and he disqualified him. The reason for their disqualification is that the quantity of produce they stole is not considered a small amount.

讛谞讛讜 拽讘讜专讗讬 讚拽讘讜专 谞驻砖讗 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 砖诇 注爪专转 砖诪转讬谞讛讜 专讘 驻驻讗 讜驻住诇讬谞讛讜 诇注讚讜转 讜讗讻砖专讬谞讛讜 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注

The Gemara relates: There were these gravediggers, who buried a person on the first day of the festival of Shavuot, desecrating the Festival. Rav Pappa excommunicated them and then disqualified them from bearing witness, and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, deemed them fit to bear witness.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讛讗 专砖注讬诐 谞讬谞讛讜 住讘专讬 诪爪讜讛 拽讗 注讘讚讬

Rav Pappa said to Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua: But aren鈥檛 they wicked people, as they violated a Torah prohibition? Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered him: They assumed they were doing a mitzva, as they were burying the dead.

讜讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪转讬谞讗 诇讛讜 住讘专讬 讻驻专讛 拽讗 注讘讚讬 诇谉 专讘谞谉

Rav Pappa asked: But didn鈥檛 I excommunicate them for this? Nevertheless, they continued to bury people on the Festival. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered: They assumed: We were not excommunicated for doing something wrong. Rather, since the mitzva of burying the dead involved desecrating the Festival, the Sages are achieving atonement for us, although our behavior was appropriate.

讗讬转诪专

搂 A conspiring witness is one who testified that a certain incident occurred at a particular time and place, and then two other witnesses testify that he was elsewhere at that time. The Gemara discusses the disqualification of a conspiring witness from providing testimony in other cases. It was stated

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