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Today's Daf Yomi

June 11, 2020 | י״ט בסיון תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 97

What was Tzolfchad’s sin according to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, if he wasn’t the wood gatherer? Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira also disagree regarding Aaron – did he get leprosy also with Miriam? One who accuses one of sinning if that person is innocent, is punished through the body. This is derived from Moshe. How? One who throws an item from one private domain to another through a public domain, there is a debate whether they are obligated by Torah law or not. Is the debate within ten handbreaths of the ground but above ten, all would agree that one is exempt or is the debate above 10 and below ten all would agree that one is obligated? Do they all agree that going through airspace is considered as if it had rested in that domain or is that a subject of debate? Do they all agree that we do not learn throwing from passing or is that a subject of debate? If one owned both private domains, one can throw and item from one to the other even with a public domain in between. What is the source for the law of levud, that a space less than 3 handbreaths is not viewed as a space but is perceived as if it is closed. If one passes an item from one public domain to another public domain through a private domain, one is obligated but only if the private domain had a roof. Then it is viewed as if it rested there. A statement was passed down in the name of Shmuel that Rebbi obligated in public to public through private two osin offerings – one for taking out and one for bringing in. This contradicts another statement of Rebbi and therefore Rav Yosef says the statement was made about Rabbi Yehuda instead and proves it from a braita. However his proof is rejected.  The gemara tries again to prove is it Rabbi Yehuda but is not able to prove it. One who intends to throw an item 8 cubits but throw for or vice-versa – what is the law? Is one obligated?

ואלא הא גמר גזירה שוה גזירה שוה לא גמר אלא מהיכא הוה מויעפילו הוה

The Gemara asks: However, didn’t Rabbi Akiva derive this by means of a verbal analogy? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira did not learn a verbal analogy. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira had no tradition of this verbal analogy from his teachers, and therefore he disagreed with Rabbi Akiva’s conclusion. The Gemara asks: However, according to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, from where was Zelophehad’s liability derived? Why was he executed? The Gemara answers: Zelophehad was among those who “presumed to ascend to the top of the mountain” (Numbers 14:44) in the wake of the sin of the spies.

כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר ויחר אף ה׳ בם וילך מלמד שאף אהרן נצטרע דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו רבי יהודה בן בתירא עקיבא בין כך ובין כך אתה עתיד ליתן את הדין אם כדבריך התורה כסתו ואתה מגלה אותו ואם לאו אתה מוציא לעז על אותו צדיק

On a similar note, Rabbi Akiva revealed an additional matter not explicitly articulated in the Torah. You say that when Aaron and Miriam spoke against Moses, both Aaron and Miriam were struck with leprosy, as it written: “And God became angry at them and He left, and the cloud departed from above the tent, and behold, Miriam was leprous like snow. And Aaron turned toward Miriam, and behold, she was leprous” (Numbers 12:9–10). The verse’s statement that God became angry at both of them teaches that Aaron, too, became leprous; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him: Akiva, in either case you will be judged in the future for this teaching. If the truth is in accordance with your statement, the Torah concealed Aaron’s punishment and you reveal it. And if the truth is not in accordance with your statement, you are unjustly slandering that righteous man.

ואלא הכתיב בם ההוא בנזיפה בעלמא תניא כמאן דאמר אף אהרן נצטרע דכתיב ויפן אהרן אל מרים והנה מצרעת תנא שפנה מצרעתו

The Gemara asks: However, didn’t Rabbi Akiva derive this from the plural pronoun them, meaning that God was angry with both of them? The Gemara answers: God’s anger in that verse was manifest in a mere rebuke, not in leprosy. A baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that Aaron also became leprous, as it is written: “And Aaron turned toward Miriam, and behold, she was leprous” (Numbers 12:10), and it was taught: This teaches that he turned, i.e., he was healed, from his leprosy, as he too had been afflicted.

אמר ריש לקיש החושד בכשרים לוקה בגופו דכתיב והן לא יאמינו לי וגו׳ וגליא קמי קודשא בריך הוא דמהימני ישראל אמר לו הן מאמינים בני מאמינים ואתה אין סופך להאמין

On the topic of Miriam’s leprosy, the Gemara cites that which Reish Lakish said: One who suspects the innocent of indiscretion is afflicted in his body, as it is written: “And Moses answered and said: But they will not believe me and will not hearken to my voice, for they will say, God did not appear to you” (Exodus 4:1), and it is revealed before the Holy One, Blessed be He, that the Jewish people would believe. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: They are believers, the children of believers; and ultimately, you will not believe.

הן מאמינים דכתיב ויאמן העם בני מאמינים והאמין ביי אתה אין סופך להאמין שנאמר יען לא האמנתם בי וגו׳ ממאי דלקה דכתיב ויאמר ה׳ לו עוד הבא נא ידך בחיקך וגו׳:

They are believers, as it is written: “And the people believed once they heard that God had remembered the children of Israel, and that He saw their affliction, and they bowed and they prostrated” (Exodus 4:31). The children of believers, as it says with regard to Abraham our Patriarch: “And he believed in God, and He counted it for him as righteousness” (Genesis 15:6). Ultimately, you will not believe, as it is stated: “And God said to Moses and to Aaron: Because you did not believe in Me to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel” (Numbers 20:12). From where do we know that Moses was afflicted in his body? As it is written: “And God said to him further: Bring your hand to your bosom, and he brought his hand to his bosom and he took it out and behold, his hand was leprous like snow” (Exodus 4:6).

אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מדה טובה ממהרת לבא ממדת פורענות דאילו במדת פורענות כתיב ויוציאה והנה ידו מצרעת כשלג ואילו במדה טובה כתיב ויוציאה מחיקו והנה שבה כבשרו מחיקו הוא דשבה כבשרו

On this topic, Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who said: The divine attribute of beneficence takes effect more quickly than the divine attribute of punishment. From where is this derived? While, with regard to the divine attribute of punishment, it is written, “And he took it out and behold, his hand was leprous like snow” (Exodus 4:6), with regard to the divine attribute of beneficence it is written: “And He said: Return your hand to your bosom, and he returned his hand to his bosom and he took it out from his bosom and behold, it had returned to be like his original flesh” (Exodus 4:7). The Gemara analyzes this as follows: It was already from his bosom that it returned to be like his original flesh. Moses’ hand was healed even before he took his hand out.

ויבלע מטה אהרן את מטתם אמר רבי אלעזר נס בתוך נס:

The Gemara proceeds to discuss another miracle that transpired at that time. With regard to the verse, “And each man threw down his staff and they became serpents, and Aaron’s staff swallowed their staffs” (Exodus 7:12), Rabbi Elazar said: This was a miracle within a miracle. It was Aaron’s staff, not his serpent, that swallowed the other staffs.

מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד כו׳:

We learned in the mishna that there is a dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis in a case where one threw an object from the private domain to the other private domain through the public domain between the two. Rabbi Akiva deems him liable, as one who threw an object from the private domain to the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

בעי רבה למטה מעשרה פליגי ובהא פליגי דמר סבר אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ומר סבר לא אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה אבל למעלה מעשרה דברי הכל פטור ולא ילפינן זורק ממושיט

Rabba raised a dilemma with regard to their dispute: Are they disagreeing with regard to a case where the object traveled below ten handbreadths from the ground? And, if so, it is with regard to this point that they disagree: As this Master, Rabbi Akiva holds: We say that an object in airspace is considered at rest. The object is considered as if it was actually placed in the public domain after being lifted from the private domain. And this Master, i.e., the Rabbis, holds: We do not say that an object in airspace is considered at rest. However, with regard to a case where the object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt, and we do not derive the legal status of throwing from the legal status of passing. Although everyone agrees that one who passes an object from a private domain to another private domain via a public domain is liable, even if it was passed above ten handbreadths, as that was the service of the Levites, one who throws an object in that manner is exempt.

או דילמא למעלה מעשרה פליגי ובהא פליגי דמר סבר ילפינן זורק ממושיט ומר סבר לא ילפינן זורק ממושיט אבל למטה מעשרה דברי הכל חייב מאי טעמא קלוטה כמה שהונחה דמיא

Or perhaps, they are disagreeing with regard to a case where the object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, and it is with regard to this that they disagree: As this Master, Rabbi Akiva, holds: We derive the legal status of throwing from the legal status of passing. Therefore, one who throws an object that passes through the airspace of a public domain higher than ten handbreadths from the ground is liable. And this Master, i.e., the Rabbis, holds: We do not derive throwing from passing. However, with regard to a case where the object traveled beneath the ten handbreadth airspace of the public domain, everyone agrees that he is liable. What is the reason for that? An object in airspace is considered at rest.

אמר רב יוסף הא מילתא איבעיא ליה לרב חסדא ופשטה ניהליה רב המנונא מהא מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד ועובר ברשות הרבים עצמה רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרים מדקאמר ברשות הרבים עצמה פשיטא למטה מעשרה פליגי

Rav Yosef said: Rav Ḥisda had a dilemma with regard to this matter, and Rav Hamnuna resolved it for him from this baraita: With regard to an object that travels from the private domain to the other private domain, and it passes through the public domain itself, Rabbi Akiva deems one liable and the Rabbis deem one exempt. From the fact that it says in the baraita: Through the public domain itself, it is obvious that it is with regard to a case where the object traveled below ten handbreadths from the ground that they disagree.

ובמאי אילימא במעביר למטה מעשרה הוא דמחייב למעלה מעשרה לא מחייב והאמר רבי אלעזר המוציא משוי למעלה מעשרה חייב שכן משא בני קהת אלא לאו בזורק ולמטה מעשרה הוא דמחייב למעלה מעשרה לא מחייב שמע מינה בקלוטה כמה שהונחה פליגי שמע מינה

And with regard to what form of transfer is the baraita dealing? If you say it refers to passing an object in his hand, is it only when he passes it below ten handbreadths that he is liable? When he passes it above ten handbreadths is he not liable? Didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One who carries out a load from a private domain to a public domain above ten handbreadths from the ground is liable, as that was the manner in which the descendants of Kehat, from whom we derived the laws of carrying, carried their burden in the Tabernacle? Rather, isn’t this baraita referring to a case of throwing, and it is in a case where the object travels below ten handbreadths from the ground that one is liable, and above ten handbreadths from the ground one is not liable? Learn from it that it is with regard to whether or not an object in airspace is considered at rest that they disagree. The Gemara summarizes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the crux of their dispute.

ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר רבי אלעזר מחייב היה רבי עקיבא אפילו למעלה מעשרה והאי דקתני רשות הרבים עצמה להודיעך כחן דרבנן

And this conclusion disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: Rabbi Akiva deems one liable even if the object travels above ten handbreadths. And that term that was taught in the baraita, the public domain itself, is to convey to you the far-reaching nature of the opinion of the Rabbis, who deem one exempt even if the object traveled in the public domain itself, and all the more so if it traveled above ten handbreadths, which is no longer within the bounds of the public domain.

ופליגא דרב חלקיה בר טובי דאמר רב חלקיה בר טובי תוך שלשה דברי הכל חייב למעלה מעשרה דברי הכל פטור משלשה ועד עשרה באנו למחלוקת רבי עקיבא ורבנן

This opinion of Rabbi Elazar disagrees with the opinion of Rav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi, as Rav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi said: If the thrown object traveled within three handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is liable because the Sages established the principle of lavud. Lavud means that any object within three handbreadths of another object is considered to be attached to it. Therefore, an object that traveled within three handbreadths of the ground is considered to have come to a complete rest. If the thrown object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt. If the thrown object traveled between three handbreadths and ten handbreadths from the ground, we have come to the dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis.

תניא נמי הכי בתוך שלשה דברי הכל חייב למעלה מעשרה אינו אלא משום שבות ואם היו רשויות שלו מותר משלשה ועד עשרה רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

That was also taught in a baraita: Within three handbreadths of the ground, everyone agrees that one is liable; above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt by Torah law, and it is only prohibited due to rabbinic decree. The Sages prohibited throwing or passing an object from the private domain of one person set to the private domain of another person unless a joining of the courtyards is set. And if both of the private domains were his it is permitted. If the thrown object traveled between three handbreadths and ten handbreadths from the ground, Rabbi Akiva deems one liable and the Sages deem him exempt.

אמר מר אם היו רשויות שלו מותר לימא תהוי תיובתיה דרב דאיתמר שני בתים בשני צדי רשות הרבים רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב אסור לזרוק מזה לזה ושמואל אמר מותר לזרוק מזה לזה ולאו מי אוקימנא לההיא כגון דמידלי חד ומתתי חד דזימנין נפל ואתי לאתויי

The Master said in the baraita cited above: And if both of the private domains were his, i.e., they belonged to the same person, it is permitted. Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav’s opinion, as an amoraic dispute was stated with regard to the following case: Concerning two houses on two opposite sides of the public domain, even if they belong to the same person, Rabba bar Rav Huna said that Rav said: It is prohibited to throw an object from this private domain to that private domain. And Shmuel said: It is permitted to throw from this private domain to that private domain. The Gemara rejects this and states: Didn’t we already establish that Rav’s statement is referring to a case where one of the houses was elevated and one was low? Due to the disparity in height, the concern is that at times the object will fall into the public domain, and one will come to bring it in from there and thereby violate a Torah prohibition.

אמר ליה רב חסדא לרב המנונא ואמרי לה רב המנונא לרב חסדא מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל פחות משלשה כלבוד דמי אמר ליה לפי שאי אפשר לה לרשות הרבים שתילקט במלקט וברהיטני

Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Hamnuna, and some say that Rav Hamnuna said to Rav Ḥisda: From where is this matter that the Sages stated: Any objects less than three handbreadths apart are considered to be lavud, attached? He said to him: Because it is impossible for the public domain to be made level with planes. Since the space cannot be completely smooth, even the minor differences in the ground level throughout the public domain must be taken into consideration.

אי הכי שלשה נמי ותו הא דתנן המשלשל דפנות מלמעלה למטה אם הן גבוהין מן הארץ שלשה טפחים פסולה הא פחות משלשה כשרה

He asked him: If so, if that is the reason, objects within three handbreadths should also be considered lavud. Why is it that only objects within less than three handbreadths are considered attached? And furthermore, an inference can be made from that which we learned in the mishna with regard to the halakhot of sukka: If one lowers the walls of a sukka from the top to the bottom, if the bottom of the wall is above three handbreadths from the ground, the sukka is invalid because it is considered to be lacking walls. By inference, if one lowers the walls so that the bottom of the wall is below three handbreadths from the ground, it is valid. In this case, the rationale that it is impossible for the public domain to be made level does not apply.

התם היינו טעמא משום דהויא לה מחיצה שהגדיים בוקעין בה תינח למטה למעלה מאי איכא למימר אלא כל פחות משלשה כלבוד דמי הלכתא גמירי לה

He rejects this: There, the reason that a space larger than three handbreadths is not considered to be part of the wall is because it, i.e., the wall, is a partition that goats pass through. Therefore, it is a partition incapable of serving its function. Once a partition is below three handbreadths, it will obstruct the passage of the goats. Furthermore, according to this explanation, it works out well when the measure of three handbreadths is below, adjacent to the ground. If any more than three handbreadths of space are between the ground and the wall, it is not considered a wall. However, there are several halakhot in which lavud applies above and not near the ground, e.g., when the roofing of the sukka is not connected to the walls. What, then, can be said to explain that halakha? Rather, the conclusion is that the halakha which states that anything that is less than three is considered to be lavud is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, learned through tradition.

תנו רבנן מרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים ורשות היחיד באמצע רבי מחייב וחכמים פוטרין רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לא חייב רבי אלא ברשות היחיד מקורה דאמרינן ביתא כמאן דמליא דמי אבל שאינו מקורה לא אמר רב חנא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחייב היה רבי שתים אחת משום הוצאה ואחת משום הכנסה

The Sages taught a case in a baraita similar to the one discussed in the mishna: One who throws an object from the public domain to the other public domain and the object passes through the private domain between the two, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems him liable for carrying into the private domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt. With regard to this, Rav and Shmuel both said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds him liable only if the private domain between the two public areas is covered with a roof. In that case, we say that the house is considered full and an object that passes through it is considered as if it landed upon an actual object. However, if the private domain is not covered, he is not liable even according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. On this topic, Rav Ḥana said that Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would deem him liable to bring two sin-offerings in this case, one for carrying out from the private domain into the second public domain, and one for carrying in, when the object initially entered the private domain.

יתיב רב חנא וקא קשיא ליה

The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥana was sitting, and the following point was difficult for him:

למימרא דמחייב רבי אתולדה במקום אב

Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems one liable for a subcategory of prohibited labor when performed with a primary category of prohibited labor? After all, carrying out and carrying in constitute a primary category of prohibited labor and its subcategory.

והתניא רבי אומר דברים הדברים אלה הדברים אלו שלשים ותשע מלאכות שנאמרו למשה בסיני

Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says that Shabbat is mentioned in the verse: “These are the things [eleh hadevarim] that God has commanded to perform them” (Exodus 35:1)? Several points are derived from the superfluous emphases in this verse. The Torah could simply have stated: This is a thing [davar]. When it states things [devarim] in the plural, it teaches at least two points. The addition of the definite article the in the term the things [hadevarim] adds at least a third point. The numerological value of letters of the word eleh, which are alef, one; lamed, thirty; and heh, five, is thirty-six. The phrase: These are the things, alludes to three plus thirty-six derivation, i.e., the thirty-nine prohibited labors that were stated to Moses at Sinai. Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi maintains that there are a fixed number of primary categories of labor, he would certainly hold a person liable for the primary categories but not for the subcategories.

אמר ליה רב יוסף מר אהא מתני לה וקשיא ליה דרבי אדרבי אנן אדרבי יהודה מתנינן ולא קשיא לן

Rav Yosef said to him: The Master taught Rav Yehuda’s statement with regard to this, and consequently, he encounters a difficulty. One statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi contradicts another statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. We learn the statement of Rav Yehuda with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and therefore there is no difficulty for us.

דתניא מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים ועבר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים רבי יהודה מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

As it was taught in a baraita: With regard to one who threw an object from the private domain to the public domain, and it traveled four cubits in the public domain, Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחייב היה רבי יהודה שתים אחת משום הוצאה ואחת משום העברה דאי סלקא דעתך חדא הוא דמחייב מכלל דרבנן פטרי לגמרי הא אפיק לה מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים ממאי דילמא לעולם אימא לך רבי יהודה חדא הוא דמחייב ורבנן פטרי לגמרי והיכי משכחת לה כגון דאמר עד דנפקא ליה לרשות הרבים תנוח

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Rabbi Yehuda would deem him liable to bring two sin-offerings in this case, one for carrying out from the private domain into the public domain and one for carrying the object four cubits through the public domain. The Rabbis deem him exempt for carrying four cubits in the public domain. And it must be interpreted that way because if it would enter your mind to say that Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable to bring only one sin-offering, by inference, the Rabbis deem him completely exempt. How is that possible? Didn’t he carry an object out from the private domain into the public domain? This proof is rejected: And from where do you draw that conclusion? Perhaps I could actually say to you that Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable to bring one sin-offering and the Rabbis deem him completely exempt, and how do you find that circumstance? In a case where he said: My intention is that as soon it, the object, goes out into the public domain it will immediately come to rest.

ובהא קמיפלגי דרבי יהודה סבר אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ואיתעבידא ליה מחשבתו ורבנן סברי לא אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ולא איתעבידא ליה מחשבתו אבל אתולדה במקום אב לא מחייב רבי יהודה

And they disagree with regard to this: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that we say: An object in airspace is considered at rest, and therefore his intention was fulfilled. As soon as the object enters the airspace of the public domain it is considered to have come to rest. And the Rabbis maintain that we do not say: An object in airspace is considered at rest, and therefore his intention was not fulfilled and he is exempt. However, Rabbi Yehuda does not hold one liable for a subcategory of labor performed together with a primary category of labor.

לא סלקא דעתך דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף השובט והמדקדק אמרו לו שובט הרי הוא בכלל מיסך מדקדק הרי הוא בכלל אורג מאי לאו דעבדינהו לתרווייהו בהדי הדדי ושמע מינה מחייב היה רבי יהודה אתולדה במקום אב

The Gemara rejects this explanation: It could not enter your mind to say so, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda adds even lining up the threads of the warp and beating the threads of the woof to the list of primary categories of labor. The Rabbis said to him: Lining up is a subcategory subsumed under the primary category of stretching the threads of the warp within the loom, and beating is subsumed under the primary category of weaving. Is this not referring to a case where one performed both lining up and beating together, and learn from it that Rabbi Yehuda deems one liable for both a subcategory and a primary category of labor when they are performed together?

ממאי דילמא לעולם דעבדה להא לחודה והא לחודה ורבי יהודה אתולדה במקום אב לא מחייב ובהא קמיפלגי דרבי יהודה סבר הני אבות נינהו ורבנן סברי הני תולדות נינהו

The Gemara rejects this proof: And from where do you draw that conclusion? Perhaps it is actually referring to a case where one performed this action alone and this action alone, and Rabbi Yehuda does not deem one liable for a subcategory of labor performed together with a primary category of labor. And Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagree with regard to this. Rabbi Yehuda maintains as follows: These actions of lining up and beating are additional primary categories of labor, and the Rabbis maintain as follows: These are subcategories.

תדע דקתני רבי יהודה מוסיף אי אמרת בשלמא אבות מאי מוסיף מוסיף אבות אלא אי אמרת תולדות מאי מוסיף איתמר נמי רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו לא חייב רבי יהודה אלא אחת

Know that this is so, as the baraita teaches: Rabbi Yehuda adds. The Gemara explains this quote from the baraita: Granted, if you say that Rabbi Yehuda meant that these are primary categories of labor, what is the meaning of: He adds? It means he adds primary categories of labor. However, if you say that he meant that these are subcategories, what is the meaning of: He adds? It was also stated that it was Rabba and Rav Yosef who both said: Rabbi Yehuda deemed him liable to bring only one sin-offering.

אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ולמאי דסליק אדעתין מעיקרא דמחייב היה רבי יהודה שתים אי להכא קבעי לה להכא לא קבעי לה אי להכא קבעי לה להכא לא קבעי לה אמר ליה באומר כל מקום שתרצה תנוח:

Ravina said to Rav Ashi: And according to what originally entered our mind that Rabbi Yehuda deemed him liable to bring two sin-offerings, how could he be liable for both carrying out from the private domain and for carrying four cubits in the public domain? If one only wanted the object to land here at the beginning of the public domain, he did not want it to land here, four cubits into the public domain. Conversely, if one only wanted the object to land here, four cubits into the public domain, he did not want it to land here, at the beginning of the public domain. Rav Ashi said to Ravina: It is possible in a case where one says: Any place that it wants to come to rest, let it come to rest. One indicated that his intention would be fulfilled wherever the thrown object lands.

פשיטא נתכוון לזרוק שמנה וזרק ארבע הרי כתב שם משמעון נתכוון לזרוק ארבע וזרק שמנה מהו מי אמרינן הא אפיק ליה או דילמא היכא דבעי הא לא נח ולאו היינו דאמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ואמר ליה באומר כל מקום שתרצה תנוח

Concerning throwing an object on Shabbat from one domain to another and within a single domain, the Gemara raises several issues with regard to intention when throwing. It is obvious that one who intended to throw an object eight cubits in a public domain and actually threw it only four cubits is liable because that case is similar to a case where one wrote the word shem, the first two letters of the name Shimon. In the case of writing shem, the individual performed the prohibited labor of writing a two-letter word, even though he did not complete the word that he originally intended to write. The question is as follows: What is the halakha if one intended to throw an object four cubits and threw it eight? Do we say he did indeed carry the object, or perhaps we say that ultimately the object did not land where he wanted it to land? But is that not precisely what Ravina said to Rav Ashi, as mentioned above? And Rav Ashi said in response that it is referring to a case where one says: Any place that it wants to come to rest, let it come to rest. In such a scenario one is liable, because he expressed the fact that he is contented with any labor that will be performed with the object.

ודקאמרת הרי כתב שם משמעון מי דמי התם כמה דלא כתיב שם לא מכתיב ליה שמעון הכא כמה דלא זריק ארבע לא מיזדרקי ליה תמני:

Furthermore, the first case, which seems obvious, also requires clarification. And that which you said, that this is similar to a case where one wrote the word shem, the first two letters of the name Shimon, is it in fact similar? There, as long as the letters of shem, shin and mem, are not written, the name Shimon cannot be written. Here, where one intended to throw the object eight cubits and he threw it only four, is it true that as long as it was not thrown four cubits it cannot be thrown eight? An object can be thrown eight cubits without first landing after four cubits. The question remains unresolved.

תנו רבנן הזורק מרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים ורשות היחיד באמצע ארבע אמות חייב

The Sages taught: With regard to one who throws an object on Shabbat from the public domain to the other public domain through the private domain, he is liable if he throws an object a total of four cubits in both parts of the public domain.

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Shabbat 97

ואלא הא גמר גזירה שוה גזירה שוה לא גמר אלא מהיכא הוה מויעפילו הוה

The Gemara asks: However, didn’t Rabbi Akiva derive this by means of a verbal analogy? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira did not learn a verbal analogy. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira had no tradition of this verbal analogy from his teachers, and therefore he disagreed with Rabbi Akiva’s conclusion. The Gemara asks: However, according to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, from where was Zelophehad’s liability derived? Why was he executed? The Gemara answers: Zelophehad was among those who “presumed to ascend to the top of the mountain” (Numbers 14:44) in the wake of the sin of the spies.

כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר ויחר אף ה׳ בם וילך מלמד שאף אהרן נצטרע דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו רבי יהודה בן בתירא עקיבא בין כך ובין כך אתה עתיד ליתן את הדין אם כדבריך התורה כסתו ואתה מגלה אותו ואם לאו אתה מוציא לעז על אותו צדיק

On a similar note, Rabbi Akiva revealed an additional matter not explicitly articulated in the Torah. You say that when Aaron and Miriam spoke against Moses, both Aaron and Miriam were struck with leprosy, as it written: “And God became angry at them and He left, and the cloud departed from above the tent, and behold, Miriam was leprous like snow. And Aaron turned toward Miriam, and behold, she was leprous” (Numbers 12:9–10). The verse’s statement that God became angry at both of them teaches that Aaron, too, became leprous; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him: Akiva, in either case you will be judged in the future for this teaching. If the truth is in accordance with your statement, the Torah concealed Aaron’s punishment and you reveal it. And if the truth is not in accordance with your statement, you are unjustly slandering that righteous man.

ואלא הכתיב בם ההוא בנזיפה בעלמא תניא כמאן דאמר אף אהרן נצטרע דכתיב ויפן אהרן אל מרים והנה מצרעת תנא שפנה מצרעתו

The Gemara asks: However, didn’t Rabbi Akiva derive this from the plural pronoun them, meaning that God was angry with both of them? The Gemara answers: God’s anger in that verse was manifest in a mere rebuke, not in leprosy. A baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said that Aaron also became leprous, as it is written: “And Aaron turned toward Miriam, and behold, she was leprous” (Numbers 12:10), and it was taught: This teaches that he turned, i.e., he was healed, from his leprosy, as he too had been afflicted.

אמר ריש לקיש החושד בכשרים לוקה בגופו דכתיב והן לא יאמינו לי וגו׳ וגליא קמי קודשא בריך הוא דמהימני ישראל אמר לו הן מאמינים בני מאמינים ואתה אין סופך להאמין

On the topic of Miriam’s leprosy, the Gemara cites that which Reish Lakish said: One who suspects the innocent of indiscretion is afflicted in his body, as it is written: “And Moses answered and said: But they will not believe me and will not hearken to my voice, for they will say, God did not appear to you” (Exodus 4:1), and it is revealed before the Holy One, Blessed be He, that the Jewish people would believe. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: They are believers, the children of believers; and ultimately, you will not believe.

הן מאמינים דכתיב ויאמן העם בני מאמינים והאמין ביי אתה אין סופך להאמין שנאמר יען לא האמנתם בי וגו׳ ממאי דלקה דכתיב ויאמר ה׳ לו עוד הבא נא ידך בחיקך וגו׳:

They are believers, as it is written: “And the people believed once they heard that God had remembered the children of Israel, and that He saw their affliction, and they bowed and they prostrated” (Exodus 4:31). The children of believers, as it says with regard to Abraham our Patriarch: “And he believed in God, and He counted it for him as righteousness” (Genesis 15:6). Ultimately, you will not believe, as it is stated: “And God said to Moses and to Aaron: Because you did not believe in Me to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel” (Numbers 20:12). From where do we know that Moses was afflicted in his body? As it is written: “And God said to him further: Bring your hand to your bosom, and he brought his hand to his bosom and he took it out and behold, his hand was leprous like snow” (Exodus 4:6).

אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא מדה טובה ממהרת לבא ממדת פורענות דאילו במדת פורענות כתיב ויוציאה והנה ידו מצרעת כשלג ואילו במדה טובה כתיב ויוציאה מחיקו והנה שבה כבשרו מחיקו הוא דשבה כבשרו

On this topic, Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who said: The divine attribute of beneficence takes effect more quickly than the divine attribute of punishment. From where is this derived? While, with regard to the divine attribute of punishment, it is written, “And he took it out and behold, his hand was leprous like snow” (Exodus 4:6), with regard to the divine attribute of beneficence it is written: “And He said: Return your hand to your bosom, and he returned his hand to his bosom and he took it out from his bosom and behold, it had returned to be like his original flesh” (Exodus 4:7). The Gemara analyzes this as follows: It was already from his bosom that it returned to be like his original flesh. Moses’ hand was healed even before he took his hand out.

ויבלע מטה אהרן את מטתם אמר רבי אלעזר נס בתוך נס:

The Gemara proceeds to discuss another miracle that transpired at that time. With regard to the verse, “And each man threw down his staff and they became serpents, and Aaron’s staff swallowed their staffs” (Exodus 7:12), Rabbi Elazar said: This was a miracle within a miracle. It was Aaron’s staff, not his serpent, that swallowed the other staffs.

מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד כו׳:

We learned in the mishna that there is a dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis in a case where one threw an object from the private domain to the other private domain through the public domain between the two. Rabbi Akiva deems him liable, as one who threw an object from the private domain to the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

בעי רבה למטה מעשרה פליגי ובהא פליגי דמר סבר אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ומר סבר לא אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה אבל למעלה מעשרה דברי הכל פטור ולא ילפינן זורק ממושיט

Rabba raised a dilemma with regard to their dispute: Are they disagreeing with regard to a case where the object traveled below ten handbreadths from the ground? And, if so, it is with regard to this point that they disagree: As this Master, Rabbi Akiva holds: We say that an object in airspace is considered at rest. The object is considered as if it was actually placed in the public domain after being lifted from the private domain. And this Master, i.e., the Rabbis, holds: We do not say that an object in airspace is considered at rest. However, with regard to a case where the object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt, and we do not derive the legal status of throwing from the legal status of passing. Although everyone agrees that one who passes an object from a private domain to another private domain via a public domain is liable, even if it was passed above ten handbreadths, as that was the service of the Levites, one who throws an object in that manner is exempt.

או דילמא למעלה מעשרה פליגי ובהא פליגי דמר סבר ילפינן זורק ממושיט ומר סבר לא ילפינן זורק ממושיט אבל למטה מעשרה דברי הכל חייב מאי טעמא קלוטה כמה שהונחה דמיא

Or perhaps, they are disagreeing with regard to a case where the object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, and it is with regard to this that they disagree: As this Master, Rabbi Akiva, holds: We derive the legal status of throwing from the legal status of passing. Therefore, one who throws an object that passes through the airspace of a public domain higher than ten handbreadths from the ground is liable. And this Master, i.e., the Rabbis, holds: We do not derive throwing from passing. However, with regard to a case where the object traveled beneath the ten handbreadth airspace of the public domain, everyone agrees that he is liable. What is the reason for that? An object in airspace is considered at rest.

אמר רב יוסף הא מילתא איבעיא ליה לרב חסדא ופשטה ניהליה רב המנונא מהא מרשות היחיד לרשות היחיד ועובר ברשות הרבים עצמה רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרים מדקאמר ברשות הרבים עצמה פשיטא למטה מעשרה פליגי

Rav Yosef said: Rav Ḥisda had a dilemma with regard to this matter, and Rav Hamnuna resolved it for him from this baraita: With regard to an object that travels from the private domain to the other private domain, and it passes through the public domain itself, Rabbi Akiva deems one liable and the Rabbis deem one exempt. From the fact that it says in the baraita: Through the public domain itself, it is obvious that it is with regard to a case where the object traveled below ten handbreadths from the ground that they disagree.

ובמאי אילימא במעביר למטה מעשרה הוא דמחייב למעלה מעשרה לא מחייב והאמר רבי אלעזר המוציא משוי למעלה מעשרה חייב שכן משא בני קהת אלא לאו בזורק ולמטה מעשרה הוא דמחייב למעלה מעשרה לא מחייב שמע מינה בקלוטה כמה שהונחה פליגי שמע מינה

And with regard to what form of transfer is the baraita dealing? If you say it refers to passing an object in his hand, is it only when he passes it below ten handbreadths that he is liable? When he passes it above ten handbreadths is he not liable? Didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One who carries out a load from a private domain to a public domain above ten handbreadths from the ground is liable, as that was the manner in which the descendants of Kehat, from whom we derived the laws of carrying, carried their burden in the Tabernacle? Rather, isn’t this baraita referring to a case of throwing, and it is in a case where the object travels below ten handbreadths from the ground that one is liable, and above ten handbreadths from the ground one is not liable? Learn from it that it is with regard to whether or not an object in airspace is considered at rest that they disagree. The Gemara summarizes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the crux of their dispute.

ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר רבי אלעזר מחייב היה רבי עקיבא אפילו למעלה מעשרה והאי דקתני רשות הרבים עצמה להודיעך כחן דרבנן

And this conclusion disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: Rabbi Akiva deems one liable even if the object travels above ten handbreadths. And that term that was taught in the baraita, the public domain itself, is to convey to you the far-reaching nature of the opinion of the Rabbis, who deem one exempt even if the object traveled in the public domain itself, and all the more so if it traveled above ten handbreadths, which is no longer within the bounds of the public domain.

ופליגא דרב חלקיה בר טובי דאמר רב חלקיה בר טובי תוך שלשה דברי הכל חייב למעלה מעשרה דברי הכל פטור משלשה ועד עשרה באנו למחלוקת רבי עקיבא ורבנן

This opinion of Rabbi Elazar disagrees with the opinion of Rav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi, as Rav Ḥilkiya bar Tovi said: If the thrown object traveled within three handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is liable because the Sages established the principle of lavud. Lavud means that any object within three handbreadths of another object is considered to be attached to it. Therefore, an object that traveled within three handbreadths of the ground is considered to have come to a complete rest. If the thrown object traveled above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt. If the thrown object traveled between three handbreadths and ten handbreadths from the ground, we have come to the dispute between Rabbi Akiva and the Rabbis.

תניא נמי הכי בתוך שלשה דברי הכל חייב למעלה מעשרה אינו אלא משום שבות ואם היו רשויות שלו מותר משלשה ועד עשרה רבי עקיבא מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

That was also taught in a baraita: Within three handbreadths of the ground, everyone agrees that one is liable; above ten handbreadths from the ground, everyone agrees that one is exempt by Torah law, and it is only prohibited due to rabbinic decree. The Sages prohibited throwing or passing an object from the private domain of one person set to the private domain of another person unless a joining of the courtyards is set. And if both of the private domains were his it is permitted. If the thrown object traveled between three handbreadths and ten handbreadths from the ground, Rabbi Akiva deems one liable and the Sages deem him exempt.

אמר מר אם היו רשויות שלו מותר לימא תהוי תיובתיה דרב דאיתמר שני בתים בשני צדי רשות הרבים רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב אסור לזרוק מזה לזה ושמואל אמר מותר לזרוק מזה לזה ולאו מי אוקימנא לההיא כגון דמידלי חד ומתתי חד דזימנין נפל ואתי לאתויי

The Master said in the baraita cited above: And if both of the private domains were his, i.e., they belonged to the same person, it is permitted. Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav’s opinion, as an amoraic dispute was stated with regard to the following case: Concerning two houses on two opposite sides of the public domain, even if they belong to the same person, Rabba bar Rav Huna said that Rav said: It is prohibited to throw an object from this private domain to that private domain. And Shmuel said: It is permitted to throw from this private domain to that private domain. The Gemara rejects this and states: Didn’t we already establish that Rav’s statement is referring to a case where one of the houses was elevated and one was low? Due to the disparity in height, the concern is that at times the object will fall into the public domain, and one will come to bring it in from there and thereby violate a Torah prohibition.

אמר ליה רב חסדא לרב המנונא ואמרי לה רב המנונא לרב חסדא מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל פחות משלשה כלבוד דמי אמר ליה לפי שאי אפשר לה לרשות הרבים שתילקט במלקט וברהיטני

Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Hamnuna, and some say that Rav Hamnuna said to Rav Ḥisda: From where is this matter that the Sages stated: Any objects less than three handbreadths apart are considered to be lavud, attached? He said to him: Because it is impossible for the public domain to be made level with planes. Since the space cannot be completely smooth, even the minor differences in the ground level throughout the public domain must be taken into consideration.

אי הכי שלשה נמי ותו הא דתנן המשלשל דפנות מלמעלה למטה אם הן גבוהין מן הארץ שלשה טפחים פסולה הא פחות משלשה כשרה

He asked him: If so, if that is the reason, objects within three handbreadths should also be considered lavud. Why is it that only objects within less than three handbreadths are considered attached? And furthermore, an inference can be made from that which we learned in the mishna with regard to the halakhot of sukka: If one lowers the walls of a sukka from the top to the bottom, if the bottom of the wall is above three handbreadths from the ground, the sukka is invalid because it is considered to be lacking walls. By inference, if one lowers the walls so that the bottom of the wall is below three handbreadths from the ground, it is valid. In this case, the rationale that it is impossible for the public domain to be made level does not apply.

התם היינו טעמא משום דהויא לה מחיצה שהגדיים בוקעין בה תינח למטה למעלה מאי איכא למימר אלא כל פחות משלשה כלבוד דמי הלכתא גמירי לה

He rejects this: There, the reason that a space larger than three handbreadths is not considered to be part of the wall is because it, i.e., the wall, is a partition that goats pass through. Therefore, it is a partition incapable of serving its function. Once a partition is below three handbreadths, it will obstruct the passage of the goats. Furthermore, according to this explanation, it works out well when the measure of three handbreadths is below, adjacent to the ground. If any more than three handbreadths of space are between the ground and the wall, it is not considered a wall. However, there are several halakhot in which lavud applies above and not near the ground, e.g., when the roofing of the sukka is not connected to the walls. What, then, can be said to explain that halakha? Rather, the conclusion is that the halakha which states that anything that is less than three is considered to be lavud is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, learned through tradition.

תנו רבנן מרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים ורשות היחיד באמצע רבי מחייב וחכמים פוטרין רב ושמואל דאמרי תרוייהו לא חייב רבי אלא ברשות היחיד מקורה דאמרינן ביתא כמאן דמליא דמי אבל שאינו מקורה לא אמר רב חנא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחייב היה רבי שתים אחת משום הוצאה ואחת משום הכנסה

The Sages taught a case in a baraita similar to the one discussed in the mishna: One who throws an object from the public domain to the other public domain and the object passes through the private domain between the two, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems him liable for carrying into the private domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt. With regard to this, Rav and Shmuel both said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds him liable only if the private domain between the two public areas is covered with a roof. In that case, we say that the house is considered full and an object that passes through it is considered as if it landed upon an actual object. However, if the private domain is not covered, he is not liable even according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. On this topic, Rav Ḥana said that Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would deem him liable to bring two sin-offerings in this case, one for carrying out from the private domain into the second public domain, and one for carrying in, when the object initially entered the private domain.

יתיב רב חנא וקא קשיא ליה

The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥana was sitting, and the following point was difficult for him:

למימרא דמחייב רבי אתולדה במקום אב

Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deems one liable for a subcategory of prohibited labor when performed with a primary category of prohibited labor? After all, carrying out and carrying in constitute a primary category of prohibited labor and its subcategory.

והתניא רבי אומר דברים הדברים אלה הדברים אלו שלשים ותשע מלאכות שנאמרו למשה בסיני

Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says that Shabbat is mentioned in the verse: “These are the things [eleh hadevarim] that God has commanded to perform them” (Exodus 35:1)? Several points are derived from the superfluous emphases in this verse. The Torah could simply have stated: This is a thing [davar]. When it states things [devarim] in the plural, it teaches at least two points. The addition of the definite article the in the term the things [hadevarim] adds at least a third point. The numerological value of letters of the word eleh, which are alef, one; lamed, thirty; and heh, five, is thirty-six. The phrase: These are the things, alludes to three plus thirty-six derivation, i.e., the thirty-nine prohibited labors that were stated to Moses at Sinai. Since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi maintains that there are a fixed number of primary categories of labor, he would certainly hold a person liable for the primary categories but not for the subcategories.

אמר ליה רב יוסף מר אהא מתני לה וקשיא ליה דרבי אדרבי אנן אדרבי יהודה מתנינן ולא קשיא לן

Rav Yosef said to him: The Master taught Rav Yehuda’s statement with regard to this, and consequently, he encounters a difficulty. One statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi contradicts another statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. We learn the statement of Rav Yehuda with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and therefore there is no difficulty for us.

דתניא מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים ועבר ארבע אמות ברשות הרבים רבי יהודה מחייב וחכמים פוטרין

As it was taught in a baraita: With regard to one who threw an object from the private domain to the public domain, and it traveled four cubits in the public domain, Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחייב היה רבי יהודה שתים אחת משום הוצאה ואחת משום העברה דאי סלקא דעתך חדא הוא דמחייב מכלל דרבנן פטרי לגמרי הא אפיק לה מרשות היחיד לרשות הרבים ממאי דילמא לעולם אימא לך רבי יהודה חדא הוא דמחייב ורבנן פטרי לגמרי והיכי משכחת לה כגון דאמר עד דנפקא ליה לרשות הרבים תנוח

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Rabbi Yehuda would deem him liable to bring two sin-offerings in this case, one for carrying out from the private domain into the public domain and one for carrying the object four cubits through the public domain. The Rabbis deem him exempt for carrying four cubits in the public domain. And it must be interpreted that way because if it would enter your mind to say that Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable to bring only one sin-offering, by inference, the Rabbis deem him completely exempt. How is that possible? Didn’t he carry an object out from the private domain into the public domain? This proof is rejected: And from where do you draw that conclusion? Perhaps I could actually say to you that Rabbi Yehuda deems him liable to bring one sin-offering and the Rabbis deem him completely exempt, and how do you find that circumstance? In a case where he said: My intention is that as soon it, the object, goes out into the public domain it will immediately come to rest.

ובהא קמיפלגי דרבי יהודה סבר אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ואיתעבידא ליה מחשבתו ורבנן סברי לא אמרינן קלוטה כמה שהונחה ולא איתעבידא ליה מחשבתו אבל אתולדה במקום אב לא מחייב רבי יהודה

And they disagree with regard to this: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that we say: An object in airspace is considered at rest, and therefore his intention was fulfilled. As soon as the object enters the airspace of the public domain it is considered to have come to rest. And the Rabbis maintain that we do not say: An object in airspace is considered at rest, and therefore his intention was not fulfilled and he is exempt. However, Rabbi Yehuda does not hold one liable for a subcategory of labor performed together with a primary category of labor.

לא סלקא דעתך דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף השובט והמדקדק אמרו לו שובט הרי הוא בכלל מיסך מדקדק הרי הוא בכלל אורג מאי לאו דעבדינהו לתרווייהו בהדי הדדי ושמע מינה מחייב היה רבי יהודה אתולדה במקום אב

The Gemara rejects this explanation: It could not enter your mind to say so, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda adds even lining up the threads of the warp and beating the threads of the woof to the list of primary categories of labor. The Rabbis said to him: Lining up is a subcategory subsumed under the primary category of stretching the threads of the warp within the loom, and beating is subsumed under the primary category of weaving. Is this not referring to a case where one performed both lining up and beating together, and learn from it that Rabbi Yehuda deems one liable for both a subcategory and a primary category of labor when they are performed together?

ממאי דילמא לעולם דעבדה להא לחודה והא לחודה ורבי יהודה אתולדה במקום אב לא מחייב ובהא קמיפלגי דרבי יהודה סבר הני אבות נינהו ורבנן סברי הני תולדות נינהו

The Gemara rejects this proof: And from where do you draw that conclusion? Perhaps it is actually referring to a case where one performed this action alone and this action alone, and Rabbi Yehuda does not deem one liable for a subcategory of labor performed together with a primary category of labor. And Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagree with regard to this. Rabbi Yehuda maintains as follows: These actions of lining up and beating are additional primary categories of labor, and the Rabbis maintain as follows: These are subcategories.

תדע דקתני רבי יהודה מוסיף אי אמרת בשלמא אבות מאי מוסיף מוסיף אבות אלא אי אמרת תולדות מאי מוסיף איתמר נמי רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו לא חייב רבי יהודה אלא אחת

Know that this is so, as the baraita teaches: Rabbi Yehuda adds. The Gemara explains this quote from the baraita: Granted, if you say that Rabbi Yehuda meant that these are primary categories of labor, what is the meaning of: He adds? It means he adds primary categories of labor. However, if you say that he meant that these are subcategories, what is the meaning of: He adds? It was also stated that it was Rabba and Rav Yosef who both said: Rabbi Yehuda deemed him liable to bring only one sin-offering.

אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ולמאי דסליק אדעתין מעיקרא דמחייב היה רבי יהודה שתים אי להכא קבעי לה להכא לא קבעי לה אי להכא קבעי לה להכא לא קבעי לה אמר ליה באומר כל מקום שתרצה תנוח:

Ravina said to Rav Ashi: And according to what originally entered our mind that Rabbi Yehuda deemed him liable to bring two sin-offerings, how could he be liable for both carrying out from the private domain and for carrying four cubits in the public domain? If one only wanted the object to land here at the beginning of the public domain, he did not want it to land here, four cubits into the public domain. Conversely, if one only wanted the object to land here, four cubits into the public domain, he did not want it to land here, at the beginning of the public domain. Rav Ashi said to Ravina: It is possible in a case where one says: Any place that it wants to come to rest, let it come to rest. One indicated that his intention would be fulfilled wherever the thrown object lands.

פשיטא נתכוון לזרוק שמנה וזרק ארבע הרי כתב שם משמעון נתכוון לזרוק ארבע וזרק שמנה מהו מי אמרינן הא אפיק ליה או דילמא היכא דבעי הא לא נח ולאו היינו דאמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ואמר ליה באומר כל מקום שתרצה תנוח

Concerning throwing an object on Shabbat from one domain to another and within a single domain, the Gemara raises several issues with regard to intention when throwing. It is obvious that one who intended to throw an object eight cubits in a public domain and actually threw it only four cubits is liable because that case is similar to a case where one wrote the word shem, the first two letters of the name Shimon. In the case of writing shem, the individual performed the prohibited labor of writing a two-letter word, even though he did not complete the word that he originally intended to write. The question is as follows: What is the halakha if one intended to throw an object four cubits and threw it eight? Do we say he did indeed carry the object, or perhaps we say that ultimately the object did not land where he wanted it to land? But is that not precisely what Ravina said to Rav Ashi, as mentioned above? And Rav Ashi said in response that it is referring to a case where one says: Any place that it wants to come to rest, let it come to rest. In such a scenario one is liable, because he expressed the fact that he is contented with any labor that will be performed with the object.

ודקאמרת הרי כתב שם משמעון מי דמי התם כמה דלא כתיב שם לא מכתיב ליה שמעון הכא כמה דלא זריק ארבע לא מיזדרקי ליה תמני:

Furthermore, the first case, which seems obvious, also requires clarification. And that which you said, that this is similar to a case where one wrote the word shem, the first two letters of the name Shimon, is it in fact similar? There, as long as the letters of shem, shin and mem, are not written, the name Shimon cannot be written. Here, where one intended to throw the object eight cubits and he threw it only four, is it true that as long as it was not thrown four cubits it cannot be thrown eight? An object can be thrown eight cubits without first landing after four cubits. The question remains unresolved.

תנו רבנן הזורק מרשות הרבים לרשות הרבים ורשות היחיד באמצע ארבע אמות חייב

The Sages taught: With regard to one who throws an object on Shabbat from the public domain to the other public domain through the private domain, he is liable if he throws an object a total of four cubits in both parts of the public domain.

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