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Today's Daf Yomi

November 30, 2017 | 讬状讘 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Shevuot 2

Study Guide Shevuot 2. The mishna聽lists 4聽topics where the Torah mentions 2 things that are聽forbidden and the rabbis extend it to 4, one of them being oaths that one takes that one will or will not do something, an oath of expression.聽 Some of them incur the same type of sacrifice – a sliding one (what one brings depends on the financial means of the one obligated to bring the sacrifice).聽 The mishna then digresses to the second category – one who goes to mikdash聽while impure (and forgot momentarily about being impure) or ate holy items while impure.聽 The process of atonement through sacrifices for sins that one did unwittingly are discussed – what if one never realizes one’s mistake?聽 What are the different categories and which sacrifices atone for which type?聽 What is the difference between the sin offerings brought on Rosh Chodesh, the 3 holidays (regalim) and the one brought on YomKippur?聽 聽What about all the other sacrifices brought on Yom Kippur and the one sent to Azazel?聽 What is each one meant to atone for?聽 Why do the Kohanim have their own offering with a separate confession?

诪转谞讬壮 砖讘讜注讜转 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

MISHNA: With regard to oaths on an utterance of the lips, there are two types that are actually four types. The Torah specifies only two types of oaths whose violation renders one liable to bring a sliding-scale offering to atone for his transgression (see Leviticus 5:4): Where a person takes an oath to perform some action, and where he takes an oath to refrain from performing some action. With regard to both types, the Torah explicitly mentions liability only for an oath pertaining to one鈥檚 future behavior. Nevertheless, the Sages derive that one is also liable for a violation of both types of oaths when they pertain to one鈥檚 past behavior. Accordingly, although only two types are explicitly mentioned in the Torah, the Sages derive that there are actually four types.

讬讚讬注讜转 讛讟讜诪讗讛 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

The mishna lists similar groups of halakhot. With regard to cases of awareness of the defiling of the Temple by entering it while one is ritually impure, or defiling its sacrificial foods by partaking of them while one is ritually impure, there are two types that are actually four. It is prohibited for an impure person to enter the Temple (see Numbers 19:20) or to partake of its sacrificial foods (see Leviticus 7:19鈥20). If one transgressed either prohibition during a lapse of awareness, then upon becoming aware of his transgression, he is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering (see Leviticus 5:2). The Torah specifies that one is liable to bring the offering only in the case in which he had a lapse of awareness of the fact that he was impure. The Sages derive that one is liable not only in these two cases, but also where he was aware of his personal status but had a lapse of awareness concerning the identity of the place he was entering or the status of the foods he ate.

讬爪讬讗讜转 讛砖讘转 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

With regard to acts of carrying out that are prohibited on Shabbat, there are two types that are actually four. On Shabbat, it is prohibited to transfer an item from domain to domain. The Torah explicitly refers to only two cases, both of which involve an item being transferred from a private domain to a public domain: Where the transfer is made by a person who remains in the public domain, and where the transfer is made by a person who remains in the private domain. The Sages derive that liability is incurred in these cases also if the item is transferred from the public domain to the private domain. Although only two types are mentioned by the Torah, the Sages derive that there are actually four types.

诪专讗讜转 谞讙注讬诐 砖谞讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注讛

With regard to shades of leprous marks on a person鈥檚 skin, there are two types that are actually four. The Torah specifies that if a leprous mark appears on a person鈥檚 skin, the afflicted person must undergo a process of purification and then bring various offerings. Part of the classification of these types of leprosy is based on their shade of white. Two types of marks are explicitly mentioned in the Torah, and the Sages derive that each of these two types has a secondary mark.

讗转 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讜讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 讜讛注诇诐 讘讬谞转讬诐 讛专讬 讝讛 讘注讜诇讛 讜讬讜专讚

The mishna returns to the subject of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods. It elaborates on which offerings atone for different cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods: In cases in which one had awareness, i.e., he knew he was ritually impure and was aware of the sanctity of the Temple or foods involved at the beginning, i.e., before he transgressed, and had awareness at the end, i.e., after the transgression, but had a lapse of awareness of one of those two components in between, while he actually transgressed, this person is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering.

讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转讜诇讛 注讚 砖讬讜讚注 诇讜 讜讬讘讬讗 讘注讜诇讛 讜讬讜专讚

For cases in which one had awareness at the beginning, transgressed during a lapse of awareness, and still had no awareness at the end, the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary on Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, suspend any punishment that he deserves until he becomes aware of his transgression; and then to achieve atonement he brings a sliding-scale offering.

讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘讞讜抓 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讘讚 讞讟讗转 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 注诇 诪讛 砖讝讛 诪讻驻专 讝讛 诪讻驻专 诪诪讛 讛驻谞讬诪讬 讗讬谉 诪讻驻专 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讗祝 讛讞讬爪讜谉 讗讬谉 诪讻驻专 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛

For cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but had awareness at the end, the goat whose blood presentation is performed outside the Sanctuary, i.e., the goat of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, atone, as it is stated with regard to the offerings brought on Yom Kippur: 鈥淥ne goat for a sin-offering aside from the sin-offering of the atonements鈥 (Numbers 29:11). The verse juxtaposes the internal and external goats together to teach that for that which this one atones, that one atones. Just as the internal goat, i.e., the one whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, atones only for a case in which there was awareness of the components of the transgression at some point, i.e., at the beginning, so too, the external goat, i.e., the goat of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur, atones only for a case in which there was awareness at some point, i.e., at the end.

讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专讬 讛专讙诇讬诐 讜砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖注讬专讬 讛专讙诇讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜注诇 诪讛 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉

And for cases in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end, the goats brought as sin-offerings for the additional offerings of the Festivals and the goats brought as sin-offerings for the additional offerings of the New Moons atone. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: The goats of the Festivals atone for cases in which one never had awareness of the transgression, but the goats of the New Moons do not. But if so, for what do the goats of the New Moons atone?

注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗

They atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛砖注讬专讬谉 讻驻专转谉 砖讜讛 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

Rabbi Meir says: With regard to all the goats offered as additional offerings, those of the New Moons, Festivals, and Yom Kippur, their atonement, i.e., the atonement that they effect, is the same; they all atone for the defiling of the Temple by entering it while impure, or for the defiling of its sacrificial foods by partaking of them while impure.

讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬诐 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜砖诇 专讙诇讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专 注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝

Rabbi Shimon would say, delineating his opinion as the mishna expresses it above: The goats of the New Moons atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food. And with regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, the goats of the Festivals atone for cases in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end, and the goats of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur atone for cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but did have awareness at the end.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛讜 砖讬拽专讘讜 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讬拽专讘讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬谉 讻驻专转谉 砖讜讛 讛讬讗讱 拽专讘讬谉 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻讜诇谉 讘讗讬谉 诇讻驻专 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

The Rabbis said to him: What is the halakha with regard to whether goats consecrated for different days may be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? For example, if a goat was initially consecrated to be sacrificed as part of the Yom Kippur additional offerings, may it be sacrificed as part of the Festival additional offerings instead? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They may be sacrificed. They said to him: Since, according to you, their atonement is not the same, how could they possibly be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They can be interchanged, since ultimately all of them come to atone for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖诪讜 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 砖诇 专讙诇讬诐 砖诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝

Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon a tradition of his opinion that differs from the way the mishna expresses it above: The goats of the New Moons atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food. The goats of the Festivals exceed them, as they atone both for a pure person who partook of impure sacrificial food and also for cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end.

诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讛谉 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝

The goats of Yom Kippur further exceed them, as they atone both for a ritually pure person who partook of ritually impure sacrificial food and for cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end; and they also atone for cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but did have awareness at the end.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛讜 砖讬拽专讘讜 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讬讛讬讜 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 拽专讘讬谉 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讗讘诇 讛讬讗讱 砖诇 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 拽专讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讻驻专 讻驻专讛 砖讗讬谞讛 砖诇讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻讜诇谉 讘讗讬谉 诇讻驻专 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

The Rabbis said to him: What is the halakha with regard to whether goats consecrated for different days may be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? Rabbi Shimon said to them: Yes, they can be interchanged. They said to him: If what you say is so, granted that the goats of Yom Kippur may be sacrificed on the New Moons, but how could the goats of the New Moons be sacrificed on Yom Kippur when they will need to effect atonement for that which they were not consecrated for? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They can all be interchanged, since ultimately all of them come to atone for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, even if each one atones for a different case.

讜注诇 讝讚讜谉 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉

And for the intentional defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, both the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary on Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, atone.

注诇 砖讗专 注讘讬专讜转 砖讘转讜专讛 讛拽诇讜转 讜讛讞诪讜专讜转 讛讝讚讜谞讜转 讜讛砖讙讙讜转 讛讜讚注 讜诇讗 讛讜讚注 注砖讛 讜诇讗 转注砖讛 讻专讬转讜转 讜诪讬转讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖注讬专 讛诪砖转诇讞 诪讻驻专

The mishna delineates how atonement is effected for other transgressions: For all other transgressions that are stated in the Torah, whether they are the minor ones or the major ones, whether they were intentional or unwitting, whether one became aware of them before Yom Kippur or did not become aware of them until after Yom Kippur, whether they involve a positive mitzva or a prohibition, whether the transgressors are subject to excision from the World-to-Come [karet] or to one of the court-imposed death penalties, the scapegoat sent to Azazel on Yom Kippur atones.

讗讞讚 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 诪讛 讘讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 讗诇讗 砖讛驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

Israelites and priests and the anointed priest, i.e., the High Priest, achieve atonement from the scapegoat equally. What is the difference between Israelites, priests, and the anointed priest? The difference is only that the priests achieve atonement for their defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods through the bull that the High Priest offers on Yom Kippur, whereas the Israelites achieve atonement for defiling caused by them through the goats that are sacrificed on Yom Kippur.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讻砖诐 砖讚诐 讛砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 诪讻驻专 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻讱 讚诐 讛驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讻砖诐 砖讜讬讚讜讬讜 砖诇 砖注讬专 讛诪砖转诇讞 诪讻驻专 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻讱 讜讬讚讜讬讜 砖诇 驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐

Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, just as the blood of the goat, whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for Israelites, so too, the blood of the bull of the High Priest, whose blood presentation is also performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for the priests. And for all other transgressions, just as the confession made over the scapegoat atones for Israelites, so too, the confession made over the bull atones for the priests.

讙诪壮 诪讻讚讬 转谞讗 诪诪讻讜转 住诇讬拽 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚转谞讬 砖讘讜注讜转 诪砖讜诐 讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 注诇 讛专讗砖 砖转讬诐 讗讞转 诪讬讻谉 讜讗讞转 诪讬讻谉

GEMARA: The Gemara inquires: Now, the tanna is leaving tractate Makkot, the tractate that precedes tractate Shevuot in the mishnaic order. What is distinctive about tractate Shevuot that he teaches tractate Shevuot after tractate Makkot? The Gemara answers: It is due to the fact that he teaches in a mishna at the end of tractate Makkot (20a): For rounding the edges of his head one is liable to receive two sets of lashes: One from here, the hair adjacent to one ear, and one from there, the hair adjacent to the other ear.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Shevuot 2

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shevuot 2

诪转谞讬壮 砖讘讜注讜转 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

MISHNA: With regard to oaths on an utterance of the lips, there are two types that are actually four types. The Torah specifies only two types of oaths whose violation renders one liable to bring a sliding-scale offering to atone for his transgression (see Leviticus 5:4): Where a person takes an oath to perform some action, and where he takes an oath to refrain from performing some action. With regard to both types, the Torah explicitly mentions liability only for an oath pertaining to one鈥檚 future behavior. Nevertheless, the Sages derive that one is also liable for a violation of both types of oaths when they pertain to one鈥檚 past behavior. Accordingly, although only two types are explicitly mentioned in the Torah, the Sages derive that there are actually four types.

讬讚讬注讜转 讛讟讜诪讗讛 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

The mishna lists similar groups of halakhot. With regard to cases of awareness of the defiling of the Temple by entering it while one is ritually impure, or defiling its sacrificial foods by partaking of them while one is ritually impure, there are two types that are actually four. It is prohibited for an impure person to enter the Temple (see Numbers 19:20) or to partake of its sacrificial foods (see Leviticus 7:19鈥20). If one transgressed either prohibition during a lapse of awareness, then upon becoming aware of his transgression, he is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering (see Leviticus 5:2). The Torah specifies that one is liable to bring the offering only in the case in which he had a lapse of awareness of the fact that he was impure. The Sages derive that one is liable not only in these two cases, but also where he was aware of his personal status but had a lapse of awareness concerning the identity of the place he was entering or the status of the foods he ate.

讬爪讬讗讜转 讛砖讘转 砖转讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注

With regard to acts of carrying out that are prohibited on Shabbat, there are two types that are actually four. On Shabbat, it is prohibited to transfer an item from domain to domain. The Torah explicitly refers to only two cases, both of which involve an item being transferred from a private domain to a public domain: Where the transfer is made by a person who remains in the public domain, and where the transfer is made by a person who remains in the private domain. The Sages derive that liability is incurred in these cases also if the item is transferred from the public domain to the private domain. Although only two types are mentioned by the Torah, the Sages derive that there are actually four types.

诪专讗讜转 谞讙注讬诐 砖谞讬诐 砖讛谉 讗专讘注讛

With regard to shades of leprous marks on a person鈥檚 skin, there are two types that are actually four. The Torah specifies that if a leprous mark appears on a person鈥檚 skin, the afflicted person must undergo a process of purification and then bring various offerings. Part of the classification of these types of leprosy is based on their shade of white. Two types of marks are explicitly mentioned in the Torah, and the Sages derive that each of these two types has a secondary mark.

讗转 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讜讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 讜讛注诇诐 讘讬谞转讬诐 讛专讬 讝讛 讘注讜诇讛 讜讬讜专讚

The mishna returns to the subject of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods. It elaborates on which offerings atone for different cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods: In cases in which one had awareness, i.e., he knew he was ritually impure and was aware of the sanctity of the Temple or foods involved at the beginning, i.e., before he transgressed, and had awareness at the end, i.e., after the transgression, but had a lapse of awareness of one of those two components in between, while he actually transgressed, this person is liable to bring a sliding-scale offering.

讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转讜诇讛 注讚 砖讬讜讚注 诇讜 讜讬讘讬讗 讘注讜诇讛 讜讬讜专讚

For cases in which one had awareness at the beginning, transgressed during a lapse of awareness, and still had no awareness at the end, the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary on Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, suspend any punishment that he deserves until he becomes aware of his transgression; and then to achieve atonement he brings a sliding-scale offering.

讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘讞讜抓 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专 砖谞讗诪专 诪诇讘讚 讞讟讗转 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 注诇 诪讛 砖讝讛 诪讻驻专 讝讛 诪讻驻专 诪诪讛 讛驻谞讬诪讬 讗讬谉 诪讻驻专 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讗祝 讛讞讬爪讜谉 讗讬谉 诪讻驻专 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专 砖讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛

For cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but had awareness at the end, the goat whose blood presentation is performed outside the Sanctuary, i.e., the goat of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, atone, as it is stated with regard to the offerings brought on Yom Kippur: 鈥淥ne goat for a sin-offering aside from the sin-offering of the atonements鈥 (Numbers 29:11). The verse juxtaposes the internal and external goats together to teach that for that which this one atones, that one atones. Just as the internal goat, i.e., the one whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, atones only for a case in which there was awareness of the components of the transgression at some point, i.e., at the beginning, so too, the external goat, i.e., the goat of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur, atones only for a case in which there was awareness at some point, i.e., at the end.

讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 砖注讬专讬 讛专讙诇讬诐 讜砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖注讬专讬 讛专讙诇讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 讗讘诇 诇讗 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜注诇 诪讛 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉

And for cases in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end, the goats brought as sin-offerings for the additional offerings of the Festivals and the goats brought as sin-offerings for the additional offerings of the New Moons atone. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: The goats of the Festivals atone for cases in which one never had awareness of the transgression, but the goats of the New Moons do not. But if so, for what do the goats of the New Moons atone?

注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗

They atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛砖注讬专讬谉 讻驻专转谉 砖讜讛 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

Rabbi Meir says: With regard to all the goats offered as additional offerings, those of the New Moons, Festivals, and Yom Kippur, their atonement, i.e., the atonement that they effect, is the same; they all atone for the defiling of the Temple by entering it while impure, or for the defiling of its sacrificial foods by partaking of them while impure.

讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬诐 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜砖诇 专讙诇讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专 注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝

Rabbi Shimon would say, delineating his opinion as the mishna expresses it above: The goats of the New Moons atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food. And with regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, the goats of the Festivals atone for cases in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end, and the goats of the additional offerings of Yom Kippur atone for cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but did have awareness at the end.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛讜 砖讬拽专讘讜 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讬拽专讘讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗讬谉 讻驻专转谉 砖讜讛 讛讬讗讱 拽专讘讬谉 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻讜诇谉 讘讗讬谉 诇讻驻专 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

The Rabbis said to him: What is the halakha with regard to whether goats consecrated for different days may be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? For example, if a goat was initially consecrated to be sacrificed as part of the Yom Kippur additional offerings, may it be sacrificed as part of the Festival additional offerings instead? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They may be sacrificed. They said to him: Since, according to you, their atonement is not the same, how could they possibly be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They can be interchanged, since ultimately all of them come to atone for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖诪讜 砖注讬专讬 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 砖诇 专讙诇讬诐 砖诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝

Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon a tradition of his opinion that differs from the way the mishna expresses it above: The goats of the New Moons atone for a ritually pure person who unwittingly partook of ritually impure sacrificial food. The goats of the Festivals exceed them, as they atone both for a pure person who partook of impure sacrificial food and also for cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end.

诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讛谉 诪讻驻专讬谉 注诇 讛讟讛讜专 砖讗讻诇 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讜诇讗 讘住讜祝 讜注诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘转讞诇讛 讗讘诇 讬砖 讘讛 讬讚讬注讛 讘住讜祝

The goats of Yom Kippur further exceed them, as they atone both for a ritually pure person who partook of ritually impure sacrificial food and for cases of defiling the Temple or its sacrificial foods in which one did not have awareness, neither at the beginning nor at the end; and they also atone for cases in which one did not have awareness at the beginning but did have awareness at the end.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讛讜 砖讬拽专讘讜 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讬讛讬讜 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 拽专讘讬谉 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讗讘诇 讛讬讗讱 砖诇 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 拽专讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讻驻专 讻驻专讛 砖讗讬谞讛 砖诇讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻讜诇谉 讘讗讬谉 诇讻驻专 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

The Rabbis said to him: What is the halakha with regard to whether goats consecrated for different days may be sacrificed, this one in place of that one? Rabbi Shimon said to them: Yes, they can be interchanged. They said to him: If what you say is so, granted that the goats of Yom Kippur may be sacrificed on the New Moons, but how could the goats of the New Moons be sacrificed on Yom Kippur when they will need to effect atonement for that which they were not consecrated for? Rabbi Shimon said to them: They can all be interchanged, since ultimately all of them come to atone for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, even if each one atones for a different case.

讜注诇 讝讚讜谉 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜 砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诪讻驻专讬谉

And for the intentional defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, both the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary on Yom Kippur, and Yom Kippur itself, atone.

注诇 砖讗专 注讘讬专讜转 砖讘转讜专讛 讛拽诇讜转 讜讛讞诪讜专讜转 讛讝讚讜谞讜转 讜讛砖讙讙讜转 讛讜讚注 讜诇讗 讛讜讚注 注砖讛 讜诇讗 转注砖讛 讻专讬转讜转 讜诪讬转讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖注讬专 讛诪砖转诇讞 诪讻驻专

The mishna delineates how atonement is effected for other transgressions: For all other transgressions that are stated in the Torah, whether they are the minor ones or the major ones, whether they were intentional or unwitting, whether one became aware of them before Yom Kippur or did not become aware of them until after Yom Kippur, whether they involve a positive mitzva or a prohibition, whether the transgressors are subject to excision from the World-to-Come [karet] or to one of the court-imposed death penalties, the scapegoat sent to Azazel on Yom Kippur atones.

讗讞讚 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讻讛谞讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 诪讛 讘讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讻讛谞讬诐 讜诇讻讛谉 诪砖讜讞 讗诇讗 砖讛驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 注诇 讟讜诪讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜拽讚砖讬讜

Israelites and priests and the anointed priest, i.e., the High Priest, achieve atonement from the scapegoat equally. What is the difference between Israelites, priests, and the anointed priest? The difference is only that the priests achieve atonement for their defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods through the bull that the High Priest offers on Yom Kippur, whereas the Israelites achieve atonement for defiling caused by them through the goats that are sacrificed on Yom Kippur.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讻砖诐 砖讚诐 讛砖注讬专 讛谞注砖讛 讘驻谞讬诐 诪讻驻专 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻讱 讚诐 讛驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讻砖诐 砖讜讬讚讜讬讜 砖诇 砖注讬专 讛诪砖转诇讞 诪讻驻专 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻讱 讜讬讚讜讬讜 砖诇 驻专 诪讻驻专 注诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐

Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, just as the blood of the goat, whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for Israelites, so too, the blood of the bull of the High Priest, whose blood presentation is also performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for the priests. And for all other transgressions, just as the confession made over the scapegoat atones for Israelites, so too, the confession made over the bull atones for the priests.

讙诪壮 诪讻讚讬 转谞讗 诪诪讻讜转 住诇讬拽 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚转谞讬 砖讘讜注讜转 诪砖讜诐 讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讘 注诇 讛专讗砖 砖转讬诐 讗讞转 诪讬讻谉 讜讗讞转 诪讬讻谉

GEMARA: The Gemara inquires: Now, the tanna is leaving tractate Makkot, the tractate that precedes tractate Shevuot in the mishnaic order. What is distinctive about tractate Shevuot that he teaches tractate Shevuot after tractate Makkot? The Gemara answers: It is due to the fact that he teaches in a mishna at the end of tractate Makkot (20a): For rounding the edges of his head one is liable to receive two sets of lashes: One from here, the hair adjacent to one ear, and one from there, the hair adjacent to the other ear.

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