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Today's Daf Yomi

September 28, 2021 | 讻状讘 讘转砖专讬 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Beitzah is dedicated by new friends of Hadran in appreciation of all who find new ways to be marbitzei Torah ba-Rabim ve Rabot.

A month of shiurim are sponsored for a refuah shleima for Noam Eliezer ben Yael Chaya v'Aytan Yehoshua.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Beitzah 28 – Shmini Atzeret, September 28

This is the daf for Shmini Atzeret. For Monday’s daf, click here.

Is it permissible to weigh meat for sale on a Yom Tov? Under what conditions? And what are the different opinions? Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Shimon the son of Rebbe divided meat between each other by weighing each piece against the other to make sure it was divided evenly. According to whose opinion did they rule as it doesn鈥檛 match either opinion in the Mishnah. Apparently, it was according to Rabbi Yehoshua whose opinion is presented in a braita. Rav Yosef ruled like him as in the case of the firstborn animal who had a blemish, they ruled that it was possible to weigh a portion against a portion, even though it was forbidden to weigh it with weights. But Abaye argues that it is not clear whether the firstborn can be compared to weighing on a Yom Tov as the issues are not the same. In addition, another difficulty is raised against this case as it was described as it does not seem that Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Shimon the son of Rebbe would be so exacting with each other to weigh the meat and therefore the Gemara concludes that it was probably one of them with someone else. According to the Mishnah, it is forbidden to sharpen a knife but it is permissible to rub two knives against each other. Rav Huna says that the Mishnah is referring to sharpening it on a stone vessel but it would be permitted on a wooden one. There are four versions of what Rav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel 鈥 he either limited the first part of the words of Rav Huna, or the last part of his words or the first part of the Mishnah or the last part of the Mishnah and thus each version reaches a different conclusion about what kind of come to different conclusions about what kind of sharpening is allowed/forbidden and for what purpose (to sharpen or remove the fat). The one who allowed the sharpening of the knife was Rabbi Yehuda, who permitted on Yom Tov not only food preparation but also actions that facilitated the food preparation. The rabbis did not permit that. Although many ruled like Rabbi Yehuda, they did not want to teach publicly that it is permissible to sharpen a knife on a Yom Tov. How do Rabbi Yehuda and the rabbi derive their opinions from the verses in the Torah? 聽Is it permitted to repair a broken skewer? Is it permissible to move a skewer after grilling? This is one of a few laws recited by Rav Malkiyo. The Gemara brings up a controversy as to which cases were recited by Rabbi Malkiyo and which by Rabbi Malkia.

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽诇 讗讚诐 讘砖专 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讜 讻谞讙讚 讛拽讜驻讬抓 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A person selling meat on a Festival who wishes to know its weight in order to determine its price may not weigh it against regular weights in the ordinary weekday manner, but he may weigh the meat against a vessel or against a cleaver [kofitz] and then calculate the weight of the meat by weighing the vessel or cleaver later. And the Rabbis say: One may not look at the pans of a balance scale at all, meaning that they may not be used for weighing in any manner or for any other purpose.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讻诇 注讬拽专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 诇砖诪专讜 诪谉 讛注讻讘专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜讛讜讗 讚转诇讬讗 讘转专讬讟讗

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Even if one has meat and he wishes to protect it from mice, he may not put it on a scale, since it would look as if he were weighing it. Rav Idi bar Avin said: And this ruling applies only where the scale is hanging on the ring used for balancing it. However, if the scale is hanging in such a manner that it is not fit for weighing, one may use it as he would use any other vessel.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟讘讞 讗讜诪谉 讗住讜专 诇砖拽讜诇 讘砖专 讘讬讚 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟讘讞 讗讜诪谉 讗住讜专 诇砖拽讜诇 讘砖专 讘诪讬诐

And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even by hand because he can arrive at its precise weight using this method, and so it is prohibited like weighing with a scale. And likewise, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even in water. Butchers would calculate the weight of a slab of meat by placing it into a tub of water and measuring the amount of water that it displaces with the help of markings on the container. Since this procedure enables the butcher to determine the precise weight of the meat, it may not be performed on a Festival.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讘讬转 讬讚 讘讘砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讘讬讚讗 砖专讬

And Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said: It is prohibited to make a hole to serve as a handle in meat on a Festival, since this is a weekday act. Ravina said: But it is permitted to make such a handle by hand, rather than with a knife or some other implement, since this is an atypical manner of making a hole.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转 住讬诪谉 讘讘砖专 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讞转讱 诇讛 讗转诇转 拽专谞转讗

Rav Huna said: It is permitted to make a sign on meat even on a Festival, so that it not be mistaken for the meat of another person. This is like that which Rabba bar Rav Huna would do when he sent meat by means of a messenger to his house; he would cut it into triangles as a sign that the meat was his and it was fit to be eaten.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻诪讗谉 诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诇讗 讻专讘谞谉 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗诪专 砖讜拽诇 讗讚诐 讘砖专 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讜 讻谞讙讚 讛拽讜驻讬抓 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讬谉 讻谞讙讚 诪讬讚讬 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 讗讬 讻专讘谞谉 讛讗 讗诪专讬 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专

The Gemara relates an incident in connection to the basic halakha of the mishna: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, would weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival in order to divide the meat between them. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did they do so? This seems to be neither in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda nor in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis in the mishna. As, if it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, didn鈥檛 he say: A person may weigh meat against a vessel or against a cleaver, from which it may be inferred: Against a vessel or a cleaver, yes, one may do so; but against anything else, no, he may not. And if it is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, didn鈥檛 they say: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all?

讗讬谞讛讜 讚注讘讜讚 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转谞谉 讘讘讻讜专讜转 讻讜转讬讛

The Gemara explains: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, since we learned in a mishna in tractate Bekhorot (31a) in accordance with his opinion.

讚转谞谉 驻住讜诇讬 讛诪讜拽讚砖讬谉 讛谞讗转谉 诇讛拽讚砖 讜砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讘讻讜专

As we learned there: With regard to consecrated animals that have become disqualified because of a blemish, all the benefit that accrues from their sale belongs to the Temple treasury of consecrated property. And one may weigh one portion of meat against another portion of meat in the case of a firstborn that developed a blemish. Although the meat of a firstborn may not be sold by weight in the manner of non-sacred meat, one may weigh one portion against another portion in order to determine its price. This indicates that even in a case where it is prohibited to weigh an item in the ordinary manner, one may still weigh one portion of it against another portion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讛讬讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讻讗 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讗讘诇 讛转诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 诇讗

Abaye said to him: Perhaps that is not so, and the two cases are not similar. It is possible that Rabbi Yehoshua stated his opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only here, on a Festival, where the action does not involve a show of degradation of sacred items; but there, in the case of a firstborn, where the weighing involves a display of degradation of sacred items, perhaps he did not permit weighing of any kind.

讗讬 谞诪讬 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专讬 专讘谞谉 讛转诐 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诪讞讝讬 讻注讜讘讚讬谉 讚讞讜诇 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讚诪讞讝讬 讻注讜讘讚讬谉 讚讞讜诇 诇讗

Alternatively, it is possible that the Rabbis stated their opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only there, in the case of a firstborn, because it does not look like a weekday activity; but here, on a Festival, where it looks like a weekday activity, perhaps they would not have permitted it. It is therefore possible that even the Rabbis would prohibit this action on a Festival.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚拽驻讚讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讜讛讗 讛谞讛讜 砖讘 讘谞讬转讗 讚讗转讜 诇讘讬 专讘讬 讜讗砖转讻讞 讞诪砖 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讘讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜诇讗 拽驻讬讚 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬

With regard to the incident involving Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara asks: Is this to say that they were particular with each other with regard to such matters, to the extent that they had to weigh one portion against another so that their portions would be exactly equal? But wasn鈥檛 there the incident of the seven fish that were brought to the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and five of them were later found in the house of Rabbi 岣yya, who had taken them from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi; and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, was not particular about this, as they treated each other like family?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讚讬 讙讘专讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讜讘专 拽驻专讗

Rav Pappa said: Cast a person between them. In other words, a third party must have been involved in the incident. How so? Either the two who divided the meat between themselves were Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, or else they were Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and bar Kappara. Although these pairs of scholars were colleagues, they were exacting with each other in monetary matters. Consequently, they weighed one portion of meat against the other to ensure that they would each receive the same amount.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪砖讞讬讝讬谉 讗转 讛住讻讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗讘诇 诪砖讬讗讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛

MISHNA: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival in the ordinary weekday manner. However, one may do so in an unusual fashion, e.g., to run one knife over another, thereby sharpening the blade.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诪砖讞讝转 砖诇 讗讘谉 讗讘诇 讘诪砖讞讝转 砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讗 讚讗诪专转 砖诇 讗讘谉 讗住讜专 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讚讛 讗讘诇 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 诪讜转专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘砖诇 注抓 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讞讚讚讛 谞诪讬 诪讜转专

GEMARA: Rav Huna said: They taught that one may not sharpen a knife on a Festival only if he does so in the typical manner, with a stone knife sharpener, but if he does so with a wooden knife sharpener, it is permitted, as this is an unusual way of sharpening knives. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that a stone sharpener is prohibited, we said this only where one鈥檚 intention is to sharpen the knife, but if he merely means to remove the accumulated fat by scraping it off with the stone, it is permitted. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of wood, even if his intention is to sharpen the knife, it is permitted.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 讘砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讗 讚讗诪专转 讘砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗讘诇 诇讞讚讚讛 讗住讜专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘砖诇 讗讘谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗住讜专

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of Rav Huna鈥檚 statement, where he says: But if he uses a sharpener made of wood, it is permitted. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that with a wooden sharpener it is permitted, we said this only where one鈥檚 intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so in order to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of stone, even if he intended merely to remove its fat, it is prohibited.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗讬谉 诪砖讞讬讝讬谉 讗转 讛住讻讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讚讛 讗讘诇 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 诪讜转专 诪讻诇诇 讚注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讞讚讚讛 谞诪讬 诪讜转专

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the mishna itself, which teaches: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught that this is prohibited only where one鈥檚 intention is to sharpen the knife, but if his aim is merely to remove its fat, it is permitted. This proves by inference that running one knife over another is permitted even if his intention is to sharpen the knife.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 讗讘诇 诪砖讬讗讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗讘诇 诇讞讚讚讛 讗住讜专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘诪砖讞讝转 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗住讜专

And some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of the mishna, which teaches: However, one may run one knife over another. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught this only where one鈥檚 intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener, it is prohibited even to remove its fat.

诪讗谉 转谞讗 讚讘诪砖讞讝转 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诇砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖 讘诇讘讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讗祝 诪讻砖讬专讬 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that with a sharpener it is entirely prohibited? Rav 岣sda said: This tanna does not hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food, as it is permitted to perform labor for the purpose of food preparation on a Festival, but not on Shabbat; Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival, e.g., repairing utensils with which food is prepared on the Festival.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 讞住讚讗 讚专砖讬谞谉 诪砖诪讱 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讗 专注讜讗 讚讻诇 讻讬 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪注诇讬讬转讗 转讚专砖讜谉 诪砖诪讗讬

Rava said to Rav 岣sda: We teach in your name that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. He said to him: May it be God鈥檚 will that you teach in my name all outstanding matters like this. In other words, Rav 岣sda was pleased that this teaching was attributed to him, as he too agreed with it.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪讬讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讜讛讜讛 拽讗

The Gemara relates that Rav Ne岣mya, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava, and he was

诪注讘专 诇住讻讬谞讗 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讚拽讜诇讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 诪专 讗讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讗诪专 诇讬 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讞讝讬转讬 诇讚注转讬讛 讚诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜拽住讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬谉 讻谉

running a knife over the rim of a basket on a Festival. And I said to him: Is the Master doing so in order to sharpen it or in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I nevertheless perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it. He concealed this from me, however, because he holds that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 opinion is the halakha but a public ruling is not issued to that effect; therefore he did not wish to permit the practice explicitly.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚诪专 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 诪注讘专 住讻讬谞讗 讗砖驻转讗 讚专讞讬讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 讘注讬 诪专 讗讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讗诪专 诇讬 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讞讝讬转讬 诇讚注转讬讛 讚诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜拽住讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬谉 讻谉

Similarly, Abaye said: I was standing before my Master and teacher, Rabba, and he was running a knife over the edge of a millstone on a Festival. And I said to him: Does the Master wish to sharpen it, or is he doing this in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it, but he holds: This is the halakha, but a public ruling is not issued to that effect.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讛讜 诇讛专讗讜转 住讻讬谉 诇讞讻诐 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讘讬讝谞讗 砖专讬 讜专讘谞谉 讗住专讬 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 专讜讗讛 诇注爪诪讜 讜诪砖讗讬诇讛 诇讗讞专讬诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to showing a slaughtering knife to a Sage on a Festival so that he may examine it for nicks and imperfections that would render it unfit to be used for slaughtering? Rav Mari, son of Rav Bizna, permitted it, whereas the Rabbis prohibited it, as this is somewhat similar to a weekday activity. And Rav Yosef said: A Torah scholar may examine a knife for himself in his own home and then lend it to others, who may also slaughter with it. Since the examination is not performed in public, it does not appear similar to a weekday activity.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 住讻讬谉 砖注诪讚讛 诪讜转专 诇讞讚讚讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讛讜讗 讚驻住拽讗 讗讙讘 讚讜讞拽讗

And Rav Yosef said: With regard to a knife that became blunt without being nicked, it is permitted to sharpen it on a Festival. And this applies only if the knife still cuts, albeit with difficulty, so that when he sharpens it he is seen not as making a new utensil but merely as improving an old one. However, if the knife no longer cuts at all, it is prohibited to sharpen it.

讚专砖 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讞讚 住讻讬谉 砖谞驻讙诪讛 讜讗讞讚 砖驻讜讚 砖谞专爪诐 讜讗讞讚 讙专讬驻转 转谞讜专 讜讻讬专讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讘讗谞讜 诇诪讞诇讜拽转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诇砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖 讘诇讘讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讗祝 诪讻砖讬专讬 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖

Rav 岣sda taught, and some say it was Rav Yosef who taught: A knife that became nicked on a Festival, a roasting skewer [shappud] that was crushed on a Festival and its point broke off, and the sweeping of the coals in an oven and a stove on a Festival to prepare them for baking, with regard to all of these we have arrived at the dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food. Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讛讜讗 诇讘讚讜 讬注砖讛 诇讻诐 讛讜讗 讜诇讗 诪讻砖讬专讬讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇讻诐 诇讻诐 诇讻诇 爪专讻讬讻诐

The Gemara explains: What is the reason of the first tanna for prohibiting actions that facilitate food preparation? The verse states: 鈥淪ave that which every person must eat, that alone may be done for you鈥 (Exodus 12:16), from which it may be inferred: 鈥淭hat鈥 may be done on a Festival, but not actions that facilitate it. And Rabbi Yehuda adduces proof for his view from the fact that the verse states: 鈥淔or you,鈥 indicating: For you, for all your needs, and that which facilitates food preparation is also a need.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛讗 讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讛讜讗 诇讻诐 讜诇讗 诇讙讜讬诐

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, is it not written 鈥渇or you鈥? What does he learn from this phrase? The Gemara answers: That tanna could have said to you that that phrase comes to teach: For you, but not for gentiles.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讱 讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 讜讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讻砖讬专讬谉 砖讗驻砖专 诇注砖讜转谉 诪注专讘 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻讗谉 讘诪讻砖讬专讬谉 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注砖讜转谉 诪注专讘 讬讜诐 讟讜讘

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Yehuda, too, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hat,鈥 which indicates a limitation? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda could have said to you: The limiting word 鈥渢hat鈥 is written, and the expansive phrase 鈥渇or you,鈥 indicating all your needs, is written as well, but this is not difficult and no contradiction is involved. One can say that here, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that can be performed on the eve of the Festival; the Torah prohibits these on a Festival. There, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that cannot be performed on the eve of the Festival. The latter may be performed even on the Festival itself, as they too are part of the preparation of food, similar to cooking.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖驻讜讚 砖谞专爪祝 讗住讜专 诇转拽谞讜 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诪驻砖讬讟 讘讬讚讬讛

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a roasting skewer that became bent, it is prohibited to repair it on a Festival. The Gemara asks: This is obvious; it is clear that one may not fix a utensil on a Festival. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to state this halakha with regard to a particular case: Although the skewer can be straightened by hand and no special tool is needed for this task, it is nevertheless prohibited.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖驻讜讚 砖爪诇讜 讘讜 讘砖专 讗住讜专 诇讟诇讟诇讜 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜 砖讜诪讟讜 讜诪谞讬讞讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转

And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a skewer upon which one roasted meat, it is prohibited to move it on a Festival, as it has already served its purpose on the Festival, and it is not fit for any other use. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav Malkiyu said: He may pull the skewer out and place it in a corner so that it will not endanger anyone, as it could if it were left in the middle of the house.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜讛讜讗 砖讬砖 注诇讬讜 讻讝讬转 讘砖专 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 注诇讬讜 讘砖专 诪讜转专 诇讟诇讟诇讜 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗拽讜抓 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav Huna said: And this ruling applies only where the skewer has an olive-bulk of meat on it; in such a case he may move the skewer on account of the meat and drag it into the corner in an unusual manner. However, if it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, he may not move it at all. Ravina said: Although it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, it is permitted to move it in the regular manner and place it in a corner, just as in the case of a thorn lying in the public domain. For the sake of public safety, it is permitted to remove such a thorn by moving it in increments, each less than four cubits. The same applies to this skewer; since it might harm someone where it is, it may be moved to a corner.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 砖驻讜讚 砖驻讞讜转 讜讙讜诪讜转 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜

Apropos Rav Malkiyu, to whom only a few halakhot are attributed, the Gemara mentions that Rav 岣nnana, son of Rav Ika, said: The halakha with regard to a skewer that had been used for roasting meat but no longer has an olive-bulk of meat on it, that it may be moved to a corner; and likewise, the halakha concerning maidservants, that even if a woman brought one hundred maidservants into the marriage as her dowry, her husband may nevertheless compel her to perform some sort of work so that her boredom not bring her to sin (Ketubot 61b); and finally, the halakha with regard to follicles, that if a girl has two hair follicles in her pubic region, even if there are no hairs growing from them, she is considered to have reached majority and may perform 岣litza; these three halakhot were all stated by Rav Malkiyu.

讘诇讜专讬转 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讜讙讘讬谞讛 专讘 诪诇讻讬讗

However, the halakha concerning a forelock, that a Jew who cuts the hair of a gentile must stop before he reaches his forelock at a distance of three fingerbreadths on every side, as the gentiles would grow their forelocks for idolatry, and the Jew must not appear as if he were dressing the forelock for idolatrous purposes; and likewise, the halakha concerning burnt ashes, that one may not place them on a wound, as it looks like a tattoo; and finally, the halakha with regard to cheese made by a gentile, that it is forbidden because gentiles smooth the surface of their cheese with lard; these three halakhot were all stated by a different Sage named Rav Malkiya.

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讜诪转谞讬转讗 专讘 诪诇讻讬讗 砖诪注转转讗 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪诇讻转讗 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 砖驻讞讜转

Rav Pappa said a different principle: The teachings mentioned above that relate to a mishna or a baraita were stated by Rav Malkiya, whereas halakhot that are not related to a mishna or baraita were taught by Rav Malkiyu. And your mnemonic to remember this is: The mishna is a queen [malketa]; the comments that are referring to a mishna were made by Rav Malkiya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between Rav 岣nnana and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the halakha concerning maidservants. According to Rav 岣nnana, this halakha was stated by Rav Malkiyu, whereas Rav Pappa holds that it was taught by Rav Malkiya, since it is referring to a dispute in a mishna.

诪转谞讬壮 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 诇讟讘讞 砖拽讜诇 诇讬 讘讚讬谞专 讘砖专 讗讘诇 砖讜讞讟 讜诪讞诇拽 讘讬谞讬讛诐

MISHNA: A person may not say to a butcher on a Festival: Weigh for me a dinar鈥檚 worth of meat, since if he mentions a sum of money, it looks like a commercial transaction. But the butcher may slaughter an animal and apportion it among his customers without stipulating a price.

讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讻讬 讛讗

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What should one do if he wishes to take part of an animal on a Festival, but is barred from mentioning its price? The Gemara answers: As

Masechet Beitzah is dedicated by new friends of Hadran in appreciation of all who find new ways to be marbitzei Torah ba-Rabim ve Rabot.

A month of shiurim are sponsored by Rabbi Lisa Malik in honor of her daughter, Rivkah Wyner, who recently made aliyah, and in memory of Rivkah's namesake, Lisa's grandmother, Regina Post z"l, a Holocaust survivor from Lubaczow, Poland who lived in Brooklyn, NY.

And for a refuah shleima for Noam Eliezer ben Yael Chaya v'Aytan Yehoshua.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Beitzah 28 – Shmini Atzeret, September 28

诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽诇 讗讚诐 讘砖专 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讜 讻谞讙讚 讛拽讜驻讬抓 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专

MISHNA: Rabbi Yehuda says: A person selling meat on a Festival who wishes to know its weight in order to determine its price may not weigh it against regular weights in the ordinary weekday manner, but he may weigh the meat against a vessel or against a cleaver [kofitz] and then calculate the weight of the meat by weighing the vessel or cleaver later. And the Rabbis say: One may not look at the pans of a balance scale at all, meaning that they may not be used for weighing in any manner or for any other purpose.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讻诇 注讬拽专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗驻讬诇讜 诇砖诪专讜 诪谉 讛注讻讘专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜讛讜讗 讚转诇讬讗 讘转专讬讟讗

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Even if one has meat and he wishes to protect it from mice, he may not put it on a scale, since it would look as if he were weighing it. Rav Idi bar Avin said: And this ruling applies only where the scale is hanging on the ring used for balancing it. However, if the scale is hanging in such a manner that it is not fit for weighing, one may use it as he would use any other vessel.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟讘讞 讗讜诪谉 讗住讜专 诇砖拽讜诇 讘砖专 讘讬讚 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讟讘讞 讗讜诪谉 讗住讜专 诇砖拽讜诇 讘砖专 讘诪讬诐

And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even by hand because he can arrive at its precise weight using this method, and so it is prohibited like weighing with a scale. And likewise, Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It is prohibited for an expert butcher to weigh meat on a Festival even in water. Butchers would calculate the weight of a slab of meat by placing it into a tub of water and measuring the amount of water that it displaces with the help of markings on the container. Since this procedure enables the butcher to determine the precise weight of the meat, it may not be performed on a Festival.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讘讬转 讬讚 讘讘砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讜讘讬讚讗 砖专讬

And Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said: It is prohibited to make a hole to serve as a handle in meat on a Festival, since this is a weekday act. Ravina said: But it is permitted to make such a handle by hand, rather than with a knife or some other implement, since this is an atypical manner of making a hole.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讜转专 诇注砖讜转 住讬诪谉 讘讘砖专 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讞转讱 诇讛 讗转诇转 拽专谞转讗

Rav Huna said: It is permitted to make a sign on meat even on a Festival, so that it not be mistaken for the meat of another person. This is like that which Rabba bar Rav Huna would do when he sent meat by means of a messenger to his house; he would cut it into triangles as a sign that the meat was his and it was fit to be eaten.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻诪讗谉 诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诇讗 讻专讘谞谉 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讗诪专 砖讜拽诇 讗讚诐 讘砖专 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讜 讻谞讙讚 讛拽讜驻讬抓 讻谞讙讚 讛讻诇讬 讗讬谉 讻谞讙讚 诪讬讚讬 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 讗讬 讻专讘谞谉 讛讗 讗诪专讬 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 注讬拽专

The Gemara relates an incident in connection to the basic halakha of the mishna: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, would weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival in order to divide the meat between them. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion did they do so? This seems to be neither in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda nor in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis in the mishna. As, if it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, didn鈥檛 he say: A person may weigh meat against a vessel or against a cleaver, from which it may be inferred: Against a vessel or a cleaver, yes, one may do so; but against anything else, no, he may not. And if it is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, didn鈥檛 they say: One may not look at the pans of a scale at all?

讗讬谞讛讜 讚注讘讜讚 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转谞谉 讘讘讻讜专讜转 讻讜转讬讛

The Gemara explains: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may weigh one portion against another portion on a Festival. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, since we learned in a mishna in tractate Bekhorot (31a) in accordance with his opinion.

讚转谞谉 驻住讜诇讬 讛诪讜拽讚砖讬谉 讛谞讗转谉 诇讛拽讚砖 讜砖讜拽诇讬谉 诪谞讛 讻谞讙讚 诪谞讛 讘讘讻讜专

As we learned there: With regard to consecrated animals that have become disqualified because of a blemish, all the benefit that accrues from their sale belongs to the Temple treasury of consecrated property. And one may weigh one portion of meat against another portion of meat in the case of a firstborn that developed a blemish. Although the meat of a firstborn may not be sold by weight in the manner of non-sacred meat, one may weigh one portion against another portion in order to determine its price. This indicates that even in a case where it is prohibited to weigh an item in the ordinary manner, one may still weigh one portion of it against another portion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讛讬讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讻讗 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 讗讘诇 讛转诐 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讝讬讜谉 拽讚砖讬诐 诇讗

Abaye said to him: Perhaps that is not so, and the two cases are not similar. It is possible that Rabbi Yehoshua stated his opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only here, on a Festival, where the action does not involve a show of degradation of sacred items; but there, in the case of a firstborn, where the weighing involves a display of degradation of sacred items, perhaps he did not permit weighing of any kind.

讗讬 谞诪讬 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专讬 专讘谞谉 讛转诐 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诪讞讝讬 讻注讜讘讚讬谉 讚讞讜诇 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讚诪讞讝讬 讻注讜讘讚讬谉 讚讞讜诇 诇讗

Alternatively, it is possible that the Rabbis stated their opinion that one may weigh one portion against another only there, in the case of a firstborn, because it does not look like a weekday activity; but here, on a Festival, where it looks like a weekday activity, perhaps they would not have permitted it. It is therefore possible that even the Rabbis would prohibit this action on a Festival.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚拽驻讚讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讜讛讗 讛谞讛讜 砖讘 讘谞讬转讗 讚讗转讜 诇讘讬 专讘讬 讜讗砖转讻讞 讞诪砖 诪谞讬讬讛讜 讘讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜诇讗 拽驻讬讚 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬

With regard to the incident involving Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara asks: Is this to say that they were particular with each other with regard to such matters, to the extent that they had to weigh one portion against another so that their portions would be exactly equal? But wasn鈥檛 there the incident of the seven fish that were brought to the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and five of them were later found in the house of Rabbi 岣yya, who had taken them from Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi; and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, was not particular about this, as they treated each other like family?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讚讬 讙讘专讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讜讘专 拽驻专讗

Rav Pappa said: Cast a person between them. In other words, a third party must have been involved in the incident. How so? Either the two who divided the meat between themselves were Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, or else they were Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and bar Kappara. Although these pairs of scholars were colleagues, they were exacting with each other in monetary matters. Consequently, they weighed one portion of meat against the other to ensure that they would each receive the same amount.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪砖讞讬讝讬谉 讗转 讛住讻讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗讘诇 诪砖讬讗讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛

MISHNA: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival in the ordinary weekday manner. However, one may do so in an unusual fashion, e.g., to run one knife over another, thereby sharpening the blade.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘诪砖讞讝转 砖诇 讗讘谉 讗讘诇 讘诪砖讞讝转 砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讗 讚讗诪专转 砖诇 讗讘谉 讗住讜专 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讚讛 讗讘诇 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 诪讜转专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘砖诇 注抓 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讞讚讚讛 谞诪讬 诪讜转专

GEMARA: Rav Huna said: They taught that one may not sharpen a knife on a Festival only if he does so in the typical manner, with a stone knife sharpener, but if he does so with a wooden knife sharpener, it is permitted, as this is an unusual way of sharpening knives. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that a stone sharpener is prohibited, we said this only where one鈥檚 intention is to sharpen the knife, but if he merely means to remove the accumulated fat by scraping it off with the stone, it is permitted. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of wood, even if his intention is to sharpen the knife, it is permitted.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 讘砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛讗 讚讗诪专转 讘砖诇 注抓 诪讜转专 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗讘诇 诇讞讚讚讛 讗住讜专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘砖诇 讗讘谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗住讜专

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of Rav Huna鈥檚 statement, where he says: But if he uses a sharpener made of wood, it is permitted. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to that which you said, that with a wooden sharpener it is permitted, we said this only where one鈥檚 intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so in order to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener made of stone, even if he intended merely to remove its fat, it is prohibited.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗讬谉 诪砖讞讬讝讬谉 讗转 讛住讻讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讚讛 讗讘诇 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 诪讜转专 诪讻诇诇 讚注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讞讚讚讛 谞诪讬 诪讜转专

Some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the mishna itself, which teaches: One may not sharpen a knife on a Festival. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught that this is prohibited only where one鈥檚 intention is to sharpen the knife, but if his aim is merely to remove its fat, it is permitted. This proves by inference that running one knife over another is permitted even if his intention is to sharpen the knife.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗住讬驻讗 讗讘诇 诪砖讬讗讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讞讘专转讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗讘诇 诇讞讚讚讛 讗住讜专 诪讻诇诇 讚讘诪砖讞讝转 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讗住讜专

And some teach the statement of Rav Yehuda as referring to the latter clause of the mishna, which teaches: However, one may run one knife over another. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They taught this only where one鈥檚 intention is to remove its fat, but if he does so to sharpen it, it is prohibited. This proves by inference that with a sharpener, it is prohibited even to remove its fat.

诪讗谉 转谞讗 讚讘诪砖讞讝转 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诇砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖 讘诇讘讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讗祝 诪讻砖讬专讬 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who holds that with a sharpener it is entirely prohibited? Rav 岣sda said: This tanna does not hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food, as it is permitted to perform labor for the purpose of food preparation on a Festival, but not on Shabbat; Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival, e.g., repairing utensils with which food is prepared on the Festival.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 讞住讚讗 讚专砖讬谞谉 诪砖诪讱 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬讛讗 专注讜讗 讚讻诇 讻讬 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪注诇讬讬转讗 转讚专砖讜谉 诪砖诪讗讬

Rava said to Rav 岣sda: We teach in your name that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. He said to him: May it be God鈥檚 will that you teach in my name all outstanding matters like this. In other words, Rav 岣sda was pleased that this teaching was attributed to him, as he too agreed with it.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪讬讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讜讛讜讛 拽讗

The Gemara relates that Rav Ne岣mya, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava, and he was

诪注讘专 诇住讻讬谞讗 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讚拽讜诇讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 诪专 讗讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讗诪专 诇讬 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讞讝讬转讬 诇讚注转讬讛 讚诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜拽住讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬谉 讻谉

running a knife over the rim of a basket on a Festival. And I said to him: Is the Master doing so in order to sharpen it or in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I nevertheless perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it. He concealed this from me, however, because he holds that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 opinion is the halakha but a public ruling is not issued to that effect; therefore he did not wish to permit the practice explicitly.

讜讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 拽讗讬诪谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚诪专 讜讛讜讛 拽讗 诪注讘专 住讻讬谞讗 讗砖驻转讗 讚专讞讬讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 讘注讬 诪专 讗讜 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讗诪专 诇讬 诇讛注讘讬专 砖诪谞讜谞讬转讛 讜讞讝讬转讬 诇讚注转讬讛 讚诇讞讚讚讛 拽讗 注讘讬讚 讜拽住讘专 讛诇讻讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讜专讬谉 讻谉

Similarly, Abaye said: I was standing before my Master and teacher, Rabba, and he was running a knife over the edge of a millstone on a Festival. And I said to him: Does the Master wish to sharpen it, or is he doing this in order to remove its fat? And he said to me: To remove its fat. And I perceived his intention, that he did so in order to sharpen it, but he holds: This is the halakha, but a public ruling is not issued to that effect.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讛讜 诇讛专讗讜转 住讻讬谉 诇讞讻诐 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讘 诪专讬 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讘讬讝谞讗 砖专讬 讜专讘谞谉 讗住专讬 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 专讜讗讛 诇注爪诪讜 讜诪砖讗讬诇讛 诇讗讞专讬诐

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to showing a slaughtering knife to a Sage on a Festival so that he may examine it for nicks and imperfections that would render it unfit to be used for slaughtering? Rav Mari, son of Rav Bizna, permitted it, whereas the Rabbis prohibited it, as this is somewhat similar to a weekday activity. And Rav Yosef said: A Torah scholar may examine a knife for himself in his own home and then lend it to others, who may also slaughter with it. Since the examination is not performed in public, it does not appear similar to a weekday activity.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 住讻讬谉 砖注诪讚讛 诪讜转专 诇讞讚讚讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讛讜讗 讚驻住拽讗 讗讙讘 讚讜讞拽讗

And Rav Yosef said: With regard to a knife that became blunt without being nicked, it is permitted to sharpen it on a Festival. And this applies only if the knife still cuts, albeit with difficulty, so that when he sharpens it he is seen not as making a new utensil but merely as improving an old one. However, if the knife no longer cuts at all, it is prohibited to sharpen it.

讚专砖 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讞讚 住讻讬谉 砖谞驻讙诪讛 讜讗讞讚 砖驻讜讚 砖谞专爪诐 讜讗讞讚 讙专讬驻转 转谞讜专 讜讻讬专讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讘讗谞讜 诇诪讞诇讜拽转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 诇砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖 讘诇讘讚 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 讗祝 诪讻砖讬专讬 讗讜讻诇 谞驻砖

Rav 岣sda taught, and some say it was Rav Yosef who taught: A knife that became nicked on a Festival, a roasting skewer [shappud] that was crushed on a Festival and its point broke off, and the sweeping of the coals in an oven and a stove on a Festival to prepare them for baking, with regard to all of these we have arrived at the dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita: The difference between a Festival and Shabbat is only with regard to the preparation of food. Rabbi Yehuda permits even actions that facilitate preparation of food on a Festival.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讛讜讗 诇讘讚讜 讬注砖讛 诇讻诐 讛讜讗 讜诇讗 诪讻砖讬专讬讜 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇讻诐 诇讻诐 诇讻诇 爪专讻讬讻诐

The Gemara explains: What is the reason of the first tanna for prohibiting actions that facilitate food preparation? The verse states: 鈥淪ave that which every person must eat, that alone may be done for you鈥 (Exodus 12:16), from which it may be inferred: 鈥淭hat鈥 may be done on a Festival, but not actions that facilitate it. And Rabbi Yehuda adduces proof for his view from the fact that the verse states: 鈥淔or you,鈥 indicating: For you, for all your needs, and that which facilitates food preparation is also a need.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛讗 讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讛讜讗 诇讻诐 讜诇讗 诇讙讜讬诐

The Gemara asks: And according to the first tanna, is it not written 鈥渇or you鈥? What does he learn from this phrase? The Gemara answers: That tanna could have said to you that that phrase comes to teach: For you, but not for gentiles.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讱 讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 讜讻转讬讘 诇讻诐 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讻砖讬专讬谉 砖讗驻砖专 诇注砖讜转谉 诪注专讘 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讻讗谉 讘诪讻砖讬专讬谉 砖讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注砖讜转谉 诪注专讘 讬讜诐 讟讜讘

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Yehuda, too, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hat,鈥 which indicates a limitation? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda could have said to you: The limiting word 鈥渢hat鈥 is written, and the expansive phrase 鈥渇or you,鈥 indicating all your needs, is written as well, but this is not difficult and no contradiction is involved. One can say that here, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that can be performed on the eve of the Festival; the Torah prohibits these on a Festival. There, it is referring to actions that facilitate food preparation that cannot be performed on the eve of the Festival. The latter may be performed even on the Festival itself, as they too are part of the preparation of food, similar to cooking.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖驻讜讚 砖谞专爪祝 讗住讜专 诇转拽谞讜 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诪驻砖讬讟 讘讬讚讬讛

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a roasting skewer that became bent, it is prohibited to repair it on a Festival. The Gemara asks: This is obvious; it is clear that one may not fix a utensil on a Festival. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to state this halakha with regard to a particular case: Although the skewer can be straightened by hand and no special tool is needed for this task, it is nevertheless prohibited.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖驻讜讚 砖爪诇讜 讘讜 讘砖专 讗住讜专 诇讟诇讟诇讜 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜 砖讜诪讟讜 讜诪谞讬讞讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转

And Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a skewer upon which one roasted meat, it is prohibited to move it on a Festival, as it has already served its purpose on the Festival, and it is not fit for any other use. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav Malkiyu said: He may pull the skewer out and place it in a corner so that it will not endanger anyone, as it could if it were left in the middle of the house.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜讛讜讗 砖讬砖 注诇讬讜 讻讝讬转 讘砖专 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 注诇讬讜 讘砖专 诪讜转专 诇讟诇讟诇讜 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗拽讜抓 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav Huna said: And this ruling applies only where the skewer has an olive-bulk of meat on it; in such a case he may move the skewer on account of the meat and drag it into the corner in an unusual manner. However, if it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, he may not move it at all. Ravina said: Although it does not have an olive-bulk of meat on it, it is permitted to move it in the regular manner and place it in a corner, just as in the case of a thorn lying in the public domain. For the sake of public safety, it is permitted to remove such a thorn by moving it in increments, each less than four cubits. The same applies to this skewer; since it might harm someone where it is, it may be moved to a corner.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 砖驻讜讚 砖驻讞讜转 讜讙讜诪讜转 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜

Apropos Rav Malkiyu, to whom only a few halakhot are attributed, the Gemara mentions that Rav 岣nnana, son of Rav Ika, said: The halakha with regard to a skewer that had been used for roasting meat but no longer has an olive-bulk of meat on it, that it may be moved to a corner; and likewise, the halakha concerning maidservants, that even if a woman brought one hundred maidservants into the marriage as her dowry, her husband may nevertheless compel her to perform some sort of work so that her boredom not bring her to sin (Ketubot 61b); and finally, the halakha with regard to follicles, that if a girl has two hair follicles in her pubic region, even if there are no hairs growing from them, she is considered to have reached majority and may perform 岣litza; these three halakhot were all stated by Rav Malkiyu.

讘诇讜专讬转 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讜讙讘讬谞讛 专讘 诪诇讻讬讗

However, the halakha concerning a forelock, that a Jew who cuts the hair of a gentile must stop before he reaches his forelock at a distance of three fingerbreadths on every side, as the gentiles would grow their forelocks for idolatry, and the Jew must not appear as if he were dressing the forelock for idolatrous purposes; and likewise, the halakha concerning burnt ashes, that one may not place them on a wound, as it looks like a tattoo; and finally, the halakha with regard to cheese made by a gentile, that it is forbidden because gentiles smooth the surface of their cheese with lard; these three halakhot were all stated by a different Sage named Rav Malkiya.

专讘 驻驻讗 讗诪专 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讜诪转谞讬转讗 专讘 诪诇讻讬讗 砖诪注转转讗 专讘 诪诇讻讬讜 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪诇讻转讗 诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 砖驻讞讜转

Rav Pappa said a different principle: The teachings mentioned above that relate to a mishna or a baraita were stated by Rav Malkiya, whereas halakhot that are not related to a mishna or baraita were taught by Rav Malkiyu. And your mnemonic to remember this is: The mishna is a queen [malketa]; the comments that are referring to a mishna were made by Rav Malkiya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between Rav 岣nnana and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the halakha concerning maidservants. According to Rav 岣nnana, this halakha was stated by Rav Malkiyu, whereas Rav Pappa holds that it was taught by Rav Malkiya, since it is referring to a dispute in a mishna.

诪转谞讬壮 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 诇讟讘讞 砖拽讜诇 诇讬 讘讚讬谞专 讘砖专 讗讘诇 砖讜讞讟 讜诪讞诇拽 讘讬谞讬讛诐

MISHNA: A person may not say to a butcher on a Festival: Weigh for me a dinar鈥檚 worth of meat, since if he mentions a sum of money, it looks like a commercial transaction. But the butcher may slaughter an animal and apportion it among his customers without stipulating a price.

讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讻讬 讛讗

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What should one do if he wishes to take part of an animal on a Festival, but is barred from mentioning its price? The Gemara answers: As

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