Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

December 1, 2022 | ื–ืณ ื‘ื›ืกืœื• ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Nedarim 37

Today’s daf is sponsored by the Hadran Zoom group in honor of Shira Farber’s army service and with gratitude to your parents for raising you with such strong values. “As Shira Farber drafts to ืฆื””ืœ, defending the Jewish people and ensuring our security, we are reminded of what we learned with her mother in Masechet Berachot: “Rav Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œHe has made everything beautiful in its time?” This teaches that each and every individual, God has made their work (umanut) pleasant for them in their own eyes.” Shira, we wish you years of meaningful and impactful service, and that your umanut will bring you great satisfaction.”

Today’s daf is dedicated to Mimi and Rafi Schachat on the birth of a baby boy last night!ย 

Why did the Mishna differentiate and say that it is possible to teach Midrash, Halakha and Aggada from one who is prohibited to benefit from them, but not Torah? Shmuel establishes the Mishna in the case that a fee is charged for studying the Torah and not for studying Midrash. As a difficulty is raised, the Gemara explains that the Mishna comes to teach us that it is forbidden to charge a fee for learning Midrash, but it is permitted for studying Torah. However, why should it be permitted to charge for teaching Torah if the reason that it is forbidden to receive a salary for studying Midrash is learned from several verses from Moshe Rabbeinu – as he didn’t charge money, we shouldn’t either? Rav and Rabbi Yochanan give two different explanations – it is possible to charge a fee for watching (babysitting) the children or for learning the punctuation of the text with the ta’amim (cantillation). The Gemara brings two difficulties about Rav’s explanation (babysitting) – one from our Mishna and one from a braita. To resolve the difficulty from the Mishna, they suggest that the Mishna is referring only to minors and add words to make the Mishna work with that explanation. To resolve the difficulty from the braita, they explain the braita two other possible ways. Why didn’t Rav hold like Rabbi Yochanan and why didn’t Rabbi Yochanan hold like Rav?

ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงืจื ืฉืจื™ ืœืžืฉืงืœ ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืœื ืฉืจื™ ืœืžืฉืงืœ

The Gemara answers: This teaches us that even in a place where one takes payment for teaching, for teaching Bible it is permitted to take payment, but for teaching midrash it is not permitted to take payment.

ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžื“ืจืฉ ื“ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืชื™ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืณ ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ืœืœืžื“ ืืชื›ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจืื” ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืืชื›ื ื—ืงื™ื ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื ื™ ื”ืณ ืžื” ืื ื™ ื‘ื—ื ื ืืฃ ืืชื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื—ื ื ืžืงืจื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื—ื ื

The Gemara asks: In what way is midrash different from Bible, that one may not take payment for teaching it? Based on that which is written, which Moses said to the people: โ€œAnd the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and lawsโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:14), and also that which is written: โ€œBehold, I have taught you statutes and laws, as the Lord my God commanded me, that you should do so in the midst of the land where you go in to possess itโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:5), God said: Just as I teach you for free, without payment, so too you also shall teach for free. There should be no difference between Bible and midrash, and Bible too, like midrash, should be taught for free.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื

Rav said: As Bible is typically taught to children, one who teaches Bible takes payment for watching the children. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He takes payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes.

ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืงืจื ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืงืชื ื™

We learned in the mishna that one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by a vow, that other person may not teach him Bible. Granted, according to the one who says that the payment is for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, this is the reason that he shall not teach him Bible, as teaching punctuation is a component of teaching the biblical text. However, according to the one who says it is payment for watching the students, is an adult one who requires watching, and would payment be taken for doing so? Since the teacher typically does not receive payment for teaching adults, there is no benefit when he teaches for free the one for whom benefit is forbidden; why, then, is it prohibited? The Gemara answers: The mishna is teaching about the case of a minor who requires watching and who is prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from the teacher.

ืื™ ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ืื‘ืœ ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื• ืžืงืจื ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืงืจื ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื• ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ื• ืžืงืจื

The Gemara asks: If it is the case of a minor, say the latter clause of the mishna: However, he may teach his sons Bible. Is a minor one who is capable of bearing sons? The Gemara answers: The mishna is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: He may not teach him Bible, in the case of a minor. If the student is an adult, he may teach him and his sons Bible. He may teach him because he does not require watching, and he may teach his son because the payment is for watching his son.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืœื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืœื ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืืžืื™ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืืžืื™ ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื ืื™ื›ื ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat; however, they may review a passage that they already learned once. Granted, according to the one who says that payment for teaching Bible is for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, as it would be necessary to pay the teacher. However, according to the one who says it is payment for watching the children, why may children not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat? And why may children review a passage that they already learned once? Isnโ€™t there payment for watching the children on Shabbat in both cases?

ื•ืœื™ื˜ืขืžื™ืš ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื”ื‘ืœืขื” ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืขื” ืžื™ืฉืจื ืฉืจื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืคืจื” ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืคื™ื›ืš

The Gemara responds: And according to your reasoning, is receiving payment for teaching punctuation prohibited on Shabbat? It is a case of incorporation of the payment for teaching on Shabbat into the teacherโ€™s weekly salary, and incorporation is permitted, as it is taught in a baraita: One who hires a day laborer to watch a child, to watch a cow, or to guard seeds does not give him payment for Shabbat. Therefore,

ืื ืื‘ื“ื• ืื™ื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืื ืื‘ื“ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืชืŸ

if the items that the laborer was entrusted to watch were lost on Shabbat, he does not bear financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them, since he is not a paid bailee on that day. And if he is a laborer hired for a week, hired for a month, hired for a year, or hired for seven years, the one who hired him gives him payment for labor performed on Shabbat as well. Therefore, if the items were lost on Shabbat, he bears financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them. If payment for Shabbat is incorporated within payment for a longer period, it is not prohibited to accept payment for permitted actions performed on Shabbat.

ืืœื ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื™ืคื ื• ืื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืœืžืฆื•ืชื ื“ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื ืื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืงื™ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื•ืŸ ืขืœืžื ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื•ืกืช ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื

Rather, with regard to Shabbat, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, so that the fathers of the children will be at leisure to fulfill the mitzva of delighting in Shabbat. Teaching new material to their children would occupy more of their fathersโ€™ time, limiting their opportunity to fulfill that mitzva. And if you wish, say instead: Due to the fact that on Shabbat children eat and drink more than they are accustomed to eating, their world is heavy upon them, i.e., their head and their limbs are sluggish, and they are incapable of concentrating and studying well, as Shmuel said: A change in routine [veset] in eating and the like causes the onset of an intestinal ailment.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืช ืžื™ ืงื ื‘ืขื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ

And according to the one who says that the payment for teach-ing Bible is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, and therefore in the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may not teach his sons and daughters Bible, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for watching the children? The Gemara answers: He holds: Do girls need watching? They stay home and are not accustomed to going out.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืงืกื‘ืจ (ืฉื›ืจ) ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who says that the payment for teaching Bible is payment for watching the children, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes? The Gemara answers: He holds that the punctuation of the text with cantillation notes is by Torah law; therefore, it is included in the prohibition against taking payment for teaching Torah.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืคืจืฉ ื•ืฉื•ื ืฉื›ืœ ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืงืจื ืžืคืจืฉ ื–ื” ืชืจื’ื•ื ื•ืฉื•ื ืฉื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืœื• ื”ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช

This is as Rav Ika bar Avin said that Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd they read in the book, in the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the readingโ€ (Nehemiah 8:8)? The Gemara explains: โ€œThey read in the book, in the Torah of Godโ€; that is the Bible. โ€œDistinctlyโ€; that is the Aramaic translation. โ€œAnd they gave the senseโ€; these are the division into verses. โ€œAnd caused them to understand the readingโ€; this is punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, which facilitate the understanding of the verses. And some say: These are the traditions that determine the proper vocalization of the Bible. Rav holds that the cantillation notes are an integral part of Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืงืจื ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ืขื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™

On a related note, Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: The vocalization of the scribes, and the ornamentation of the scribes, and the verses with words that are read but not written, and those that are written but not read are all halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai.

ืžืงืจื ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืืจืฅ ืฉืžื™ื ืžืฆืจื™ื

The Gemara elaborates: The vocalization of the scribes is referring to words that when they appear at the end of phrases, clauses, or verses, their vocalization changes, e.g., eretz with a segol under the letter alef to aretz with a kamatz under the letter alef; shamayim with a pataแธฅ under the letter mem, to shamayim with a kamatz under the letter mem; and mitzrayim with a pataแธฅ under the letter reish, to mitzrayim with a kamatz under the letter reish.

ืขื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ืชืขื‘ืจื• ืื—ืจ ืชืœืš ืื—ืจ ืชืืกืฃ ืงื“ืžื• ืฉืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ื ื’ื ื™ื ืฆื“ืงืชืš ื›ื”ืจืจื™ ืืœ

The ornamentation of the scribes are expressions that the scribes understood in a manner that differs slightly from its plain understanding. For example: โ€œThen [aแธฅar] go onโ€ (Genesis 18:5); โ€œthen [aแธฅar] she will goโ€ (Genesis 24:55); โ€œafterward [aแธฅar] you will be gatheredโ€ (Numbers 31:2); โ€œthe singers go before, the minstrels follow after [aแธฅar]โ€ (Psalms 68:26); โ€œYour righteousness is like the mighty mountainsโ€ (Psalms 36:7).

ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ื“ื‘ืœื›ืชื• ืื™ืฉ ื“ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉืืœ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืื™ื ื“ื ื‘ื ืชื” ืœื” ื“ืคืœื™ื˜ื” ืืช ื“ื”ื’ื“ ื”ื’ื“ ืืœื™ ื“ื”ื’ืจืŸ ืืœื™ ื“ื”ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ืœื™ืŸ ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื‘ืŸ

Words that are read but not written are included in the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. For example, the word โ€œEuphratesโ€ that is in the phrase โ€œas he went to establish his control over the river Euphratesโ€ (IIย Samuel 8:3) is not written in the text of the Bible. The same is true for the word โ€œmanโ€ that is in the verse โ€œnow the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counseled in those days, was as if a man inquired of the word of Godโ€ (IIย Samuel 16:23); and for the word โ€œcomeโ€ that is in the verse โ€œbehold, the days come, says the Lord, that the city shall be built to the Lord from the tower of Hananel unto the gate of the cornerโ€ (Jeremiah 31:37); and for โ€œherโ€ that is in the phrase โ€œlet her not have escapeโ€ (Jeremiah 50:29); unto that is in the verse โ€œit has been told me, all that you have done unto your mother-in-lawโ€ (Ruth 2:11); and for โ€œto meโ€ that is found in the passage โ€œand she said unto her: All that you say to me I will do. And she went down to the threshing floorโ€ (Ruth 3:4โ€“5); and for โ€œto meโ€ that is in the verse โ€œhe gave me these six measures of barley; for he said to meโ€ (Ruth 3:17). These words are read but not written.

ื•ื›ืชื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื ื ื“ื™ืกืœื—

And there are words that are written but not read. For example, the word โ€œmayโ€ that is in the verse โ€œmay God forgive your servantโ€ (IIย Kings 5:18) appears in the Bible text but is not vocalized.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

tverya vowels

Don’t Forget to Cross Your “T”s and Dot Your “I”s

Hebrew readers know that in order to learn how to read, the vowels, nikud, under the letters are essential. As...

Nedarim 37

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Nedarim 37

ื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื•ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงืจื ืฉืจื™ ืœืžืฉืงืœ ืขืœ ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ืœื ืฉืจื™ ืœืžืฉืงืœ

The Gemara answers: This teaches us that even in a place where one takes payment for teaching, for teaching Bible it is permitted to take payment, but for teaching midrash it is not permitted to take payment.

ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžื“ืจืฉ ื“ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืชื™ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืณ ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ืœืœืžื“ ืืชื›ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจืื” ืœืžื“ืชื™ ืืชื›ื ื—ืงื™ื ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืฆื•ื ื™ ื”ืณ ืžื” ืื ื™ ื‘ื—ื ื ืืฃ ืืชื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื—ื ื ืžืงืจื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื—ื ื

The Gemara asks: In what way is midrash different from Bible, that one may not take payment for teaching it? Based on that which is written, which Moses said to the people: โ€œAnd the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and lawsโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:14), and also that which is written: โ€œBehold, I have taught you statutes and laws, as the Lord my God commanded me, that you should do so in the midst of the land where you go in to possess itโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:5), God said: Just as I teach you for free, without payment, so too you also shall teach for free. There should be no difference between Bible and midrash, and Bible too, like midrash, should be taught for free.

ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื

Rav said: As Bible is typically taught to children, one who teaches Bible takes payment for watching the children. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He takes payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes.

ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืงืจื ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืงืชื ื™

We learned in the mishna that one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by a vow, that other person may not teach him Bible. Granted, according to the one who says that the payment is for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, this is the reason that he shall not teach him Bible, as teaching punctuation is a component of teaching the biblical text. However, according to the one who says it is payment for watching the students, is an adult one who requires watching, and would payment be taken for doing so? Since the teacher typically does not receive payment for teaching adults, there is no benefit when he teaches for free the one for whom benefit is forbidden; why, then, is it prohibited? The Gemara answers: The mishna is teaching about the case of a minor who requires watching and who is prohibited by a vow from deriving benefit from the teacher.

ืื™ ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ืื‘ืœ ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื• ืžืงืจื ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืงืจื ื‘ืงื˜ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืœืžื“ื• ืœื• ื•ืœื‘ื ื™ื• ืžืงืจื

The Gemara asks: If it is the case of a minor, say the latter clause of the mishna: However, he may teach his sons Bible. Is a minor one who is capable of bearing sons? The Gemara answers: The mishna is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: He may not teach him Bible, in the case of a minor. If the student is an adult, he may teach him and his sons Bible. He may teach him because he does not require watching, and he may teach his son because the payment is for watching his son.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืชื™ื ื•ืงื•ืช ืœื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืœื ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืืžืื™ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืืžืื™ ืฉื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื ืื™ื›ื ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืฉื‘ืช

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat; however, they may review a passage that they already learned once. Granted, according to the one who says that payment for teaching Bible is for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, as it would be necessary to pay the teacher. However, according to the one who says it is payment for watching the children, why may children not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat? And why may children review a passage that they already learned once? Isnโ€™t there payment for watching the children on Shabbat in both cases?

ื•ืœื™ื˜ืขืžื™ืš ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื”ื‘ืœืขื” ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ืœืขื” ืžื™ืฉืจื ืฉืจื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืคืจื” ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืคื™ื›ืš

The Gemara responds: And according to your reasoning, is receiving payment for teaching punctuation prohibited on Shabbat? It is a case of incorporation of the payment for teaching on Shabbat into the teacherโ€™s weekly salary, and incorporation is permitted, as it is taught in a baraita: One who hires a day laborer to watch a child, to watch a cow, or to guard seeds does not give him payment for Shabbat. Therefore,

ืื ืื‘ื“ื• ืื™ื ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื• ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืื ืื‘ื“ื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืชืŸ

if the items that the laborer was entrusted to watch were lost on Shabbat, he does not bear financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them, since he is not a paid bailee on that day. And if he is a laborer hired for a week, hired for a month, hired for a year, or hired for seven years, the one who hired him gives him payment for labor performed on Shabbat as well. Therefore, if the items were lost on Shabbat, he bears financial responsibility to compensate the owners for them. If payment for Shabbat is incorporated within payment for a longer period, it is not prohibited to accept payment for permitted actions performed on Shabbat.

ืืœื ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื™ืคื ื• ืื‘ื”ืชื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืœืžืฆื•ืชื ื“ืฉื‘ืชื ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื ืื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืชื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืงื™ืจ ืขืœื™ื”ื•ืŸ ืขืœืžื ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื•ืกืช ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื

Rather, with regard to Shabbat, this is the reason that children may not read a passage in the Bible for the first time on Shabbat, so that the fathers of the children will be at leisure to fulfill the mitzva of delighting in Shabbat. Teaching new material to their children would occupy more of their fathersโ€™ time, limiting their opportunity to fulfill that mitzva. And if you wish, say instead: Due to the fact that on Shabbat children eat and drink more than they are accustomed to eating, their world is heavy upon them, i.e., their head and their limbs are sluggish, and they are incapable of concentrating and studying well, as Shmuel said: A change in routine [veset] in eating and the like causes the onset of an intestinal ailment.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื ื•ืช ืžื™ ืงื ื‘ืขื™ื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ

And according to the one who says that the payment for teach-ing Bible is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, and therefore in the case of one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow, that other person may not teach his sons and daughters Bible, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for watching the children? The Gemara answers: He holds: Do girls need watching? They stay home and are not accustomed to going out.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืืžืจ ืฉื›ืจ ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืงืกื‘ืจ (ืฉื›ืจ) ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who says that the payment for teaching Bible is payment for watching the children, what is the reason that he did not say that it is payment for teaching punctuation of the text with cantillation notes? The Gemara answers: He holds that the punctuation of the text with cantillation notes is by Torah law; therefore, it is included in the prohibition against taking payment for teaching Torah.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืคืจืฉ ื•ืฉื•ื ืฉื›ืœ ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื ื•ื™ืงืจืื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ื‘ืชื•ืจืช ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืงืจื ืžืคืจืฉ ื–ื” ืชืจื’ื•ื ื•ืฉื•ื ืฉื›ืœ ืืœื• ื”ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื•ื™ื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืคื™ืกื•ืง ื˜ืขืžื™ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืœื• ื”ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช

This is as Rav Ika bar Avin said that Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd they read in the book, in the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the readingโ€ (Nehemiah 8:8)? The Gemara explains: โ€œThey read in the book, in the Torah of Godโ€; that is the Bible. โ€œDistinctlyโ€; that is the Aramaic translation. โ€œAnd they gave the senseโ€; these are the division into verses. โ€œAnd caused them to understand the readingโ€; this is punctuation of the text with cantillation notes, which facilitate the understanding of the verses. And some say: These are the traditions that determine the proper vocalization of the Bible. Rav holds that the cantillation notes are an integral part of Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืงืจื ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ืขื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™

On a related note, Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: The vocalization of the scribes, and the ornamentation of the scribes, and the verses with words that are read but not written, and those that are written but not read are all halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai.

ืžืงืจื ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืืจืฅ ืฉืžื™ื ืžืฆืจื™ื

The Gemara elaborates: The vocalization of the scribes is referring to words that when they appear at the end of phrases, clauses, or verses, their vocalization changes, e.g., eretz with a segol under the letter alef to aretz with a kamatz under the letter alef; shamayim with a pataแธฅ under the letter mem, to shamayim with a kamatz under the letter mem; and mitzrayim with a pataแธฅ under the letter reish, to mitzrayim with a kamatz under the letter reish.

ืขื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ืชืขื‘ืจื• ืื—ืจ ืชืœืš ืื—ืจ ืชืืกืฃ ืงื“ืžื• ืฉืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ื ื’ื ื™ื ืฆื“ืงืชืš ื›ื”ืจืจื™ ืืœ

The ornamentation of the scribes are expressions that the scribes understood in a manner that differs slightly from its plain understanding. For example: โ€œThen [aแธฅar] go onโ€ (Genesis 18:5); โ€œthen [aแธฅar] she will goโ€ (Genesis 24:55); โ€œafterward [aแธฅar] you will be gatheredโ€ (Numbers 31:2); โ€œthe singers go before, the minstrels follow after [aแธฅar]โ€ (Psalms 68:26); โ€œYour righteousness is like the mighty mountainsโ€ (Psalms 36:7).

ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ืŸ ืคืจืช ื“ื‘ืœื›ืชื• ืื™ืฉ ื“ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉืืœ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืืœื”ื™ื ื‘ืื™ื ื“ื ื‘ื ืชื” ืœื” ื“ืคืœื™ื˜ื” ืืช ื“ื”ื’ื“ ื”ื’ื“ ืืœื™ ื“ื”ื’ืจืŸ ืืœื™ ื“ื”ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ืœื™ืŸ ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื›ืชื‘ืŸ

Words that are read but not written are included in the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. For example, the word โ€œEuphratesโ€ that is in the phrase โ€œas he went to establish his control over the river Euphratesโ€ (IIย Samuel 8:3) is not written in the text of the Bible. The same is true for the word โ€œmanโ€ that is in the verse โ€œnow the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counseled in those days, was as if a man inquired of the word of Godโ€ (IIย Samuel 16:23); and for the word โ€œcomeโ€ that is in the verse โ€œbehold, the days come, says the Lord, that the city shall be built to the Lord from the tower of Hananel unto the gate of the cornerโ€ (Jeremiah 31:37); and for โ€œherโ€ that is in the phrase โ€œlet her not have escapeโ€ (Jeremiah 50:29); unto that is in the verse โ€œit has been told me, all that you have done unto your mother-in-lawโ€ (Ruth 2:11); and for โ€œto meโ€ that is found in the passage โ€œand she said unto her: All that you say to me I will do. And she went down to the threshing floorโ€ (Ruth 3:4โ€“5); and for โ€œto meโ€ that is in the verse โ€œhe gave me these six measures of barley; for he said to meโ€ (Ruth 3:17). These words are read but not written.

ื•ื›ืชื‘ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื ื ื“ื™ืกืœื—

And there are words that are written but not read. For example, the word โ€œmayโ€ that is in the verse โ€œmay God forgive your servantโ€ (IIย Kings 5:18) appears in the Bible text but is not vocalized.

Scroll To Top