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Today's Daf Yomi

December 11, 2021 | ื–ืณ ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen zโ€l who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 29

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

How do we know that the five events mentioned in the Mishna as having occurred on the 9th of Av, were actually on that date? The Romans decreed to kill Rabban Gamliel but a Roman officer saved him in exchange for a promise by Rabban Gamliel that he would be promised a place in the World to Come. A story is told of young children of kohanim that committed suicide during the destruction of the Temple. When Av enters, we limit happy things, but when Adar enters, we increase happy things. The mazal is with the Jews in Adar and is not with the Jews in Av, and therefore one should try to push off court cases with gentiles in Av and try to have them in Adar. One cannot do laundry or get a haircut on the week of Tisha B’av. Is it only laundry one wants to wear or even if it is left for later? Is it only the days of the week beforeย  Tisha B’av or is it the entire week including the days after Tisha B’av? What other opinions are there regarding the dates for these prohibitions?

ืื ืช ืฆื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ืจื•ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ื™ื“ืš ืืฉืœื™ืžืช ืœื™ื”

You want to destroy the Temple; I have given you your hand. It is as though one idol said to the other: You are seeking to destroy the Temple by causing Israel to pray to you; I, too, give you a hand to assist you.

ื‘ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื ื’ื–ืจ ืขืœ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืฉืœื ื™ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ืช ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื•ืงื ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืขืฉื” ืžืฉื” ืืช ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื” ื”ืงื™ื ืžืฉื” ืืช ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื— ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ืช ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื ืขืœื” ื”ืขื ืŸ ืžืขืœ ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืขื“ืช

ยง The mishna taught: On the Ninth of Av, it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would not enter Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was erectedโ€ (Exodus 40:17). And the Master said: In the first year after leaving Egypt, Moses built the Tabernacle. At the beginning of the second year, Moses erected the Tabernacle and sent the spies. And it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass in the second year in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from the Tabernacle of the Testimonyโ€ (Numbers 10:11).

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืกืขื• ืžื”ืจ ื”ืณ ื“ืจืš ืฉืœืฉืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืกืจื• ืžืื—ืจื™ ื”ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืืกืคืกืฃ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื• ื”ืชืื•ื• ืชืื•ื” ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื“ ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื“ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ

And it is further written: โ€œAnd they set forward from the mount of the Lord three daysโ€™ journeyโ€ (Numbers 10:33). Rabbi แธคama bar แธคanina said: That very day, they turned away from God by displaying their anxiety about leaving Mount Sinai. And it is written: โ€œAnd the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting, and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: Would that we were given flesh to eatโ€ (Numbers 11:4). And it is written that the Jews ate the meat โ€œfor an entire monthโ€ (Numbers 11:20). If one adds to the first twenty days an additional three daysโ€™ journey, these are twenty-three days. Consequently, the subsequent month of twenty-nine days of eating meat ended on the twenty-second of Sivan.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืกื’ืจ ืžืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืขืช ื™ืžื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืœื— ืœืš ืื ืฉื™ื

After this, the Jews traveled to Hazeroth, where Miriam was afflicted with leprosy, and it is written: โ€œAnd Miriam was shut out of the camp for seven days, and the people did not journey until Miriam was brought in againโ€ (Numbers 12:15). Including these seven days, they remained in Hazeroth until the twenty-ninth of Sivan before traveling on to Paran, and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œSend you men, that they may spy out the land of Canaanโ€ (Numbers 13:2).

ื•ืชื ื™ื ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื— ืžืฉื” ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืžืชื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืงืฅ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื ื›ื™ ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื•

And this calculation is taught in a baraita: On the twenty-ninth of Sivan, Moses sent the spies. And it is written: โ€œAnd they returned from spying out the land at the end of forty daysโ€ (Numbers 13:25), which means that they came back on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: These are forty days minus one. The remaining days of the days of Sivan, the entire month of Tammuz, and eight days of Av add up to a total of thirty-nine days, not forty.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืชืžื•ื– ื“ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืชื ืžืœื•ื™ื™ ืžืœื™ื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืงืจื ืขืœื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฉื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™

Abaye said: The month of Tammuz of that year was a full month of thirty days. Accordingly, there are exactly forty days until the Ninth of Av. And this is alluded to in the following verse, as it is written: โ€œHe has called an appointed time against me to crush my young menโ€ (Lamentations 1:15). This indicates that an additional appointed day, i.e., a New Moon, was added so that this calamity would fall specifically on the Ninth of Av.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืฉื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ื•ื™ืชื ื• ืืช ืงื•ืœื ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื”ืขื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื™ืœื” ืœื™ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืชื ื‘ื›ื™ืชื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื ื ื•ืื ื™ ืงื•ื‘ืข ืœื›ื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช

And it is further written: โ€œAnd all the congregation lifted up their voice and cried and the people wept that nightโ€ (Numbers 14:1). Rabba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: That night was the night of the Ninth of Av. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You wept needlessly that night, and I will therefore establish for you a true tragedy over which there will be weeping in future generations.

ื—ืจื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืฉื ืช ืชืฉืข ืขืฉืจื” ืฉื ื” ืœืžืœืš ื ื‘ื›ื“ื ืืฆืจ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืขื‘ื“ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื™ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืฉื ืช ืชืฉืข ืขืฉืจื” ืฉื ื” ืœืžืœืš ื ื‘ื•ื›ื“ื ืืฆืจ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืขืžื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

ยง The mishna further taught that on the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed the first time. The Gemara explains that this is as it is written: โ€œAnd in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the King of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lordโ€ (II Kings 25:8โ€“9). And it is also written: โ€œAnd in the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, who served the king of Babylon, came into Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 52:12โ€“13).

ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ื•ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื ื›ื ืกื• ื ื›ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ืœ ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืงืœืงืœื• ื‘ื• ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™

And it is taught in a baraita: It is impossible to say that the Temple was burned on the seventh of Av, as it has already been stated, in Jeremiah, that it was destroyed on the tenth. And it is also impossible to say that the Temple was burned on the tenth of Av, as it has already been stated that it was destroyed on the seventh, in II Kings 25:8โ€“9. How so; what actually occurred? On the seventh of Av, gentiles entered the Sanctuary, and on the seventh and the eighth they ate there and desecrated it, by engaging in acts of fornication.

ื•ืชืฉื™ืขื™ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื—ืฉื™ื›ื” ื”ืฆื™ืชื• ื‘ื• ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื“ื•ืœืง ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื ื• ื›ื™ ืคื ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื™ ื™ื ื˜ื• ืฆืœืœื™ ืขืจื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื“ื•ืจ ืœื ืงื‘ืขืชื™ื• ืืœื ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื•ื‘ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื‘ื• ื ืฉืจืฃ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชื—ืœืชื ื“ืคื•ืจืขื ื•ืชื ืขื“ื™ืคื

And on the ninth, adjacent to nightfall, they set fire to it, and it continuously burned the entire day, as it is stated: โ€œWoe unto us, for the day has declined, for the shadows of the evening are stretched outโ€ (Jeremiah 4:6). This verse is interpreted as a prophecy about the evening when the Temple was burned. And this is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan meant when he said: Had I been alive in that generation, I would have established the fast only on the tenth of Av because most of the Sanctuary was burned on that day. And the Sages, who established the fast on the ninth, how do they respond to that comment? They maintain that it is preferable to mark the beginning of the tragedy.

ื•ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื’ืœื’ืœื™ืŸ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื ื–ื›ืื™ ื•ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื™ื•ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘

And the mishna further taught that the Temple was destroyed for the second time also on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the Second Temple was destroyed on this date? It is taught in a baraita: A meritorious matter is brought about on an auspicious day, and a deleterious matter on an inauspicious day, e.g., the Ninth of Av, on which several tragedies had already occurred.

ืืžืจื• ื›ืฉื—ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืžืฉืžืจืชื” ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื™ืจื™ื‘ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื”ืœื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื“ื•ื›ื ื ื•ืžื” ืฉื™ืจื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ืื•ื ื ื•ื‘ืจืขืชื ื™ืฆืžื™ืชื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืงื• ืœื•ืžืจ ื™ืฆืžื™ืชื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืขื“ ืฉื‘ืื• ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื”

The Sages said: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, that day was the Ninth of Av; and it was the conclusion of Shabbat; and it was the year after a Sabbatical Year; and it was the week of the priestly watch of Jehoiarib; and the Levites were singing the song and standing on their platform. And what song were they singing? They were singing the verse: โ€œAnd He brought upon them their own iniquity, and He will cut them off in their own evilโ€ (Psalms 94:23). And they did not manage to recite the end of the verse: โ€œThe Lord our God will cut them off,โ€ before gentiles came and conquered them. And likewise, the same happened when the Second Temple was destroyed.

ื ืœื›ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื’ืžืจื

The mishna teaches that Beitar was captured on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara explains that this is known by tradition.

ื ื—ืจืฉื” ื”ืขื™ืจ ืชื ื™ื ื›ืฉื—ืจืฉ ื˜ื•ืจื ื•ืกืจื•ืคื•ืก ื”ืจืฉืข ืืช ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืขืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื”ืจื™ื’ื” ื‘ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืขืžื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ื ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ื ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื–ืœ ื˜ืฉื ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง The mishna taught that on the Ninth of Av the city of Jerusalem was plowed. It is taught in a baraita: When the wicked Turnus Rufus plowed the Sanctuary, a decree was issued against Rabban Gamliel for execution. A certain Roman officer came and stood in the study hall and said surreptitiously: The man with the nose is wanted; the man with the nose is wanted. This was a hint that Rabban Gamliel, who stood out in his generation like a nose protruding from a face, was sought by the government. Rabban Gamliel heard and went into hiding.

ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืžืฆื™ืœื ื ืœืš ืžื™ื™ืชื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขืœืžื ื“ืืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ ืืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื ืคื™ืœ ื•ืžื™ืช ื•ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ื›ื™ ื’ื–ืจื™ ื’ื–ื™ืจืชื ื•ืžื™ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืœื’ื–ืจืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ืžื•ืŸ ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The Roman officer went to him in private, and said to him: If I save you from death, will you bring me into the World-to-Come? Rabban Gamliel said to him: Yes. The officer said to Rabban Gamliel: Swear to me. He swore to him. The officer ascended to the roof, fell, and died. And the Romans had a tradition that when they issued a decree and one of their advisors died, they would cancel the decree. The officerโ€™s sacrifice saved Rabban Gamlielโ€™s life. A Divine Voice emerged and said: That officer is designated for the life of the World-to-Come.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื—ืจื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื ืชืงื‘ืฆื• ื›ื™ืชื•ืช ื›ื™ืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ืขืœื• ืœื’ื’ ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื•ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืœื ื–ื›ื™ื ื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื’ื–ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช ืœืš ื•ื–ืจืงื•ื ื›ืœืคื™ ืžืขืœื” ื•ื™ืฆืชื” ื›ืขื™ืŸ ืคื™ืกืช ื™ื“ ื•ืงื™ื‘ืœืชืŸ ืžื”ื ื•ื”ื ืงืคืฆื• ื•ื ืคืœื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืื•ืจ

The Sages taught: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, many groups of young priests gathered together with the Temple keys in their hands. And they ascended to the roof of the Sanctuary and said before God: Master of the Universe, since we did not merit to be faithful treasurers, and the Temple is being destroyed, let the Temple keys be handed to You. And they threw them upward, and a kind of palm of a hand emerged and received the keys from them. And the young priests jumped from the roof and fell into the fire of the burning Temple.

ื•ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืงื•ื ืŸ ื™ืฉืขื™ื”ื• ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ืžืฉื ื’ื™ื ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ืžื” ืœืš ืืคื•ื ื›ื™ ืขืœื™ืช ื›ืœืš ืœื’ื’ื•ืช ืชืฉืื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ืžื™ื” ืงืจื™ื” ืขืœื™ื–ื” ื—ืœืœื™ืš ืœื ื—ืœืœื™ ื—ืจื‘ ื•ืœื ืžืชื™ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืืฃ ื‘ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžืงืจืงืจ ืงืจ ื•ืฉื•ืข ืืœ ื”ื”ืจ

And the prophet Isaiah lamented over them: โ€œThe burden of the Valley of Vision. What ails you now that you have all gone up to the roofs? You that were full of uproar, a tumultuous city, a joyous town, your slain are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battleโ€ (Isaiah 22:1โ€“2). This is referring to the young priests who died by throwing themselves off the roof into the fire. And even with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, it is stated: โ€œFor it is a day of trouble, and of trampling, and of confusion for the Lord of hosts, in the Valley of Vision; a shouting over walls and a cry to the mountainโ€ (Isaiah 22:5). This verse indicates that even God shouts over the destruction of the Temple.

ืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื‘ ืžืžืขื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ืฉื ืฉืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื‘ ืžืžืขื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื›ืš ืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื“ืจ ืžืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื”

ยง The mishna teaches that from when the month of Av begins, one decreases acts of rejoicing. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: Just as when Av begins one decreases rejoicing, so too when the month of Adar begins, one increases rejoicing.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ืœื›ืš ื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื ื›ืจื™ ืœื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืื‘ ื“ืจื™ืข ืžื–ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืžืฆื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืื“ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื–ืœื™ื”

Rav Pappa said: Therefore, in the case of a Jew who has litigation with a gentile, let him avoid him in the month of Av, when the Jewsโ€™ fortune is bad, and he should make himself available in Adar, when his fortune is good.

ืœืชืช ืœื›ื ืื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืชืงื•ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืœื• ื“ืงืœื™ื ื•ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืจืื” ืจื™ื— ื‘ื ื™ ื›ืจื™ื— ืฉื“ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ืจื›ื• ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ืจื™ื— ืฉื“ื” ืฉืœ ืชืคื•ื—ื™ื

The Gemara mentions a couple of other statements in the name of the same Sages mentioned above. First, it cites a verse that is referring to the Babylonian exile. โ€œTo give to you a future and a hopeโ€ (Jeremiah 29:11). Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: These are palm trees and garments of linen, which are long-lasting and bring benefit as long as they exist. With regard to Isaacโ€™s comment about Jacob: โ€œAnd he said: See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord has blessedโ€ (Genesis 27:27), Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: This smell was like that of a field of apple trees.

ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืืกื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืชื“ืข ื“ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืงืฆืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘

ยง The mishna taught: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder clothes. Rav Naแธฅman said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear clean clothes before the Ninth of Av; however, if one wishes to launder garments and to set them aside, this is permitted. And Rav Sheshet said: Even to launder them and to set them aside is prohibited. Rav Sheshet said: Know that I am correct, as the launderers of Ravโ€™s household were idle during this week, which shows that laundering in and of itself is prohibited.

ืžืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืื™ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืžืื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ื›ื

Rav Hamnuna raised an objection against Rav Naแธฅmanโ€™s ruling from the mishna: On Thursday, these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. The Gemara clarifies: To which actions is this referring? If we say that it is permitted to launder and to wear clothing immediately, what deference to Shabbat is there in wearing a garment on Thursday?

ืืœื ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉืจื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื•ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื—ืœื•ืง ืื—ื“ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื—ืœื•ืง ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืกื• ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืื™ืชืžืจ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ

Rather, it must mean that one can wash and set aside the garment until Shabbat, and this washing is permitted only on Thursday; however, during the rest of the entire week it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this contention: Actually, the mishna permits one to launder and wear a garment immediately on Thursday, and this ruling is referring to one who has only one shirt [แธฅaluk]. This laundering is also considered in deference to Shabbat because if one does not wash his shirt now, on Thursday, he will not have the opportunity to do so later, as the mishna is referring to a case when the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: One who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival, when it is normally prohibited to do so. It was also stated that Rabbi Binyamin said that Rabbi Elazar said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear immediately; however, if one launders to set it aside, this is permitted.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ืœืคื ื™ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืœืื—ืจ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื•ื’ื™ื”ื•ืฅ ืฉืœื ื• ื›ื›ื™ื‘ื•ืก ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื•ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื”ื•ืฅ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: It is prohibited to launder before the Ninth of Av, even if one intends to set aside the clothes until after the Ninth of Av. And our fine laundering [gihutz] in Babylonia is like their plain laundering in Eretz Yisrael. But our plain washing in Babylonia is not considered laundering at all, and it is permitted. And with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them, as this category applies only to woolen garments. In any case, this baraita indicates that laundering clothes and setting them aside is prohibited, which means it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman.

ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ื’ื™ื•ืจื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืืžืจื• ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื”ื•ืฅ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืœื•ื‘ืฉืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื”

Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Giyorei sent in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: Although the Sages said that with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them; still, it is prohibited to wear them during the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื”

With regard to these restrictions and prohibitions, which apply during the week of the Ninth of Av, Rav said: They taught that these prohibitions apply only before the Ninth of Av, but after the fast laundering is permitted. And Shmuel said: Even after the Ninth of Av, laundering is also prohibited until the end of the week. The Gemara raises an objection: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder clothes, but on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. How so? If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Sunday, it is permitted to launder the entire preceding week.

ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืื ืœื ื›ื‘ืก ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืœืžืขืœื” ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื”ื

If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, on the days before the Ninth of Av, laundering is prohibited, but after the fast it is permitted. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, it is permitted to launder on Thursday in deference to Shabbat. And if, for whatever reason, one did not launder on the Thursday of that week, he is permitted to launder on Friday from minแธฅa time onward, despite the fact that it is the Ninth of Av. Abaye, and some say Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov, cursed those who do this.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื•ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ืงื•ืจื ืื—ื“ ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday or on a Thursday, three people are called to read from the Torah, as on a regular week, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Tuesday or on a Wednesday, one individual reads the Torah and the same one recites the portion from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: Actually, three people are called to read, no matter what day of the week it is, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets for the Ninth of Av. In any case, the baraita apparently presents a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, as it clearly states that one is permitted to launder during the weekdays following the Ninth of Av.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื›ืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ืฉื•ืชื” ื›ืœ ืฆืจื›ื• ื•ืžืขืœื” ืขืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืกืขื•ื“ืช ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื• ื•ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ื•ืœื• ืืกื•ืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“

Shmuel could have said to you: This is a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, and so too, on the eve of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, one need not reduce the amount of food he eats; rather, he may eat and drink as much as he requires and put on his table a meal even like that of King Solomon in his time. And it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder from the New Moon until after the fast. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week of the Ninth of Av.

ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ื•ื ื•ื”ื’ ืื‘ืœ ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ื•ืœื• ืืกื•ืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“

And it is taught in another baraita: And one must observe the rites of mourning from the New Moon until after the fast; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week. These baraitot show that there are at least two tannaโ€™im, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who prohibit certain activities even after the fast, like Shmuel.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืžืงืจื ืื—ื“ ื“ืจืฉื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืฉื‘ืชื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื•ืฉื” ื—ื’ื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ื•ืฉื‘ืชื” ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: And all three of these tannaโ€™im derived their opinions from one verse, from which they drew different conclusions, as it is written: โ€œAnd I will cause all her mirth to cease, her Festival, her New Moon, and her Shabbatโ€ (Hosea 2:13). The one who said that these activities are prohibited from the New Moon until after the fast, Rabbi Meir,

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen zโ€l who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Taanit: 26-31 + Siyum – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn about the national involvement in the Temple service, including Priests, Levites, and Israel. These were...

Taanit 29

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Taanit 29

ืื ืช ืฆื‘ื™ืช ืœื—ืจื•ื‘ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ื™ื“ืš ืืฉืœื™ืžืช ืœื™ื”

You want to destroy the Temple; I have given you your hand. It is as though one idol said to the other: You are seeking to destroy the Temple by causing Israel to pray to you; I, too, give you a hand to assist you.

ื‘ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื ื’ื–ืจ ืขืœ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืฉืœื ื™ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ืช ื‘ืื—ื“ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื•ืงื ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืขืฉื” ืžืฉื” ืืช ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื” ื”ืงื™ื ืžืฉื” ืืช ื”ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื•ืฉืœื— ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื ื™ืช ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื ืขืœื” ื”ืขื ืŸ ืžืขืœ ืžืฉื›ืŸ ื”ืขื“ืช

ยง The mishna taught: On the Ninth of Av, it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would not enter Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was erectedโ€ (Exodus 40:17). And the Master said: In the first year after leaving Egypt, Moses built the Tabernacle. At the beginning of the second year, Moses erected the Tabernacle and sent the spies. And it is written: โ€œAnd it came to pass in the second year in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from the Tabernacle of the Testimonyโ€ (Numbers 10:11).

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืกืขื• ืžื”ืจ ื”ืณ ื“ืจืš ืฉืœืฉืช ื™ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืกืจื• ืžืื—ืจื™ ื”ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืืกืคืกืฃ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื• ื”ืชืื•ื• ืชืื•ื” ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื’ื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื“ ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื“ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ

And it is further written: โ€œAnd they set forward from the mount of the Lord three daysโ€™ journeyโ€ (Numbers 10:33). Rabbi แธคama bar แธคanina said: That very day, they turned away from God by displaying their anxiety about leaving Mount Sinai. And it is written: โ€œAnd the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting, and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: Would that we were given flesh to eatโ€ (Numbers 11:4). And it is written that the Jews ate the meat โ€œfor an entire monthโ€ (Numbers 11:20). If one adds to the first twenty days an additional three daysโ€™ journey, these are twenty-three days. Consequently, the subsequent month of twenty-nine days of eating meat ended on the twenty-second of Sivan.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืกื’ืจ ืžืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืขืช ื™ืžื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ื•ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืœื— ืœืš ืื ืฉื™ื

After this, the Jews traveled to Hazeroth, where Miriam was afflicted with leprosy, and it is written: โ€œAnd Miriam was shut out of the camp for seven days, and the people did not journey until Miriam was brought in againโ€ (Numbers 12:15). Including these seven days, they remained in Hazeroth until the twenty-ninth of Sivan before traveling on to Paran, and it is written immediately afterward: โ€œSend you men, that they may spy out the land of Canaanโ€ (Numbers 13:2).

ื•ืชื ื™ื ื‘ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื— ืžืฉื” ืžืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ื• ืžืชื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ืžืงืฅ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื”ื ื™ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื ื›ื™ ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื•

And this calculation is taught in a baraita: On the twenty-ninth of Sivan, Moses sent the spies. And it is written: โ€œAnd they returned from spying out the land at the end of forty daysโ€ (Numbers 13:25), which means that they came back on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: These are forty days minus one. The remaining days of the days of Sivan, the entire month of Tammuz, and eight days of Av add up to a total of thirty-nine days, not forty.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืชืžื•ื– ื“ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืชื ืžืœื•ื™ื™ ืžืœื™ื•ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืงืจื ืขืœื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฉื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื•ืจื™

Abaye said: The month of Tammuz of that year was a full month of thirty days. Accordingly, there are exactly forty days until the Ninth of Av. And this is alluded to in the following verse, as it is written: โ€œHe has called an appointed time against me to crush my young menโ€ (Lamentations 1:15). This indicates that an additional appointed day, i.e., a New Moon, was added so that this calamity would fall specifically on the Ninth of Av.

ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืฉื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื“ื” ื•ื™ืชื ื• ืืช ืงื•ืœื ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื”ืขื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื™ืœื” ืœื™ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืชื ื‘ื›ื™ืชื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื ื ื•ืื ื™ ืงื•ื‘ืข ืœื›ื ื‘ื›ื™ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื•ืช

And it is further written: โ€œAnd all the congregation lifted up their voice and cried and the people wept that nightโ€ (Numbers 14:1). Rabba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: That night was the night of the Ninth of Av. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You wept needlessly that night, and I will therefore establish for you a true tragedy over which there will be weeping in future generations.

ื—ืจื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืฉื ืช ืชืฉืข ืขืฉืจื” ืฉื ื” ืœืžืœืš ื ื‘ื›ื“ื ืืฆืจ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืขื‘ื“ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื™ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืœื—ื“ืฉ ื”ื™ื ืฉื ืช ืชืฉืข ืขืฉืจื” ืฉื ื” ืœืžืœืš ื ื‘ื•ื›ื“ื ืืฆืจ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื ื ื‘ื•ื–ืจืื“ืŸ ืจื‘ ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ื ืขืžื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

ยง The mishna further taught that on the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed the first time. The Gemara explains that this is as it is written: โ€œAnd in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the King of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lordโ€ (II Kings 25:8โ€“9). And it is also written: โ€œAnd in the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, who served the king of Babylon, came into Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lordโ€ (Jeremiah 52:12โ€“13).

ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ื•ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ืขื” ื ื›ื ืกื• ื ื›ืจื™ื ืœื”ื™ื›ืœ ื•ืื›ืœื• ื•ืงืœืงืœื• ื‘ื• ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™

And it is taught in a baraita: It is impossible to say that the Temple was burned on the seventh of Av, as it has already been stated, in Jeremiah, that it was destroyed on the tenth. And it is also impossible to say that the Temple was burned on the tenth of Av, as it has already been stated that it was destroyed on the seventh, in II Kings 25:8โ€“9. How so; what actually occurred? On the seventh of Av, gentiles entered the Sanctuary, and on the seventh and the eighth they ate there and desecrated it, by engaging in acts of fornication.

ื•ืชืฉื™ืขื™ ืกืžื•ืš ืœื—ืฉื™ื›ื” ื”ืฆื™ืชื• ื‘ื• ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื“ื•ืœืง ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื ื• ื›ื™ ืคื ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื™ ื™ื ื˜ื• ืฆืœืœื™ ืขืจื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื“ื•ืจ ืœื ืงื‘ืขืชื™ื• ืืœื ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื•ื‘ื• ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื‘ื• ื ืฉืจืฃ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชื—ืœืชื ื“ืคื•ืจืขื ื•ืชื ืขื“ื™ืคื

And on the ninth, adjacent to nightfall, they set fire to it, and it continuously burned the entire day, as it is stated: โ€œWoe unto us, for the day has declined, for the shadows of the evening are stretched outโ€ (Jeremiah 4:6). This verse is interpreted as a prophecy about the evening when the Temple was burned. And this is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan meant when he said: Had I been alive in that generation, I would have established the fast only on the tenth of Av because most of the Sanctuary was burned on that day. And the Sages, who established the fast on the ninth, how do they respond to that comment? They maintain that it is preferable to mark the beginning of the tragedy.

ื•ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžื’ืœื’ืœื™ืŸ ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœื™ื•ื ื–ื›ืื™ ื•ื—ื•ื‘ื” ืœื™ื•ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘

And the mishna further taught that the Temple was destroyed for the second time also on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the Second Temple was destroyed on this date? It is taught in a baraita: A meritorious matter is brought about on an auspicious day, and a deleterious matter on an inauspicious day, e.g., the Ninth of Av, on which several tragedies had already occurred.

ืืžืจื• ื›ืฉื—ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืžืฉืžืจืชื” ืฉืœ ื™ื”ื•ื™ืจื™ื‘ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื”ืœื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื“ื•ื›ื ื ื•ืžื” ืฉื™ืจื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืช ืื•ื ื ื•ื‘ืจืขืชื ื™ืฆืžื™ืชื ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืงื• ืœื•ืžืจ ื™ืฆืžื™ืชื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืขื“ ืฉื‘ืื• ื ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื™ื”

The Sages said: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, that day was the Ninth of Av; and it was the conclusion of Shabbat; and it was the year after a Sabbatical Year; and it was the week of the priestly watch of Jehoiarib; and the Levites were singing the song and standing on their platform. And what song were they singing? They were singing the verse: โ€œAnd He brought upon them their own iniquity, and He will cut them off in their own evilโ€ (Psalms 94:23). And they did not manage to recite the end of the verse: โ€œThe Lord our God will cut them off,โ€ before gentiles came and conquered them. And likewise, the same happened when the Second Temple was destroyed.

ื ืœื›ื“ื” ื‘ื™ืชืจ ื’ืžืจื

The mishna teaches that Beitar was captured on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara explains that this is known by tradition.

ื ื—ืจืฉื” ื”ืขื™ืจ ืชื ื™ื ื›ืฉื—ืจืฉ ื˜ื•ืจื ื•ืกืจื•ืคื•ืก ื”ืจืฉืข ืืช ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืขืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื”ืจื™ื’ื” ื‘ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ืžื•ืŸ ื•ืขืžื“ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื•ืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ื ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ื˜ื ืžืชื‘ืงืฉ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื–ืœ ื˜ืฉื ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง The mishna taught that on the Ninth of Av the city of Jerusalem was plowed. It is taught in a baraita: When the wicked Turnus Rufus plowed the Sanctuary, a decree was issued against Rabban Gamliel for execution. A certain Roman officer came and stood in the study hall and said surreptitiously: The man with the nose is wanted; the man with the nose is wanted. This was a hint that Rabban Gamliel, who stood out in his generation like a nose protruding from a face, was sought by the government. Rabban Gamliel heard and went into hiding.

ืื–ืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืฆื ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืžืฆื™ืœื ื ืœืš ืžื™ื™ืชื™ืช ืœื™ ืœืขืœืžื ื“ืืชื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ ืืฉืชื‘ืข ืœื™ื” ืกืœื™ืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื ืคื™ืœ ื•ืžื™ืช ื•ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ื›ื™ ื’ื–ืจื™ ื’ื–ื™ืจืชื ื•ืžื™ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืœื’ื–ืจืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืื•ืชื• ื”ื’ืžื•ืŸ ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The Roman officer went to him in private, and said to him: If I save you from death, will you bring me into the World-to-Come? Rabban Gamliel said to him: Yes. The officer said to Rabban Gamliel: Swear to me. He swore to him. The officer ascended to the roof, fell, and died. And the Romans had a tradition that when they issued a decree and one of their advisors died, they would cancel the decree. The officerโ€™s sacrifice saved Rabban Gamlielโ€™s life. A Divine Voice emerged and said: That officer is designated for the life of the World-to-Come.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื—ืจื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื ืชืงื‘ืฆื• ื›ื™ืชื•ืช ื›ื™ืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ืŸ ื•ืขืœื• ืœื’ื’ ื”ื”ื™ื›ืœ ื•ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืœื ื–ื›ื™ื ื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื’ื–ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ื ืืžื ื™ื ื™ื”ื™ื• ืžืคืชื—ื•ืช ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช ืœืš ื•ื–ืจืงื•ื ื›ืœืคื™ ืžืขืœื” ื•ื™ืฆืชื” ื›ืขื™ืŸ ืคื™ืกืช ื™ื“ ื•ืงื™ื‘ืœืชืŸ ืžื”ื ื•ื”ื ืงืคืฆื• ื•ื ืคืœื• ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืื•ืจ

The Sages taught: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, many groups of young priests gathered together with the Temple keys in their hands. And they ascended to the roof of the Sanctuary and said before God: Master of the Universe, since we did not merit to be faithful treasurers, and the Temple is being destroyed, let the Temple keys be handed to You. And they threw them upward, and a kind of palm of a hand emerged and received the keys from them. And the young priests jumped from the roof and fell into the fire of the burning Temple.

ื•ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืงื•ื ืŸ ื™ืฉืขื™ื”ื• ื”ื ื‘ื™ื ืžืฉื ื’ื™ื ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ืžื” ืœืš ืืคื•ื ื›ื™ ืขืœื™ืช ื›ืœืš ืœื’ื’ื•ืช ืชืฉืื•ืช ืžืœืื” ืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ืžื™ื” ืงืจื™ื” ืขืœื™ื–ื” ื—ืœืœื™ืš ืœื ื—ืœืœื™ ื—ืจื‘ ื•ืœื ืžืชื™ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืืฃ ื‘ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืžืงืจืงืจ ืงืจ ื•ืฉื•ืข ืืœ ื”ื”ืจ

And the prophet Isaiah lamented over them: โ€œThe burden of the Valley of Vision. What ails you now that you have all gone up to the roofs? You that were full of uproar, a tumultuous city, a joyous town, your slain are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battleโ€ (Isaiah 22:1โ€“2). This is referring to the young priests who died by throwing themselves off the roof into the fire. And even with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, it is stated: โ€œFor it is a day of trouble, and of trampling, and of confusion for the Lord of hosts, in the Valley of Vision; a shouting over walls and a cry to the mountainโ€ (Isaiah 22:5). This verse indicates that even God shouts over the destruction of the Temple.

ืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื‘ ืžืžืขื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ืฉื ืฉืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื‘ ืžืžืขื˜ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื›ืš ืžืฉื ื›ื ืก ืื“ืจ ืžืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื”

ยง The mishna teaches that from when the month of Av begins, one decreases acts of rejoicing. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: Just as when Av begins one decreases rejoicing, so too when the month of Adar begins, one increases rejoicing.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ืœื›ืš ื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื ื›ืจื™ ืœื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืื‘ ื“ืจื™ืข ืžื–ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืžืฆื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืื“ืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื–ืœื™ื”

Rav Pappa said: Therefore, in the case of a Jew who has litigation with a gentile, let him avoid him in the month of Av, when the Jewsโ€™ fortune is bad, and he should make himself available in Adar, when his fortune is good.

ืœืชืช ืœื›ื ืื—ืจื™ืช ื•ืชืงื•ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืœื• ื“ืงืœื™ื ื•ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืจืื” ืจื™ื— ื‘ื ื™ ื›ืจื™ื— ืฉื“ื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ืจื›ื• ื”ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœืช ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ืจื™ื— ืฉื“ื” ืฉืœ ืชืคื•ื—ื™ื

The Gemara mentions a couple of other statements in the name of the same Sages mentioned above. First, it cites a verse that is referring to the Babylonian exile. โ€œTo give to you a future and a hopeโ€ (Jeremiah 29:11). Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: These are palm trees and garments of linen, which are long-lasting and bring benefit as long as they exist. With regard to Isaacโ€™s comment about Jacob: โ€œAnd he said: See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord has blessedโ€ (Genesis 27:27), Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: This smell was like that of a field of apple trees.

ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืืกื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืชื“ืข ื“ื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืงืฆืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘

ยง The mishna taught: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder clothes. Rav Naแธฅman said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear clean clothes before the Ninth of Av; however, if one wishes to launder garments and to set them aside, this is permitted. And Rav Sheshet said: Even to launder them and to set them aside is prohibited. Rav Sheshet said: Know that I am correct, as the launderers of Ravโ€™s household were idle during this week, which shows that laundering in and of itself is prohibited.

ืžืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžื•ืชืจื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืœืžืื™ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืžืื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ื›ื

Rav Hamnuna raised an objection against Rav Naแธฅmanโ€™s ruling from the mishna: On Thursday, these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. The Gemara clarifies: To which actions is this referring? If we say that it is permitted to launder and to wear clothing immediately, what deference to Shabbat is there in wearing a garment on Thursday?

ืืœื ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉืจื™ ืื‘ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ื•ื›ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื—ืœื•ืง ืื—ื“ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ื—ืœื•ืง ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืกื• ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืื™ืชืžืจ ื ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ืœืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืžื•ืชืจ

Rather, it must mean that one can wash and set aside the garment until Shabbat, and this washing is permitted only on Thursday; however, during the rest of the entire week it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this contention: Actually, the mishna permits one to launder and wear a garment immediately on Thursday, and this ruling is referring to one who has only one shirt [แธฅaluk]. This laundering is also considered in deference to Shabbat because if one does not wash his shirt now, on Thursday, he will not have the opportunity to do so later, as the mishna is referring to a case when the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: One who has only one shirt is permitted to launder it on the intermediate days of a Festival, when it is normally prohibited to do so. It was also stated that Rabbi Binyamin said that Rabbi Elazar said: They taught that it is prohibited only to launder and to wear immediately; however, if one launders to set it aside, this is permitted.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ืœืคื ื™ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืœืื—ืจ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ื•ื’ื™ื”ื•ืฅ ืฉืœื ื• ื›ื›ื™ื‘ื•ืก ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื•ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื”ื•ืฅ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: It is prohibited to launder before the Ninth of Av, even if one intends to set aside the clothes until after the Ninth of Av. And our fine laundering [gihutz] in Babylonia is like their plain laundering in Eretz Yisrael. But our plain washing in Babylonia is not considered laundering at all, and it is permitted. And with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them, as this category applies only to woolen garments. In any case, this baraita indicates that laundering clothes and setting them aside is prohibited, which means it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman.

ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ื’ื™ื•ืจื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืืžืจื• ื›ืœื™ ืคืฉืชืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉื•ื ื’ื”ื•ืฅ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืœื•ื‘ืฉืŸ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื”

Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Giyorei sent in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: Although the Sages said that with regard to linen garments, the process of fine laundry does not apply to them; still, it is prohibited to wear them during the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื—ืœ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื›ื•ืœื”

With regard to these restrictions and prohibitions, which apply during the week of the Ninth of Av, Rav said: They taught that these prohibitions apply only before the Ninth of Av, but after the fast laundering is permitted. And Shmuel said: Even after the Ninth of Av, laundering is also prohibited until the end of the week. The Gemara raises an objection: During the week in which the Ninth of Av occurs, it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder clothes, but on Thursday these actions are permitted in deference to Shabbat. How so? If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Sunday, it is permitted to launder the entire preceding week.

ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืœืื—ืจื™ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืฉื‘ืช ื•ืื ืœื ื›ื‘ืก ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื‘ืก ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžื ื—ื” ื•ืœืžืขืœื” ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื”ื

If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, on the days before the Ninth of Av, laundering is prohibited, but after the fast it is permitted. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Friday, it is permitted to launder on Thursday in deference to Shabbat. And if, for whatever reason, one did not launder on the Thursday of that week, he is permitted to launder on Friday from minแธฅa time onward, despite the fact that it is the Ninth of Av. Abaye, and some say Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov, cursed those who do this.

ื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ ื•ื‘ื—ืžื™ืฉื™ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื•ื‘ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ ืงื•ืจื ืื—ื“ ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื” ื•ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Monday or on a Thursday, three people are called to read from the Torah, as on a regular week, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets. If the Ninth of Av occurs on a Tuesday or on a Wednesday, one individual reads the Torah and the same one recites the portion from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: Actually, three people are called to read, no matter what day of the week it is, and one of them recites the portion from the Prophets for the Ninth of Av. In any case, the baraita apparently presents a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Shmuel, as it clearly states that one is permitted to launder during the weekdays following the Ninth of Av.

ืืžืจ ืœืš ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื›ืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืชืฉืขื” ื‘ืื‘ ืฉื—ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ืฉื•ืชื” ื›ืœ ืฆืจื›ื• ื•ืžืขืœื” ืขืœ ืฉื•ืœื—ื ื• ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืกืขื•ื“ืช ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืฉืขืชื• ื•ืืกื•ืจ ืœืกืคืจ ื•ืœื›ื‘ืก ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ื•ืœื• ืืกื•ืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“

Shmuel could have said to you: This is a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, and so too, on the eve of the Ninth of Av that occurs on Shabbat, one need not reduce the amount of food he eats; rather, he may eat and drink as much as he requires and put on his table a meal even like that of King Solomon in his time. And it is prohibited to cut oneโ€™s hair and to launder from the New Moon until after the fast. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week of the Ninth of Av.

ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ื•ื ื•ื”ื’ ืื‘ืœ ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื›ื•ืœื• ืืกื•ืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืืœื ืื•ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“

And it is taught in another baraita: And one must observe the rites of mourning from the New Moon until after the fast; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: These activities are prohibited throughout the entire month. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: They are prohibited only during that week. These baraitot show that there are at least two tannaโ€™im, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who prohibit certain activities even after the fast, like Shmuel.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืžืงืจื ืื—ื“ ื“ืจืฉื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืฉื‘ืชื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื•ืฉื” ื—ื’ื” ื—ื“ืฉื” ื•ืฉื‘ืชื” ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจืืฉ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืขื“ ื”ืชืขื ื™ืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: And all three of these tannaโ€™im derived their opinions from one verse, from which they drew different conclusions, as it is written: โ€œAnd I will cause all her mirth to cease, her Festival, her New Moon, and her Shabbatโ€ (Hosea 2:13). The one who said that these activities are prohibited from the New Moon until after the fast, Rabbi Meir,

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