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Today's Daf Yomi

April 23, 2022 | 讻状讘 讘谞讬住谉 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Yevamot 47 – Shabbat April 23

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Article by Rabbi David Brofsky – The Role of Beit Din and the Immersion of Female Converts

Tshuva by Rabbi Jeffrey Fox

Article by Michal Tikochinsky (in Hebrew)

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Devorah Radomsky in honor of her daughter, Elisheva Yehudit, on the occasion of her Bat Mitzvah.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Yechiel Berkowicz. 鈥淚n loving memory of my mother Sara F. Berkowicz. She was a holocaust survivor, a fighter, and a strong believer in Jewish education.鈥

If someone says they are a convert, do we believe them? What type of proof is necessary and on what does it depend? Is there a difference between conversions in Israel and abroad? One needs to convert in front of a court – one cannot convert on one鈥檚 own. A case was brought where someone was assumed to be a Jew and then they said they converted on their own. Rabbi Yehuda ruled that they should accept his testimony about himself that he was no longer considered Jewish, but not to mess up his children. The Gemara questions Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 ruling based on another ruling of his regarding a father鈥檚 testimony being accepted to mess up his child. Rav Nachman and Rava each bring different answers to resolve this contradiction. What is the procedure when someone comes forward saying that they wish to convert? First, we try to discourage them 鈥 why? But if they persist we accept them 鈥 this is derived from Naomi鈥檚 acceptance of Ruth. How many are needed to be present during the immersion in the mikveh? A Canaanite slave who is freed needs to immerse in a mikveh 鈥 but does he need to accept mitzvot when immersing?

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讗专抓 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗转讱 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘讗专抓 讘讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛

I have derived only that a convert is accepted in Eretz Yisrael; from where do I derive that also outside of Eretz Yisrael he is to be accepted? The verse states 鈥渨ith you,鈥 which indicates that in any place that he is with you, you should accept him. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: In the land? This indicates that in Eretz Yisrael he needs to bring evidence that he is a convert, but outside of Eretz Yisrael he does not need to bring evidence that he is a convert; rather, his claim is accepted. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Whether he is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence.

讘讗 讛讜讗 讜注讚讬讜 注诪讜 拽专讗 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讚讗诪专讬 砖诪注谞讜 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 驻诇讜谞讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讗 诇讬讛诪谞讬讬讛讜 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara analyzes the baraita: In the case when he came and brought witnesses to his conversion with him, why do I need a verse to teach that he is accepted? In all cases, the testimony of witnesses is fully relied upon. Rav Sheshet said: The case is where they say: We heard that he converted in the court of so-and-so, but they did not witness the actual conversion. And it is necessary to teach this because it could enter your mind to say that they should not be relied upon; therefore, the verse teaches us that they are relied upon.

讘讗专抓 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讗专抓 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗转讱 讜讛讗 讗驻讬拽转讬讛 讞讚讗 诪讗转讱 讜讞讚讗 诪注诪讱

As cited above, the latter clause of the baraita states: 鈥淲ith you in your land鈥 (Leviticus 19:33). I have derived only that a convert is accepted in Eretz Yisrael; from where do I derive that also outside of Eretz Yisrael he is to be accepted? The verse states: 鈥淲ith you,鈥 which indicates that in any place that he is with you, you should accept him. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you already expound that phrase in the first clause of the baraita to teach that one doesn鈥檛 accept the claims of an individual that he is a valid convert? The Gemara explains: One of these halakhot is derived from the phrase 鈥渨ith you鈥 in the verse cited, and the other one is derived from the phrase 鈥渨ith you鈥 in a subsequent verse (Leviticus 25:35).

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讜讗诇讗 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讘讗专抓

The baraita states: And the Rabbis say: Whether he is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 鈥渋n your land鈥 written in the verse? How can the Rabbis deny any distinction between the halakha inside and outside of Eretz Yisrael?

讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗专抓 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讙专讬诐 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 诪砖讜诐 讟讬讘讜转讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 拽诪讙讬讬专讬 讜讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 讚诇讬讻讗 讟讬讘讜转讗 讗讬讻讗 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara explains: That phrase is necessary to teach that even in Eretz Yisrael, the Jewish people should accept converts, as it could enter your mind to say that it is only for the sake of benefiting from the goodness of Eretz Yisrael, and not for the sake of Heaven, that they are converting, and therefore they should not be accepted. And it could also enter your mind to say that even nowadays, when God鈥檚 blessing has ceased and there is no longer the original goodness from which to benefit, one should still suspect their purity of motives because there are the gleanings, the forgotten sheaves, and the corners of fields, and the poor man鈥檚 tithe from which they would benefit by converting. Therefore, the verse teaches us that they are accepted even in Eretz Yisrael.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 驻砖讬讟讗 讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住转讘专 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚拽诪住讬讬注讬 诇讬讛 拽专讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is that whether a convert is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this obvious; in all disputes between an individual Sage and many Sages the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many Sages. The Gemara explains: It is necessary to state this lest you say that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 reason is more logical, being that the verse supports him when it states: 鈥淚n your land.鈥 Therefore, it is necessary for Rabbi Yo岣nan to teach us that the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜砖驻讟转诐 爪讚拽 讘讬谉 讗讬砖 讜讘讬谉 讗讞讬讜 讜讘讬谉 讙专讜 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 讙专 讘讬谞讜 诇讘讬谉 注爪诪讜 讗讬谞讜 讙专

The Sages taught: The verse states that Moses charged the judges of a court: 鈥淎nd judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the convert with him鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:16). From here, based on the mention of a convert in the context of judgment in a court, Rabbi Yehuda said: A potential convert who converts in a court is a valid convert. However, if he converts in private, he is not a convert.

诪注砖讛 讘讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诇讜 谞转讙讬讬专转讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讘讬谉 注爪诪讬 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讬砖 诇讱 注讚讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讜 谞讗诪谉 讗转讛 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 注爪诪讱 讜讗讬 讗转讛 谞讗诪谉 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 讘谞讬讱

The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving one who was presumed to be Jewish who came before Rabbi Yehuda and said to him: I converted in private, and therefore I am not actually Jewish. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: Do you have witnesses to support your claim? He said to him: No. Rabbi Yehuda asked: Do you have children? He said to him: Yes. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You are deemed credible in order to render yourself unfit to marry a Jewish woman by claiming that you are a gentile, but you are not deemed credible in order to render your children unfit.

[讜诪讬] 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讘谞讬诐 诇讗 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讻讬专 讬讻讬专谞讜 诇讗讞专讬诐 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞讗诪谉 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讝讛 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专 讜讻砖诐 砖谞讗诪谉 诇讜诪专 讝讛 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专 讻讱 谞讗诪谉 诇讜诪专 讘谞讬 讝讛 讘谉 讙专讜砖讛 讛讜讗 讗讜 讘谉 讞诇讜爪讛 讛讜讗 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讗诪谉

The Gemara asks: But did Rabbi Yehuda actually say that with regard to his children he is not deemed credible? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗e shall acknowledge [yakir] the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:17). The phrase 鈥渉e shall acknowledge鈥 is apparently superfluous. It is therefore expounded to teach that the father is deemed credible so that he can identify him [yakirenu] to others. From here Rabbi Yehuda said: A man is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, and just as he is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, so too, a priest is deemed credible to say: This son of mine is a son of a divorced woman and myself, or to say: He is a son of a 岣lutza and myself, and therefore he is disqualified due to flawed lineage [岣lal]. And the Rabbis say: He is not deemed credible. If Rabbi Yehuda holds that a father is deemed credible to render his children unfit, why did he rule otherwise in the case of the convert?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讘专讬讱 讙讜讬 讗转讛 讜讗讬谉 注讚讜转 诇讙讜讬 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬诐 讛谉 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讗诪谉 讗转讛 诇驻住讜诇 讘谞讬讱 讜讗讬 讗转讛 谞讗诪谉 诇驻住讜诇 讘谞讬 讘谞讬讱

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said that this is what Rabbi Yehuda said to him: According to your statement you are a gentile, and there is no testimony for a gentile, as a gentile is a disqualified witness. Consequently, you cannot testify about the status of your children and render them unfit. Ravina said that this is what Rabbi Yehuda said to him: Do you have children? He said: Yes. He said to him: Do you have grandchildren? He said: Yes. He said to him: You are deemed credible in order to render your children unfit, based on the phrase 鈥渉e shall acknowledge,鈥 but you are not deemed credible in order to render your grandchildren unfit, as the verse affords a father credibility only with respect to his children.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪谉 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 注诇 讘谞讜 拽讟谉 讜讗讬谉 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讘谞讜 讙讚讜诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 拽讟谉 拽讟谉 诪诪砖 讜诇讗 讙讚讜诇 讙讚讜诇 诪诪砖 讗诇讗 拽讟谉 讜讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讝讛讜 讙讚讜诇 讙讚讜诇 讜讗讬谉 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讝讛讜 拽讟谉

This opinion of Ravina is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: A man is deemed credible to say about his minor son that he is unfit, but he is not deemed credible to say about his adult son that he is unfit. And in explanation of the baraita, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The reference to a minor son does not mean one who is literally a minor, who has not yet reached majority, and the reference to an adult son does not mean one who is literally an adult, who has reached majority; rather, a minor who has children, this is what the baraita is referring to as an adult, and an adult who does not have children, this is what the baraita is referring to as a minor.

讜讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬谞讗 讛讛讜讗 诇注谞讬谉 讬讻讬专 讗讬转诪专

The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Ravina? If there is a baraita that supports his opinion, the halakha should be in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara explains: That baraita was stated concerning the matter of 鈥渉e shall acknowledge,鈥 that a father is deemed credible to render his son unfit; however, if one claims he is a gentile, he is not deemed credible to say the same about his son.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙专 砖讘讗 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖讘讗转 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讗讬 讗转讛 讬讜讚注 砖讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讚讜讜讬讬诐 讚讞讜驻讬诐 住讞讜驻讬诐 讜诪讟讜专驻讬谉 讜讬住讜专讬谉 讘讗讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讗诐 讗讜诪专 讬讜讚注 讗谞讬 讜讗讬谞讬 讻讚讗讬 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, at the present time, when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? Don鈥檛 you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships are frequently visited upon them? If he says: I know, and although I am unworthy of joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court accepts him immediately to begin the conversion process.

讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注谞砖谉 砖诇 诪爪讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗转 诇诪讚讛 讝讜 讗讻诇转 讞诇讘 讗讬 讗转讛 注谞讜砖 讻专转 讞诇诇转 砖讘转 讗讬 讗转讛 注谞讜砖 住拽讬诇讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 讗讻诇转 讞诇讘 注谞讜砖 讻专转 讞诇诇转 砖讘转 注谞讜砖 住拽讬诇讛

And the judges of the court inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field, and about the poor man鈥檚 tithe. And they inform him of the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, as follows: They say to him: Be aware that before you came to this status and converted, had you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by karet, and had you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning, since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. But now, once converted, if you have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by karet, and if you have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning.

讜讻砖诐 砖诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注谞砖谉 砖诇 诪爪讜转 讻讱 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪转谉 砖讻专谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讬谞讜 注砖讜讬 讗诇讗 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讬谞诐 讬讻讜诇讬诐 诇拽讘诇

And just as they inform him about the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, so too, they inform him about the reward granted for fulfilling them. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous, and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, and be aware that the Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receive their full reward in this world;

诇讗 专讜讘 讟讜讘讛 讜诇讗 专讜讘 驻讜专注谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 诪专讘讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讚拽讚拽讬谉 注诇讬讜

they are not able to receive either an abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities, since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot.

拽讬讘诇 诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 谞砖转讬讬专讜 讘讜 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讗转 讛诪讬诇讛 讞讜讝专讬诐 讜诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讬讛 谞转专驻讗 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬讜 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讜

If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a second time to remove them. When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion and inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. Once he has immersed and emerged, he is like a born Jew in every sense.

讗砖讛 谞砖讬诐 诪讜砖讬讘讜转 讗讜转讛 讘诪讬诐 注讚 爪讜讗专讛 讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇讛 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讛 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转

For the immersion of a woman: Women appointed by the court seat her in the water of the ritual bath up to her neck, and two Torah scholars stand outside the bath house so as not to compromise her modesty, and from there they inform her of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.

讗讞讚 讙专 讜讗讞讚 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讚讛 讟讜讘诇转 砖诐 讙专 讜注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜讻诇 讚讘专 砖讞讜爪抓 讘讟讘讬诇讛 讞讜爪抓 讘讙专 讜讘注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讜讘谞讚讛

The procedure applies for both a convert and an emancipated slave who, upon immersion at the time of his emancipation, becomes a Jew in every sense. And in the same place that a menstruating woman immerses, i.e., in a ritual bath of forty se鈥檃 of water, there a convert and an emancipated slave also immerse. And anything that interposes between one鈥檚 body and the water of the ritual bath with regard to immersion of a ritually impure person, in a manner that would invalidate the immersion, also interposes and invalidates the immersion for a convert, and for an emancipated slave, and for a menstruating woman.

讗诪专 诪专 讙专 砖讘讗 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖讘讗转 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬 驻专讬砖 谞驻专讜砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 拽砖讬诐 讙专讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻住驻讞转 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞诇讜讛 讛讙专 注诇讬讛诐 讜谞住驻讞讜 注诇 讘讬转 讬注拽讘

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? And they inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to say this to him? It is so that if he is going to withdraw from the conversion process, let him withdraw already at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, as Rabbi 岣lbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scab [sappa岣t] on the skin, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [venispe岣] to the house of Jacob鈥 (Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.

讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讞 谞讛专讙 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪砖讜讛 驻专讜讟讛 讜诇讗 谞讬转谉 诇讛砖讘讜谉

The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field, and about the poor man鈥檚 tithe. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to specifically mention these mitzvot? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Because a gentile is executed even on account of stealing less than the value of a peruta, since gentiles are particular about even such a small loss, and an item that a gentile steals is not subject to being returned, i.e., he is not obligated to return it to its owner. Since gentiles are unwilling to separate even from items of little value, a potential convert must be made aware that he if converts, he will be required to relinquish some of his property to others.

(讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛) 讜讗讬谉 诪专讘讬诐 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讚拽讚拽讬诐 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜转专讗 讻讬 诪转讗诪爪转 讛讬讗 诇诇讻转 讗转讛 讜转讞讚诇 诇讚讘专 讗诇讬讛

The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot, i.e., the court should not overly dissuade the convert from converting. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the verse from which this ruling is derived? As it is written: 鈥淎nd when she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, she left off speaking with her鈥 (Ruth 1:18). When Naomi set out to return to Eretz Yisrael, Ruth insisted on joining her. The Gemara understands this to mean that Ruth wished to convert. Naomi attempted to dissuade her, but Ruth persisted. The verse states that once Naomi saw Ruth鈥檚 resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her. The Gemara infers from here that the same approach should be taken by a court in all cases of conversion.

讗诪专讛 诇讛 讗住讬专 诇谉 转讞讜诐 砖讘转 讘讗砖专 转诇讻讬 讗诇讱 讗住讬专 诇谉 讬讞讜讚 讘讗砖专 转诇讬谞讬 讗诇讬谉

The Gemara reconstructs the original dialogue in which Naomi attempted to dissuade Ruth from converting: Naomi said to her: On Shabbat, it is prohibited for us to go beyond the Shabbat limit. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you go, I shall go鈥 (Ruth 1:16), and no further. Naomi said to her: It is forbidden for us to be alone together with a man with whom it is forbidden to engage in relations. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you lodge, I shall lodge鈥 (Ruth 1:16), and in the same manner.

诪驻拽讚讬谞谉 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪爪讜转 注诪讱 注诪讬 讗住讬专 诇谉 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗诇讛讬讱 讗诇讛讬 讗专讘注 诪讬转讜转 谞诪住专讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘讗砖专 转诪讜转讬 讗诪讜转 砖谞讬 拽讘专讬诐 谞诪住专讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜砖诐 讗拽讘专

Naomi said to her: We are commanded to observe six hundred and thirteen mitzvot. Ruth responded: 鈥淵our people are my people鈥 (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Idolatrous worship is forbidden to us. Ruth responded: 鈥淵our God is my God鈥 (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Four types of capital punishment were handed over to a court with which to punish those who transgress the mitzvot. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you die, I shall die鈥 (Ruth 1:17). Naomi said to her: Two burial grounds were handed over to the court, one for those executed for more severe crimes and another for those executed for less severe crimes. Ruth responded: 鈥淎nd there I shall be buried鈥 (Ruth 1:17).

诪讬讚 讜转专讗 讻讬 诪转讗诪爪转 讛讬讗 讜讙讜壮

Immediately following this dialogue, the verse states: 鈥淎nd when she saw that she was steadfastly minded she left off speaking with her鈥 (Ruth 1:18). Once Naomi saw Ruth鈥檚 resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her.

拽讬讘诇 诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讛讜讬讬 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 诪砖讛讬谞谉

The baraita continues: If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to act immediately? It is that we do not delay the performance of a mitzva.

谞砖转讬讬专讜 讘讜 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讛诪讬诇讛 讜讻讜壮 讻讚转谞谉 讗诇讜 讛谉 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讛诪讬诇讛 讘砖专 讛讞讜驻讛 讗转 专讜讘 讛注讟专讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇 讘转专讜诪讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讘砖专 讛讞讜驻讛 专讜讘 讙讜讘讛讛 砖诇 注讟专讛

The baraita continues: If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, he is circumcised a second time to remove them. The Gemara explains: This is as we learned in a mishna (Shabbat 137a): These are the shreds of flesh that invalidate the circumcision if they are not cut: Any fragments of the flesh that cover the greater part of the corona. If such shreds remain, the child is considered uncircumcised, and he may not partake of teruma. And in explanation of this mishna, Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: This also includes the flesh that covers the greater part of the height of the corona.

谞转专驻讗 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 谞转专驻讗 讗讬谉 诇讗 谞转专驻讗 诇讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讗 诪专讝讜 诪讻讛

The baraita continues: When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately. The Gemara infers from the precise formulation of the baraita that when he has healed, then yes, he is immersed, but as long as he has not healed, then no, he is not. What is the reason for this? It is because water agitates a wound.

讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬讜 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙专 爪专讬讱 砖诇砖讛 讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇转谞讗 转谞讬 砖诇砖讛

The baraita continues: And two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said that a convert requires a court of three to be present at his conversion? The Gemara answers: In fact, Rabbi Yo岣nan said to the tanna reciting the mishna: Do not teach that there are two Torah scholars; rather, teach that there are three.

讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讜 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讚讗讬 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讜诪拽讚砖 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜诪专 拽专讬谞讗 讘讬讛 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉

The baraita continues: Once he has immersed and emerged he is a Jew in every sense. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is this said? It is that if he reverts back to behaving as a gentile, he nevertheless remains Jewish, and so if he betroths a Jewish woman, although he is considered to be an apostate Jew, his betrothal is a valid betrothal.

讗讞讚 讙专 讜讗讞讚 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 拽住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诇拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪爪讜转 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘讙专 讗讘诇 讘注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇

The baraita continues: This applies both for a convert and for an emancipated slave. The Gemara considers the meaning of this clause: If it enters your mind to interpret the baraita to mean that a convert and an emancipated slave are the same with regard to accepting upon oneself the yoke of mitzvot, then one could raise a contradiction from that which is taught in another baraita: In what case is this statement that there is a need to accept the yoke of mitzvot said? It is with respect to a convert; however, an emancipated slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot when he immerses for the sake of emancipation. Rather, the immersion alone is sufficient to emancipate him and thereby render him a Jew.

讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讛讗 专讘谞谉

Rav Sheshet said: This is not difficult, as this baraita that states that an emancipated slave is not required to accept the yoke of mitzvot is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas that baraita that implies he is required to do so is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the first tanna of the following baraita.

讚转谞讬讗 讜讘讻转讛 讗转 讗讘讬讛 讜讗转 讗诪讛 讜讙讜壮 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 砖诇讗 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 讗讘诇 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 诪讟讘讬诇讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讛 诪讬讚

As it is taught in a baraita: The Torah permits a Jewish soldier to take a beautiful female prisoner of war out of her captivity in order to marry her. Before he may do so, she must first undergo the process that the Torah describes: 鈥淎nd she shall shave her head, and do her nails; and she shall remove the raiment of her captivity from upon her, and she shall remain in your house and bewail her father and her mother a month of days鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:12鈥13). She may then be immersed for the sake of conversion, even though she does not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. At that point it is permitted to marry her. The baraita asks: Under what circumstance are these matters stated? It is when she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot; however, if she willingly accepted upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, he may immerse her for the sake of conversion, and he is permitted to marry her immediately without the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 讻讜驻讛 讜诪讟讘讬诇讛 诇砖诐 砖驻讞讜转 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪讟讘讬诇讛 诇砖诐 砖讞专讜专 讜诪砖讞专专讛

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, the need for the process can still be circumvented if he forces her and immerses her for the sake of slavery, and then he again immerses her for the sake of emancipation and thereby emancipates her, rendering her a Jewess. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that the immersion of a slave for the sake of emancipation is effective even if the slave does not accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

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Yevamot 47 – Shabbat April 23

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Yevamot 47 – Shabbat April 23

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讗专抓 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗转讱 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘讗专抓 讘讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛

I have derived only that a convert is accepted in Eretz Yisrael; from where do I derive that also outside of Eretz Yisrael he is to be accepted? The verse states 鈥渨ith you,鈥 which indicates that in any place that he is with you, you should accept him. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: In the land? This indicates that in Eretz Yisrael he needs to bring evidence that he is a convert, but outside of Eretz Yisrael he does not need to bring evidence that he is a convert; rather, his claim is accepted. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Whether he is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence.

讘讗 讛讜讗 讜注讚讬讜 注诪讜 拽专讗 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讚讗诪专讬 砖诪注谞讜 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 驻诇讜谞讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讗 诇讬讛诪谞讬讬讛讜 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara analyzes the baraita: In the case when he came and brought witnesses to his conversion with him, why do I need a verse to teach that he is accepted? In all cases, the testimony of witnesses is fully relied upon. Rav Sheshet said: The case is where they say: We heard that he converted in the court of so-and-so, but they did not witness the actual conversion. And it is necessary to teach this because it could enter your mind to say that they should not be relied upon; therefore, the verse teaches us that they are relied upon.

讘讗专抓 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讗专抓 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗转讱 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗转讱 讜讛讗 讗驻讬拽转讬讛 讞讚讗 诪讗转讱 讜讞讚讗 诪注诪讱

As cited above, the latter clause of the baraita states: 鈥淲ith you in your land鈥 (Leviticus 19:33). I have derived only that a convert is accepted in Eretz Yisrael; from where do I derive that also outside of Eretz Yisrael he is to be accepted? The verse states: 鈥淲ith you,鈥 which indicates that in any place that he is with you, you should accept him. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you already expound that phrase in the first clause of the baraita to teach that one doesn鈥檛 accept the claims of an individual that he is a valid convert? The Gemara explains: One of these halakhot is derived from the phrase 鈥渨ith you鈥 in the verse cited, and the other one is derived from the phrase 鈥渨ith you鈥 in a subsequent verse (Leviticus 25:35).

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 讜讗诇讗 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讘讗专抓

The baraita states: And the Rabbis say: Whether he is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 鈥渋n your land鈥 written in the verse? How can the Rabbis deny any distinction between the halakha inside and outside of Eretz Yisrael?

讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讗专抓 诪拽讘诇讬诐 讙专讬诐 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 诪砖讜诐 讟讬讘讜转讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 拽诪讙讬讬专讬 讜讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 讚诇讬讻讗 讟讬讘讜转讗 讗讬讻讗 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara explains: That phrase is necessary to teach that even in Eretz Yisrael, the Jewish people should accept converts, as it could enter your mind to say that it is only for the sake of benefiting from the goodness of Eretz Yisrael, and not for the sake of Heaven, that they are converting, and therefore they should not be accepted. And it could also enter your mind to say that even nowadays, when God鈥檚 blessing has ceased and there is no longer the original goodness from which to benefit, one should still suspect their purity of motives because there are the gleanings, the forgotten sheaves, and the corners of fields, and the poor man鈥檚 tithe from which they would benefit by converting. Therefore, the verse teaches us that they are accepted even in Eretz Yisrael.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讘讬谉 讘讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 爪专讬讱 诇讛讘讬讗 专讗讬讛 驻砖讬讟讗 讬讞讬讚 讜专讘讬诐 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬诐 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住转讘专 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚拽诪住讬讬注讬 诇讬讛 拽专讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is that whether a convert is in Eretz Yisrael or whether he is outside of Eretz Yisrael, he needs to bring evidence. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this obvious; in all disputes between an individual Sage and many Sages the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the many Sages. The Gemara explains: It is necessary to state this lest you say that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 reason is more logical, being that the verse supports him when it states: 鈥淚n your land.鈥 Therefore, it is necessary for Rabbi Yo岣nan to teach us that the halakha is not in accordance with his opinion.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜砖驻讟转诐 爪讚拽 讘讬谉 讗讬砖 讜讘讬谉 讗讞讬讜 讜讘讬谉 讙专讜 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讙专 砖谞转讙讬讬专 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 讙专 讘讬谞讜 诇讘讬谉 注爪诪讜 讗讬谞讜 讙专

The Sages taught: The verse states that Moses charged the judges of a court: 鈥淎nd judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the convert with him鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:16). From here, based on the mention of a convert in the context of judgment in a court, Rabbi Yehuda said: A potential convert who converts in a court is a valid convert. However, if he converts in private, he is not a convert.

诪注砖讛 讘讗讞讚 砖讘讗 诇驻谞讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗诪专 诇讜 谞转讙讬讬专转讬 讘讬谞讬 诇讘讬谉 注爪诪讬 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讬砖 诇讱 注讚讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗讜 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讜 谞讗诪谉 讗转讛 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 注爪诪讱 讜讗讬 讗转讛 谞讗诪谉 诇驻住讜诇 讗转 讘谞讬讱

The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving one who was presumed to be Jewish who came before Rabbi Yehuda and said to him: I converted in private, and therefore I am not actually Jewish. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: Do you have witnesses to support your claim? He said to him: No. Rabbi Yehuda asked: Do you have children? He said to him: Yes. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: You are deemed credible in order to render yourself unfit to marry a Jewish woman by claiming that you are a gentile, but you are not deemed credible in order to render your children unfit.

[讜诪讬] 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讘谞讬诐 诇讗 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讬讻讬专 讬讻讬专谞讜 诇讗讞专讬诐 诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞讗诪谉 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讝讛 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专 讜讻砖诐 砖谞讗诪谉 诇讜诪专 讝讛 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专 讻讱 谞讗诪谉 诇讜诪专 讘谞讬 讝讛 讘谉 讙专讜砖讛 讛讜讗 讗讜 讘谉 讞诇讜爪讛 讛讜讗 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讗诪谉

The Gemara asks: But did Rabbi Yehuda actually say that with regard to his children he is not deemed credible? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗e shall acknowledge [yakir] the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:17). The phrase 鈥渉e shall acknowledge鈥 is apparently superfluous. It is therefore expounded to teach that the father is deemed credible so that he can identify him [yakirenu] to others. From here Rabbi Yehuda said: A man is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, and just as he is deemed credible to say: This is my firstborn son, so too, a priest is deemed credible to say: This son of mine is a son of a divorced woman and myself, or to say: He is a son of a 岣lutza and myself, and therefore he is disqualified due to flawed lineage [岣lal]. And the Rabbis say: He is not deemed credible. If Rabbi Yehuda holds that a father is deemed credible to render his children unfit, why did he rule otherwise in the case of the convert?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讚讘专讬讱 讙讜讬 讗转讛 讜讗讬谉 注讚讜转 诇讙讜讬 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬诐 讛谉 讬砖 诇讱 讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讛谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞讗诪谉 讗转讛 诇驻住讜诇 讘谞讬讱 讜讗讬 讗转讛 谞讗诪谉 诇驻住讜诇 讘谞讬 讘谞讬讱

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said that this is what Rabbi Yehuda said to him: According to your statement you are a gentile, and there is no testimony for a gentile, as a gentile is a disqualified witness. Consequently, you cannot testify about the status of your children and render them unfit. Ravina said that this is what Rabbi Yehuda said to him: Do you have children? He said: Yes. He said to him: Do you have grandchildren? He said: Yes. He said to him: You are deemed credible in order to render your children unfit, based on the phrase 鈥渉e shall acknowledge,鈥 but you are not deemed credible in order to render your grandchildren unfit, as the verse affords a father credibility only with respect to his children.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 谞讗诪谉 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 注诇 讘谞讜 拽讟谉 讜讗讬谉 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讘谞讜 讙讚讜诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 拽讟谉 拽讟谉 诪诪砖 讜诇讗 讙讚讜诇 讙讚讜诇 诪诪砖 讗诇讗 拽讟谉 讜讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讝讛讜 讙讚讜诇 讙讚讜诇 讜讗讬谉 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讝讛讜 拽讟谉

This opinion of Ravina is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: A man is deemed credible to say about his minor son that he is unfit, but he is not deemed credible to say about his adult son that he is unfit. And in explanation of the baraita, Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The reference to a minor son does not mean one who is literally a minor, who has not yet reached majority, and the reference to an adult son does not mean one who is literally an adult, who has reached majority; rather, a minor who has children, this is what the baraita is referring to as an adult, and an adult who does not have children, this is what the baraita is referring to as a minor.

讜讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬谞讗 讛讛讜讗 诇注谞讬谉 讬讻讬专 讗讬转诪专

The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Ravina? If there is a baraita that supports his opinion, the halakha should be in accordance with his opinion. The Gemara explains: That baraita was stated concerning the matter of 鈥渉e shall acknowledge,鈥 that a father is deemed credible to render his son unfit; however, if one claims he is a gentile, he is not deemed credible to say the same about his son.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙专 砖讘讗 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖讘讗转 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讗讬 讗转讛 讬讜讚注 砖讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讚讜讜讬讬诐 讚讞讜驻讬诐 住讞讜驻讬诐 讜诪讟讜专驻讬谉 讜讬住讜专讬谉 讘讗讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讗诐 讗讜诪专 讬讜讚注 讗谞讬 讜讗讬谞讬 讻讚讗讬 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, at the present time, when the Jews are in exile, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? Don鈥檛 you know that the Jewish people at the present time are anguished, suppressed, despised, and harassed, and hardships are frequently visited upon them? If he says: I know, and although I am unworthy of joining the Jewish people and sharing in their sorrow, I nevertheless desire to do so, then the court accepts him immediately to begin the conversion process.

讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注谞砖谉 砖诇 诪爪讜转 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖注讚 砖诇讗 讘讗转 诇诪讚讛 讝讜 讗讻诇转 讞诇讘 讗讬 讗转讛 注谞讜砖 讻专转 讞诇诇转 砖讘转 讗讬 讗转讛 注谞讜砖 住拽讬诇讛 讜注讻砖讬讜 讗讻诇转 讞诇讘 注谞讜砖 讻专转 讞诇诇转 砖讘转 注谞讜砖 住拽讬诇讛

And the judges of the court inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot, and they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field, and about the poor man鈥檚 tithe. And they inform him of the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, as follows: They say to him: Be aware that before you came to this status and converted, had you eaten forbidden fat, you would not be punished by karet, and had you profaned Shabbat, you would not be punished by stoning, since these prohibitions do not apply to gentiles. But now, once converted, if you have eaten forbidden fat you are punished by karet, and if you have profaned Shabbat, you are punished by stoning.

讜讻砖诐 砖诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 注谞砖谉 砖诇 诪爪讜转 讻讱 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪转谉 砖讻专谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讜讬 讬讜讚注 砖讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讬谞讜 注砖讜讬 讗诇讗 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讬谞诐 讬讻讜诇讬诐 诇拽讘诇

And just as they inform him about the punishment for transgressing the mitzvot, so too, they inform him about the reward granted for fulfilling them. They say to him: Be aware that the World-to-Come is made only for the righteous, and if you observe the mitzvot you will merit it, and be aware that the Jewish people, at the present time, are unable to receive their full reward in this world;

诇讗 专讜讘 讟讜讘讛 讜诇讗 专讜讘 驻讜专注谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 诪专讘讬谉 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讚拽讚拽讬谉 注诇讬讜

they are not able to receive either an abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities, since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot.

拽讬讘诇 诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 谞砖转讬讬专讜 讘讜 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讗转 讛诪讬诇讛 讞讜讝专讬诐 讜诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讬讛 谞转专驻讗 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬讜 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讜

If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a second time to remove them. When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion and inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. Once he has immersed and emerged, he is like a born Jew in every sense.

讗砖讛 谞砖讬诐 诪讜砖讬讘讜转 讗讜转讛 讘诪讬诐 注讚 爪讜讗专讛 讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 诇讛 诪讘讞讜抓 讜诪讜讚讬注讬谉 讗讜转讛 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转

For the immersion of a woman: Women appointed by the court seat her in the water of the ritual bath up to her neck, and two Torah scholars stand outside the bath house so as not to compromise her modesty, and from there they inform her of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.

讗讞讚 讙专 讜讗讞讚 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讜讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讚讛 讟讜讘诇转 砖诐 讙专 讜注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讟讜讘诇讬谉 讜讻诇 讚讘专 砖讞讜爪抓 讘讟讘讬诇讛 讞讜爪抓 讘讙专 讜讘注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讜讘谞讚讛

The procedure applies for both a convert and an emancipated slave who, upon immersion at the time of his emancipation, becomes a Jew in every sense. And in the same place that a menstruating woman immerses, i.e., in a ritual bath of forty se鈥檃 of water, there a convert and an emancipated slave also immerse. And anything that interposes between one鈥檚 body and the water of the ritual bath with regard to immersion of a ritually impure person, in a manner that would invalidate the immersion, also interposes and invalidates the immersion for a convert, and for an emancipated slave, and for a menstruating woman.

讗诪专 诪专 讙专 砖讘讗 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 诪讛 专讗讬转 砖讘讗转 诇讛转讙讬讬专 讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 拽诇讜转 讜诪拽爪转 诪爪讜转 讞诪讜专讜转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬 驻专讬砖 谞驻专讜砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 拽砖讬诐 讙专讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讻住驻讞转 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞诇讜讛 讛讙专 注诇讬讛诐 讜谞住驻讞讜 注诇 讘讬转 讬注拽讘

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The Master said in the baraita: With regard to a potential convert who comes to a court in order to convert, the judges of the court say to him: What did you see that motivated you to come to convert? And they inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to say this to him? It is so that if he is going to withdraw from the conversion process, let him withdraw already at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, as Rabbi 岣lbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scab [sappa岣t] on the skin, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [venispe岣] to the house of Jacob鈥 (Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.

讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 诇拽讟 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛 讜诪注砖专 注谞讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讞 谞讛专讙 注诇 驻讞讜转 诪砖讜讛 驻专讜讟讛 讜诇讗 谞讬转谉 诇讛砖讘讜谉

The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field, and about the poor man鈥檚 tithe. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to specifically mention these mitzvot? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Because a gentile is executed even on account of stealing less than the value of a peruta, since gentiles are particular about even such a small loss, and an item that a gentile steals is not subject to being returned, i.e., he is not obligated to return it to its owner. Since gentiles are unwilling to separate even from items of little value, a potential convert must be made aware that he if converts, he will be required to relinquish some of his property to others.

(讜诪讜讚讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 砖讻讞讛 讜驻讗讛) 讜讗讬谉 诪专讘讬诐 注诇讬讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讚拽讚拽讬诐 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 拽专讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜转专讗 讻讬 诪转讗诪爪转 讛讬讗 诇诇讻转 讗转讛 讜转讞讚诇 诇讚讘专 讗诇讬讛

The baraita continues: And they inform him of the sin of neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and produce in the corner of one鈥檚 field. And they do not overwhelm him with threats, and they are not exacting with him about the details of the mitzvot, i.e., the court should not overly dissuade the convert from converting. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the verse from which this ruling is derived? As it is written: 鈥淎nd when she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, she left off speaking with her鈥 (Ruth 1:18). When Naomi set out to return to Eretz Yisrael, Ruth insisted on joining her. The Gemara understands this to mean that Ruth wished to convert. Naomi attempted to dissuade her, but Ruth persisted. The verse states that once Naomi saw Ruth鈥檚 resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her. The Gemara infers from here that the same approach should be taken by a court in all cases of conversion.

讗诪专讛 诇讛 讗住讬专 诇谉 转讞讜诐 砖讘转 讘讗砖专 转诇讻讬 讗诇讱 讗住讬专 诇谉 讬讞讜讚 讘讗砖专 转诇讬谞讬 讗诇讬谉

The Gemara reconstructs the original dialogue in which Naomi attempted to dissuade Ruth from converting: Naomi said to her: On Shabbat, it is prohibited for us to go beyond the Shabbat limit. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you go, I shall go鈥 (Ruth 1:16), and no further. Naomi said to her: It is forbidden for us to be alone together with a man with whom it is forbidden to engage in relations. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you lodge, I shall lodge鈥 (Ruth 1:16), and in the same manner.

诪驻拽讚讬谞谉 砖砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪爪讜转 注诪讱 注诪讬 讗住讬专 诇谉 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗诇讛讬讱 讗诇讛讬 讗专讘注 诪讬转讜转 谞诪住专讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘讗砖专 转诪讜转讬 讗诪讜转 砖谞讬 拽讘专讬诐 谞诪住专讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜砖诐 讗拽讘专

Naomi said to her: We are commanded to observe six hundred and thirteen mitzvot. Ruth responded: 鈥淵our people are my people鈥 (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Idolatrous worship is forbidden to us. Ruth responded: 鈥淵our God is my God鈥 (Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: Four types of capital punishment were handed over to a court with which to punish those who transgress the mitzvot. Ruth responded: 鈥淲here you die, I shall die鈥 (Ruth 1:17). Naomi said to her: Two burial grounds were handed over to the court, one for those executed for more severe crimes and another for those executed for less severe crimes. Ruth responded: 鈥淎nd there I shall be buried鈥 (Ruth 1:17).

诪讬讚 讜转专讗 讻讬 诪转讗诪爪转 讛讬讗 讜讙讜壮

Immediately following this dialogue, the verse states: 鈥淎nd when she saw that she was steadfastly minded she left off speaking with her鈥 (Ruth 1:18). Once Naomi saw Ruth鈥檚 resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her.

拽讬讘诇 诪诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讛讜讬讬 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 诪砖讛讬谞谉

The baraita continues: If he accepts upon himself all of these ramifications, then they circumcise him immediately. The Gemara asks: What is the reason to act immediately? It is that we do not delay the performance of a mitzva.

谞砖转讬讬专讜 讘讜 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讛诪讬诇讛 讜讻讜壮 讻讚转谞谉 讗诇讜 讛谉 爪讬爪讬谉 讛诪注讻讘讬谉 讛诪讬诇讛 讘砖专 讛讞讜驻讛 讗转 专讜讘 讛注讟专讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇 讘转专讜诪讛 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讘砖专 讛讞讜驻讛 专讜讘 讙讜讘讛讛 砖诇 注讟专讛

The baraita continues: If there still remain on him shreds of flesh from the foreskin that invalidate the circumcision, he is circumcised a second time to remove them. The Gemara explains: This is as we learned in a mishna (Shabbat 137a): These are the shreds of flesh that invalidate the circumcision if they are not cut: Any fragments of the flesh that cover the greater part of the corona. If such shreds remain, the child is considered uncircumcised, and he may not partake of teruma. And in explanation of this mishna, Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rav said: This also includes the flesh that covers the greater part of the height of the corona.

谞转专驻讗 诪讟讘讬诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 谞转专驻讗 讗讬谉 诇讗 谞转专驻讗 诇讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讗 诪专讝讜 诪讻讛

The baraita continues: When he is healed from the circumcision, they immerse him immediately. The Gemara infers from the precise formulation of the baraita that when he has healed, then yes, he is immersed, but as long as he has not healed, then no, he is not. What is the reason for this? It is because water agitates a wound.

讜砖谞讬 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 注讜诪讚讬诐 注诇 讙讘讬讜 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙专 爪专讬讱 砖诇砖讛 讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇转谞讗 转谞讬 砖诇砖讛

The baraita continues: And two Torah scholars stand over him at the time of his immersion. The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣yya say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said that a convert requires a court of three to be present at his conversion? The Gemara answers: In fact, Rabbi Yo岣nan said to the tanna reciting the mishna: Do not teach that there are two Torah scholars; rather, teach that there are three.

讟讘诇 讜注诇讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讬砖专讗诇 诇讻诇 讚讘专讬讜 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讚讗讬 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讜诪拽讚砖 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜诪专 拽专讬谞讗 讘讬讛 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉

The baraita continues: Once he has immersed and emerged he is a Jew in every sense. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is this said? It is that if he reverts back to behaving as a gentile, he nevertheless remains Jewish, and so if he betroths a Jewish woman, although he is considered to be an apostate Jew, his betrothal is a valid betrothal.

讗讞讚 讙专 讜讗讞讚 注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 拽住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诇拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪爪讜转 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘讙专 讗讘诇 讘注讘讚 诪砖讜讞专专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇拽讘诇

The baraita continues: This applies both for a convert and for an emancipated slave. The Gemara considers the meaning of this clause: If it enters your mind to interpret the baraita to mean that a convert and an emancipated slave are the same with regard to accepting upon oneself the yoke of mitzvot, then one could raise a contradiction from that which is taught in another baraita: In what case is this statement that there is a need to accept the yoke of mitzvot said? It is with respect to a convert; however, an emancipated slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot when he immerses for the sake of emancipation. Rather, the immersion alone is sufficient to emancipate him and thereby render him a Jew.

讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讛讗 专讘谞谉

Rav Sheshet said: This is not difficult, as this baraita that states that an emancipated slave is not required to accept the yoke of mitzvot is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, whereas that baraita that implies he is required to do so is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the first tanna of the following baraita.

讚转谞讬讗 讜讘讻转讛 讗转 讗讘讬讛 讜讗转 讗诪讛 讜讙讜壮 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 砖诇讗 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 讗讘诇 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 诪讟讘讬诇讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讛 诪讬讚

As it is taught in a baraita: The Torah permits a Jewish soldier to take a beautiful female prisoner of war out of her captivity in order to marry her. Before he may do so, she must first undergo the process that the Torah describes: 鈥淎nd she shall shave her head, and do her nails; and she shall remove the raiment of her captivity from upon her, and she shall remain in your house and bewail her father and her mother a month of days鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:12鈥13). She may then be immersed for the sake of conversion, even though she does not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. At that point it is permitted to marry her. The baraita asks: Under what circumstance are these matters stated? It is when she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot; however, if she willingly accepted upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, he may immerse her for the sake of conversion, and he is permitted to marry her immediately without the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 拽讘诇讛 注诇讬讛 讻讜驻讛 讜诪讟讘讬诇讛 诇砖诐 砖驻讞讜转 讜讞讜讝专 讜诪讟讘讬诇讛 诇砖诐 砖讞专讜专 讜诪砖讞专专讛

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if she did not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot, the need for the process can still be circumvented if he forces her and immerses her for the sake of slavery, and then he again immerses her for the sake of emancipation and thereby emancipates her, rendering her a Jewess. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that the immersion of a slave for the sake of emancipation is effective even if the slave does not accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

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