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Today's Daf Yomi

January 13, 2019 | ื–ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Chullin 47

Cases regarding different issues in the lungs are discussed – are they considered treifa or not?


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ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืชืจืชื™ ื‘ื•ืขื™ ื“ืกืžื™ื›ื™ ืœื”ื“ื“ื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืชื ื—ื“ื ื•ืžืชื—ื–ื™ื ื›ืชืจืชื™ ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืกื™ืœื•ื ื•ื‘ื–ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืื™ ืฉืคื›ืŸ ืœื”ื“ื“ื™ ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ืชืจืชื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื•ื˜ืจืคื”

And Rava says: These two cysts that are adjacent to one another on the lung have no need for inspection. The animal is definitely a tereifa, since it is presumed that the cysts formed around a perforation in the lung. But if there is only one cyst that looks like two, due to a depression in the middle, we bring a thorn and pierce it to remove the fluid inside. If the fluids from either side empty into one another, this indicates that it is one cyst, and the animal is kosher. And if not, they are two separate cysts, and the animal is a tereifa.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื—ืžืฉ ืื•ื ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื” ืœืจื™ืื” ืืคื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ืชืœืชื ืžื™ืžื™ื ื ื•ืชืจืชื™ ืžืฉืžืืœื ื—ืกื™ืจ ืื• ื™ืชื™ืจ ืื• ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื˜ืจืคื”

ยง And Rava says: The lung has five lobes [unnei]. When the animal hangs by its legs with its face toward the person checking it, he sees three lobes on his right and two on his left. If the animal is missing a lobe or has an extra lobe, or if the lobes were switched, with two on the right and three on the left, the animal is a tereifa.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ืชื™ืจืชื ื“ืืชืื™ ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืžืจื™ืžืจ ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืื—ื ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื›ืฉืจื” ื ื™ื”ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื“ืจ ืขื™ื™ืœื” ืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ื‘ื ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื‘ื™ืชืจืช

The Gemara relates that a certain lung that had an extra lobe was brought before Mareimar. Rav Aแธฅa was sitting at the door of Mareimarโ€™s house. When the animalโ€™s owner was leaving, Rav Aแธฅa said to him: What did Mareimar say to you? The man said to him: Mareimar deemed it kosher. Rav Aแธฅa was surprised by this, because it contradicts Ravaโ€™s statement, so he said to him: Turn around and bring the animal before him. The owner did so. Mareimar realized why he was being asked twice, and said to him: Go tell whomever is sitting at the door: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rava in the case of an animal that has an extra lobe.

ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืงื™ื™ืžื ื‘ื“ืจื ื“ืื•ื ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื˜ืจืคื”

The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe stands in line with the other lobes, on the left or right. But if it is in between the two sides, the animal is a tereifa.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœืžื™ื˜ืจืคื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืจ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื—ื™ื•ื™ ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื•ืงืจื• ืœื” ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ ืขื™ื ื•ื ื™ืชื ื“ื•ื•ืจื“ื ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื’ื•ืื™

The Gemara relates that a certain animal with an extra lobe in between the two sides was brought before Rav Ashi. Rav Ashi thought to deem it a tereifa. Rav Huna Mar bar Avya said to him: All those animals that graze outside in the fields have extra lobes like this, and butchers call it the little rose lobe. The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe is on the inside face of the lung, facing the heart.

ืื‘ืœ ืื’ื‘ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื˜ืจืคื ื“ืืกื ื˜ืจืคื”

But if it is on the back of the lung, even if it is as small as a myrtle leaf, the animal is a tereifa.

ืืžืจ ืจืคืจื ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœืื•ืคืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื—ื–ื•ืชื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื’ื™ืฉืชื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ื ืคื™ื—ื” ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืคื—ื™ื–ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืฉื™ืขื ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื” ื—ื™ืชื•ื›ื ื“ืื•ื ื™

ยง Rafram says: This lung that is similar to a chip of wood renders the animal a tereifa. There are those who say that the similarity lies in its appearance, i.e., if it is pale like wood. And there are those who say that it lies in its feeling, i.e., if it is hard like wood. There are those who say that it is swollen. And there are those who say that it is light. And there are those who say that it is completely smooth, that it has no sectioning of lobes.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ื›ื•ื—ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ื›ื“ื™ื•ืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืื“ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืฉืœืงื”

ยง Rava says: If the lung assumed a dark color like eye shadow, the animal is kosher. If its color is black like ink, the animal is a tereifa. As Rabbi แธคanina says: Menstrual blood that appears black is actually red, except that it decayed. Black color is therefore a sign of decay, and the lung is assumed to be defective.

ื™ืจื•ืงื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื“ื•ืžื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืœื›ืจื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืืชื” ืืฉื” ืื—ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœื” ื‘ื ื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืžืช ืฉื ื™ ื•ืžืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืืชื• ืœืคื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื“ื•ื ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื™ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืœืข ื‘ื• ื“ืžื• ื”ืžืชื™ื ื” ืœื• ื•ืžืœื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื ืชืŸ ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืขืœ ืฉืžื™

The Gemara continues: If the lung was green, the animal is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. And if it was red, it is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: Once I went to the cities overseas, where one woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died, and out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was red, so I said to her: My daughter, wait for him until his blood is absorbed into him. She waited for him until his blood was absorbed into him and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call him Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a red lung can heal.

ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืœืžื“ื™ื ืช ืงืคื•ื˜ืงื™ื ื‘ืืชื” ืืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœื” ื‘ื ื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืžืช ืฉื ื™ ื•ืžืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืืชื• ืœืคื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ืจื•ืง ื”ืฆืฆืชื™ ื‘ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื• ื“ื ื‘ืจื™ืช ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื™ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื• ื“ืžื• ื”ืžืชื™ื ื” ืœื• ื•ืžืœื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื ืชืŸ ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืขืœ ืฉืžื™

Rabbi Natan further related: And on another occasion I went to the state of Cappadocia, and a woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died. Out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was green, i.e., pale. I looked at him and saw that he did not have the blood of circumcision in him, i.e., he had a deficiency of blood such that no blood would emerge from the circumcision. I said to her: My daughter, wait until his blood enters him. She waited for his blood to increase and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call his name Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a green lung can heal as well.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ื›ื‘ื“ื ื›ืฉืจื” ื›ื‘ืฉืจื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ืš ื•ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื˜ืจืคื”

Rav Kahana says: If the lung has an appearance like the liver, the animal is kosher. If it has an appearance like flesh, the animal is a tereifa. And your mnemonic to remember that the latter is a tereifa is the verse: โ€œYou shall not eat any flesh that is torn of animals [tereifa] in the fieldโ€ (Exodus 22:30).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืกืžื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ื“ืžื™ื ื›ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื•ื›ืžื•ืจื™ืงื ื•ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ืืœื ื™ืจื•ืงื” ื“ื›ืฉืจื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ื ื›ื›ืจืชื™

Rav Sama, son of Rava, says: This lung whose appearance resembles dodder, or saffron, or has a yellow color such as that of an egg yolk, renders the animal a tereifa. Since all of these appearances are various shades of green, the Gemara asks: But the green lung that is kosher, what is it like? The Gemara responds: It is like a leek.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื˜ื•ื ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืกื›ื™ื ื ื•ืงืจืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžื•ื’ืœื ื•ื“ืื™ ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ื’ืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื’ื“ืคื ืื• ืจื•ืงื ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื˜ืจืคื”

ยง Ravina says: If there was a sealed area in the lung that does not inflate, we bring a knife and tear it open. If there is pus in the sealed area, then it was definitely sealed due to the pus, and the animal is kosher. But if we do not find pus there, we lay a feather or saliva on the opening and inflate the lung. If the saliva bubbles or the feather moves, the animal is kosher, since some air does reach the area, and if not, there is some defect in the lung, and the animal is a tereifa.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืจื•ื ืฉืขืœื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื›ื” ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืื™ื ื• ืงืจื•ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ืื•ื•ืฉื ืื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื›ื ืื•ื•ืฉื ืžื ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื’ื“ืคื ืื• ื’ื™ืœื ืื• ืจื•ืงื ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื›ื•ืชื ื“ืžื™ื ืคืฉื•ืจื™ ื•ืžื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื”

Rav Yosef says: A membrane that appeared due to a wound in the lung, i.e., a scab that covered a perforation through the lung, is not considered a true membrane, since it does not last. And Rav Yosef says: With regard to this lung that emits a sound when inflated, if we know from where it emits a sound, we set a feather, or straw, or saliva on that point. If the saliva bubbles when the lung is inflated, the animal is a tereifa, since this proves that the lung is perforated through both membranes. And if not, the animal is kosher. And if we do not know from where it emits a sound, we bring a basin of tepid water and set the lung inside it.

ื‘ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื“ื›ื•ื•ืฆื™ ื‘ืงืจื™ืจื™ ืœื ื“ืžื˜ืจืฉื™ ืืœื ื‘ื“ืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ืคืฉื•ืจื™ ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ืชืชืื” ืื™ื ืงื™ื‘ ืขื™ืœืื” ืœื ืื™ื ืงื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืื™ ื“ืื•ื•ืฉื ื–ื™ืงื ื“ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื”ื•ื

One cannot place it in hot water, as it causes the lung to contract, closing the perforation. And one cannot place it in cold water, as it hardens the lung and may cause it to crack. Rather, we check it in tepid water. If the water bubbles, the animal is a tereifa. And if not, the animal is kosher, since it is apparent that only the inner membrane is perforated and the outer membrane is not perforated, and the fact that it emits a sound is due to the air moving in the space between the two membranes.

ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ืฉืคื›ื” ื›ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ื›ืฉืจื” ืืœืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืœื ืฉืžื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ

ยง Ulla says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: An animal with a lung that liquefied and can be poured out like water from a jug is kosher. The Gemara notes: Evidently, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan holds that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is not considered a deficiency. Only a deficiency in the wall or membrane of an organ renders an animal a tereifa.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืื• ืฉื—ืกืจื” ืžืื™ ื—ืกืจื” ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืืœื ืœืื• ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืฉืžื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ

Rabbi Abba raised an objection to Ulla from the mishna, which states: The lung that was perforated or that was missing a piece renders the animal a tereifa. What is the case of a lung that was missing a piece? If we say that it was missing a piece on the outside, this is the same as if it was perforated, since any missing piece of the lung wall would constitute a perforation. Rather, is it not referring to a missing piece on the inside? If so, learn from the mishna that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is considered a deficiency to render the animal a tereifa.

ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื“ืงื ืืžืจืช ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืงื‘ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืžืคื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื ืงื‘ ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื ืงื‘ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื”

The Gemara responds: No, the mishna actually is referring to a missing piece on the outside. And with regard to that which you said: This is the same as if it was perforated, one may respond that no, it is necessary to mention both cases to account for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in the mishna, who says: It is not a tereifa until the lung is perforated through to the bronchi. By mentioning both cases, the mishna teaches that this statement of Rabbi Shimon applies only to a small perforation that does not constitute a deficiency. But in the case of a perforation so large that it constitutes a deficiency, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it renders the animal a tereifa even if the perforation does not reach the bronchi.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ ื”ื“ื•ืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืงืžื™ื” ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ืฉืคื›ื” ื›ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ื•ืื›ืฉืจื”

The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคananya became sick. Rabbi Natan and all the eminent scholars of the generation entered before him to visit. They brought before him a lung that could be poured out like water from a jug, and he deemed the animal kosher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืกืžืคื•ื ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžื ื ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืฆืขื ื“ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืคื›ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™ ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื”

Rava said: This is the halakha only if the bronchi still exist and only the flesh of the lung has liquefied. Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: From where do we know whether the bronchi still exist? Rav Ashi said to him: We bring a glazed earthenware vessel with no cracks, so the contents can be observed, and we pour the lung into it. If there are white streaks in it, the animal is a tereifa, as the white streaks are remains of the liquefied bronchi. And if not, the animal is kosher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืžื•ืงื” ื•ืงืจื•ื ืฉืœื” ืงื™ื™ื ื›ืฉืจื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืžื•ืงื” ื•ืงืจื•ื ืฉืœื” ืงื™ื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื—ื–ืงืช ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื›ืฉืจื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื”

Rav Naแธฅman says: If the lung was partially atrophied and only part of the flesh remains, but its membrane still exists, the animal is kosher. The Gemara notes: This is also taught in a baraita: If the lung was atrophied, but its membrane still exists, even if the space vacated by the atrophied lung can hold a quarter-log of fluid, the animal is kosher.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Chullin 47

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chullin 47

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืชืจืชื™ ื‘ื•ืขื™ ื“ืกืžื™ื›ื™ ืœื”ื“ื“ื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืชื ื—ื“ื ื•ืžืชื—ื–ื™ื ื›ืชืจืชื™ ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืกื™ืœื•ื ื•ื‘ื–ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืื™ ืฉืคื›ืŸ ืœื”ื“ื“ื™ ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ืชืจืชื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื•ื˜ืจืคื”

And Rava says: These two cysts that are adjacent to one another on the lung have no need for inspection. The animal is definitely a tereifa, since it is presumed that the cysts formed around a perforation in the lung. But if there is only one cyst that looks like two, due to a depression in the middle, we bring a thorn and pierce it to remove the fluid inside. If the fluids from either side empty into one another, this indicates that it is one cyst, and the animal is kosher. And if not, they are two separate cysts, and the animal is a tereifa.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื—ืžืฉ ืื•ื ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื” ืœืจื™ืื” ืืคื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ืชืœืชื ืžื™ืžื™ื ื ื•ืชืจืชื™ ืžืฉืžืืœื ื—ืกื™ืจ ืื• ื™ืชื™ืจ ืื• ื—ืœื™ืฃ ื˜ืจืคื”

ยง And Rava says: The lung has five lobes [unnei]. When the animal hangs by its legs with its face toward the person checking it, he sees three lobes on his right and two on his left. If the animal is missing a lobe or has an extra lobe, or if the lobes were switched, with two on the right and three on the left, the animal is a tereifa.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ืชื™ืจืชื ื“ืืชืื™ ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืžืจื™ืžืจ ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืื—ื ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื›ืฉืจื” ื ื™ื”ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื“ืจ ืขื™ื™ืœื” ืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ื‘ื ืœื™ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื‘ื™ืชืจืช

The Gemara relates that a certain lung that had an extra lobe was brought before Mareimar. Rav Aแธฅa was sitting at the door of Mareimarโ€™s house. When the animalโ€™s owner was leaving, Rav Aแธฅa said to him: What did Mareimar say to you? The man said to him: Mareimar deemed it kosher. Rav Aแธฅa was surprised by this, because it contradicts Ravaโ€™s statement, so he said to him: Turn around and bring the animal before him. The owner did so. Mareimar realized why he was being asked twice, and said to him: Go tell whomever is sitting at the door: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rava in the case of an animal that has an extra lobe.

ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืงื™ื™ืžื ื‘ื“ืจื ื“ืื•ื ื™ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื˜ืจืคื”

The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe stands in line with the other lobes, on the left or right. But if it is in between the two sides, the animal is a tereifa.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœืžื™ื˜ืจืคื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืจ ื‘ืจ ืื•ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื—ื™ื•ื™ ื‘ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื•ืงืจื• ืœื” ื˜ื‘ื—ื™ ืขื™ื ื•ื ื™ืชื ื“ื•ื•ืจื“ื ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื’ื•ืื™

The Gemara relates that a certain animal with an extra lobe in between the two sides was brought before Rav Ashi. Rav Ashi thought to deem it a tereifa. Rav Huna Mar bar Avya said to him: All those animals that graze outside in the fields have extra lobes like this, and butchers call it the little rose lobe. The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe is on the inside face of the lung, facing the heart.

ืื‘ืœ ืื’ื‘ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื˜ืจืคื ื“ืืกื ื˜ืจืคื”

But if it is on the back of the lung, even if it is as small as a myrtle leaf, the animal is a tereifa.

ืืžืจ ืจืคืจื ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœืื•ืคืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื—ื–ื•ืชื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื’ื™ืฉืชื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ื ืคื™ื—ื” ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืคื—ื™ื–ื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืฉื™ืขื ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื” ื—ื™ืชื•ื›ื ื“ืื•ื ื™

ยง Rafram says: This lung that is similar to a chip of wood renders the animal a tereifa. There are those who say that the similarity lies in its appearance, i.e., if it is pale like wood. And there are those who say that it lies in its feeling, i.e., if it is hard like wood. There are those who say that it is swollen. And there are those who say that it is light. And there are those who say that it is completely smooth, that it has no sectioning of lobes.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื›ื›ื•ื—ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ื›ื“ื™ื•ืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืื“ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืฉืœืงื”

ยง Rava says: If the lung assumed a dark color like eye shadow, the animal is kosher. If its color is black like ink, the animal is a tereifa. As Rabbi แธคanina says: Menstrual blood that appears black is actually red, except that it decayed. Black color is therefore a sign of decay, and the lung is assumed to be defective.

ื™ืจื•ืงื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื“ื•ืžื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืœื›ืจื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืืชื” ืืฉื” ืื—ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœื” ื‘ื ื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืžืช ืฉื ื™ ื•ืžืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืืชื• ืœืคื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ืื“ื•ื ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื™ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ืœืข ื‘ื• ื“ืžื• ื”ืžืชื™ื ื” ืœื• ื•ืžืœื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื ืชืŸ ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืขืœ ืฉืžื™

The Gemara continues: If the lung was green, the animal is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. And if it was red, it is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: Once I went to the cities overseas, where one woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died, and out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was red, so I said to her: My daughter, wait for him until his blood is absorbed into him. She waited for him until his blood was absorbed into him and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call him Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a red lung can heal.

ื•ืฉื•ื‘ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ืœื›ืชื™ ืœืžื“ื™ื ืช ืงืคื•ื˜ืงื™ื ื‘ืืชื” ืืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœื” ื‘ื ื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืžืช ืฉื ื™ ื•ืžืช ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื”ื‘ื™ืืชื• ืœืคื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ื• ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ืจื•ืง ื”ืฆืฆืชื™ ื‘ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื• ื“ื ื‘ืจื™ืช ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื™ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื• ื“ืžื• ื”ืžืชื™ื ื” ืœื• ื•ืžืœื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื ืชืŸ ื”ื‘ื‘ืœื™ ืขืœ ืฉืžื™

Rabbi Natan further related: And on another occasion I went to the state of Cappadocia, and a woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died. Out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was green, i.e., pale. I looked at him and saw that he did not have the blood of circumcision in him, i.e., he had a deficiency of blood such that no blood would emerge from the circumcision. I said to her: My daughter, wait until his blood enters him. She waited for his blood to increase and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call his name Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a green lung can heal as well.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ื›ื‘ื“ื ื›ืฉืจื” ื›ื‘ืฉืจื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ืš ื•ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื˜ืจืคื”

Rav Kahana says: If the lung has an appearance like the liver, the animal is kosher. If it has an appearance like flesh, the animal is a tereifa. And your mnemonic to remember that the latter is a tereifa is the verse: โ€œYou shall not eat any flesh that is torn of animals [tereifa] in the fieldโ€ (Exodus 22:30).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืกืžื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ื“ืžื™ื ื›ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื•ื›ืžื•ืจื™ืงื ื•ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื˜ืจืคื” ืืœื ื™ืจื•ืงื” ื“ื›ืฉืจื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ื ื›ื›ืจืชื™

Rav Sama, son of Rava, says: This lung whose appearance resembles dodder, or saffron, or has a yellow color such as that of an egg yolk, renders the animal a tereifa. Since all of these appearances are various shades of green, the Gemara asks: But the green lung that is kosher, what is it like? The Gemara responds: It is like a leek.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื˜ื•ื ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืกื›ื™ื ื ื•ืงืจืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžื•ื’ืœื ื•ื“ืื™ ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ื’ืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื’ื“ืคื ืื• ืจื•ืงื ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื˜ืจืคื”

ยง Ravina says: If there was a sealed area in the lung that does not inflate, we bring a knife and tear it open. If there is pus in the sealed area, then it was definitely sealed due to the pus, and the animal is kosher. But if we do not find pus there, we lay a feather or saliva on the opening and inflate the lung. If the saliva bubbles or the feather moves, the animal is kosher, since some air does reach the area, and if not, there is some defect in the lung, and the animal is a tereifa.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืจื•ื ืฉืขืœื” ืžื—ืžืช ืžื›ื” ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืื™ื ื• ืงืจื•ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ืจื™ืื” ื“ืื•ื•ืฉื ืื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื›ื ืื•ื•ืฉื ืžื ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื” ื’ื“ืคื ืื• ื’ื™ืœื ืื• ืจื•ืงื ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื›ื•ืชื ื“ืžื™ื ืคืฉื•ืจื™ ื•ืžื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื”

Rav Yosef says: A membrane that appeared due to a wound in the lung, i.e., a scab that covered a perforation through the lung, is not considered a true membrane, since it does not last. And Rav Yosef says: With regard to this lung that emits a sound when inflated, if we know from where it emits a sound, we set a feather, or straw, or saliva on that point. If the saliva bubbles when the lung is inflated, the animal is a tereifa, since this proves that the lung is perforated through both membranes. And if not, the animal is kosher. And if we do not know from where it emits a sound, we bring a basin of tepid water and set the lung inside it.

ื‘ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื“ื›ื•ื•ืฆื™ ื‘ืงืจื™ืจื™ ืœื ื“ืžื˜ืจืฉื™ ืืœื ื‘ื“ืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ืคืฉื•ืจื™ ืื™ ืžื‘ืฆื‘ืฆื ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื” ืชืชืื” ืื™ื ืงื™ื‘ ืขื™ืœืื” ืœื ืื™ื ืงื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืื™ ื“ืื•ื•ืฉื ื–ื™ืงื ื“ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื”ื•ื

One cannot place it in hot water, as it causes the lung to contract, closing the perforation. And one cannot place it in cold water, as it hardens the lung and may cause it to crack. Rather, we check it in tepid water. If the water bubbles, the animal is a tereifa. And if not, the animal is kosher, since it is apparent that only the inner membrane is perforated and the outer membrane is not perforated, and the fact that it emits a sound is due to the air moving in the space between the two membranes.

ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ืฉืคื›ื” ื›ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ื›ืฉืจื” ืืœืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืœื ืฉืžื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ

ยง Ulla says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: An animal with a lung that liquefied and can be poured out like water from a jug is kosher. The Gemara notes: Evidently, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan holds that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is not considered a deficiency. Only a deficiency in the wall or membrane of an organ renders an animal a tereifa.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืื• ืฉื—ืกืจื” ืžืื™ ื—ืกืจื” ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืืœื ืœืื• ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืฉืžื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ

Rabbi Abba raised an objection to Ulla from the mishna, which states: The lung that was perforated or that was missing a piece renders the animal a tereifa. What is the case of a lung that was missing a piece? If we say that it was missing a piece on the outside, this is the same as if it was perforated, since any missing piece of the lung wall would constitute a perforation. Rather, is it not referring to a missing piece on the inside? If so, learn from the mishna that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is considered a deficiency to render the animal a tereifa.

ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื“ืงื ืืžืจืช ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื ื™ืงื‘ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉืชื ืงื‘ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืžืคื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื ืงื‘ ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื ืงื‘ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื—ืกืจื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื”

The Gemara responds: No, the mishna actually is referring to a missing piece on the outside. And with regard to that which you said: This is the same as if it was perforated, one may respond that no, it is necessary to mention both cases to account for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in the mishna, who says: It is not a tereifa until the lung is perforated through to the bronchi. By mentioning both cases, the mishna teaches that this statement of Rabbi Shimon applies only to a small perforation that does not constitute a deficiency. But in the case of a perforation so large that it constitutes a deficiency, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it renders the animal a tereifa even if the perforation does not reach the bronchi.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ ื”ื“ื•ืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืงืžื™ื” ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ืฉืคื›ื” ื›ืงื™ืชื•ืŸ ื•ืื›ืฉืจื”

The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคananya became sick. Rabbi Natan and all the eminent scholars of the generation entered before him to visit. They brought before him a lung that could be poured out like water from a jug, and he deemed the animal kosher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื™ื™ืžื™ ืกืžืคื•ื ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžื ื ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ืฆืขื ื“ืงื•ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืคื›ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™ ื˜ืจืคื” ื•ืื™ ืœื ื›ืฉืจื”

Rava said: This is the halakha only if the bronchi still exist and only the flesh of the lung has liquefied. Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: From where do we know whether the bronchi still exist? Rav Ashi said to him: We bring a glazed earthenware vessel with no cracks, so the contents can be observed, and we pour the lung into it. If there are white streaks in it, the animal is a tereifa, as the white streaks are remains of the liquefied bronchi. And if not, the animal is kosher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืžื•ืงื” ื•ืงืจื•ื ืฉืœื” ืงื™ื™ื ื›ืฉืจื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืจื™ืื” ืฉื ื™ืžื•ืงื” ื•ืงืจื•ื ืฉืœื” ืงื™ื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื—ื–ืงืช ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื›ืฉืจื” ื ื™ื˜ืœื”

Rav Naแธฅman says: If the lung was partially atrophied and only part of the flesh remains, but its membrane still exists, the animal is kosher. The Gemara notes: This is also taught in a baraita: If the lung was atrophied, but its membrane still exists, even if the space vacated by the atrophied lung can hold a quarter-log of fluid, the animal is kosher.

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