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January 13, 2019 | 讝壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讟

Chullin 47

Cases regarding different issues in the lungs are discussed – are they considered treifa or not?


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讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转专转讬 讘讜注讬 讚住诪讬讻讬 诇讛讚讚讬 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讘讚讬拽讜转讗 讞讚讗 讜诪转讞讝讬讗 讻转专转讬 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 住讬诇讜讗 讜讘讝注讬谞谉 诇讛 讗讬 砖驻讻谉 诇讛讚讚讬 讞讚讗 讛讬讗 讜讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讟专驻讛


And Rava says: These two cysts that are adjacent to one another on the lung have no need for inspection. The animal is definitely a tereifa, since it is presumed that the cysts formed around a perforation in the lung. But if there is only one cyst that looks like two, due to a depression in the middle, we bring a thorn and pierce it to remove the fluid inside. If the fluids from either side empty into one another, this indicates that it is one cyst, and the animal is kosher. And if not, they are two separate cysts, and the animal is a tereifa.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讞诪砖 讗讜谞讬 讗讬转 诇讛 诇专讬讗讛 讗驻讛 讻诇驻讬 讙讘专讗 转诇转讗 诪讬诪讬谞讗 讜转专转讬 诪砖诪讗诇讗 讞住讬专 讗讜 讬转讬专 讗讜 讞诇讬祝 讟专驻讛


And Rava says: The lung has five lobes [unnei]. When the animal hangs by its legs with its face toward the person checking it, he sees three lobes on his right and two on his left. If the animal is missing a lobe or has an extra lobe, or if the lobes were switched, with two on the right and three on the left, the animal is a tereifa.


讛讛讜讗 讬转讬专转讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪专讬诪专 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讻砖专讛 谞讬讛诇讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讚专 注讬讬诇讛 拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诇诪讗谉 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘讘讗 诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讗 讘讬转专转


The Gemara relates that a certain lung that had an extra lobe was brought before Mareimar. Rav A岣 was sitting at the door of Mareimar鈥檚 house. When the animal鈥檚 owner was leaving, Rav A岣 said to him: What did Mareimar say to you? The man said to him: Mareimar deemed it kosher. Rav A岣 was surprised by this, because it contradicts Rava鈥檚 statement, so he said to him: Turn around and bring the animal before him. The owner did so. Mareimar realized why he was being asked twice, and said to him: Go tell whomever is sitting at the door: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rava in the case of an animal that has an extra lobe.


讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讘讚专讗 讚讗讜谞讬 讗讘诇 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讟专驻讛


The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe stands in line with the other lobes, on the left or right. But if it is in between the two sides, the animal is a tereifa.


讛讛讜讗 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 住讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇诪讬讟专驻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪专 讘专 讗讜讬讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讞讬讜讬 讘专讬讬转讗 讛讻讬 讗讬转 诇讛讜 讜拽专讜 诇讛 讟讘讞讬 注讬谞讜谞讬转讗 讚讜讜专讚讗 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讙讜讗讬


The Gemara relates that a certain animal with an extra lobe in between the two sides was brought before Rav Ashi. Rav Ashi thought to deem it a tereifa. Rav Huna Mar bar Avya said to him: All those animals that graze outside in the fields have extra lobes like this, and butchers call it the little rose lobe. The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe is on the inside face of the lung, facing the heart.


讗讘诇 讗讙讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讟专驻讗 讚讗住讗 讟专驻讛


But if it is on the back of the lung, even if it is as small as a myrtle leaf, the animal is a tereifa.


讗诪专 专驻专诐 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讚诪讬讗 诇讗讜驻转讗 讟专驻讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讞讝讜转讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讙讬砖转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚谞驻讬讞讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚驻讞讬讝讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚砖讬注讗 讚诇讬转 诇讛 讞讬转讜讻讗 讚讗讜谞讬


Rafram says: This lung that is similar to a chip of wood renders the animal a tereifa. There are those who say that the similarity lies in its appearance, i.e., if it is pale like wood. And there are those who say that it lies in its feeling, i.e., if it is hard like wood. There are those who say that it is swollen. And there are those who say that it is light. And there are those who say that it is completely smooth, that it has no sectioning of lobes.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讻讻讜讞诇讗 讻砖专讛 讻讚讬讜转讗 讟专驻讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛


Rava says: If the lung assumed a dark color like eye shadow, the animal is kosher. If its color is black like ink, the animal is a tereifa. As Rabbi 岣nina says: Menstrual blood that appears black is actually red, except that it decayed. Black color is therefore a sign of decay, and the lung is assumed to be defective.


讬专讜拽讛 讻砖专讛 诪讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讚讜诪讛 讻砖专讛 诪讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛诇讻转讬 诇讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讘讗转讛 讗砖讛 讗讞转 诇驻谞讬 砖诪诇讛 讘谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪转 砖谞讬 讜诪转 砖诇讬砖讬 讛讘讬讗转讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讬讛 讗讚讜诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讛 讘转讬 讛诪转讬谞讬 诇讜 注讚 砖讬讘诇注 讘讜 讚诪讜 讛诪转讬谞讛 诇讜 讜诪诇讛 讗讜转讜 讜讞讬讛 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 谞转谉 讛讘讘诇讬 注诇 砖诪讬


The Gemara continues: If the lung was green, the animal is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. And if it was red, it is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: Once I went to the cities overseas, where one woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died, and out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was red, so I said to her: My daughter, wait for him until his blood is absorbed into him. She waited for him until his blood was absorbed into him and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call him Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a red lung can heal.


讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛诇讻转讬 诇诪讚讬谞转 拽驻讜讟拽讬讗 讘讗转讛 讗砖讛 诇驻谞讬 砖诪诇讛 讘谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪转 砖谞讬 讜诪转 砖诇讬砖讬 讛讘讬讗转讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讬讛 讬专讜拽 讛爪爪转讬 讘讜 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 讚诐 讘专讬转 讗诪专转讬 诇讛 讘转讬 讛诪转讬谞讬 诇讜 注讚 砖讬驻讜诇 讘讜 讚诪讜 讛诪转讬谞讛 诇讜 讜诪诇讛 讗讜转讜 讜讞讬讛 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 谞转谉 讛讘讘诇讬 注诇 砖诪讬


Rabbi Natan further related: And on another occasion I went to the state of Cappadocia, and a woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died. Out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was green, i.e., pale. I looked at him and saw that he did not have the blood of circumcision in him, i.e., he had a deficiency of blood such that no blood would emerge from the circumcision. I said to her: My daughter, wait until his blood enters him. She waited for his blood to increase and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call his name Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a green lung can heal as well.


讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讻讘讚讗 讻砖专讛 讻讘砖专讗 讟专驻讛 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讜讘砖专 讘砖讚讛 讟专驻讛


Rav Kahana says: If the lung has an appearance like the liver, the animal is kosher. If it has an appearance like flesh, the animal is a tereifa. And your mnemonic to remember that the latter is a tereifa is the verse: 鈥淵ou shall not eat any flesh that is torn of animals [tereifa] in the field鈥 (Exodus 22:30).


讗诪专 专讘 住诪讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讚诪讬讗 讻讻砖讜转讗 讜讻诪讜专讬拽讗 讜讻讙讜谉 讘讬注转讗 讟专驻讛 讗诇讗 讬专讜拽讛 讚讻砖专讛 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬讗 讻讻专转讬


Rav Sama, son of Rava, says: This lung whose appearance resembles dodder, or saffron, or has a yellow color such as that of an egg yolk, renders the animal a tereifa. Since all of these appearances are various shades of green, the Gemara asks: But the green lung that is kosher, what is it like? The Gemara responds: It is like a leek.


讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讗讟讜诐 讘专讬讗讛 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 住讻讬谞讗 讜拽专注讬谞谉 诇讛 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讛 诪讜讙诇讗 讜讚讗讬 诪讞诪转 诪讜讙诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 注诇讛 讙讚驻讗 讗讜 专讜拽讗 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讟专驻讛


Ravina says: If there was a sealed area in the lung that does not inflate, we bring a knife and tear it open. If there is pus in the sealed area, then it was definitely sealed due to the pus, and the animal is kosher. But if we do not find pus there, we lay a feather or saliva on the opening and inflate the lung. If the saliva bubbles or the feather moves, the animal is kosher, since some air does reach the area, and if not, there is some defect in the lung, and the animal is a tereifa.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 拽专讜诐 砖注诇讛 诪讞诪转 诪讻讛 讘专讬讗讛 讗讬谞讜 拽专讜诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讗讜讜砖讗 讗讬 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讗讜讜砖讗 诪谞讞讬谞谉 注诇讛 讙讚驻讗 讗讜 讙讬诇讗 讗讜 专讜拽讗 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 诇讛 诪讬讬转讬 诪砖讬讻讜转讗 讚诪讬讗 驻砖讜专讬 讜诪讜转讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讘讙讜讛


Rav Yosef says: A membrane that appeared due to a wound in the lung, i.e., a scab that covered a perforation through the lung, is not considered a true membrane, since it does not last. And Rav Yosef says: With regard to this lung that emits a sound when inflated, if we know from where it emits a sound, we set a feather, or straw, or saliva on that point. If the saliva bubbles when the lung is inflated, the animal is a tereifa, since this proves that the lung is perforated through both membranes. And if not, the animal is kosher. And if we do not know from where it emits a sound, we bring a basin of tepid water and set the lung inside it.


讘讞诪讬诪讬 诇讗 讚讻讜讜爪讬 讘拽专讬专讬 诇讗 讚诪讟专砖讬 讗诇讗 讘讚拽讬谞谉 诇讛 讘驻砖讜专讬 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛 转转讗讛 讗讬谞拽讬讘 注讬诇讗讛 诇讗 讗讬谞拽讬讘 讜讛讗讬 讚讗讜讜砖讗 讝讬拽讗 讚讘讬谞讬 讜讘讬谞讬 讛讜讗


One cannot place it in hot water, as it causes the lung to contract, closing the perforation. And one cannot place it in cold water, as it hardens the lung and may cause it to crack. Rather, we check it in tepid water. If the water bubbles, the animal is a tereifa. And if not, the animal is kosher, since it is apparent that only the inner membrane is perforated and the outer membrane is not perforated, and the fact that it emits a sound is due to the air moving in the space between the two membranes.


讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讬讗讛 砖谞砖驻讻讛 讻拽讬转讜谉 讻砖专讛 讗诇诪讗 拽住讘专 讞住专讜谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讞住专讜谉


Ulla says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: An animal with a lung that liquefied and can be poured out like water from a jug is kosher. The Gemara notes: Evidently, Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is not considered a deficiency. Only a deficiency in the wall or membrane of an organ renders an animal a tereifa.


讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讬 讗讘讗 诇注讜诇讗 讛专讬讗讛 砖谞讬拽讘讛 讗讜 砖讞住专讛 诪讗讬 讞住专讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讬拽讘讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讞住专讜谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 砖诪讬讛 讞住专讜谉


Rabbi Abba raised an objection to Ulla from the mishna, which states: The lung that was perforated or that was missing a piece renders the animal a tereifa. What is the case of a lung that was missing a piece? If we say that it was missing a piece on the outside, this is the same as if it was perforated, since any missing piece of the lung wall would constitute a perforation. Rather, is it not referring to a missing piece on the inside? If so, learn from the mishna that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is considered a deficiency to render the animal a tereifa.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讚拽讗 讗诪专转 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讬拽讘讛 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 砖转谞拽讘 诇讘讬转 讛住诪驻讜谞讜转 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 谞拽讘 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讗讘诇 谞拽讘 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜讚讛


The Gemara responds: No, the mishna actually is referring to a missing piece on the outside. And with regard to that which you said: This is the same as if it was perforated, one may respond that no, it is necessary to mention both cases to account for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in the mishna, who says: It is not a tereifa until the lung is perforated through to the bronchi. By mentioning both cases, the mishna teaches that this statement of Rabbi Shimon applies only to a small perforation that does not constitute a deficiency. But in the case of a perforation so large that it constitutes a deficiency, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it renders the animal a tereifa even if the perforation does not reach the bronchi.


专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 谞转谉 讜讻诇 讙讚讜诇讬 讛讚讜专 讗讬讬转讜 拽诪讬讛 专讬讗讛 砖谞砖驻讻讛 讻拽讬转讜谉 讜讗讻砖专讛


The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣nanya became sick. Rabbi Natan and all the eminent scholars of the generation entered before him to visit. They brought before him a lung that could be poured out like water from a jug, and he deemed the animal kosher.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讛讜讗 讚拽讬讬诪讬 住诪驻讜谞讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 诪谞讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 爪注讗 讚拽讜谞讬讗 讜砖驻讻讬谞谉 诇讛 讘讙讜讬讛 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讛 砖讜专讬讬拽讬 讞讬讜专讬 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛


Rava said: This is the halakha only if the bronchi still exist and only the flesh of the lung has liquefied. Rav A岣, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: From where do we know whether the bronchi still exist? Rav Ashi said to him: We bring a glazed earthenware vessel with no cracks, so the contents can be observed, and we pour the lung into it. If there are white streaks in it, the animal is a tereifa, as the white streaks are remains of the liquefied bronchi. And if not, the animal is kosher.


讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 专讬讗讛 砖谞讬诪讜拽讛 讜拽专讜诐 砖诇讛 拽讬讬诐 讻砖专讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讬讗讛 砖谞讬诪讜拽讛 讜拽专讜诐 砖诇讛 拽讬讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讞讝拽转 专讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讛 谞讬讟诇讛


Rav Na岣an says: If the lung was partially atrophied and only part of the flesh remains, but its membrane still exists, the animal is kosher. The Gemara notes: This is also taught in a baraita: If the lung was atrophied, but its membrane still exists, even if the space vacated by the atrophied lung can hold a quarter-log of fluid, the animal is kosher.


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Chullin 47

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chullin 47

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转专转讬 讘讜注讬 讚住诪讬讻讬 诇讛讚讚讬 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讘讚讬拽讜转讗 讞讚讗 讜诪转讞讝讬讗 讻转专转讬 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 住讬诇讜讗 讜讘讝注讬谞谉 诇讛 讗讬 砖驻讻谉 诇讛讚讚讬 讞讚讗 讛讬讗 讜讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讟专驻讛


And Rava says: These two cysts that are adjacent to one another on the lung have no need for inspection. The animal is definitely a tereifa, since it is presumed that the cysts formed around a perforation in the lung. But if there is only one cyst that looks like two, due to a depression in the middle, we bring a thorn and pierce it to remove the fluid inside. If the fluids from either side empty into one another, this indicates that it is one cyst, and the animal is kosher. And if not, they are two separate cysts, and the animal is a tereifa.


讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讞诪砖 讗讜谞讬 讗讬转 诇讛 诇专讬讗讛 讗驻讛 讻诇驻讬 讙讘专讗 转诇转讗 诪讬诪讬谞讗 讜转专转讬 诪砖诪讗诇讗 讞住讬专 讗讜 讬转讬专 讗讜 讞诇讬祝 讟专驻讛


And Rava says: The lung has five lobes [unnei]. When the animal hangs by its legs with its face toward the person checking it, he sees three lobes on his right and two on his left. If the animal is missing a lobe or has an extra lobe, or if the lobes were switched, with two on the right and three on the left, the animal is a tereifa.


讛讛讜讗 讬转讬专转讗 讚讗转讗讬 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪专讬诪专 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讻砖专讛 谞讬讛诇讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讚专 注讬讬诇讛 拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讗讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诇诪讗谉 讚讬转讬讘 讗讘讘讗 诇讬转 讛诇讻转讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讗 讘讬转专转


The Gemara relates that a certain lung that had an extra lobe was brought before Mareimar. Rav A岣 was sitting at the door of Mareimar鈥檚 house. When the animal鈥檚 owner was leaving, Rav A岣 said to him: What did Mareimar say to you? The man said to him: Mareimar deemed it kosher. Rav A岣 was surprised by this, because it contradicts Rava鈥檚 statement, so he said to him: Turn around and bring the animal before him. The owner did so. Mareimar realized why he was being asked twice, and said to him: Go tell whomever is sitting at the door: The halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rava in the case of an animal that has an extra lobe.


讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讘讚专讗 讚讗讜谞讬 讗讘诇 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讟专驻讛


The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe stands in line with the other lobes, on the left or right. But if it is in between the two sides, the animal is a tereifa.


讛讛讜讗 讘讬谞讬 讘讬谞讬 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 住讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇诪讬讟专驻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪专 讘专 讗讜讬讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讞讬讜讬 讘专讬讬转讗 讛讻讬 讗讬转 诇讛讜 讜拽专讜 诇讛 讟讘讞讬 注讬谞讜谞讬转讗 讚讜讜专讚讗 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讙讜讗讬


The Gemara relates that a certain animal with an extra lobe in between the two sides was brought before Rav Ashi. Rav Ashi thought to deem it a tereifa. Rav Huna Mar bar Avya said to him: All those animals that graze outside in the fields have extra lobes like this, and butchers call it the little rose lobe. The Gemara adds: And this statement applies only when the extra lobe is on the inside face of the lung, facing the heart.


讗讘诇 讗讙讘讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讟专驻讗 讚讗住讗 讟专驻讛


But if it is on the back of the lung, even if it is as small as a myrtle leaf, the animal is a tereifa.


讗诪专 专驻专诐 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讚诪讬讗 诇讗讜驻转讗 讟专驻讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讞讝讜转讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘讙讬砖转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚谞驻讬讞讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚驻讞讬讝讗 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚砖讬注讗 讚诇讬转 诇讛 讞讬转讜讻讗 讚讗讜谞讬


Rafram says: This lung that is similar to a chip of wood renders the animal a tereifa. There are those who say that the similarity lies in its appearance, i.e., if it is pale like wood. And there are those who say that it lies in its feeling, i.e., if it is hard like wood. There are those who say that it is swollen. And there are those who say that it is light. And there are those who say that it is completely smooth, that it has no sectioning of lobes.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讻讻讜讞诇讗 讻砖专讛 讻讚讬讜转讗 讟专驻讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛


Rava says: If the lung assumed a dark color like eye shadow, the animal is kosher. If its color is black like ink, the animal is a tereifa. As Rabbi 岣nina says: Menstrual blood that appears black is actually red, except that it decayed. Black color is therefore a sign of decay, and the lung is assumed to be defective.


讬专讜拽讛 讻砖专讛 诪讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讚讜诪讛 讻砖专讛 诪讚专讘讬 谞转谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛诇讻转讬 诇讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讘讗转讛 讗砖讛 讗讞转 诇驻谞讬 砖诪诇讛 讘谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪转 砖谞讬 讜诪转 砖诇讬砖讬 讛讘讬讗转讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讬讛 讗讚讜诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讛 讘转讬 讛诪转讬谞讬 诇讜 注讚 砖讬讘诇注 讘讜 讚诪讜 讛诪转讬谞讛 诇讜 讜诪诇讛 讗讜转讜 讜讞讬讛 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 谞转谉 讛讘讘诇讬 注诇 砖诪讬


The Gemara continues: If the lung was green, the animal is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. And if it was red, it is kosher, as can be derived from the episode of Rabbi Natan. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Natan says: Once I went to the cities overseas, where one woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died, and out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was red, so I said to her: My daughter, wait for him until his blood is absorbed into him. She waited for him until his blood was absorbed into him and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call him Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a red lung can heal.


讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛诇讻转讬 诇诪讚讬谞转 拽驻讜讟拽讬讗 讘讗转讛 讗砖讛 诇驻谞讬 砖诪诇讛 讘谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 讜诪转 砖谞讬 讜诪转 砖诇讬砖讬 讛讘讬讗转讜 诇驻谞讬 专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讬讛 讬专讜拽 讛爪爪转讬 讘讜 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讜 讚诐 讘专讬转 讗诪专转讬 诇讛 讘转讬 讛诪转讬谞讬 诇讜 注讚 砖讬驻讜诇 讘讜 讚诪讜 讛诪转讬谞讛 诇讜 讜诪诇讛 讗讜转讜 讜讞讬讛 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讜 谞转谉 讛讘讘诇讬 注诇 砖诪讬


Rabbi Natan further related: And on another occasion I went to the state of Cappadocia, and a woman came before me who circumcised her first son and he died, and she circumcised her second son and he died. Out of concern that circumcising her third son might cause him to die as well, she brought him before me. I saw that he was green, i.e., pale. I looked at him and saw that he did not have the blood of circumcision in him, i.e., he had a deficiency of blood such that no blood would emerge from the circumcision. I said to her: My daughter, wait until his blood enters him. She waited for his blood to increase and then circumcised him, and he survived. And they would call his name Natan the Babylonian after my name. This incident indicates that a green lung can heal as well.


讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻讻讘讚讗 讻砖专讛 讻讘砖专讗 讟专驻讛 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讜讘砖专 讘砖讚讛 讟专驻讛


Rav Kahana says: If the lung has an appearance like the liver, the animal is kosher. If it has an appearance like flesh, the animal is a tereifa. And your mnemonic to remember that the latter is a tereifa is the verse: 鈥淵ou shall not eat any flesh that is torn of animals [tereifa] in the field鈥 (Exodus 22:30).


讗诪专 专讘 住诪讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讚诪讬讗 讻讻砖讜转讗 讜讻诪讜专讬拽讗 讜讻讙讜谉 讘讬注转讗 讟专驻讛 讗诇讗 讬专讜拽讛 讚讻砖专讛 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬讗 讻讻专转讬


Rav Sama, son of Rava, says: This lung whose appearance resembles dodder, or saffron, or has a yellow color such as that of an egg yolk, renders the animal a tereifa. Since all of these appearances are various shades of green, the Gemara asks: But the green lung that is kosher, what is it like? The Gemara responds: It is like a leek.


讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讗讟讜诐 讘专讬讗讛 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 住讻讬谞讗 讜拽专注讬谞谉 诇讛 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讛 诪讜讙诇讗 讜讚讗讬 诪讞诪转 诪讜讙诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 注诇讛 讙讚驻讗 讗讜 专讜拽讗 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讟专驻讛


Ravina says: If there was a sealed area in the lung that does not inflate, we bring a knife and tear it open. If there is pus in the sealed area, then it was definitely sealed due to the pus, and the animal is kosher. But if we do not find pus there, we lay a feather or saliva on the opening and inflate the lung. If the saliva bubbles or the feather moves, the animal is kosher, since some air does reach the area, and if not, there is some defect in the lung, and the animal is a tereifa.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 拽专讜诐 砖注诇讛 诪讞诪转 诪讻讛 讘专讬讗讛 讗讬谞讜 拽专讜诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛讗讬 专讬讗讛 讚讗讜讜砖讗 讗讬 讬讚注讬谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讗讜讜砖讗 诪谞讞讬谞谉 注诇讛 讙讚驻讗 讗讜 讙讬诇讗 讗讜 专讜拽讗 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 诇讛 诪讬讬转讬 诪砖讬讻讜转讗 讚诪讬讗 驻砖讜专讬 讜诪讜转讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讘讙讜讛


Rav Yosef says: A membrane that appeared due to a wound in the lung, i.e., a scab that covered a perforation through the lung, is not considered a true membrane, since it does not last. And Rav Yosef says: With regard to this lung that emits a sound when inflated, if we know from where it emits a sound, we set a feather, or straw, or saliva on that point. If the saliva bubbles when the lung is inflated, the animal is a tereifa, since this proves that the lung is perforated through both membranes. And if not, the animal is kosher. And if we do not know from where it emits a sound, we bring a basin of tepid water and set the lung inside it.


讘讞诪讬诪讬 诇讗 讚讻讜讜爪讬 讘拽专讬专讬 诇讗 讚诪讟专砖讬 讗诇讗 讘讚拽讬谞谉 诇讛 讘驻砖讜专讬 讗讬 诪讘爪讘爪讗 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛 转转讗讛 讗讬谞拽讬讘 注讬诇讗讛 诇讗 讗讬谞拽讬讘 讜讛讗讬 讚讗讜讜砖讗 讝讬拽讗 讚讘讬谞讬 讜讘讬谞讬 讛讜讗


One cannot place it in hot water, as it causes the lung to contract, closing the perforation. And one cannot place it in cold water, as it hardens the lung and may cause it to crack. Rather, we check it in tepid water. If the water bubbles, the animal is a tereifa. And if not, the animal is kosher, since it is apparent that only the inner membrane is perforated and the outer membrane is not perforated, and the fact that it emits a sound is due to the air moving in the space between the two membranes.


讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讬讗讛 砖谞砖驻讻讛 讻拽讬转讜谉 讻砖专讛 讗诇诪讗 拽住讘专 讞住专讜谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 讞住专讜谉


Ulla says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: An animal with a lung that liquefied and can be poured out like water from a jug is kosher. The Gemara notes: Evidently, Rabbi Yo岣nan holds that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is not considered a deficiency. Only a deficiency in the wall or membrane of an organ renders an animal a tereifa.


讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讬 讗讘讗 诇注讜诇讗 讛专讬讗讛 砖谞讬拽讘讛 讗讜 砖讞住专讛 诪讗讬 讞住专讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讬拽讘讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讞住专讜谉 诪讘驻谞讬诐 砖诪讬讛 讞住专讜谉


Rabbi Abba raised an objection to Ulla from the mishna, which states: The lung that was perforated or that was missing a piece renders the animal a tereifa. What is the case of a lung that was missing a piece? If we say that it was missing a piece on the outside, this is the same as if it was perforated, since any missing piece of the lung wall would constitute a perforation. Rather, is it not referring to a missing piece on the inside? If so, learn from the mishna that a deficiency on the inside of an organ is considered a deficiency to render the animal a tereifa.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讚拽讗 讗诪专转 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讬拽讘讛 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 砖转谞拽讘 诇讘讬转 讛住诪驻讜谞讜转 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 谞拽讘 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讗讘诇 谞拽讘 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讜讚讛


The Gemara responds: No, the mishna actually is referring to a missing piece on the outside. And with regard to that which you said: This is the same as if it was perforated, one may respond that no, it is necessary to mention both cases to account for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in the mishna, who says: It is not a tereifa until the lung is perforated through to the bronchi. By mentioning both cases, the mishna teaches that this statement of Rabbi Shimon applies only to a small perforation that does not constitute a deficiency. But in the case of a perforation so large that it constitutes a deficiency, even Rabbi Shimon concedes that it renders the animal a tereifa even if the perforation does not reach the bronchi.


专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讛 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 谞转谉 讜讻诇 讙讚讜诇讬 讛讚讜专 讗讬讬转讜 拽诪讬讛 专讬讗讛 砖谞砖驻讻讛 讻拽讬转讜谉 讜讗讻砖专讛


The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣nanya became sick. Rabbi Natan and all the eminent scholars of the generation entered before him to visit. They brought before him a lung that could be poured out like water from a jug, and he deemed the animal kosher.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讛讜讗 讚拽讬讬诪讬 住诪驻讜谞讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 诪谞讗 讬讚注讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 爪注讗 讚拽讜谞讬讗 讜砖驻讻讬谞谉 诇讛 讘讙讜讬讛 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讛 砖讜专讬讬拽讬 讞讬讜专讬 讟专驻讛 讜讗讬 诇讗 讻砖专讛


Rava said: This is the halakha only if the bronchi still exist and only the flesh of the lung has liquefied. Rav A岣, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: From where do we know whether the bronchi still exist? Rav Ashi said to him: We bring a glazed earthenware vessel with no cracks, so the contents can be observed, and we pour the lung into it. If there are white streaks in it, the animal is a tereifa, as the white streaks are remains of the liquefied bronchi. And if not, the animal is kosher.


讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 专讬讗讛 砖谞讬诪讜拽讛 讜拽专讜诐 砖诇讛 拽讬讬诐 讻砖专讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 专讬讗讛 砖谞讬诪讜拽讛 讜拽专讜诐 砖诇讛 拽讬讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讞讝拽转 专讘讬注讬转 讻砖专讛 谞讬讟诇讛


Rav Na岣an says: If the lung was partially atrophied and only part of the flesh remains, but its membrane still exists, the animal is kosher. The Gemara notes: This is also taught in a baraita: If the lung was atrophied, but its membrane still exists, even if the space vacated by the atrophied lung can hold a quarter-log of fluid, the animal is kosher.


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