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Today's Daf Yomi

January 25, 2019 | ื™ืดื˜ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Chullin 59

What are signs of kosher animal, birds, grasshoppers and fish? How does one differentiate between a domesticated and undomesticated animal? An interesting debate ensues between a Roman emperor and Rabbi Yehoshua.


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ืขื™ืงืจื ื“ืžืจื™ืจืชื

It is the root of a bitter vegetable.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืื›ืœ ืชืœืชื ืชืงืœื™ ื—ืœืชื™ืช ืืœื™ื‘ื ืจื™ืงื ื ืžื™ืฉืชืœื— ืžืฉื›ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ื“ื ื•ืื›ืœื™ ื—ื“ ืชืงืœื ื—ืœืชื™ืชื ื•ืื™ ืœื ื“ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ืฉืชืœื— ืžืฉื›ืื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ืขืฆืžื™ ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชื—ื™ื” ื‘ืขืœื™ื”

Rav Yehuda says: This individual who eats the weight of three shekel of asafoetida on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his skin sheds due to the fever he contracts. Rabbi Abbahu said: There was an incident in which I was involved, wherein I ate the weight of one shekel of asafoetida, and had I not immediately sat in water to cool off, my skin would have shed. And I thereby fulfilled with regard to myself that which the verse states: โ€œWisdom preserves the life of him that has itโ€ (Ecclesiastes 7:12).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืื›ื™ืœ ืฉื™ืชืกืจื™ ื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ ืืžื’ื•ื–ื™ ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื•ื˜ื™ืชื ื“ืคืจื—ื™ ื•ืฉืชื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื“ื•ื‘ืฉื ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ืชืžื•ื– ืืœื™ื‘ื ืจื™ืงื ื ืžืชืขืงืจ ืชืœื™ื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื™ื”

Rav Yosef says: This individual who eats sixteen eggs and forty nuts and seven fruits of the caper bush, and he drinks a quarter-log of honey in the season of Tammuz, i.e., summer, all on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his heartstrings are uprooted.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ืืชื ืœื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืคืกืง ื›ืจืขืŸ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื“ืงื™ื” ืจื‘ ื‘ืฆื•ืžืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื›ืฉืจื™ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืื•ืžืฆื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืžืจ ืœื ื™ืงื•ืจื™

ยง The mishna states that if an animal is bitten by a poisonous snake, it is not a tereifa, but it is nevertheless prohibited for consumption due to the hazard it poses. The Gemara recounts the case of a certain young deer that was brought to the house of the Exilarch after slaughter whose hind legs had been cut. Rav inspected it at the convergence of sinews in the thigh and found them intact, and he deemed it kosher. He thought to eat it rare, i.e., lightly roasted. Shmuel said to him: Is the Master not concerned for the possibility that it may have a snakebite?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื ื ื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืชื ื•ืจื ื“ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืง ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ื ืคืœ ืชื™ืœื—ื™ ืชื™ืœื—ื™ ืงืจื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืœื ื™ืื ื” ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ื›ืœ ืื•ืŸ ืงืจื™ ืจื‘ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืจื– ืœื ืื ืก ืœืš

Rav said to him: What is the rectification for such an uncertainty? Shmuel said to him: We shall set it in a hot oven, as it will then inspect itself. Shmuel set it in the oven on a spit, and the meat fell off the bone bit by bit, a sign that a snake had bitten the young deer. Shmuel recited about Rav the verse: โ€œThere shall no mischief befall the righteousโ€ (Proverbs 12:21), since he was saved due to his righteousness. Rav recited about Shmuel the verse: โ€œAnd no secret causes you troubleโ€ (Daniel 4:6), since he was learned even with regard to such matters.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื ืืžืจื• ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื”ืขื•ืฃ ืœื ื ืืžืจื• ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ื“ื•ืจืก ื˜ืžื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืืฆื‘ืข ื™ืชื™ืจื” ื•ื–ืคืง ื•ืงื•ืจืงื‘ื ื• ื ืงืœืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ื—ื•ืœืง ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื˜ืžื

MISHNA: The signs that indicate that a domesticated animal and an undomesticated animal are kosher were stated in the Torah, and the signs of a kosher bird were not explicitly stated. But the Sages stated certain signs in a bird: Any bird that claws its prey and eats it is non-kosher. Any bird that has an extra digit behind the leg slightly elevated above the other digits, and a crop, which is a sack alongside the gullet in which food is stored prior to digestion, and for which the yellowish membrane inside its gizzard can be peeled, is kosher. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Any bird that splits the digits of its feet when standing on a string, placing two digits on one side of the string and two on the other, is non-kosher.

ื•ื‘ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืืจื‘ืข ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ื›ื ืคื™ื ื•ืงืจืฆื•ืœื™ื ื•ื›ื ืคื™ื• ื—ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืืช ืจื•ื‘ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืฉืžื• ื—ื’ื‘ ื•ื‘ื“ื’ื™ื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืกื ืคื™ืจ ื•ืงืฉืงืฉืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ืงืฉืงืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืกื ืคื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืงืฉืงืฉื™ืŸ ื”ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ืกื ืคื™ืจื™ื ื”ืคื•ืจื— ื‘ื”ืŸ

And with regard to grasshoppers, whose signs were also not stated in the Torah, the Sages stated: Any grasshopper that has four legs, and four wings, and two additional jumping legs, and whose wings cover most of its body, is kosher. Rabbi Yosei says: And this applies only if the name of its species is grasshopper. And with regard to fish, the signs are explicitly stated in the Torah: Any fish that has a fin and a scale is kosher; Rabbi Yehuda says: Two scales and one fin. And these are scales: Those that are fixed to its body; and fins are those with which the fish swims.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžืคืจืกืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจื”

GEMARA: The mishna states that the signs of a kosher domesticated animal are stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of a kosher domesticated animal: โ€œWhatsoever parts the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and chews the cud, among the animals, that may you eatโ€ (Leviticus 11:3). Any animal that chews the cud certainly has no upper front teeth, i.e., incisors, and is kosher.

ื•ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื’ืžืœ ื“ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื”ื•ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ืžื ื’ืžืœ ื ื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And is this an established principle? But isnโ€™t there a camel, which chews the cud, and has no upper front teeth, and it is still non-kosher (see Leviticus 11:4)? The Gemara responds: A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors, one on each side.

ื•ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ื“ื ื™ื‘ื™ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื•ืชื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืคืŸ ื•ืืจื ื‘ืช ื“ืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื”ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืืœื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื•ืžืคืจืกืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจื”

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a young camel, which does not even have cuspid-like upper incisors and is still non-kosher? And furthermore, arenโ€™t there the hyrax and the hare, which chew the cud, and yet they have upper front teeth, and are non-kosher? And furthermore, one might ask: Are teeth written in the Torah with regard to the kosher status of an animal? Rather, this is what the tanna is saying: Any animal that does not have upper front teeth certainly chews the cud and parts the hoof and is kosher.

ื•ืœื™ื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืคื™ื” ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื’ืžืœ ื’ืžืœ ื ื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืœื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ

The Gemara asks: But why should one inspect the teeth? Let him simply inspect whether the hooves are cloven. The Gemara responds: One inspects the teeth in a case where its hooves were cut and one cannot tell whether they are cloven. And this is in accordance with the statement of Rav แธคisda, as Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its mouth. If it has no upper front teeth, it is certainly kosher; if that is not the case, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that he recognizes that this animal is not a camel, which is non-kosher even though it has no upper incisors. The Gemara asks: Why must one recognize that this is not a camel? A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors. Rather, say: Provided that one recognizes that it is not a young camel, which has no cuspid-like upper incisors.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ ืœื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ืชื ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื’ืžืœ ื›ื™ ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื•ื˜ืžื ืืœื ื’ืžืœ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืคืจื˜ ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: How can one rely only on an inspection of the mouth? Did you not say that there is a young camel, which has no upper incisors but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a young camel and is non-kosher despite having no upper incisors. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: โ€œThe camel, because it chews the cud but parts not the hoof, it is uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 11:4). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the camel chews the cud and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word โ€œit,โ€ i.e., it and no other.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ื“ืจืš ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคื™ื” ื’ืžื•ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ืื ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ืกื“ื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื—ื–ื™ืจ

And Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking on the road, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated, he may inspect its hooves. If its hooves are cloven, it is certainly kosher. If not, it is certainly non-kosher. This applies provided that he recognizes that it is not a pig, which is non-kosher even though it has cloven hooves.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ื›ื™ ืžืคืจื™ืก ืคืจืกื” ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืคืจื™ืก ืคืจืกื” ื•ื˜ืžื ืืœื ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืคืจื˜ ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t you say that there is a pig, which has cloven hooves but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a pig. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: โ€œAnd the pig, because it parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but chews not the cud, it is uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 11:7). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the pig parts the hoof and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word โ€œit.โ€

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคื™ื” ื’ืžื•ื ื•ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ื‘ืฉืจื” ืื ืžื”ืœืš ืฉืชื™ ื•ืขืจื‘ ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื•ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ืขืจื•ื“

And Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated and whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its flesh. If it runs like warp and woof, i.e., part of it stretches vertically and part of it horizontally, it is certainly kosher; and if not, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that one recognizes that this animal is not a wild donkey, which is non-kosher even though its flesh runs like warp and woof.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ืขืจื•ื“ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœืขืจื•ื“ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ืœื™ื›ื ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื‘ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืขื•ืงืฅ

The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t you say that there is a wild donkey, whose flesh runs like warp and woof but who is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a wild donkey. The Gemara responds: It is learned as a tradition that there are no similar species. The Gemara asks: And where does one inspect the flesh? Abaye said, and some say that Rav แธคisda said: At the edges of the tailbone, on the upper thighs.

ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ื—ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื

ยง The mishna states: The signs of an undomesticated animal were stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of an undomesticated animal. The Gemara interjects: Why does one need signs for an undomesticated animal? An undomesticated animal [แธฅayya] is included in the category of a domesticated animal [behema] with regard to signs, as the verse states: โ€œThese are the living things [แธฅayya] which you may eat among all the animals [behema] that are on the earth. Whatsoever parts the hoofโ€ (Leviticus 11:2โ€“3). Rabbi Zeira said:

ืœื”ืชื™ืจ ื—ืœื‘ื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ืฉื—ืœื‘ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื˜ืœืคื™ื

The signs are given to permit its forbidden fat, i.e., to deem the animal undomesticated. Fat that is forbidden for consumption in domesticated animals is permitted in undomesticated animals. And this is what the tanna is saying: These are the signs of a kosher undomesticated animal, so that one will know that its fat is permitted: Any animal that has horns and cloven hooves is an undomesticated animal.

ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ืื•ืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืงืจื ื™ื ืื™ ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ืœืคื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื˜ืœืคื™ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืืชื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ืงืจืฉ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ืงืจืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื•ืชืจ

Rabbi Dosa says: If it has horns, it is certainly a kosher undomesticated animal, and you need not search for cloven hooves. But if it has cloven hooves, you must still search for horns. And with regard to the animal called a keresh, even though it has only one horn, its fat is permitted for consumption.

ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืขื– ื“ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื˜ืœืคื™ื ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ืฉื•ืจ ื“ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Is this an established principle? But isnโ€™t there a goat, which has horns and cloven hooves, and still its fat is forbidden, as it is a domesticated animal? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are layered to designate a kosher animal as undomesticated; a goatโ€™s horns are not layered. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a bull, which has layered horns, and still its fat is forbidden since it is domesticated? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are grooved; a bullโ€™s horns are not grooved.

ื•ื”ืจื™ ืขื– ื“ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืžืคื•ืฆืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ืฆื‘ื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื•ืฆืœื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื—ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara persists: But isnโ€™t there a goat, which has grooved horns, and still its fat is forbidden? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are branched; a goatโ€™s horns are not branched. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a gazelle [tzevi], whose horns are not branched, and still its fat is permitted? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are rounded and not broad like those of a sheep.

ื”ืœื›ืš ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื™ืคืฆืœื ืœื ื“ื™ื ื ื•ืœื ื“ื™ื™ื ื ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื™ืคืฆืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื—ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื‘ืœืข ื—ื™ืจืงื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara concludes: Therefore, where an animalโ€™s horns are branched, there is neither judgment nor judge, and the animal is without a doubt undomesticated. Where they are not branched, we require that they be layered, rounded, and grooved. And it must be grooved in a pattern such that its grooves are absorbed into one another.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืกืคื™ืงื ื“ืขื™ื–ื ื›ืจื›ื•ื– ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื™ื–ื ื›ืจื›ื•ื– ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื“ืขืงื•ืจ ืžืœื ืฆื ื ื“ืชืจื‘ื ืžื™ื ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ืื™ ืืกืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืงืจื™ ืื ืคืฉื™ื” ืžืคืจื™ ืคื™ ืื™ืฉ ืชืฉื‘ืข ื‘ื˜ื ื•

And this is the uncertainty that arose concerning the karkoz goat, i.e., whether it is considered a domesticated animal. As there was a certain karkoz goat that was in the house of the Exilarch, from which they removed a full basket of fat after slaughtering it. Rav Aแธฅai deemed the fat forbidden, because he considered it a domesticated animal. But Rav Shmuel, son of Rabbi Abbahu, ate of it. He read the verse about himself: โ€œA manโ€™s belly shall be filled with the fruit of his mouthโ€ (Proverbs 18:20). In other words, due to his learning, he knew it was permitted to eat the fat of the karkoz goat.

ืฉืœื—ื• ืžืชื ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื—ืื™ ืฉืžืื™ืจ ืขื™ื ื™ ื’ื•ืœื” ื”ื•ื

The Sages sent a message from there, Eretz Yisrael: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Shmuel, son of Rabbi Abbahu, that a karkoz goat is an undomesticated animal and its fat is permitted; but nevertheless, be mindful of the honor of our teacher Aแธฅai who deems it forbidden, and do not partake of the fat in his presence, as he enlightens the eyes of the exile.

ื•ืงืจืฉ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ืงืจืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืจืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ื˜ื’ืจืก ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืชืฉืข ืืžื”ืชื ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื ืœืื•ื ื ื“ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ืืžื”ืชื ื”ื•ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื” ื“ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™

ยง The baraita states: And with regard to the animal called a keresh, even though it has only one horn, its fat is permitted for consumption. Rav Yehuda says: The keresh is the gazelle that is native to the area of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. The tagras mentioned by the Sages is the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. Rav Kahana says: There are nine cubits between the ears of the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. Rav Yosef says: The length of the gazelle of Bei Ilaโ€™ei is sixteen cubits.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื›ืืจื™ื” ืžืชื™ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื™ื” ืฉืื’ ืžื™ ืœื ื™ื™ืจื ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ืคืจืฉื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ืืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ื›ื”ืื™ ืืจื™ื ืžืชื™ืœ ื›ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืžืชื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื ื™ื”ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืจื ื—ื–ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืจื—ืžื™ ืืชืขืงืจ ืžื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื”

The Gemara recounts: The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: Your God is compared to a lion, as it is written: โ€œThe lion has roared, who will not fearโ€ (Amos 3:8). But if so, what is His greatness? A cavalryman can kill a lion. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: God is not compared to that lion which a cavalryman can kill. Rather, God is compared to the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. The emperor said to him: I ask that you show it to me. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You cannot see it. The emperor said to him: Truly, I wish to see it. Rabbi Yehoshua prayed for mercy, and the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei set off from its place of origin toward Rome.

ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ืคืจืกื™ ื ื™ื”ื ื—ื“ ืงืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ืžืขื‘ืจืชื ื•ืฉื•ืจื ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื ืคืœ ืื“ืžืจื—ืง ืชืœืช ืžืื” ืคืจืกื™ ื ื™ื”ื ืงืœื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื ืชื•ืจ ื›ื›ื™ ื•ืฉื™ื ื™ ื“ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื ืคืœ ืžื›ื•ืจืกื™ื™ื ืœืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื˜ื•ืชื ืžื™ื ืš ื‘ืขื™ ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืœื”ื“ืจ ืœื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ืื”ื“ืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืชืจื™ื”

When it was four hundred parasangs away from Rome, it roared once, and all the pregnant women miscarried, and the wall of Rome fell. When it was three hundred parasangs away, it roared another time, and all the menโ€™s front and back teeth fell out from fear. And even he, the emperor, fell from his throne to the ground. The emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I beg you, pray for mercy with regard to it, that it should go back to the place from which it came. Rabbi Yehoshua prayed for mercy with regard to it, and it returned to the place from which it came.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื“ืื™ื—ื–ื™ ืœืืœื”ื™ื›ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืจื

ยง The Gemara recounts: The emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: I wish to see your God. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You cannot see Him. The emperor said to him: Truly,

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Chullin 59

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chullin 59

ืขื™ืงืจื ื“ืžืจื™ืจืชื

It is the root of a bitter vegetable.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืื›ืœ ืชืœืชื ืชืงืœื™ ื—ืœืชื™ืช ืืœื™ื‘ื ืจื™ืงื ื ืžื™ืฉืชืœื— ืžืฉื›ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืขื•ื‘ื“ื ื•ืื›ืœื™ ื—ื“ ืชืงืœื ื—ืœืชื™ืชื ื•ืื™ ืœื ื“ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื ืžื™ืฉืชืœื— ืžืฉื›ืื™ ื•ืงื™ื™ืžืชื™ ื‘ืขืฆืžื™ ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชื—ื™ื” ื‘ืขืœื™ื”

Rav Yehuda says: This individual who eats the weight of three shekel of asafoetida on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his skin sheds due to the fever he contracts. Rabbi Abbahu said: There was an incident in which I was involved, wherein I ate the weight of one shekel of asafoetida, and had I not immediately sat in water to cool off, my skin would have shed. And I thereby fulfilled with regard to myself that which the verse states: โ€œWisdom preserves the life of him that has itโ€ (Ecclesiastes 7:12).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืื›ื™ืœ ืฉื™ืชืกืจื™ ื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ ืืžื’ื•ื–ื™ ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื•ื˜ื™ืชื ื“ืคืจื—ื™ ื•ืฉืชื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื“ื•ื‘ืฉื ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ืชืžื•ื– ืืœื™ื‘ื ืจื™ืงื ื ืžืชืขืงืจ ืชืœื™ื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื™ื”

Rav Yosef says: This individual who eats sixteen eggs and forty nuts and seven fruits of the caper bush, and he drinks a quarter-log of honey in the season of Tammuz, i.e., summer, all on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his heartstrings are uprooted.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืจ ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ืืชื ืœื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืคืกืง ื›ืจืขืŸ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื“ืงื™ื” ืจื‘ ื‘ืฆื•ืžืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื›ืฉืจื™ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืื•ืžืฆื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืžืจ ืœื ื™ืงื•ืจื™

ยง The mishna states that if an animal is bitten by a poisonous snake, it is not a tereifa, but it is nevertheless prohibited for consumption due to the hazard it poses. The Gemara recounts the case of a certain young deer that was brought to the house of the Exilarch after slaughter whose hind legs had been cut. Rav inspected it at the convergence of sinews in the thigh and found them intact, and he deemed it kosher. He thought to eat it rare, i.e., lightly roasted. Shmuel said to him: Is the Master not concerned for the possibility that it may have a snakebite?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื ื ื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืชื ื•ืจื ื“ืื™ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื™ืง ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืื•ืชื‘ื™ื” ื ืคืœ ืชื™ืœื—ื™ ืชื™ืœื—ื™ ืงืจื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืœื ื™ืื ื” ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ื›ืœ ืื•ืŸ ืงืจื™ ืจื‘ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืจื– ืœื ืื ืก ืœืš

Rav said to him: What is the rectification for such an uncertainty? Shmuel said to him: We shall set it in a hot oven, as it will then inspect itself. Shmuel set it in the oven on a spit, and the meat fell off the bone bit by bit, a sign that a snake had bitten the young deer. Shmuel recited about Rav the verse: โ€œThere shall no mischief befall the righteousโ€ (Proverbs 12:21), since he was saved due to his righteousness. Rav recited about Shmuel the verse: โ€œAnd no secret causes you troubleโ€ (Daniel 4:6), since he was learned even with regard to such matters.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื ืืžืจื• ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื”ืขื•ืฃ ืœื ื ืืžืจื• ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ื“ื•ืจืก ื˜ืžื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืืฆื‘ืข ื™ืชื™ืจื” ื•ื–ืคืง ื•ืงื•ืจืงื‘ื ื• ื ืงืœืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ื—ื•ืœืง ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื˜ืžื

MISHNA: The signs that indicate that a domesticated animal and an undomesticated animal are kosher were stated in the Torah, and the signs of a kosher bird were not explicitly stated. But the Sages stated certain signs in a bird: Any bird that claws its prey and eats it is non-kosher. Any bird that has an extra digit behind the leg slightly elevated above the other digits, and a crop, which is a sack alongside the gullet in which food is stored prior to digestion, and for which the yellowish membrane inside its gizzard can be peeled, is kosher. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Any bird that splits the digits of its feet when standing on a string, placing two digits on one side of the string and two on the other, is non-kosher.

ื•ื‘ื—ื’ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืืจื‘ืข ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืข ื›ื ืคื™ื ื•ืงืจืฆื•ืœื™ื ื•ื›ื ืคื™ื• ื—ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืืช ืจื•ื‘ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืฉืžื• ื—ื’ื‘ ื•ื‘ื“ื’ื™ื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืกื ืคื™ืจ ื•ืงืฉืงืฉืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ืงืฉืงืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืกื ืคื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืงืฉืงืฉื™ืŸ ื”ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ืกื ืคื™ืจื™ื ื”ืคื•ืจื— ื‘ื”ืŸ

And with regard to grasshoppers, whose signs were also not stated in the Torah, the Sages stated: Any grasshopper that has four legs, and four wings, and two additional jumping legs, and whose wings cover most of its body, is kosher. Rabbi Yosei says: And this applies only if the name of its species is grasshopper. And with regard to fish, the signs are explicitly stated in the Torah: Any fish that has a fin and a scale is kosher; Rabbi Yehuda says: Two scales and one fin. And these are scales: Those that are fixed to its body; and fins are those with which the fish swims.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžืคืจืกืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจื”

GEMARA: The mishna states that the signs of a kosher domesticated animal are stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of a kosher domesticated animal: โ€œWhatsoever parts the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and chews the cud, among the animals, that may you eatโ€ (Leviticus 11:3). Any animal that chews the cud certainly has no upper front teeth, i.e., incisors, and is kosher.

ื•ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื’ืžืœ ื“ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื”ื•ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ืžื ื’ืžืœ ื ื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And is this an established principle? But isnโ€™t there a camel, which chews the cud, and has no upper front teeth, and it is still non-kosher (see Leviticus 11:4)? The Gemara responds: A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors, one on each side.

ื•ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ื“ื ื™ื‘ื™ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื•ืชื• ื”ืจื™ ืฉืคืŸ ื•ืืจื ื‘ืช ื“ืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื”ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืืœื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืขืœืช ื’ืจื” ื•ืžืคืจืกืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ื˜ื”ื•ืจื”

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a young camel, which does not even have cuspid-like upper incisors and is still non-kosher? And furthermore, arenโ€™t there the hyrax and the hare, which chew the cud, and yet they have upper front teeth, and are non-kosher? And furthermore, one might ask: Are teeth written in the Torah with regard to the kosher status of an animal? Rather, this is what the tanna is saying: Any animal that does not have upper front teeth certainly chews the cud and parts the hoof and is kosher.

ื•ืœื™ื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืคื™ื” ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ื ื™ื ืœืžืขืœื” ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื’ืžืœ ื’ืžืœ ื ื™ื‘ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืœื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ

The Gemara asks: But why should one inspect the teeth? Let him simply inspect whether the hooves are cloven. The Gemara responds: One inspects the teeth in a case where its hooves were cut and one cannot tell whether they are cloven. And this is in accordance with the statement of Rav แธคisda, as Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its mouth. If it has no upper front teeth, it is certainly kosher; if that is not the case, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that he recognizes that this animal is not a camel, which is non-kosher even though it has no upper incisors. The Gemara asks: Why must one recognize that this is not a camel? A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors. Rather, say: Provided that one recognizes that it is not a young camel, which has no cuspid-like upper incisors.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ ืœื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœ ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ืชื ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื’ืžืœ ื›ื™ ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืžืขืœื” ื’ืจื” ื•ื˜ืžื ืืœื ื’ืžืœ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืคืจื˜ ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: How can one rely only on an inspection of the mouth? Did you not say that there is a young camel, which has no upper incisors but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a young camel and is non-kosher despite having no upper incisors. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: โ€œThe camel, because it chews the cud but parts not the hoof, it is uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 11:4). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the camel chews the cud and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word โ€œit,โ€ i.e., it and no other.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ื“ืจืš ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคื™ื” ื’ืžื•ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ืื ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ืกื“ื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ื—ื–ื™ืจ

And Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking on the road, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated, he may inspect its hooves. If its hooves are cloven, it is certainly kosher. If not, it is certainly non-kosher. This applies provided that he recognizes that it is not a pig, which is non-kosher even though it has cloven hooves.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืช ื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ื›ื™ ืžืคืจื™ืก ืคืจืกื” ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื™ื˜ ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื• ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืคืจื™ืก ืคืจืกื” ื•ื˜ืžื ืืœื ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ืคืจื˜ ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t you say that there is a pig, which has cloven hooves but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a pig. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: โ€œAnd the pig, because it parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but chews not the cud, it is uncleanโ€ (Leviticus 11:7). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the pig parts the hoof and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word โ€œit.โ€

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉืคื™ื” ื’ืžื•ื ื•ืคืจืกื•ืชื™ื” ื—ืชื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ื‘ืฉืจื” ืื ืžื”ืœืš ืฉืชื™ ื•ืขืจื‘ ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื•ืื ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื™ื ื˜ืžืื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื™ืจ ืขืจื•ื“

And Rav แธคisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated and whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its flesh. If it runs like warp and woof, i.e., part of it stretches vertically and part of it horizontally, it is certainly kosher; and if not, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that one recognizes that this animal is not a wild donkey, which is non-kosher even though its flesh runs like warp and woof.

ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืื™ื›ื ืขืจื•ื“ ืื™ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื“ื“ืžื™ื ืœืขืจื•ื“ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื“ืœื™ื›ื ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื‘ื•ื“ืง ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื‘ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืขื•ืงืฅ

The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t you say that there is a wild donkey, whose flesh runs like warp and woof but who is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a wild donkey. The Gemara responds: It is learned as a tradition that there are no similar species. The Gemara asks: And where does one inspect the flesh? Abaye said, and some say that Rav แธคisda said: At the edges of the tailbone, on the upper thighs.

ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ื—ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืœืกื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื

ยง The mishna states: The signs of an undomesticated animal were stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of an undomesticated animal. The Gemara interjects: Why does one need signs for an undomesticated animal? An undomesticated animal [แธฅayya] is included in the category of a domesticated animal [behema] with regard to signs, as the verse states: โ€œThese are the living things [แธฅayya] which you may eat among all the animals [behema] that are on the earth. Whatsoever parts the hoofโ€ (Leviticus 11:2โ€“3). Rabbi Zeira said:

ืœื”ืชื™ืจ ื—ืœื‘ื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ ื—ื™ื” ืฉื—ืœื‘ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื˜ืœืคื™ื

The signs are given to permit its forbidden fat, i.e., to deem the animal undomesticated. Fat that is forbidden for consumption in domesticated animals is permitted in undomesticated animals. And this is what the tanna is saying: These are the signs of a kosher undomesticated animal, so that one will know that its fat is permitted: Any animal that has horns and cloven hooves is an undomesticated animal.

ืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ืื•ืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืงืจื ื™ื ืื™ ืืชื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ืœืคื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื” ื˜ืœืคื™ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืืชื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ืงืจืฉ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ืงืจืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื•ืชืจ

Rabbi Dosa says: If it has horns, it is certainly a kosher undomesticated animal, and you need not search for cloven hooves. But if it has cloven hooves, you must still search for horns. And with regard to the animal called a keresh, even though it has only one horn, its fat is permitted for consumption.

ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืขื– ื“ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื˜ืœืคื™ื ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ืฉื•ืจ ื“ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Is this an established principle? But isnโ€™t there a goat, which has horns and cloven hooves, and still its fat is forbidden, as it is a domesticated animal? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are layered to designate a kosher animal as undomesticated; a goatโ€™s horns are not layered. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a bull, which has layered horns, and still its fat is forbidden since it is domesticated? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are grooved; a bullโ€™s horns are not grooved.

ื•ื”ืจื™ ืขื– ื“ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืืกื•ืจ ืžืคื•ืฆืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ืฆื‘ื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื•ืฆืœื•ืช ื•ื—ืœื‘ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ื—ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara persists: But isnโ€™t there a goat, which has grooved horns, and still its fat is forbidden? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are branched; a goatโ€™s horns are not branched. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t there a gazelle [tzevi], whose horns are not branched, and still its fat is permitted? The Gemara responds: We require horns that are rounded and not broad like those of a sheep.

ื”ืœื›ืš ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื™ืคืฆืœื ืœื ื“ื™ื ื ื•ืœื ื“ื™ื™ื ื ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืžื™ืคืฆืœื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื—ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื—ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื‘ืœืข ื—ื™ืจืงื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara concludes: Therefore, where an animalโ€™s horns are branched, there is neither judgment nor judge, and the animal is without a doubt undomesticated. Where they are not branched, we require that they be layered, rounded, and grooved. And it must be grooved in a pattern such that its grooves are absorbed into one another.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืกืคื™ืงื ื“ืขื™ื–ื ื›ืจื›ื•ื– ื”ื”ื™ื ืขื™ื–ื ื›ืจื›ื•ื– ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื“ืขืงื•ืจ ืžืœื ืฆื ื ื“ืชืจื‘ื ืžื™ื ื” ืจื‘ ืื—ืื™ ืืกืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืงืจื™ ืื ืคืฉื™ื” ืžืคืจื™ ืคื™ ืื™ืฉ ืชืฉื‘ืข ื‘ื˜ื ื•

And this is the uncertainty that arose concerning the karkoz goat, i.e., whether it is considered a domesticated animal. As there was a certain karkoz goat that was in the house of the Exilarch, from which they removed a full basket of fat after slaughtering it. Rav Aแธฅai deemed the fat forbidden, because he considered it a domesticated animal. But Rav Shmuel, son of Rabbi Abbahu, ate of it. He read the verse about himself: โ€œA manโ€™s belly shall be filled with the fruit of his mouthโ€ (Proverbs 18:20). In other words, due to his learning, he knew it was permitted to eat the fat of the karkoz goat.

ืฉืœื—ื• ืžืชื ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืื—ืื™ ืฉืžืื™ืจ ืขื™ื ื™ ื’ื•ืœื” ื”ื•ื

The Sages sent a message from there, Eretz Yisrael: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Shmuel, son of Rabbi Abbahu, that a karkoz goat is an undomesticated animal and its fat is permitted; but nevertheless, be mindful of the honor of our teacher Aแธฅai who deems it forbidden, and do not partake of the fat in his presence, as he enlightens the eyes of the exile.

ื•ืงืจืฉ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืœื ืงืจืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื•ืชืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืจืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ื˜ื’ืจืก ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืชืฉืข ืืžื”ืชื ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื ืœืื•ื ื ื“ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ืืžื”ืชื ื”ื•ื™ ืžืฉื›ื™ื” ื“ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™

ยง The baraita states: And with regard to the animal called a keresh, even though it has only one horn, its fat is permitted for consumption. Rav Yehuda says: The keresh is the gazelle that is native to the area of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. The tagras mentioned by the Sages is the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. Rav Kahana says: There are nine cubits between the ears of the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. Rav Yosef says: The length of the gazelle of Bei Ilaโ€™ei is sixteen cubits.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื›ืืจื™ื” ืžืชื™ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื™ื” ืฉืื’ ืžื™ ืœื ื™ื™ืจื ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ืคืจืฉื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ืืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ื›ื”ืื™ ืืจื™ื ืžืชื™ืœ ื›ืืจื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืขื™ืœืื™ ืžืชื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื ื™ื”ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืจื ื—ื–ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืจื—ืžื™ ืืชืขืงืจ ืžื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื”

The Gemara recounts: The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: Your God is compared to a lion, as it is written: โ€œThe lion has roared, who will not fearโ€ (Amos 3:8). But if so, what is His greatness? A cavalryman can kill a lion. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: God is not compared to that lion which a cavalryman can kill. Rather, God is compared to the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei. The emperor said to him: I ask that you show it to me. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You cannot see it. The emperor said to him: Truly, I wish to see it. Rabbi Yehoshua prayed for mercy, and the lion of Bei Ilaโ€™ei set off from its place of origin toward Rome.

ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืจื—ื™ืง ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ืคืจืกื™ ื ื™ื”ื ื—ื“ ืงืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ืžืขื‘ืจืชื ื•ืฉื•ืจื ื“ืจื•ืžื™ ื ืคืœ ืื“ืžืจื—ืง ืชืœืช ืžืื” ืคืจืกื™ ื ื™ื”ื ืงืœื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื ืชื•ืจ ื›ื›ื™ ื•ืฉื™ื ื™ ื“ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ื ืคืœ ืžื›ื•ืจืกื™ื™ื ืœืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื˜ื•ืชื ืžื™ื ืš ื‘ืขื™ ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื“ืœื”ื“ืจ ืœื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ื‘ืขื ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ืื”ื“ืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืืชืจื™ื”

When it was four hundred parasangs away from Rome, it roared once, and all the pregnant women miscarried, and the wall of Rome fell. When it was three hundred parasangs away, it roared another time, and all the menโ€™s front and back teeth fell out from fear. And even he, the emperor, fell from his throne to the ground. The emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I beg you, pray for mercy with regard to it, that it should go back to the place from which it came. Rabbi Yehoshua prayed for mercy with regard to it, and it returned to the place from which it came.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื“ืื™ื—ื–ื™ ืœืืœื”ื™ื›ื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ื—ื–ื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ืจื

ยง The Gemara recounts: The emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: I wish to see your God. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: You cannot see Him. The emperor said to him: Truly,

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