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Daf Yomi

March 24, 2019 | ื™ืดื– ื‘ืื“ืจ ื‘ืณ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

Chullin 117

What are the differences between forbidden fats and blood? What are the differences between impurities of food and neveila impurities?


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ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืคื™ื’ื•ืœ ื•ื ื•ืชืจ ื•ื˜ืžื ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื‘ื“ื


one who derives benefit from it is liable for misuse of consecrated property. And second, one is liable for eating it due to violation of the prohibition of piggul, if it was from an offering that was slaughtered with the intent to sprinkle its blood or partake of it beyond its designated time, and due to the prohibition of notar, if it was from an offering whose period for consumption has expired. And third, if one is ritually impure, he is liable due to the prohibition of partaking of it while impure. This is not so with regard to blood, as one is not liable in these cases for violating the prohibitions of piggul, notar, and partaking of offerings while impure, but rather is liable only for violating the prohibition of consuming blood.


ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื“ื ืฉื”ื“ื ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ืžืื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื—ืœื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ื”ื’ ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“


And the more stringent element in the prohibition of blood is that the prohibition of blood applies to domesticated animals, undomesticated animals, and birds, both kosher and non-kosher, but the prohibition of forbidden fat applies only to a kosher domesticated animal.


ื’ืžืณ ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื ืžืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ืžืขืชื”


GEMARA: According to the mishna, one who consumes forbidden fat of an offering is liable for misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yannai said: They are derived from a verse, as the verse states that the sacrificial portions of a bull brought for an unwitting sin of the anointed priest must be burned upon the altar: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull of the peace offeringโ€ (Leviticus 4:10). But what, then, do we learn from the bull of the peace offering? Everything that is specified with regard to a peace offering is stated with regard to this bull as well (see Leviticus 4:8โ€“9).


ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื ืžืฆื ืœืžื“ ืžืงื™ืฉ ืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ืœืคืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื” ืคืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”


Rather, this phrase initially comes to teach a halakha about the bull brought as an offering for an unwitting sin of the anointed priest, but it turns out that it actually derives a halakha from that case, as the verse juxtaposes the bull of the peace offering to the bull of the anointed priest. It teaches that just as the bull of the anointed priest, as an offering of the most sacred order, is subject to the prohibition on misuse of consecrated property, as offerings of the most sacred order are called โ€œthe sacred items of the Lordโ€ (see Leviticus 5:15), so too the sacrificial portions of the bull of the peace offering, including its forbidden fat, are subject to misuse of consecrated property, even though it is an offering of lesser sanctity and is considered the property of the owner before slaughter.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื›ืขื•ืจื” ื–ื• ืฉืฉื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘ ืœื”ืณ ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืงื“ืฉื™ื ืงืœื™ื ืœืžืขื™ืœื”


Rabbi แธคanina said to Rabbi Yannai: Is that derivation that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught unattractive, that you derive a new one? He taught that when the Torah states with regard to peace offerings, which are of lesser sanctity: โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™sโ€ (Leviticus 3:16), it serves to include the sacrificial portions of offerings of lesser sanctity in the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, even though the prohibition is stated explicitly only with regard to offerings of the most sacred order.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื—ืœื‘ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื—ืœื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจืช ื•ืฉืชื™ ื›ืœื™ื•ืช ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื


Abaye said: Rabbi Yannaiโ€™s derivation was necessary, as, if the Merciful One had written only the verse โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™s,โ€ I would say that the fat of offerings of lesser sanctity, yes, they are included in the prohibition, but the diaphragm and the two kidneys of such offerings are not, even though they are also burned upon the altar. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull of the peace offering,โ€ to teach that even these portions are subject to the prohibition of misuse.


ื•ืื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื—ืœื‘ ืืœื™ื” ื“ืœื™ืชื ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘


And conversely, if the Merciful One had written only the phrase: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull,โ€ I would say that the prohibition applies only to those portions that are found in a bull, and that the fat of a sheep tail, which is not found in a bull, is not included. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™s,โ€ to teach that the prohibition of misuse applies to all portions of offerings of lesser sanctity, including a sheep tail, which is referred to as fat in Leviticus 3:9.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ืœืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืื™ ืืœื™ื” ืื™ืงืจืื™ ื—ืœื‘ ืชื™ืชืกืจ ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขืœื™ืš ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘ ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื– ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื–


Rav Mari said to Rav Zevid: If a sheep tail is called โ€œfat,โ€ it should be prohibited for consumption, like forbidden fat. Rav Zevid said to Rav Mari: With regard to your claim, the verse states: โ€œYou shall eat no fat, of ox, or sheep, or goatโ€ (Leviticus 7:23). This teaches that the Torah designates as forbidden fat only an item that is found equally in an ox, and a sheep, and a goat. Since the ox and goat do not have a tail that consists of a large amount of fat, the sheepโ€™s fatty tail is not prohibited.


ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื—ืœื‘ื• ื”ืืœื™ื” ืื™ืงืจืื™ ื—ืœื‘ ืกืชืžื ืœื ืื™ืงืจืื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ืœื ื™ืžืขืœื• ื‘ื” ืืœื ืžื—ื•ื•ืจืชื ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“


Rav Ashi said a different explanation: It is called โ€œthe fat tail,โ€ but it is not called simply: Fat, without specification. The Gemara objects: If that is so that the addition of a modifier indicates that the tail is not truly fat, then one who derives benefit from the tail should not be liable for misuse of consecrated property either. Rather, it is clear that the correct answer is as stated by Rav Zevid.


ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื‘ื“ื ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืœื›ื ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื”ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืชื ื ืœื›ืคืจ ืœื›ืคืจื” ื ืชืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ืœืžืขื™ืœื”


ยง The mishna teaches: This is not so with regard to blood, as one who derives benefit from blood is not liable for misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Ulla said: The verse states with regard to blood: โ€œFor the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your soulsโ€ (Leviticus 17:11). The term โ€œto youโ€ indicates that it shall be yours, rather than consecrated property, and is therefore not subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a different derivation. By using the term โ€œto make atonement,โ€ the verse teaches that God is saying: I gave it to achieve atonement, but not to be subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property.


ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ืžื” ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”


And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that this halakha is derived from the latter part of the verse, which states: โ€œFor it is the blood that makes atonement for the soulโ€ (Leviticus 17:11). The term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that the status of the blood remains as it is, i.e., it is before atonement as it is after atonement. As the Gemara will state, there is a principle that once the mitzva involving a consecrated item has been performed, the item is no longer subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. Accordingly, the term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that just as after atonement, i.e., after the blood has been sprinkled upon the altar, it is not subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, as the mitzva has already been performed, so too, before atonement, i.e., before the blood has been sprinkled upon the altar, it is not subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property.


ื•ืื™ืžื ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ืžื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ื•ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื•


The Gemara objects: But if the term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that the status of the blood remains the same before and after atonement, one can say just the opposite: It is after atonement as it is before atonement. Just as before atonement the blood is subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property, so too, after atonement it is subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara responds: This cannot be the case, since as a rule, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed and is still subject to the prohibition of misusing of consecrated property.


ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื“ื ืขืฉื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ื•ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื• ืืฆืœ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—


The Gemara asks: And is there no such case? But there is the mitzva of the daily removal of the ashes of offerings burned on the altar, the mitzva of which has been performed, and yet one who derives benefit from it is liable for misuse of consecrated property, as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall take up the ashes of what the fire has consumed of the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altarโ€ (Leviticus 6:3). The ashes must be left there, where they are absorbed into the ground, and one who removes and derives benefit from them violates the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, even though their mitzva has been performed. This contradicts the principle posited above.


ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ


The Gemara answers: The principle does not apply in that case, because the mitzva of the removal of the ashes and the matter of the four white priestly vestments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur, which may not be used again, are both specified as exceptions to the halakha that the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property does not apply after their mitzva has been performed. Consequently, they are two verses that come as one, i.e., they share a unique halakha not found elsewhere. And as a rule, any two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases. The principle therefore remains in place.


ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืฉื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœื ื™ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ


The Gemara raises a further difficulty: This works out well according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who say that the verse: โ€œAnd he shall take off the linen garments, which he wore when he went into the Sanctuary, and shall leave them thereโ€ (Leviticus 16:23), teaches that these four white garments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur are not fit for further use, and they require interment. But according to the opinion of Rabbi Dosa, who said that the verse teaches only that the High Priest may not use the vestments on Yom Kippur in a different year, but they are fit for an ordinary priest and do not require interment, what is there to say? If the priestly vestments are not an exception to the halakha that there is no prohibition of misuse of consecrated property after the performance of a mitzva, the removal of the ashes remains as the only exception. Why, then, does it not serve as a paradigm for other instances in the Torah?


ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื•ืขื’ืœื” ืขืจื•ืคื” ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ


The Gemara responds: Rather, it is because the cases of the removal of the ashes and the heifer whose neck is broken to atone for an unsolved murder (Deuteronomy 21:1โ€“9) are two verses that come as one, as it is also prohibited to derive benefit from the heifer after its mitzva is performed. And any two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases.


ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืชืจื™


The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who says that two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases, but according to the one who says that two verses that come as one do teach their common element to apply to other cases, what is there to say? The Gemara answers: Two


ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื›ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื• ื”ืชื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืขืจื•ืคื”


exclusions are written in these two cases, which indicate that this halakha applies to them alone. Here, with regard to the removal of ashes, it is written: โ€œAnd he shall put itโ€ (Leviticus 6:3), indicating that this halakha applies to โ€œit,โ€ and nothing else. There, with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken, it is written: โ€œWhose neck was brokenโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:6). This superfluous description teaches that the halakha that the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property is in effect even after the performance of a mitzva applies solely to this case and should not be extended to others.


ื•ืชืœืชื ืงืจืื™ ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื‘ื“ื


The Gemara returns to the three phrases from Leviticus 17:11 cited above as teaching that the blood of offerings is not subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property: And why do I need all three verses stated with regard to blood?


ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžื ื•ืชืจ ื•ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืžืขื™ืœื” ื•ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืžืื”


The Gemara answers: One term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition of notar. If one consumed the blood of such an offering, he is not liable for consuming notar as one who consumed the flesh would be. Rather, he is liable for violating only the prohibition against consuming blood. And one term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, and one other term serves to exclude it from the prohibition of consumption of offerings in a state of ritual impurity. If one consumed this blood in a state of ritual impurity, he is liable only for consuming blood, but not for consuming consecrated food while ritually impure.


ืื‘ืœ ืžืคื’ื•ืœ ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืงืจื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืื“ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžื–ื‘ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืคื’ื•ืœ ื•ื“ื ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžืชื™ืจ ื”ื•ื


But no verse is required to exclude this blood from the halakha of piggul, an offering sacrificed with intention to consume it beyond its designated time, consumption of which is punishable by karet, as this exception is already derived from another source. As we learned in a mishna (Zevaแธฅim 43a): Concerning any item that has permitting factors, either with regard to consumption by a person or with regard to burning on the altar, one is liable for eating it due to violation of the prohibition of piggul. But the permitting factor itself is not subject to piggul, and the blood of an offering is itself a permitting factor, as consumption of the offering by a person or by the altar is only permitted after the blood has been sprinkled on the altar. Therefore, the blood is not subject to the prohibition of piggul.


ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืจ



ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ื”ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ื”ืงื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืืœืœ ื•ื”ืขืฆืžื•ืช ื•ื”ื’ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืœืคื™ื


MISHNA: All foods that became ritually impure through contact with a source of impurity transmit impurity to other food and liquids only if the impure foods measure an egg-bulk. In that regard, the Sages ruled that even if a piece of meat itself is less than an egg-bulk, the attached hide, even if it is not fit for consumption, joins together with the meat to constitute an egg-bulk. And the same is true of the congealed gravy attached to the meat, although it is not eaten; and likewise the spices added to flavor the meat, although they are not eaten; and the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying; and the bones; and the tendons; and the lower section of the horns, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the horn is removed; and the upper section of the hooves, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the hoof is removed.


ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ืŸ ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช


All these items join together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food. Although if any of them was an egg-bulk they would not impart impurity of food, when attached to the meat they complete the measure. But they do not join together to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses.


ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ื”ืฉื•ื—ื˜ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ืžืื” ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืžืคืจื›ืกืช ืžื˜ืžืื” ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉืชืžื•ืช ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชื™ื– ืืช ืจืืฉื” ืจื™ื‘ื” ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืžืžื” ืฉืจื™ื‘ื” ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช


Similarly, there is another item that imparts impurity of food but not impurity of animal carcasses: In the case of one who slaughters a non-kosher animal for a gentile and the animal is still twitching and comes into contact with a source of impurity, the animal becomes impure with impurity of food and imparts impurity of food to other food, but does not impart impurity of animal carcasses until it dies, or until one severs its head. The mishna summarizes: The Torah included certain items to impart impurity of food beyond those which it included to impart impurity of animal carcasses.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืืœืœ ื”ืžื›ื•ื ืก ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื•


Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying that was collected, if there is an olive-bulk of it in one place it imparts impurity of an animal carcass, and one who contracts impurity from it and then eats consecrated foods or enters the Temple is liable to receive karet. By collecting it in one place, the person indicates that he considers it as meat.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ื•ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื”


GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the attached hide joins together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food even though it is not fit for consumption. This is because the hide acts as a protective cover for the meat. But it does not join to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses. The Gemara notes: We learn in the mishna that which the Sages taught explicitly in a baraita: An appendage that serves as protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity, such as the impurity of food, which can be transmitted only to food but not to people or vessels. But protection attached to food does not join together with food with regard to a severe level of impurity, such as the impurity of an animal carcass, which can be transmitted even to people and vessels.


ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื–ืจืข ื–ืจื•ืข ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžื•ืฆื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ื—ื˜ื” ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชื” ื•ืฉืขื•ืจื” ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชื” ื•ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชืŸ


The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is derived from a verse, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: With regard to the halakhot of imparting impurity of food, the verse states: โ€œAnd if anything falls from their carcass upon any sowing seed that is sown, it is pure. But if water is put upon the seed, and any of the carcass falls on it, it is impure for youโ€ (Leviticus 11:37โ€“38). The phrase โ€œupon any sowing seedโ€ indicates that the entire seed is susceptible to impurity when it is in a state where it is typical for people to take it out to the field for sowing: This applies to wheat in its shell, and barley in its shell, and lentils in their shells. This demonstrates that shells and other components that protect the food are considered part of the food with regard to a light level of impurity.


ื•ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ืœืชื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ืฉืจ


The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection does not join together with the food with regard to a severe level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is as the Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the impurity of a carcass, the verse states: โ€œAnd if any animal of which you may eat dies, one who touches its carcass shall be impure until the eveningโ€ (Leviticus 11:39). This indicates that only one who touches the flesh of the carcass becomes impure, but one who touches the hide of the carcass upon which there is not an olive-bulk of flesh does not become impure.


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.ย 

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Chullin 117

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Chullin 117

ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืคื™ื’ื•ืœ ื•ื ื•ืชืจ ื•ื˜ืžื ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื‘ื“ื


one who derives benefit from it is liable for misuse of consecrated property. And second, one is liable for eating it due to violation of the prohibition of piggul, if it was from an offering that was slaughtered with the intent to sprinkle its blood or partake of it beyond its designated time, and due to the prohibition of notar, if it was from an offering whose period for consumption has expired. And third, if one is ritually impure, he is liable due to the prohibition of partaking of it while impure. This is not so with regard to blood, as one is not liable in these cases for violating the prohibitions of piggul, notar, and partaking of offerings while impure, but rather is liable only for violating the prohibition of consuming blood.


ื•ื—ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื“ื ืฉื”ื“ื ื ื•ื”ื’ ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืขื•ืฃ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ืžืื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื”ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื—ืœื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ื”ื’ ืืœื ื‘ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“


And the more stringent element in the prohibition of blood is that the prohibition of blood applies to domesticated animals, undomesticated animals, and birds, both kosher and non-kosher, but the prohibition of forbidden fat applies only to a kosher domesticated animal.


ื’ืžืณ ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื ืžืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืœืžื“ื ื• ืžืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ืžืขืชื”


GEMARA: According to the mishna, one who consumes forbidden fat of an offering is liable for misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yannai said: They are derived from a verse, as the verse states that the sacrificial portions of a bull brought for an unwitting sin of the anointed priest must be burned upon the altar: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull of the peace offeringโ€ (Leviticus 4:10). But what, then, do we learn from the bull of the peace offering? Everything that is specified with regard to a peace offering is stated with regard to this bull as well (see Leviticus 4:8โ€“9).


ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœืœืžื“ ื•ื ืžืฆื ืœืžื“ ืžืงื™ืฉ ืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ืœืคืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžื” ืคืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืฉื•ืจ ื–ื‘ื— ื”ืฉืœืžื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”


Rather, this phrase initially comes to teach a halakha about the bull brought as an offering for an unwitting sin of the anointed priest, but it turns out that it actually derives a halakha from that case, as the verse juxtaposes the bull of the peace offering to the bull of the anointed priest. It teaches that just as the bull of the anointed priest, as an offering of the most sacred order, is subject to the prohibition on misuse of consecrated property, as offerings of the most sacred order are called โ€œthe sacred items of the Lordโ€ (see Leviticus 5:15), so too the sacrificial portions of the bull of the peace offering, including its forbidden fat, are subject to misuse of consecrated property, even though it is an offering of lesser sanctity and is considered the property of the owner before slaughter.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื›ืขื•ืจื” ื–ื• ืฉืฉื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘ ืœื”ืณ ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืงื“ืฉื™ื ืงืœื™ื ืœืžืขื™ืœื”


Rabbi แธคanina said to Rabbi Yannai: Is that derivation that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught unattractive, that you derive a new one? He taught that when the Torah states with regard to peace offerings, which are of lesser sanctity: โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™sโ€ (Leviticus 3:16), it serves to include the sacrificial portions of offerings of lesser sanctity in the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, even though the prohibition is stated explicitly only with regard to offerings of the most sacred order.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื—ืœื‘ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื—ืœื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจืช ื•ืฉืชื™ ื›ืœื™ื•ืช ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื


Abaye said: Rabbi Yannaiโ€™s derivation was necessary, as, if the Merciful One had written only the verse โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™s,โ€ I would say that the fat of offerings of lesser sanctity, yes, they are included in the prohibition, but the diaphragm and the two kidneys of such offerings are not, even though they are also burned upon the altar. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull of the peace offering,โ€ to teach that even these portions are subject to the prohibition of misuse.


ื•ืื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืจื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื—ืœื‘ ืืœื™ื” ื“ืœื™ืชื ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ืœื ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘


And conversely, if the Merciful One had written only the phrase: โ€œAs it is taken off from the bull,โ€ I would say that the prohibition applies only to those portions that are found in a bull, and that the fat of a sheep tail, which is not found in a bull, is not included. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œAll the fat is the Lordโ€™s,โ€ to teach that the prohibition of misuse applies to all portions of offerings of lesser sanctity, including a sheep tail, which is referred to as fat in Leviticus 3:9.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ืœืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืื™ ืืœื™ื” ืื™ืงืจืื™ ื—ืœื‘ ืชื™ืชืกืจ ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขืœื™ืš ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื›ืœ ื—ืœื‘ ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื– ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืฉื•ื” ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ื•ื›ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื–


Rav Mari said to Rav Zevid: If a sheep tail is called โ€œfat,โ€ it should be prohibited for consumption, like forbidden fat. Rav Zevid said to Rav Mari: With regard to your claim, the verse states: โ€œYou shall eat no fat, of ox, or sheep, or goatโ€ (Leviticus 7:23). This teaches that the Torah designates as forbidden fat only an item that is found equally in an ox, and a sheep, and a goat. Since the ox and goat do not have a tail that consists of a large amount of fat, the sheepโ€™s fatty tail is not prohibited.


ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื—ืœื‘ื• ื”ืืœื™ื” ืื™ืงืจืื™ ื—ืœื‘ ืกืชืžื ืœื ืื™ืงืจืื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ืœื ื™ืžืขืœื• ื‘ื” ืืœื ืžื—ื•ื•ืจืชื ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“


Rav Ashi said a different explanation: It is called โ€œthe fat tail,โ€ but it is not called simply: Fat, without specification. The Gemara objects: If that is so that the addition of a modifier indicates that the tail is not truly fat, then one who derives benefit from the tail should not be liable for misuse of consecrated property either. Rather, it is clear that the correct answer is as stated by Rav Zevid.


ืžื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื‘ื“ื ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืœื›ื ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื”ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืชื ื ืœื›ืคืจ ืœื›ืคืจื” ื ืชืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ืœืžืขื™ืœื”


ยง The mishna teaches: This is not so with regard to blood, as one who derives benefit from blood is not liable for misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Ulla said: The verse states with regard to blood: โ€œFor the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your soulsโ€ (Leviticus 17:11). The term โ€œto youโ€ indicates that it shall be yours, rather than consecrated property, and is therefore not subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a different derivation. By using the term โ€œto make atonement,โ€ the verse teaches that God is saying: I gave it to achieve atonement, but not to be subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property.


ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ืžื” ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”


And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that this halakha is derived from the latter part of the verse, which states: โ€œFor it is the blood that makes atonement for the soulโ€ (Leviticus 17:11). The term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that the status of the blood remains as it is, i.e., it is before atonement as it is after atonement. As the Gemara will state, there is a principle that once the mitzva involving a consecrated item has been performed, the item is no longer subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. Accordingly, the term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that just as after atonement, i.e., after the blood has been sprinkled upon the altar, it is not subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, as the mitzva has already been performed, so too, before atonement, i.e., before the blood has been sprinkled upon the altar, it is not subject to the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property.


ื•ืื™ืžื ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ืžื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืœืื—ืจ ื›ืคืจื” ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื ืขืฉื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ื•ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื•


The Gemara objects: But if the term โ€œit isโ€ teaches that the status of the blood remains the same before and after atonement, one can say just the opposite: It is after atonement as it is before atonement. Just as before atonement the blood is subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property, so too, after atonement it is subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property. The Gemara responds: This cannot be the case, since as a rule, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed and is still subject to the prohibition of misusing of consecrated property.


ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื“ื ืขืฉื” ืžืฆื•ืชื• ื•ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื• ืืฆืœ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื—


The Gemara asks: And is there no such case? But there is the mitzva of the daily removal of the ashes of offerings burned on the altar, the mitzva of which has been performed, and yet one who derives benefit from it is liable for misuse of consecrated property, as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall take up the ashes of what the fire has consumed of the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altarโ€ (Leviticus 6:3). The ashes must be left there, where they are absorbed into the ground, and one who removes and derives benefit from them violates the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, even though their mitzva has been performed. This contradicts the principle posited above.


ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ


The Gemara answers: The principle does not apply in that case, because the mitzva of the removal of the ashes and the matter of the four white priestly vestments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur, which may not be used again, are both specified as exceptions to the halakha that the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property does not apply after their mitzva has been performed. Consequently, they are two verses that come as one, i.e., they share a unique halakha not found elsewhere. And as a rule, any two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases. The principle therefore remains in place.


ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืฉื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื“ื•ืกื ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืœื ื™ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื—ืจ ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ


The Gemara raises a further difficulty: This works out well according to the opinion of the Rabbis, who say that the verse: โ€œAnd he shall take off the linen garments, which he wore when he went into the Sanctuary, and shall leave them thereโ€ (Leviticus 16:23), teaches that these four white garments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur are not fit for further use, and they require interment. But according to the opinion of Rabbi Dosa, who said that the verse teaches only that the High Priest may not use the vestments on Yom Kippur in a different year, but they are fit for an ordinary priest and do not require interment, what is there to say? If the priestly vestments are not an exception to the halakha that there is no prohibition of misuse of consecrated property after the performance of a mitzva, the removal of the ashes remains as the only exception. Why, then, does it not serve as a paradigm for other instances in the Torah?


ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื•ืื™ ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื•ืขื’ืœื” ืขืจื•ืคื” ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ


The Gemara responds: Rather, it is because the cases of the removal of the ashes and the heifer whose neck is broken to atone for an unsolved murder (Deuteronomy 21:1โ€“9) are two verses that come as one, as it is also prohibited to derive benefit from the heifer after its mitzva is performed. And any two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases.


ื”ื ื™ื—ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืชืจื™


The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who says that two verses that come as one do not teach their common element to apply to other cases, but according to the one who says that two verses that come as one do teach their common element to apply to other cases, what is there to say? The Gemara answers: Two


ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื›ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื• ื”ืชื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืขืจื•ืคื”


exclusions are written in these two cases, which indicate that this halakha applies to them alone. Here, with regard to the removal of ashes, it is written: โ€œAnd he shall put itโ€ (Leviticus 6:3), indicating that this halakha applies to โ€œit,โ€ and nothing else. There, with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken, it is written: โ€œWhose neck was brokenโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:6). This superfluous description teaches that the halakha that the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property is in effect even after the performance of a mitzva applies solely to this case and should not be extended to others.


ื•ืชืœืชื ืงืจืื™ ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื‘ื“ื


The Gemara returns to the three phrases from Leviticus 17:11 cited above as teaching that the blood of offerings is not subject to the prohibition of misuse of consecrated property: And why do I need all three verses stated with regard to blood?


ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžื ื•ืชืจ ื•ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืžืขื™ืœื” ื•ื—ื“ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืžืื”


The Gemara answers: One term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition of notar. If one consumed the blood of such an offering, he is not liable for consuming notar as one who consumed the flesh would be. Rather, he is liable for violating only the prohibition against consuming blood. And one term serves to exclude blood from the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property, and one other term serves to exclude it from the prohibition of consumption of offerings in a state of ritual impurity. If one consumed this blood in a state of ritual impurity, he is liable only for consuming blood, but not for consuming consecrated food while ritually impure.


ืื‘ืœ ืžืคื’ื•ืœ ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืงืจื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืื“ื ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืžื–ื‘ื— ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืžืฉื•ื ืคื’ื•ืœ ื•ื“ื ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžืชื™ืจ ื”ื•ื


But no verse is required to exclude this blood from the halakha of piggul, an offering sacrificed with intention to consume it beyond its designated time, consumption of which is punishable by karet, as this exception is already derived from another source. As we learned in a mishna (Zevaแธฅim 43a): Concerning any item that has permitting factors, either with regard to consumption by a person or with regard to burning on the altar, one is liable for eating it due to violation of the prohibition of piggul. But the permitting factor itself is not subject to piggul, and the blood of an offering is itself a permitting factor, as consumption of the offering by a person or by the altar is only permitted after the blood has been sprinkled on the altar. Therefore, the blood is not subject to the prohibition of piggul.


ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ืฉืจ



ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื•ื”ืจื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ื”ืงื™ืคื” ื•ื”ืืœืœ ื•ื”ืขืฆืžื•ืช ื•ื”ื’ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืงืจื ื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืœืคื™ื


MISHNA: All foods that became ritually impure through contact with a source of impurity transmit impurity to other food and liquids only if the impure foods measure an egg-bulk. In that regard, the Sages ruled that even if a piece of meat itself is less than an egg-bulk, the attached hide, even if it is not fit for consumption, joins together with the meat to constitute an egg-bulk. And the same is true of the congealed gravy attached to the meat, although it is not eaten; and likewise the spices added to flavor the meat, although they are not eaten; and the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying; and the bones; and the tendons; and the lower section of the horns, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the horn is removed; and the upper section of the hooves, which remains attached to the flesh when the rest of the hoof is removed.


ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ืŸ ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช


All these items join together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food. Although if any of them was an egg-bulk they would not impart impurity of food, when attached to the meat they complete the measure. But they do not join together to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses.


ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ื”ืฉื•ื—ื˜ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ืžืื” ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืžืคืจื›ืกืช ืžื˜ืžืื” ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉืชืžื•ืช ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชื™ื– ืืช ืจืืฉื” ืจื™ื‘ื” ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืžืžื” ืฉืจื™ื‘ื” ืœื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ื ื‘ืœื•ืช


Similarly, there is another item that imparts impurity of food but not impurity of animal carcasses: In the case of one who slaughters a non-kosher animal for a gentile and the animal is still twitching and comes into contact with a source of impurity, the animal becomes impure with impurity of food and imparts impurity of food to other food, but does not impart impurity of animal carcasses until it dies, or until one severs its head. The mishna summarizes: The Torah included certain items to impart impurity of food beyond those which it included to impart impurity of animal carcasses.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืืœืœ ื”ืžื›ื•ื ืก ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืื—ื“ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืขืœื™ื•


Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying that was collected, if there is an olive-bulk of it in one place it imparts impurity of an animal carcass, and one who contracts impurity from it and then eats consecrated foods or enters the Temple is liable to receive karet. By collecting it in one place, the person indicates that he considers it as meat.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ื•ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื”


GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the attached hide joins together with the meat to constitute the requisite egg-bulk to impart the impurity of food even though it is not fit for consumption. This is because the hide acts as a protective cover for the meat. But it does not join to constitute the measure of an olive-bulk required to impart the impurity of animal carcasses. The Gemara notes: We learn in the mishna that which the Sages taught explicitly in a baraita: An appendage that serves as protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity, such as the impurity of food, which can be transmitted only to food but not to people or vessels. But protection attached to food does not join together with food with regard to a severe level of impurity, such as the impurity of an animal carcass, which can be transmitted even to people and vessels.


ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื–ืจืข ื–ืจื•ืข ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžื•ืฆื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ื—ื˜ื” ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชื” ื•ืฉืขื•ืจื” ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชื” ื•ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืงืœื™ืคืชืŸ


The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection joins together with food with regard to a light level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is derived from a verse, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: With regard to the halakhot of imparting impurity of food, the verse states: โ€œAnd if anything falls from their carcass upon any sowing seed that is sown, it is pure. But if water is put upon the seed, and any of the carcass falls on it, it is impure for youโ€ (Leviticus 11:37โ€“38). The phrase โ€œupon any sowing seedโ€ indicates that the entire seed is susceptible to impurity when it is in a state where it is typical for people to take it out to the field for sowing: This applies to wheat in its shell, and barley in its shell, and lentils in their shells. This demonstrates that shells and other components that protect the food are considered part of the food with regard to a light level of impurity.


ื•ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ืœืชื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื–ื™ืช ื‘ืฉืจ


The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that protection does not join together with the food with regard to a severe level of impurity? The Gemara answers that it is as the Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the impurity of a carcass, the verse states: โ€œAnd if any animal of which you may eat dies, one who touches its carcass shall be impure until the eveningโ€ (Leviticus 11:39). This indicates that only one who touches the flesh of the carcass becomes impure, but one who touches the hide of the carcass upon which there is not an olive-bulk of flesh does not become impure.


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